Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1516-359820120001&lang=en vol. 41 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[<b>Growth and structure of the digestive system of pacu larvae fed microencapsulated diet produced experimentally</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Foram comparados os efeitos de diferentes dietas e da transição alimentar sobre o desempenho zootécnico e a morfologia do trato digestório de larvas de pacu alimentadas com duas dietas comerciais e uma dieta experimental microencapsulada produzida por gelificação interna. Larvas com quatro dias de vida receberam os seguintes protocolos alimentares: somente náuplios de artêmia em quantidades crescentes (controle positivo); larvas mantidas em jejum (controle negativo); três tipos de alimento formulado durante todo o experimento (dieta experimental microencapsulada, dieta comercial NRD1.2/2.0, Inve, USA, e dieta Poli-Peixe 450F, PoliNutri, Brasil); e três protocolos de transição alimentar com náuplios de artêmia durante os seis primeiros dias, seis dias de coalimentação, e somente as respectivas dietas formuladas após esse período. O experimento foi conduzido por 23 dias em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com avaliações periódicas do crescimento e do sistema digestório. A taxa de sobrevivência foi determinada ao final do experimento. Os melhores desempenhos de crescimento e sobrevivência, assim como mais acelerada organogênese do sistema digestório, foram verificados entre os animais que receberam alimento vivo. As larvas que passaram pela transição alimentar apresentaram médias intermediárias de crescimento e sobrevivência e não diferiram entre si. Entre os grupos que receberam apenas dieta inerte, somente naquele alimentado com a dieta nacional houve sobrevivência até o final do experimento. Nenhuma das dietas formuladas é adequada para uso como alimento exclusivo para larvas de pacu. Na fase de transição alimentar, a dieta experimental microencapsulada proporciona resultados de sobrevivência e crescimento semelhantes aos obtidos com dietas comerciais.<hr/>The effects of different diets and dietary transition on the performance and morphology of the digestive tract of pacu larvae fed two commercial formulated diets and an experimental microencapsulated diet produced by internal gelation were evaluated. Four-day old pacu larvae received the following treatments: only artemia nauplii in increasing amount during the experiment (positive control); larvae maintained at fasting (negative control); three types of formulated diets throughout the experiment (experimental microencapsulated diet, commercial diet NRD1.2/2.0, Inve, USA, and diet Poli-Peixe 450F, PoliNutri, Brazil); and three weaning protocols in which artemia nauplii were given from the 1st to 6th days, six days of co-feeding (artemia nauplii + the respective formulated diet), and only respective diets formulated after this period. The experiment was conducted for 23 days in a completely randomized design, with periodical evaluations of growth and digestive system. Survival rate was determined at the end of the experiment.The best performances of growth and survival, as well as the organogenesis of the digestive tract, were verified for the animals which received live feed. The larvae at weaning treatments induced intermediate growth and survival, which did not differ statistically between them. Considering the treatments that received only formulated diets as first feed, the PoliNutri diet was the unique that showed alive larvae at the end of experiment. None of the formulated diets are adequate as initial exogenous food for pacu larvae. During the weaning, the microencapsulated experimental diet provides growth and survival performances similar to those obtained with the commercial diets. <![CDATA[<b>Bromatological evaluation of eleven corn cultivars harvested at two cutting heights</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and dry matter in vitro digestibility of stem, leaf, straw, cob and kernel fractions of eleven corn (Zea mays) cultivars, harvested at two cutting heights. The experiment was designed as randomized blocks, with three replicates, in a 2 × 11 factorial arrangement (eleven cultivars and two cutting heights). The corn cultivars evaluated were D 766, D 657, D 1000, P 3021, P 3041, C 805, C 333, AG 5011, FOR 01, CO 9621 and BR 205, harvested at a low cutting height (5 cm above ground) and a high cutting height (5 cm below the first ear insertion). Cutting height influenced the dry matter content of the stem fraction, which was lower (23.95%) in plants harvested at the low, than in plants harvested at the high cutting height (26.28%). The kernel fraction had the highest dry matter in vitro digestibility (85.13%), while cultivars did not differ between each other. Cob and straw were the fractions with the highest level of neutral detergent fiber (80.74 and 79.77%, respectively) and the lowest level of crude protein (3.84% and 3.69%, respectively). The leaf fraction had the highest crude protein content, both for plants of low and high cuttings (15.55% and 16.20%, respectively). The increase in the plant cutting height enhanced the dry matter content and dry matter in vitro digestibility of stem fraction, but did not affect the DM content of the leaf fraction. <![CDATA[<b>Rehabilitation with forage grasses of an area degraded by urban solid waste deposits</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Dry matter yield and chemical composition of forage grasses harvested from an area degraded by urban solid waste deposits were evaluated. A split-plot scheme in a randomized block design with four replicates was used, with five grasses in the plots and three harvests in the subplots. The mineral content and extraction and heavy metal concentration were evaluated in the second cut, using a randomized block design with five grasses and four replicates. The grasses were Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Brachiaria ruziziensis, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and cv. Xaraés, and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, cut at 42 days of regrowth. The dry matter yield per cut reached 1,480 kg ha-1; the minimum crude protein content was 9.5% and the average neutral detergent fiber content was 62.3%. The dry matter yield of grasses was satisfactory, and may be an alternative for rehabilitating areas degraded by solid waste deposits. The concentration of heavy metals in the plants was below toxicity levels; the chemical composition was appropriate, except for phosphorus. The rehabilitated areas may therefore be used for grazing. <![CDATA[<b>Structural characteristics of tiller age categories of continuously stocked marandu palisade grass swards fertilized with nitrogen</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the structural characteristics of young, mature and old tillers on continuously stocked marandu palisade grass maintained at 30 cm and fertilized with nitrogen. Treatments corresponded to three nitrogen application rates (150, 300 and 450 kg/ha of N) plus control (no fertilization) and were assigned to experimental units (1,200-m² paddocks) according to a completely randomized block design, with four replications. Measurements were performed during fall/winter 2007 and summer 2008. During summer, young tillers showed longer leaves and shorter stems relative to old tillers. During fall/winter, young and old tillers showed shorter leaves, while mature and old tillers showed longer stems. Tiller age interfered with the number of leaves per tiller mainly through variations in the number of expanding and senescing leaves during both fall/winter and summer. The structural characteristics of individual tillers are affected by plant age, with nitrogen favouring the production of leaf tissue in young tillers during summer. <![CDATA[<b>Growth analysis of Tifton 85 bermudagrass under nitrogen fertilization and plant height</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objetivou-se avaliar os índices de crescimento do capim-tifton 85 adubado com quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 33, 66, 100, e 133 kg/ha de N) e colhido em três alturas da planta (30, 40 e 50 cm). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com três repetições. As doses de nitrogênio corresponderam às parcelas e as alturas na data de corte, às subparcelas. Para todas as variáveis analisadas, a interação dose de N × altura da planta não foi significativa. A taxa assimilatória líquida e a taxa de crescimento relativo do capim-tifton 85 aumentaram com as doses de nitrogênio. A razão de área foliar (RAF) decresceu linearmente com a altura de corte das plantas, mas aumentou, também de forma linear, com a dose de nitrogênio. De modo linear, a razão de peso foliar decresceu com a altura de corte da planta forrageira e aumentou com a dose de nitrogênio. A área foliar específica do capim-tifton 85 foi influenciada de forma linear e positiva apenas pela adubação nitrogenada. O índice de área foliar (IAF) do capim-tifton 85 aumentou cerca de 0,05 unidade a cada centímetro de incremento na altura de corte das plantas. Houve resposta quadrática da dose de nitrogênio no IAF do capim-tifton 85. O acréscimo na altura do capim-tifton 85 na época do corte reduz a participação de lâmina foliar na forragem. A adubação nitrogenada aumenta a taxa de crescimento do capim-tifton 85, portanto, para assegurar colheita eficiente da forragem, ao aumentar a dose de nitrogênio, é necessário reduzir o intervalo de colheita.<hr/>The objective this study was to evaluate the growth rates of Tifton 85 bermudagrass under four nitrogen levels (0, 33, 66, 100, and 133 kg/ha N) and harvested at three plant heights (30, 40 and 50 cm). The experimental design was completely randomized in a split plot scheme with three replications. Nitrogen rates were set in the plots and plants heights in the subplots. For all variables, the interaction N rate × plant height was not significant. The net assimilatory rate and relative growth rate of Tifton 85 increased with increasing N rates. The leaf area ratio (LAR) decreased linearly with plant height at harvesting. In contrast, the LAR increased linearly with N rate. Linearly, the leaf weight ratio decreased with plant height at harvesting, and increased with N rate. The specific leaf area of Tifton 85 bermudagrass was influenced linear and positively only by nitrogen fertilization. The leaf area index (LAI) of Tifton 85 bermudagrass increased by about 0.05 unit for each centimeter increase in plant height at harvesting. There was a quadratic response of N in LAI of Tifton 85 bermudagrass. The increase of bermudagrass height at harvesting season decreases the participation of leaf blade in the forage. The nitrogen increases the growth rate of Tifton 85 bermudagrass. To ensure efficient harvesting of forage, the increase of N rate for Tifton 85 Bermudagrass implies a reduction in the harvest interval. <![CDATA[<b>Climatic risk zoning for corn and palisade grass (<i>Brachiaria brizantha</i> cv</b>: <b>Marandu) cultivated in integrated crop-livestock systems in São Paulo state, Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Climatic risk zoning allows the identification of areas of low risk of reduced crop productivity due to climatic events. In Brazil, losses to agriculture due to climate are mainly caused by drought. The objective of this research was to determine areas of low climatic risk for corn and palisade grass cultivated in integrated crop-livestock systems in Sao Paulo state. Corn varieties characterized by a 120-day growing cycle and soil with three different water holding capacities (sandy, medium and clayey soils) were considered. A daily water balance model was used to simulate planting dates between September and December. The water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI) was calculated for critical phenological phases of both cultures (germination, emergence and tillering of palisade grass and flowering and grain filling of corn). The WRSI values, calculated for a minimum frequency of 80%, were located spatially using the SPRING v. 5.1 geographic information system and the most favorable periods for sowing in different areas were determined. The results showed that there are areas of low climatic risk for cultivation of corn and palisade grass in integrated crop-livestock production systems in Sao Paulo state. Although climatic risk in these areas also depends on soil type, the most favorable period for planting is between October and November. <![CDATA[<b>Agronomic evaluation of white oats strains in two geographical regions of the state of Rio Grande do Sul</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Realizou-se neste estudo uma avaliação inicial em diversas linhagens de aveia-branca (Avena sativa, L.), com o intuito de verificar o desempenho agronômico e identificar os genótipos promissores para o lançamento de cultivares para produção de forragem. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em duas regiões fisiográficas do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Depressão Central e Campanha Gaúcha, nos anos de 2008 e 2009. Foram implementados em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Cada parcela foi constituída por uma linha de 2 m de comprimento, espaçadas a 40 cm entre si, considerando parcela útil o metro linear central, cortadas a uma altura de 10 cm. Foram avaliadas 21 linhagens de aveia-branca mais a testemunha (IPR126). No primeiro ano, também foram avaliadas duas linhagens de triticale, as quais apresentaram baixo potencial forrageiro e foram excluídas dos experimentos no segundo ano. Na avaliação do potencial produtivo das linhagens de aveia-branca, não houve diferenças ocasionadas pela interação dos fatores local, ano e linhagem. No primeiro ano, os valores médios de produção na Depressão Central e Campanha Gaúcha foram de 82,3 e 76,3 g por metro linear de matéria seca total, respectivamente. Na avaliação do segundo ano, as médias de produção para esta espécie na Depressão Central e na Campanha Gaúcha foram, respectivamente, 80,0 e 119,8 g m-1 de matéria seca total. As linhagens de aveia-branca, em sua maioria, apresentam bons resultados e são promissoras para o programa de melhoramento genético dessa espécie.<hr/>The objective of this study was to proceed with an initial evaluation of various strains of white oats (Avena sativa, L.), with the objective of characterizing the genetic diversity and the agronomic performance, identifying the promising genotypes for the release of cultivars, with the purpose of forage production. The experiments were conducted in two geographical regions of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Depressão Central and in the Campanha Gaúcha, Brazil, in the years 2008 and 2009, in a randomized block design with four replications. Each plot consisted of a 2-m line, with lines spaced at 40 cm. The central linear meter was considered as useful plot, cut to a height of 10 cm. Twenty-one oat lines were evaluated, plus the control (IPR126). In the first year, two strains of triticale were also studied, and had a low potential for forage and were excluded from the experiments in the second year. The productive potential of oat strains did not differ for the interaction of location, year or lineage, with the first year of average production in the Depressão Central and Campanha Gaúcha, of, 82 3 and 76.3 grams per meter of total dry matter (TDM), respectively. At the second year evaluation, the means of production for this species in the Depressão Central and Campanha Gaúcha were 80.0 and 119.8 g m-1 TDM. Most strains of oats present good results and are promising for the breeding program of this species. <![CDATA[<b>Generalized linear mixed models for the genetic evaluation of binary reproductive traits</b>: <b>a simulation study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of probit and logit link functions for the genetic evaluation of early pregnancy using simulated data. The following simulation/analysis structures were constructed: logit/logit, logit/probit, probit/logit, and probit/probit. The percentages of precocious females were 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% and were adjusted based on a change in the mean of the latent variable. The parametric heritability (h²) was 0.40. Simulation and genetic evaluation were implemented in the R software. Heritability estimates (ĥ²) were compared with h² using the mean squared error. Pearson correlations between predicted and true breeding values and the percentage of coincidence between true and predicted ranking, considering the 10% of bulls with the highest breeding values (TOP10) were calculated. The mean ĥ² values were under- and overestimated for all percentages of precocious females when logit/probit and probit/logit models used. In addition, the mean squared errors of these models were high when compared with those obtained with the probit/probit and logit/logit models. Considering ĥ², probit/probit and logit/logit were also superior to logit/probit and probit/logit, providing values close to the parametric heritability. Logit/probit and probit/logit presented low Pearson correlations, whereas the correlations obtained with probit/probit and logit/logit ranged from moderate to high. With respect to the TOP10 bulls, logit/probit and probit/logit presented much lower percentages than probit/probit and logit/logit. The genetic parameter estimates and predictions of breeding values of the animals obtained with the logit/logit and probit/probit models were similar. In contrast, the results obtained with probit/logit and logit/probit were not satisfactory. There is need to compare the estimation and prediction ability of logit and probit link functions. <![CDATA[<b>Characterization of body biometrics during growth of elite Santa Ines sheep</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to characterize body biometrics of Santa Ines sheep during growth. Data from 4,038 animals, males and females, with ages from four to 36 months, from different herds participating in the National Agricultural Fair in Bahia from 2003 to 2008 were used. The characteristics evaluated were: body weight, average daily gain, body length, thoracic circumference, anterior height and posterior height. The mean values found were compared by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. All characteristics studied showed gradual change with aging, and it is worth-noting that age had positive effect on body weight, body length, thoracic circumference, anterior height and posterior height and negative effect on average daily gain. Average daily gain was reduced by 68.5% from four to 36 months of age, while the mean improvements observed in both sexes in this age range, for body weight, body length, thoracic circumference, anterior height and posterior height were 137.8%, 23.5%, 43.2%, 19.3% and 19.6%, respectively. However, the increments for body weight, body length and thoracic circumference were higher until 12 months of age, when an increase of 72.7%, 14.6% and 24.8% in their respective characteristics was verified. For anterior height and posterior height, the greatest increase occurred up to eight months of age with improvement of 8.4% for both measures. Santa Ines sheep have different growth rates for body measurements; whereas growth in posterior height stabilizes earlier, the thoracic circumference, along with body weight, remains growing for longer time. <![CDATA[<b>Available phosphorus in diets for 15 to 30 kg pigs genetically selected for meat deposition</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en With the objective to evaluate the effect of dietary available phosphorus levels (aP) on the performance, blood and bone parameters of castrated male and female pigs, genetically selected for meat deposition, 60 commercial hybrids pigs with initial weight of 15.54±0.68 kg were allotted in a completely randomized block design, with six treatments (0.103, 0.210, 0.317, 0.424, 0.531, and 0.638% aP), five replicates, and two animals per experimental unit. Pigs were fed ad libitum and water was provided until the end of the experimental period (21 days), when animals reached 31.31±2.94 kg. Daily weight gain and daily feed intake increased, while the feed conversion improved quadratically up to 0.534, 0.487, and 0.574% aP maximum responses, respectively. The aP intake and the values of inorganic phosphorus in serum increased linearly with increasing the levels of aP in the diets. Alkaline phosphatase activity increased quadratically up to 0.558% maximum response. Bone breaking strength and calcium, phosphorus, and ash contents in the bones increased linearly with increasing aP concentration in the diets. The available phosphorus requirement of castrated male and female pigs genetically selected for meat deposition from 15 to 30 kg for best results of performance is 0.574%, corresponding to a daily intake of 8.26 g of available phosphorus. <![CDATA[<b>Threonine requirements of 22 to 42-day-old broilers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Um experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estabelecer critérios de avaliação das exigências de treonina digestível para frangos de corte de 22 a 42 dias de idade utilizando-se diferentes modelos de regressão (quadrático, exponencial e de retas segmentadas ou Linear Response Plateau). Foram utilizados 1.920 frangos de corte machos com 22 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com seis tratamentos (seis níveis de treonina digestível: 0,5904; 0,6441; 0,6977; 0,7514; 0,8051 e 0,8588%) e oito repetições de 40 aves. Utilizou-se como padrão o nível de 0,6977% de treonina digestível. Foram avaliados dados de desempenho e características de carcaça. Com base nos dados, o nível de 0,7642% de treonina digestível, correspondente às relação treonina:lisina digestível de 71,19%, promoveu o melhor resultado de conversão alimentar de acordo com o modelo Linear Response Plateau.<hr/>The objective of this experiment was to establish different criteria for evaluation of the requirements of digestible threonine for broilers from 22 to 42 d of age, using different regression models (quadratic, exponential, and Linear Response Plateau). A total of 1,920 22-day-old male Cobb broilers were distributed in randomized experimental design, with six treatments (six threonine levels: 0.5904, 0.6441, 0.6977, 0.7514, 0.8051, and 0.8588%) and 8 replications containing 40 broilers each one. The level of 0.6977% digestible threonine was used as standard. Data on performance and carcass characteristics were evaluated. Based on the data, the threonine level of 0.7642%, corresponding to the threonine:digestible lysine ratio of 71.19% had the best result for feed conversion, according to the Linear Response Plateau model. <![CDATA[<b>Chemical and amino acid composition and true digestibility coefficients of amino acids of feather and blood meals, determined in cecectomized cocks</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Foram determinados a composição química e aminoacídica e os coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos (CDVaa) de farinhas de penas e sangue para aves obtidas de diferentes fornecedores. Utilizaram-se 30 galos cecectomizados distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro farinhas de penas e sangue (farinhas 1, 2, 3 e 4) e um tratamento no qual as aves permaneceram em jejum, seis repetições sendo a unidade experimental composta por um galo. As variações na composição química das farinhas de penas e sangue podem estar relacionadas à falta de padronização no processamento a que são submetidas. Os coeficientes médios de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos essenciais e não-essenciais para as farinhas de penas 1, 2, 3 e 4 são, respectivamente, 75,14 e 68,41; 73,34 e 67,17; 78,99 e 75,41; 78,55 e 73,40%.<hr/>Chemical and amino acid composition and true digestibility coefficients of amino acids of feather and blood meals for birds from different suppliers were determined. Thirty cecectomized cocks were distributed in a completely randomized design, with 4 different feather and blood meals (meals 1, 2, 3 and 4) and one treatment in which the birds remained fasting, with six replications as the experimental unit composed of one rooster. The variations in the chemical composition of the feather and blood meals can be related to the lack of standardization in the processing to which they are submitted. Mean true digestibility coefficients of essential and non essential amino acid for feather and blood meals 1,2, 3 and 4 are 75.14 and 68.41; 73.34 and 67.17; 78.99 and 75.41; 78.55 and 73.40%, respectively. <![CDATA[<b>Influence of feed form and corn particle size on nutrient digestibility and energy utilization by young turkeys</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A digestibility trial with 16 to 21-day-old turkeys was conducted to study the effects of feed form and corn particle size on the coefficient of total intestinal tract apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), ether extract (EE), aparent metabolizable energy (AME) and aparent metabolizable energy corrected by nitrogen balance (AMEn). A completely randomized experimental design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement - two feed forms (crumble and micropellet) and three average particle sizes of the corn (380, 606, 806 µm) - was applied. Three hundred and sixty 1-d-old B.U.T 9 male turkey poults were distributed into 36 cages, 6 replications of 10 birds, each one per treatment. Overall care of birds complied with welfare directive from the Universidade Federal do Paraná. Feed form did not affect the coefficient of total intestinal tract apparent digestibility of DM, N or crude fat (CF); however, an increase in corn particle size improved the coefficient of total intestinal tract apparent digestibility of DM, N and CF. AME and AMEn were not affected by treatments. Feed form does not affect nutrient digestibility on young turkeys and grinding corn at an average particle size bigger than 380 µm improves nutrient digestibility. <![CDATA[<b>Dietary digestible lysine levels in diets for barrows from 60 to 100 days of age</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Para avaliar o efeito de níveis de lisina digestível sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de suínos machos castrados dos 60 aos 100 dias de idade, foram utilizados 300 animais com peso médio de 25±0,52 kg, distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com 5 tratamentos (0,65; 0,75; 0,85; 0,95 e 1,05% de lisina digestível), 5 repetições e 12 animais por unidade experimental. Não houve efeito dos níveis de lisina digestível sobre o consumo médio diário de ração. O consumo de lisina digestível aumentou de forma linear com o aumento desse aminoácido na ração. O ganho de peso médio diário aumentou e a conversão alimentar melhorou de forma quadrática com o aumento dos níveis de lisina digestível da ração. Não foi observado efeito dos níveis de lisina digestível sobre a espessura de toucinho dos animais, entretanto, o rendimento de carcaça e a quantidade de carne aumentaram de forma quadrática com o aumento dos níveis de lisina digestível. Os níveis de 0,96 e 0,92% de lisina digestível, correspondentes aos consumos estimados de 18,69 e 17,69 g/dia, proporcionam os melhores resultados de ganho de peso e conversão alimentar, enquanto os níveis de 0,89 e 0,90%, correspondentes aos consumos estimados de 17,28 e 17,52 g/dia, propiciam os melhores resultados de rendimento e quantidade de carne na carcaça de suínos machos castrados dos 60 aos 100 dias de idade.<hr/>In order to evaluate digestible lysine levels on the performance and carcass traits of castrated male pigs from 60 to 100 days of age, 300 barrows with initial weight of 25.0±0.52 kg were allotted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments (0.65, 0.75, 0.85, 0.95, and 1.05% digestible lysine levels), five replicates, and 12 pigs per experimental unit. There was no effect of digestible lysine levels on average daily feed intake. The average daily gain increased and feed conversion improved quadratically with increasing dietary digestible lysine levels. There was no effect of the digestible lysine levels on pig backfat thickness; however the carcass yield and quantity of meat increased quadratically with increasing digestible lysine levels in the diets. The levels of 0.96 and 0.92% digestible lysine, corresponding to the estimated intakes of 18.69 and 17.69 g/day provide the best results of weight gain and feed conversion, while levels of 0.89 and 0.90%, corresponding to the estimated intakes of 17.28 and 17.52 g/day, provide the best results of yield and quantity of meat in the carcass of barrows from 60 to 100 days of age. <![CDATA[<b>L-glutamine and L-glutamate in diets with different lactose levels for piglets weaned at 21 days of age</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study was developed to evaluate the effects of adding L-glutamine and L-glutamate in diets with no lactose or with 4.0 or 8.0% lactose inclusion for piglets weaned at 21 days old. One hundred and eight piglets with initial weight of 6.12±0.70 kg were allotted in a complete randomized block design, in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, with six treatments, six replicates, and three piglets per experimental unit. The experimental diets were supplied from 21 to 35 days. From 36 to 49 days, animals received the same diet with no lactose inclusion, but the animals in the treatments with L-glutamine + L-glutamate in the previous phase continued to receive diets containing these ingredients. There was no interaction between the level of lactose and the inclusion of L-glutamine + L-glutamate on the parameters evaluated. The levels of lactose did not affect the performance of piglets in either of the two periods. Adding L-glutamine and L-glutamate in the diet positively influenced the weight gain of pigs from 21 to 49 days of age and increased the villous height in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Inclusion of L-glutamine + L-glutamate in diets for piglets weaned at 21 days of age improves the performance and the intestinal mucosa morphology, regardless of lactose addition. <![CDATA[<b>Relationship of arginine with lysine in diets for laying Japanese quails</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en To determine the relationship of arginine with lysine for Japanese quails during the period of production, an experiment was conducted using 360 subspecies of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with 162 days of age, distributed in a completely randomized design. Diets were formulated with corn, soybean meal, sorghum and wheat bran containing 20.0% crude protein and 2,800 kcal ME/kg. The basal diet contained suboptimal level of lysine equal to 1% and was supplemented with five levels of L-arginine 99% (0.032; 0.083; 0.134; 0.185 and 0.236%) to replace the glutamic acid, corresponding to the relationship of arginine with digestible lysine of 1.16, 1.21, 1.26, 1.31 and 1.36. The parameters studied were: feed intake, egg production per hen/day, egg production per hen housed, commercial egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion by egg mass, feed conversion per dozen eggs, weight and percentage of components of the eggs (yolk, albumen and shell) and specific gravity. There was no significant effect on the relationship of arginine with digestible lysine in the diet of Japanese quails for any of the parameters examined. The arginine/lysine ratio of 1.16, which corresponds to a daily intake of 288.84 mg of arginine, provides satisfactory performance and egg quality of Japanese quails. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of zeolite levels in diets for swine in the growing and finishing phases</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar níveis de zeólita em dietas para suínos e seus efeitos no desempenho, nas características de carcaça e nos parâmetros sanguíneos e histopatológicos do parênquima hepático desses animais nas fases de crescimento e terminação. Foram utilizados 84 suínos machos castrados, híbridos comerciais de alto potencial genético para deposição de carne, com peso inicial de 30,34±1,14 kg, distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com sete níveis de adsorvente (0,0-0,0; 1,0-0,5; 1,0-1,0; 2,0-1,0; 2,0-2,0; 3,0-1,5; 3,0-3,0, respectivamente, nas fases de crescimento e terminação), com seis repetições e dois animais por baia (unidade experimental). Utilizou-se o sorgo como fonte de contaminação natural por micotoxinas. Os níveis de adsorvente das dietas experimentais foram obtidos a partir da inclusão de zeólita em substituição à areia lavada das dietas sem adsorvente. Não houve efeito dos níveis de zeólita nas dietas sobre o consumo diário de ração, o ganho de peso diário, a conversão alimentar e as características carcaça avaliadas. Os níveis de zeólita nas dietas também não influenciaram os parâmetros sanguíneos e histopatológicos nem os teores ósseos de cálcio e fósforo dos suínos. Devido ao bom índice de desempenho e às características de carcaça, bem como à normalidade dos outros parâmetros estudados dos animais que receberam dieta sem adsorvente, pode-se inferir que as dietas continham baixo grau de contaminação por micotoxinas. Os níveis de zeólita avaliados não influenciam o desempenho, as características de carcaça nem os parâmetros sanguíneos e histopatológicos do parênquima hepático de suínos nas fases de crescimento e terminação recebendo dietas com baixo nível de contaminação por micotoxinas.<hr/>This study was conducted to evaluate levels of inclusion of zeolite in diets for pigs on performance, carcass characteristics, blood and liver histopathological parameters of these animals in their growing-finishing phases. Eighty-four barrows from commercial hybrids of high genetic potential for meat deposition, with initial weight of 30.34±1.14 kg were distributed in randomized blocks design, with seven levels of adsorbent (0.0-0.0; 1.0-0.5; 1.0-1.0; 2.0-1.0; 2.0-2.0; 3.0-1.5; 3.0-3.0, respectively, on growing and finishing phases), six replicates with two animals per pen, which was considered the experimental unit. Sorghum was used as naturally contaminated source of mycotoxins. The different levels of adsorbent in the diets were obtained by the supplementation of zeolite in the basal diet. The inclusion of zeolite in the diet did not affect the daily feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion or the carcass characteristics of the pigs. In the same way blood parameters, liver histopathological examination and the bone concentration neither calcium nor phosphorus were affected by the different levels of zeolita. Due to the good performance and carcass characteristics, as well as the normality of the other parameters of the animals fed diets without adsorbents analyzed, it can be inferred that the diets had low levels of mycotoxin contamination. The levels of zeolite do not affect the performance, carcass characteristics, blood parameters or liver histopathological examination in growing-finishing pigs fed diets with low level of contamination by mycotoxin. <![CDATA[<b>Digestibility and behavior of dogs housed in kennels or metabolic cages</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of the present study was to compare the apparent digestibility coefficients of a commercial dog food, fecal consistency and behavior of dogs housed in kennels and metabolic cages. Six adult Beagle dogs were distributed in cross-over experimental design, with six replicates per treatment. Dogs were housed in two environments: metabolic cages and in masonry kennels with solarium. Dogs were fed for a five-day adaptation period, and the five following days were used for total feces collection. Dogs behavior was recorded during a 48-h period, with 10-min intervals. Apparent digestibility coefficients were not different between treatments. However, dogs housed in metabolic cages produced lower weight and more consistent feces as compared with dogs housed in kennels. Dogs spent most of the time sleeping in both housing systems; however, dogs housed in the metabolic cages slept more than those in kennels. Stress-related behaviors (barking, whimpering, stereotypies, etc) were observed for no longer than 15 minutes per day, and were not different between dogs in kennels or in cages. There is no difference in food digestibility evaluated in dogs housed in metabolic cages or kennels; however, dogs kept in metabolic cages eliminate drier feces and spend more time inactive than those kept in kennels. <![CDATA[<b>Sunflower cake from biodiesel production fed to crossbred Boer kids</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The intake of the dry matter (DM), the crude protein (CP) and the metabolizable energy intake (ME) in megacalories per day (Mcal/day) were not affected by the diets. In contrast, the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), in g/kg BW, increased linearly. An increasing linear effect was also observed for the ether extract (EE) intake, whereas a decreasing linear performance was observed for the non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) intake. The digestibility of DM, organic matter and NFC decreased linearly with the sunflower cake inclusion, whereas the digestibility of CP, NDF, and EE were not influenced by the diets. No effect was observed for the concentration of serum glucose or urea nitrogen serum. No effect was observed on the urea nitrogen serum in the hours after feeding; however, including sunflower cake in the diets resulted in a quadratic performance for the serum glucose concentrations in the hours after feeding. The average daily gain (ADG) had a decreasing linear effect, and the food conversions of the DM, CP, NDF, NFC and ME had increasing linear effects. The feeding costs decreased with the level of sunflower cake. <![CDATA[<b>Morphometry and carcass characteristics of goats submitted to grazing in the Caatinga</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to evaluate morphometric measures, carcass yields, absolute weights and yields of commercial cuts of carcass of kids with no defined breed. Eighteen castrated male goats, with average weight of 15 kg were used. The experimental period lasted 105 days. The experimental design was completely randomized; animals were allocated to three treatments: free grazing without supplementation; restricted grazing without supplementation and free grazing with supplementation. Animals were supplemented (1% of body weight) with forage cactus (Opuntia ficus - indica, Mill) and soybean meal (Glycine max). The feeding consisted of continuous grazing on caatinga. Supplemented animals had higher live slaughter weight and body score, and consequently higher morphometric measures in vivo and in carcasses. The supplementation provided carcasses with higher body weight and body score. For yields of carcass, there was no difference between treatments restricted grazing and grazing with supplementation; supplementation provided carcasses with higher yields. Supplemented animals had higher absolute weights for commercial cuts. Supplementation of grazing goats raised in the caatinga provides animals with higher body weight at slaughter, greater morphometric measures in vivo and in carcass and better body conformation. Therefore, for supplementation, the level used in this experiment is a good alternative in the creation of small ruminants during the dry period in the semi-arid region. <![CDATA[<b>Use of regression techniques in the evaluation, in beef cattle, of feed conversion into product</b>: <b>comparison between experimental groups</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objetivou-se neste estudo propor e discutir um método de avaliação comparativa da eficiência de conversão do alimento em produto entre dois grupos experimentais de bovinos de corte baseado na utilização de técnicas de regressão. Os procedimentos matemáticos e estatísticos foram desenvolvidos a partir de banco de dados formado pela mensuração do consumo de matéria seca e do ganho médio diário em 380 bovinos zebuínos puros ou mestiços em 15 experimentos constantes na base de dados do sistema BR-CORTE. Foram selecionados dois grupos constituídos por animais Nelore (n = 156) e animais F1 Europeu × Nelore (n = 139). Foram propostas duas aproximações baseadas no ajustamento de modelos de regressão linear e não-linear, tendo o ganho médio diário com variável independente e o consumo de matéria seca como variável dependente. A utilização do alimento pelo animal foi estratificada em demanda para mantença e eficiência real de conversão em produto e as diferenças entre grupos foram avaliadas por intermédio de variáveis dummy. O critério de informação de Akaike foi proposto como ferramenta para escolha entre os modelos linear e não-linear. A avaliação comparativa da eficiência de transformação do alimento em produto entre dois grupos experimentais de bovinos de corte por meio de técnicas de regressão permite, caso pertinente, a estratificação dos grupos em função da eficiência de uso da dieta para suprimento de demandas para mantença e para produção.<hr/>The objective of this study was to propose and discuss a method to compare the feed into product conversion between two experimental groups of beef cattle based on regression techniques. The mathematical and statistical procedures were developed using a databank of dry matter intake and average daily gain of 380 purebred or crossbred zebu animals on the BR-CORTE nutritional system database. Two groups were selected from the databank and were formed by Nellore (n = 156) or F1 European × Nellore (n = 139) animals. Two approaches were presented, based on linear and non-linear regression models fitting; the average daily gain and dry matter intake were used as independent and dependent variables, respectively. The food utilization by the animal was stratified into maintenance demand and true efficiency of product conversion. The difference between groups was evaluated by using dummy variables. The Akaike information criterion was suggested to decide which model is more adequate. The comparative evaluation of feed into product conversion between two experimental groups of beef cattle by using regression techniques allows, if suitable, the stratification of groups according to efficiency of diet utilization for maintenance and production. <![CDATA[<b>Bakery waste in sheep diets</b>: <b>intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal parameters</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100022&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of bakery waste inclusion (0; 25; 50; 75 and 100%, DM basis) in proportion to corn meal in the energetic mixture of the concentrate on intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal parameters in sheep. Five male lambs with body weight of 30 kg were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Experimental diets were composed of concentrate and Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.) hay in a 60:40 forage:concentrate ratio. The concentrate rations were composed of corn meal, soybean meal and bakery waste. The bakery waste:corn meal ratio corresponded to the inclusion of, approximately, 0, 7, 14, 22 and 30% (DM basis) of bakery waste in the diet. There was no effect of bakery waste inclusion on the intake and digestibility of nutrients, nor on nitrogen balance, pH values or concentrations of volatile fatty acids. However, the ammonia nitrogen concentration showed negative linear response in relation to the level of inclusion, in which each increase of 1% bakery waste promoted reduction of 0.11 mg/dL in the concentration of ammonia nitrogen. This fact may be related to the increase in ruminal availability of energy, which allows greater use of ammonia for microbial growth. Bakery waste can replace corn meal in concentrate rations for sheep. <![CDATA[<b>Corn silage with and without enzyme-bacteria inoculants on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality in feedlot finished crossbred bulls</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Two height cuttings of corn silage with or without enzyme inoculants were evaluated for 68 days on performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and chemical composition of the Longissimus muscle in crossbred bulls (F1 - ½ Nellore vs. ½ Angus) finished in feedlot. Thirty-two 20-month-old bulls, with initial average weight of 374±25 kg, were kept in individual pens (10 m²). Diets consisted of 50% roughage and 50% concentrate, with an expected 1.80 kg/day weight gain. The experimental design with four diets and eight replications was completely randomized. Different cutting heights, low (25 cm) and high (45 cm), with or without enzyme inoculants, were studied. Live weight, average daily gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, carcass characteristics, muscle, fat and bone percentages at the 11th and 12th ribs, chemical composition of the Longissimus muscle, sum of saturated, mono-unsaturated, poly-unsaturated fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, n-6 fatty acids, and the poly-unsaturated:saturated and n-6:n-3 relations were determined. Cutting height of silage corn and the use of inoculants did not affect final live weight, average daily gain, feed intake, alimentary efficiency of dry matter, carcass characteristics, meat quality, chemical composition of the Longissimus muscle or fatty acid profile. High cutting of silage corn (45 cm above the ground) and the use of inoculants are not necessary in the case of cattle finished in feedlot, with 1.8 kg daily gain. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of melon in substitution of ground corn on performance, intake, and nutrients digestibility in Morada Nova lambs</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100024&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Avaliaram-se o desempenho, o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente de componentes nutritivos em 32 ovinos Morada Nova em confinamento, 20 machos não-castrados e 12 fêmeas, recebendo dietas contendo 0, 30, 60 e 100% de melão em substituição ao milho moído. Os animais tinham em média 6 meses de idade, peso médio inicial de 15 kg e foram abatidos aos 25 kg. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. O consumo de MS apresentou tendência quadrática para ambos os sexos, variando de 769 a 837 g para os machos e de 722 g a 646 g para as fêmeas. Os consumos de matéria orgânica (MO), proteína bruta (PB), extrato etéreo (EE), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT), carboidratos totais (CT) e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF) apresentaram comportamento quadrático, refletindo o mesmo comportamento da ingestão da MS. A digestibilidade aparente da MS apresentou tendência linear decrescente. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MO, PB, EE, FDN e CT apresentaram comportamento linear crescente com a adição de melão em substituição ao milho moído. O ganho de peso diário com o aumento do nível de melão na dieta foi maior nos machos. A conversão e eficiência alimentar não foram influenciadas pelo aumento do nível de melão na dieta. Os dias de confinamento variaram de 79 a 90 dias. A substituição na dieta do milho moído por melão possibilitou obter desempenho satisfatório em ovinos Morada Nova em confinamento. O nível de 60% de substituição é o que permite melhor retorno financeiro, entretanto, em níveis superiores a 30%, aumentam os dias de confinamento, elevando a idade ao abate.<hr/>Performance, intake, and nutrients digestibility of 32 Morada Nova confined lambs were evaluated, using diets with increasing levels (0, 30, 60, 100%) of melon (Cucumis melo L.) in substitution of corn grain. Animals were about 6 months old, with an average of 15 kg of initial body weight and slaughtered at 25 kg. They were allocated in a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight replicates. The dry matter intake (DMI) presented a quadratic behavior for both sex, varying from 769 to 837 g for males, and from 722 to 646 g for females. Intakes of OM (organic matter), CP (crude protein), EE (ether extract), NDF (neutral detergent fiber), TDN (total digestible nutrients), TCH (total carbohydrate) and NFC (non fiber-carbohydrate) showed a quadratic curve, reflecting the same behavior of DMI. There was a decreasing linear response for the coefficient of apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM). The apparent digestibility coefficients of OM, CP, EE, NDF, and TCH presented an increasing linear response with the addition of melon in substitution of ground corn in the diet. Concerning the average daily gain (ADG) there was a better performance for males compared with females, as the levels of melon increased. Feed efficiency and conversion were not influenced by the treatments. There was an increasing linear effect for the days of confinement, which varied from 79 to 90. The levels of melon added to the Morada Nova lambs' diets provided reasonable performances. The treatment with 60% participation of melon shows the best economical return. On the other hand, when the level of melon is above 30%, the days in confinement increase, elevating the slaughter age. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of whey fermented by <i>Enterococcus faecium</i> in consortium with <i>Veilonella parvula</i> in ruminant feeding</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to evaluate the whey fermented by Enterococcus faecium in consortium with Veilonella parvula on the in vitro growth of ruminal bacteria and as a supplement in the cattle diet. In the in vitro experiment, a randomized design, with the following combinations was used: ruminal bacteria; ruminal bacteria and inactive whey; ruminal bacteria and active whey; and active whey. In the in vivo experiment, five fistulated Zebu Holstein-Zebu crossbred heifers were distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Supplements were formulated without the addition of whey, with the addition of two levels of unfermented whey (2.5 and 5 L/day) or two levels of fermented whey (2.5 and 5 L/day). A positive effect of the whey fermentation was detected on the consumption of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber, corrected for ash and protein in kg/day. No effects of whey were observed on the pH and concentration of rumen ammonia nitrogen, serum concentration of urea and glucose, urinary excretion of urea or nutrient digestibility, except for the total digestible nutrients. Supplementation with whey improved the apparent nitrogen balance, but supplementation with fermented whey decreased the intestinal flow of microbial nitrogen and microbial synthesis efficiency in relation to the unfermented whey. The whey fermentation process does not optimize the physiological responses of heifers supplemented with 2.5 and 5.0 L of whey. <![CDATA[<b>Animal production and canopy attributes of Cynodon pasture managed under continuous stocking with wethers at three levels of forage allowance</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100026&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of forage allowance (3, 6 or 9 kg of green leaves dry matter (DM)/100 kg of body weight (BW)) on both animal performance and attributes of Cynodon dactylon var.dactylon canopy managed under continuous stocking by wethers. The study was carried out with 27 Polwarth wethers throughout five 28-day periods, in a completely randomized experiment, which included three paddocks per treatment and three tester animals per paddock. Forage mass varied from 2878 to 6580 kg of DM/ha and was directly related to forage allowance. Leaves proportion (mean of 23%) and leaves growth rate (mean of 25 kg of DM/ha/day) varied between experimental periods in a similar rate for all treatments. Stocking rate varied from 652 to 2428 kg of LW/ha/day and was higher for the lowest forage allowance treatment. Individual BW gain (mean of 9.7 g/day) or gain per area (mean of 406 g/ha/day) were only affected by experimental periods. Forage intake was neither affected by treatments nor by periods (mean of 1042 g of DM/day). Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon pasture may be managed under continuous stocking by grazing wethers at forage allowances varying from 3 to 9 kg of green leaves dry matter/100 kg of BW without effects on canopy attributes or animal production. <![CDATA[<b>Development of microorganisms during storage of wet brewery waste under aerobic and anaerobic conditions</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100027&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This research study was conducted to evaluate, by means of microbiological analyses, the preservation of wet brewery waste stored under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, regarding the development of filamentous fungi, yeasts and lactic-acid bacteria. The following treatments were used: untreated brewery waste, pre-dried brewery waste silage, brewery waste silage with effluent drainage and BW silage without effluent drainage. Silos made of PVC and equipped with Bunsen valves to allow gases to escape were used. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), temperature (°C) and pH in the untreated BW, in the stored brewery waste and in the brewery waste silage upon silo opening, after 60 days of ensilage were analyzed. A completely randomized design was used. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and the means were compared by the Tukey test at the 5% probability level. The preservation of brewery waste packaged under aerobic conditions was not appropriate due to the development of filamentous fungi and yeasts; however, storage under anaerobic conditions proved to be an effective conservation process. <![CDATA[<b>Use of geostatistics on broiler production for evaluation of different minimum ventilation systems during brooding phase</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100028&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this research was to evaluate different minimum ventilation systems, in relation to air quality and thermal comfort using geostatistics in brooding phase. The minimum ventilation systems were: Blue House I: exhaust fans + curtain management (end of the building); Blue House II: exhaust fans + side curtain management; and Dark House: exhaust fans + flag. The climate variables evaluated were: dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, carbon dioxide and ammonia concentration, during winter time, at 9 a.m., in 80 equidistant points in brooding area. Data were evaluated by geostatistic technique. The results indicate that Wider broiler houses (above 15.0 m width) present the greatest ammonia and humidity concentration. Blue House II present the best results in relation to air quality. However, none of the studied broiler houses present an ideal thermal comfort. <![CDATA[<b>Natural and improved pastures on growth and reproductive performance of Hereford heifers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100029&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study evaluated yearling growth and reproductive performance of Hereford heifers at 24-26 months of age grazing on natural pastures at two stocking rates during winter and spring, associated or not to improved natural pastures. Heifers were classified according to three weight groups (Light, Medium and Heavy) and randomly distributed into four feeding management practices: 0.6 AU (1 animal unit = 450-kg body weight) - heifers on natural pastures at a stocking rate of 0.6 AU/ha; 0.8 AU - heifers on natural pastures at a stocking rate of 0.8 AU/ha; 0.6 AUI - heifers on natural pastures at a stocking rate of 0.6 AU/ha and on improved natural pastures between Sept 1st and Nov 1st; 0.8 AUI - heifers on natural pasture at a stocking rate of 0.8 AU/ha and on improved natural pastures between Sept 1st and Nov 1st. The stocking rate of 0.8 AU resulted in significant weight loss during winter months (-0.138 and -0.356 kg for 0.6 and 0.8 AU, respectively). Heifers grazing during the spring on improved natural pastures presented higher weight gain before the breeding season and higher body weight and body condition score in the beginning and end of the breeding season in relation to those grazing only on natural pastures. Heifers kept at 0.6 AU/ha obtained 69.7% pregnancy rate, which was significantly higher than the 54.2% of those managed at 0.8 UA/ha. Heifers grazing on improved natural pastures during the spring achieved 83.8% pregnancy rate, whereas those maintained on natural pastures achieved only 40.2%. Light and medium heifers lost less weight during the winter as compared with the heavy ones, but weight differences between groups remained until the end of the breeding season. Heavy heifers have higher pregnancy rates. Heifers submitted to lower stocking rate and those grazing on improved natural pastures conceive earlier. <![CDATA[<b>Relationship between preventive and treatment expenditures</b>: <b>evaluation of the situation of dairy farms in Minas Gerais, Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100030&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objetivou-se identificar as características dos sistemas produtivos de leite das fazendas de Minas Gerais com maiores gastos em prevenção de doenças animais. Ainda, pretendeu-se verificar a existência de relação negativa entre gastos com prevenção e tratamento. Os dados utilizados são provenientes de 861 questionários aplicados para a publicação do Diagnóstico da Pecuária Leiteira do Estado de Minas Gerais em 2005. Utilizou-se a análise fatorial para criar variáveis que agregassem os gastos. As variáveis geradas foram inseridas num modelo de regressão aplicando-se a metodologia de Mínimos Quadrados em Três Estágios, que permite considerar a endogeneidade esperada entre os gastos estudados. De acordo com os resultados encontrados, os gastos com tratamento aumentam com a elevação do percentual de vacas em lactação e os gastos com prevenção aumentam com intensificação da produção. Fazendas que utilizam mão-de-obra predominantemente familiar apresentam menores gastos com tratamento e maiores gastos com prevenção. Ainda, segundo a equação de prevenção, sistemas que têm maiores gastos com capineiras, canaviais, pastagens e mão-de-obra gastam mais com prevenção. Na equação de tratamento, o fator significativo indicou que sistemas mais tecnificados aumentam a probabilidade de transmissão de doenças e consequentemente os gastos com tratamento. Propriedades que receberam de um técnico mais de seis visitas por ano têm maiores gastos com tratamento, mas menores gastos com prevenção. A relação encontrada entre os gastos foi contrária à esperada, mostrando que, quando os gastos com prevenção aumentam, aqueles com tratamento também aumentam. Assim, os produtores têm uma atitude reativa e não proativa com relação à sanidade bovina.<hr/>The objective of this study was to identify characteristics of milk production systems from farms in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with major expenses on animal disease prevention. Furthermore, the study aimed at investigating the existence of the negative relationship between prevention and treatment expenditures. The data were obtained from 861 questionnaires from the "Diagnóstico da Pecuária Leiteira do Estado de Minas Gerais em 2005" publication. Thus, factor analysis was utilized to generate variables that are linear combinations of chosen expenditures. These factors were used in a Three-stage Least Squares regression model, which allows considering the expected endogenity between treatment and prevention expenditures The results indicated that treatment costs increase with increasing the percentage of milking cows and that expenses on prevention increase with production intensification. Farms that use predominantly family labor have lower treatment costs and higher expenses on prevention. The prevention equation has shown that systems with higher expenses with pasture, sugar cane plantations and labor costs spend more on prevention. In the treatment equation, the significant factor indicated that more intensive systems have greater probability of disease transmission and thus, greater treatment costs. Properties that received more than six visits of a technician per year have higher treatment costs but lower prevention costs. The association between treatment and prevention spending was contrary to the expected, showing that while spending on prevention increases, treatment spending also increases. Thus, that producers have a reactive rather than proactive attitude regarding cattle health. <![CDATA[<b>Split suckling in relation to the parturition order of sows</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100031&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos da amamentação parcelada nas primeiras seis horas após o nascimento, sobre o peso ao desmame, aos 60 dias de idade e a dosagem de imunoglobulinas G séricas em leitões de porcas de diversas ordens de parto. Trinta e três fêmeas suínas foram usadas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e em esquema fatorial 2 × 3, composto de dois manejos de leitões pós-nascimento e três agrupamentos por ordem de parto. No manejo tradicional, os leitões disputavam as tetas e mamavam aleatoriamente, enquanto no manejo com alimentação parcelada foram distribuídos em dois grupos para mamar. A coleta de sangue dos leitões foi realizada seis horas após o término do parto para titulação de IgG. Aos 21 e 60 dias de idade, os leitões foram pesados. O manejo de alimentação parcelada não afetou o peso nem a dosagem de IgG sérica dos leitões, independentemente da ordem de parição das porcas, no entanto os leitões das porcas primíparas apresentaram menor peso ao desmame. O manejo de alimentação parcelada resultou em aumento da concentração de IgG sérica dos leitões de porcas primíparas. A amamentação parcelada deve ser utilizada em primíparas, mas não necessariamente em porcas de segunda parição em diante, pois os leitões de primíparas submetidos ao manejo de alimentação parcelada apresentam maiores concentrações de IgG sérica.<hr/>The objective was evaluate the effects of the split suckling at the six first hours after the birth, on the weight at weaning and at 60 days of age and on the serum IgG rate, in piglets from sows of different parturition order. Thirty-three sows were used in a completely randomized design and 2 × 3 factorial arrangement: two post-birth management practices and three groups by parturition order. In the traditional management, piglets fought for the teats and suckled randomly, while in the split suckling, piglets were divided in two groups for suckling. Bood collection was performed at six hours after the end of the birth, for the IgG titration. At 21 and 60 days of age, piglets were weighed. The split suckling management did not affect the weight or the serum IgG rate of the piglets from sows of different parturition order, but the piglets of primiparous sows had lower weaning weight. The split suckling management resulted in increase of serum IgG concentration in piglets of primiparous sows. The split suckling must be used in primiparous sows, but not necessarily in sows of second parturition on, because the piglets of primiparous submitted to the split suckling management present higher concentrations of serum IgG. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of sodium sulfite and protein correction in analyses of fibrous compounds in tropical forages</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100032&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to evaluate the contents of fibrous compounds in tropical grasses and legumes according to utilization of sodium sulfite in the neutral detergent solution or using a procedure for contaminant protein correction. Samples of ten grasses and ten legumes were used. The contents of neutral detergent fiber were decreased when sodium sulfite was used; however, more prominent reductions were verified in legumes. Sodium sulfite decreased the acid detergent fiber content in both forage groups. The contents of neutral and acid detergent insoluble protein and lignin were reduced by sodium sulfite in legumes, but no effect was observed in grasses with regard to these variables. The decrease in fiber contents in legumes could be explained by the solubilization of lignin and decrease in insoluble nitrogen. However, the decreases in fiber in grasses could not be solely explained by the decrease in contaminant protein and solubilization of lignin, and loss of other fibrous compounds probably occurred. The utilization of sodium sulfite compromises the accuracy of the estimates of fibrous compounds contents in tropical forages. The precision of the estimates were not relevantly increased by sodium sulfite. The correction of insoluble fibrous compounds for protein is suggested instead of using sodium sulfite because there are no modifications on neutral detergent solution or undesirable solubilization of fibrous compounds. <![CDATA[<b>Performance of dairy goats fed diets with dry yeast from sugar cane as protein source</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000100033&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The effects of inactive dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) from sugar cane were studied in 18 primiparus Saanen dairy goats (51.07±1.43) on dry matter intake and digestibility, milk production and quality. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design during 90 days (from day 60 of milking). Diets were composed of soybean meal; soybean meal + dry yeast; or dry yeast, as protein sources, and ground corn, mineral supplement and corn silage (40%). Animals fed the dry yeast diet showed lower intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein, ether extract and neutral detergent fiber. Diets did not influence milk yield; however the milk production efficiency (kg of milk produced/kg of crude protein ingested) was better in goats fed the dry yeast diet. Acidity, somatic cell counts and milk urea nitrogen values were not affected by treatments. Animals fed the soybean + dry yeast diet had higher fat and total solids than those fed the dry yeast diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and total carbohydrate was lower for soybean only and soybean + dry yeast diets. Total digestible nutrients were higher for dry yeast and soy bean diets than soybean + dry yeast diet. Dry yeast from sugar cane is a good alternative protein source for feeding lactating dairy goats and can be recommended because it maintains the production performance.