Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1516-359820120004&lang=es vol. 41 num. 4 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[<b>Effects of photoperiod on reproduction of Siamese fighting fish<i> Betta splendens </i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This study investigated the effect of different photoperiods (24 h of light (L):0 h of darkness (D); 20L:4D; 16L:8D; 12L:12D; and 8L:16D) on the reproduction and growth of Betta splendens. The results showed that spawning frequency was significantly higher in couples reared under 16L:8D and 12L:12D, in comparison with other treatments. The highest number of eggs per spawn was obtained under 16L:8D (544.76±375.23) and 12L:12D (471.13±261.52), and the lowest values were detected for 24L:0D (128.55±58.14) and 20L:4D (187.87±103.84). Fertility and fecundity also showed significantly higher average values in 16L:8D and 12L:12D when compared with 24L:0D and 20L:4D treatments. Egg volume and perivitelline space were significantly higher in 24L:0D treatments that showed the lowest numbers of eggs per spawn, while the vitelline volume did not show significant differences. Other variables such as breeders weight gain and condition factor (K) were not statistically different. Moreover, the final length varies according to photoperiod and gender. These results demonstrated a key role for the photoperiod upon B. splendens reproduction. The best reproductive performance is achieved under the photoperiods that best approached those that occur in spring and summer (16L:8D and 12L:12D), coinciding with their best seasons for reproduction. <![CDATA[<b>Forage mass and the nutritive value of pastures mixed with forage peanut and red clover </b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this research was to estimate three pasture-based systems mixed with elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species, annual ryegrass, for pasture-based system 1; elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species + forage peanut, for pasture-based system 2; and elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species + annual ryegrass + red clover, for pasture-based system 3. Elephantgrass was planted in rows 4 m apart from each other. During the cool-season, annual ryegrass was sown in the alleys between the rows of elephantgrass; forage peanut and red clover were sown in the alleys between the elephantgrass according to the respective treatment. The experimental design was totally randomized in the three treatments (pasture-based systems), two replicates (paddocks) in completely split-plot time (grazing cycles). Holstein cows receiving 5.5 kg-daily complementary concentrate feed were used in the evaluation. Pre-grazing forage mass, botanical composition and stocking rate were evaluated. Samples of simulated grazing were collected to analyze organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), crude protein (CP) and organic matter in situ digestibility (OMISD). Nine grazing cycles were performed during the experimental period (341 days). The average dry matter values for pre-grazing and stocking rate were 3.34; 3.46; 3.79 t/ha, and 3.28; 3.34; 3.60 AU/ha for each respective pasture-based system. Similar results were observed between the pasture-based systems for OM, NDF, CP and OMISD. Considering forage mass, stocking rate and nutritive value, the pasture-based system intercropped with forage legumes presented better performance. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of relative biological efficiency of additives in sugarcane ensiling</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding alkalis on the fermentative pattern, aerobic stability and nutritive value of the sugarcane silage. A completely randomized design with 6 additives in two concentrations (1 or 2%), plus a control group, totalizing 13 treatments [(6×2)+1] with four replications, was used. The additives were sodium hydroxide (NaOH), limestone (CaCO3), urea (CO(NH2)2), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), quicklime (CaO) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2). The material was ensiled in 52 laboratory silos using plastic buckets with 12 L of capacity. Silos were opened 60 days after ensiling, when organic acids concentration, aerobic stability and chemical composition were determined. The Relative Biological Efficiency (RBE) was calculated by the slope ratio method, using the data obtained from ratio between desirable and undesirable silage products, according to the equation: D/U ratio = [lactic/(ethanol + acetic + butyric)]. All additives affected dry matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber contents and buffering capacity. Except for urea and quicklime, all additives increased the in vitro dry matter digestibility. In general, these additives altered the fermentative pattern of sugarcane silage, inhibiting alcoholic fermentation and improving lactic acid production. The additive that showed the best RBE in relation to sodium hydroxide (100%) was limestone (89.4%). The RBE values of urea, sodium bicarbonate and hydrated lime were 49.2%, 47.7% and 34.3%, respectively. <![CDATA[<b>Structural characteristics and agronomic traits of <i>Brachiaria brizantha</i> cv. </b><b>Xaraés subjected to nitrogen levels </b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Objetivou-se neste experimento avaliar as características estruturais e agronômicas da Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés sob diferentes doses de nitrogênio (0; 125; 250; 375 e 500 kg.ha-1 de N) cultivadas no Campus Universitário de Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso, no período de 12/10/2006 a 23/8/2007. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos às análises estatísticas agrupando-se os dados em dois períodos, águas e ao longo do ano. As doses de N influenciaram o número de folhas aparecidas para a época chuvosa, assim como o número de folhas verdes. O número de folhas totais foi influenciado pelas doses de N nas águas e ao longo do ano. Houve incremento de 27% no comprimento médio da lâmina foliar para a dose de 343,9 kg.ha-1 de N para o período das águas. A densidade de perfilhos foi influenciada pelas doses de N para ambos os períodos de avaliação, sendo que a altura das plantas foi influenciada pelas doses de N para as duas épocas avaliadas. O aumento na disponibilidade de matéria seca por hectare foi de 87,5% para a maior dose de N nas águas (333,3 kg.ha-1 de N) em comparação ao tratamento testemunha. A adubação nitrogenada influencia positivamente todas as características relacionadas ao crescimento e à produção de massa, principalmente no período chuvoso, quando a adubação deve ser parcelada em quatro ou cinco doses, não justificando adubações no período seco do ano.<hr/>The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the structural characteristics and agronomic traits of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés under different nitrogen levels (0, 125, 250, 375 and 500 kg.ha-1 of N) grown in Campus Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso, in the period 10/12/2006 to 08/23/2007. The treatments were arranged in a randomized design with four repetitions. The results were submitted to statistical analysis by grouping the data into two periods: rain and throughout the year. The N influenced the number of leaves appeared at the time rainy, and the number of green leaves. The number of leaves was influenced by N rates during the rain and throughout the year. There was an increase of 27% in the average length of the leaf blade to the dose of 343.9 kg ha-1 N for the rainy season. The density of tillers was influenced by N rates for both evaluation periods. Since the height of the plants was influenced by N rates for the two seasons evaluated. The increased availability of dry per hectare was 87.5% for the highest N in the water (333.3 kg ha-1 N) compared with the control treatment. Nitrogen fertilization positively influences all characteristics related to growth and production mass, especially during the rainy season, when the fertilization must be divided into four or five doses, with no need for fertilization in the dry season. <![CDATA[<b>Nutritional divergence in genotypes of forage peanut</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional divergence between ten genotypes of forage peanut, based on chemical composition as well as fermentation and in vitro degradation kinetic characteristics. Treatments consisted of ten genotypes of Arachis pintoi, namely eight accessions (31135, 30333, 15121, 31828, 15598, 31534, 13251 and 31496) and two cultivars (cv. Belmonte and cv. Amarillo). The genotypes were harvested in each plot at a height of 3 cm from the ground, in 42-day intervals, during the time of heaviest rainfall. For the multivariate analysis the following variables, the following were used: crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, potential degradation in 48 hours, degradation rate of insoluble potentially degradable fraction and degradation rate of non-fibrous carbohydrate. The application of the hierarchical clustering analysis, using the Euclidian distances matrix of standardized averages allowed for the identification of five homogeneous groups. Among them, the accessions 31828, 31534, 15121 and cv. Belmonte stood out nutritionally among the remaining genotypes evaluated, depicting as promising for the utilization in ruminant feeding. <![CDATA[<b>Forage yield and nutritive value of Tanzania grass under nitrogen supplies and plant densities</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the nitrogen and plant density influence on the yield, forage dissection and nutritive value of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.). The design was of completely randomized blocks with three replications in a factorial arrangement with four nitrogen levels (0, 80, 160 or 320 kg/ha N) and three plant densities (9, 25 or 49 plants/m²). The plots were cut at 25 cm from soil level when the canopy reached 95% of light interception. The total dry matter forage yield and dry matter forage yield per harvest increased linearly with the nitrogen fertilization. The leaf and stem yield had the same response. The senesced forage yield was quadratically influenced by the nitrogen. The stems ratio in the morphologic composition was high in the high nitrogen levels and in the low plant densities. The leaf:stem ratio showed high values in this trial, but it was increased in plots without nitrogen and high plant density. The pre-grazing height was reduced with the increase in plant density. The nutritive value was favored by the nitrogen fertilization, which increased the crude protein level and reduced neutral detergent fiber and lignin. These factors increased the leaf and stem in vitro digestibility of organic matter. Nitrogen fertilization increases the forage yield of Tanzania grass under rotational grazing. After the establishment, plant density has little influence on the Tanzania grass yield and its forage dissection. The harvest with 95% light interception improves the structure and nutritive value of Tanzania grass pastures. <![CDATA[<b>Productivity of double-purpose winter cereals in the Depressão Central region of Rio Grande do Sul state</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de avaliar a precocidade, a produtividade e as características do dossel de 12 genótipos de seis espécies de cereais de inverno de duplo propósito (forragem e grãos) submetidos ao corte na região da Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul. As espécies e os genótipos testados foram: trigo BRS 277, BRS Guatambu, BRS Tarumã, BRS Umbu; aveia-preta Agro Zebu, UPFA 21 - Moreninha e Comum; aveia-branca UPF 18; centeio BR 1 e BRS Serrano; Cevada BRS Marciana; e triticale BRS 148. Os genótipos foram distribuídos em 36 parcelas experimentais, num delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 12 tratamentos, três repetições e medidas repetidas no tempo. As variáveis estudadas foram massa de forragem, composição botânica e estrutural, produção de forragem e de grãos. Os genótipos mais precoces para produção de forragem foram o centeio BR 1 e o triticale BRS 148. O trigo BRS Tarumã apresentou maior produção de forragem e de lâminas foliares e o trigo BRS Umbu maior produção de grãos e peso do hectolitro. Entre os genótipos avaliados, o trigo BRS Tarumã é o mais indicado para duplo propósito na Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul.<hr/>The objective of this research was to evaluate early growth, yield and canopy characteristics of 12 genotypes of six species of winter cereals with double purpose (forage and grains) submitted to harvest at Depressão Central region of Rio Grande do Sul state, South Region of Brazil. Species and genotypes tested were: BRS 277, BRS Guatambu, BRS Tarumã and BRS Umbu wheat; Agro Zebu, UPFA 21 - Moreninha and Commom black-oat; UPF 18 white-oat; BR 1 and BRS Serrano rye; BRS Marciana barley; and BRS 148 triticale. The genotypes were distributed in 36 experimental plots, in a completely randomized design with 12 treatments, three replications and repeated measure. Studied variables were herbage mass, botanical and structural composition, forage and grains production. The earliest genotypes for forage production were BR 1 rye and BRS 148 triticale. BRS Tarumã wheat presented higher forage and leaf blade production. BRS Umbu wheat presented higher grains yield and hectoliter weight. Among the genotypes evaluated, BRS Tarumã wheat is the most suitable for double purpose in Depressão Central region of Rio Grande do Sul state. <![CDATA[<b>Morphogenesis in guinea grass pastures under rotational grazing strategies</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This study was conducted in order to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass cv. Mombasa under three post-grazing heights (intense - 30 cm, lenient - 50 cm and variable - 50 in spring-summer and 30 cm in autumn-winter) when sward light interception reached 95% during regrowth. Post-grazing heights were allocated to experimental units (0.25 ha) in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Post-grazing heights affected only leaf elongation rate and the number of live leaves. Pastures managed with variable post-grazing height showed higher leaf elongation rate in the summer of 2007. This management strategy also resulted in a higher number of live leaves. During the spring of 2006, plants showed lower leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves, and greater phyllochron and leaf lifespan. In contrast, during the summer of 2007, the leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate, number of live leaves, and final leaf length were greater while phyllochron, stem elongation rate, and leaf senescence rate were lower. The management of the guinea grass cv. Mombasa with intense or variable post-grazing height throughout the year seems to represent an interesting management target, in terms of leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves. <![CDATA[<b>IPR 126 white oat forage potential under free growth, cutting and grazing at two management heights</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The experiment was carried out to evaluate the structural characteristics, biomass accumulation, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of white oat (Avena sativa L. IPR 126) under different management systems. Grazing, cut at two heights (15 and 20 cm) and free growth were all evaluated in three periods (July, August and September) with a 28-day average interval between evaluations. In the free growth system, samples at 15 and 20 cm were also taken at the intervals chosen for cutting and grazing. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with three replications, arranged in a 3 × 2 factorial split plot design over time; systems of management and heights were the factors of plots, and time was taken as subplot. There was higher straw production under free growth, but, with decreased chemical quality from the first to the second period and from the second to the third one, with 236.4, 172.5, and 91.4 g/kg crude protein values, respectively. Regarding cutting and grazing systems, they showed structural changes in tillering, which was favored by the cut, but with some reduction in the periods. Nutritional quality values were close to cutting and grazing with high crude protein content (216.6 g/kg), adequate neutral detergent fiber (535.4 g/kg) content and high in vitro digestibility of dry matter (826.3 g/kg). Management heights promoted few changes in the characteristics evaluated. After the third period, cutting and grazing systems showed no suitable residual straw for ground covering and set a summer crop under no-tillage system, with 738.39 kg/ha of residual dry matter on average. <![CDATA[<b>Grazing patterns on signalgrass pasture according to location of cattle feces</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This study was conducted to evaluate the defoliation patterns on B. decumbens cv. Basilisk (signalgrass) tiller as a function of influence of feces deposited naturally by cattle. The signalgrass was managed with an average height of 25 cm, under continuous stocking and variable stocking rate. Interval and intensity of defoliation, grazing efficiency and forage loss were evaluated in two sites on pasture - one close and the other distant from feces. The completely randomized block design with three replications was adopted. The defoliation rate of the pasture site close to feces was 40% lower than at that distant from feces. This response pattern was similar to defoliation intensity of leaf blade. The leaf blade of the tiller close to feces also achieved lower de foliation (1.64) than that in the tiller distant from feces (3.97). The relative number of grazed leaf per tiller in the tillers distant from feces was approximately 185% higher than those close to feces. The grazing efficiency was lower in the local close to feces compared with that distant, unlike forage loss. The natural deposition of feces by cattle modifies the grazing and use patterns of B. decumbens under continuous stocking. <![CDATA[<b>Frequencies and intensities of defoliation in Aruana Guineagrass swards: accumulation and morphological composition of forage</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this study was to assess the accumulation and morphological composition of forage in Aruana Guineagrass (Panicum maximum cv. Aruana) swards subjected to intermittent stocking with sheep. Experimental treatments when grazing was introduced included low (95%) and high (98%) incident light interception and low (10 cm)- and high (15 cm)-residue height and were allocated to experimental units (196 m² fenced areas) in a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with three replicates. Treatments were imposed between January and May 2009. More frequent grazing cycles (95% light interception) resulted in better control of stem elongation, lower proportion of dead plant material and invasive plants, and higher proportions of leaf blades in the grazing strata, compared with less frequent grazing cycles (98% light interception). Grass managed with 95% light interception combined with 10 and 15 cm post-grazing height and grass managed at 98% light interception combined with 15 cm post-grazing height did not show differences in forage accumulation rate. These results indicate that more frequent (30 cm pre-grazing height) and less severe (15 cm post-grazing height) grazing cycles provided animals with high leaf blade mass and low stem mass forage. <![CDATA[<b>Semen cryopreservation of Piau swine breed submited to three freezing protocols</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Objetivou-se verificar o efeito de três protocolos de criopreservação sobre a viabilidade espermática pósdescongelamento de suínos da raça Piau (Sus scrofa), por meio de testes de avaliação in vitro e in vivo. Foram coletados 22 ejaculados de 5 machos adultos da raça Piau por meio do método da mão enluvada. Para verificar a viabilidade espermática do sêmen in natura e pós-descongelamento, foram avaliados a motilidade e o vigor espermático, o teste hiposmótico, a coloração supra-vital e a porcentagem de acrossomas normais. Para o congelamento, os ejaculados foram fracionados e submetidos em: protocolo 1, método de congelamento preconizado por Fürst et al. (2005), modificado quanto aos meios diluentes; protocolo 2, método preconizado por Fürst et al. (2005), modificado quanto à curva de resfriamento; e protocolo 3, método preconizado por Ohata et al. (2001). Para testar a fertilidade in vivo do sêmen congelado/descongelado, foram realizadas 23 inseminações intrauterinas (pós-cervicais) em 14 fêmeas da raça Piau com o sêmen proveniente do protocolo 3. Os valores médios obtidos com o uso dos protocolos 1 e 2 pós-descongelamento foram inferiores aos obtidos com o protocolo 3. Quatro porcas adultas ficaram gestantes (28,6% de taxa de fertilidade). O protocolo de congelamento preconizado por Ohata et al. (2001), com período de equilíbrio de 90 minutos a 22-26 ºC, permite obter melhores resultados de viabilidade espermática in vitro em comparação aos outros dois protocolos. A ausência de período de equilíbrio do protocolo 1 e a curva de resfriamento utilizada no protocolo 2 afetam negativamente os parâmetros de viabilidade espermática avaliados no presente estudo. Apesar dos resultados satisfatórios in vitro para o congelamento de sêmen com a utilização do protocolo 3, o mesmo apresenta baixa taxa de fertilidade (28,6%).<hr/>The objective of this study was to verify the effect of three protocols of cryopreservation on the sperm viability post-thawing of swine from the Piau breed (Sus scrofa), by means of evaluation assays in vitro and in vivo. Twenty-two ejaculates of 5 adult males of the Piau breed trough the gloved-hand method. In order to verify the sperm viability of the raw semen and post-thawing, the following traits were evaluated: sperm motility and vigor, hypoosmotic test, supra-vital color test and percentage of normal acrosomes. To freezing, the ejaculates were fractioned and submitted in: method 1, method of freezing recommended by Fürst et al. (2005), modified according to media extender; method 2, recommended by Fürst et al. (2005), modified according to the cooling curve; and method 3, recommended by Ohata et al. (2001). To test the in vivo fertility of the frozen/thawed semen, 23 intra-uterine (post-cervical) inseminations were performed in 14 females of the Piau breed, with semen from method 3. The mean values obtained with the use of methods 1 and 2 and post-thawing were inferior to those obtained with method 3. Four adult sows got pregnant (28.6% fertility rate). The freezing method recommended by Ohata et al. (2001), with balance period of 90 minutes at 22-26 ºC, enables higher results of in vitro sperm viability in comparison with the two other methods. The absence of balance period of method 1 and the cooling curve utilized in protocol 2 affect negatively the parameters of sperm viability evaluated in the present study. In spite of the satisfactory results in vitro for the freezing of semen with the utilization of method 3, it presents low fertility rate (28.6%). <![CDATA[<b>Leptin and insulin in the seminal plasma of zebu bulls in peripuberty</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In order to determine the profile of leptin and insulin values in seminal plasma and their correlations with sperm patterns during the peripuberty, a total of 16 crossbred Gyr dairy bulls were monitored from 60 days before to 60 days after puberty, separated into two groups, early and regular, according to the onset of puberty. Hormone values were determined by radioimmunoassay after gel filtration in fast performance liquid chromatography and semen patterns, according to the Brazilian College of Animal Reproduction. Insulin concentrations in seminal plasma did not differ between groups, nor between the ages, with the pooling of the data showing average of 35.15±16.93, 36.60±26.21, 26.82±09.81, and 43.56±31.71 32.24±16.71 U/mL for the pubertal period of -60, -30, 0, +30 and +60 days, respectively. These values were not correlated with sperm parameters, but differed in the group of animals with the highest percentage of major defects (31.08±18.58 U/mL) compared with those with lower percentage of these sperm defects (40.01±25.37 U/mL). Leptin was not correlated with sperm parameters and did not differ between groups or stage of sexual development, with concentrations of 23.10±10.43, 24.35±9.42, 22.41±9.90, 23.76±9.69 and 24.99±11.42 ng/mL for the periods of puberty aforementioned, respectively, after being grouped. These results demonstrated the binding of insulin to the structural quality of the sperm cell, and this hormone is indicated in andrologycal evaluation of future breeding soundness. <![CDATA[<b>Diet supplementation with phytase on performance of broiler chickens</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The assay was carried out to determine the effect of phytase supplementation on performance of broilers from 1 to 21 and 1 to 40 days of age. Twelve hundred and fifty male broilers (Ross) were distributed in a randomized experimental design, with five treatments, 10 repetitions and 25 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of evaluating the phytase supplementation in diets with reductions in nutritional levels, compared with the positive control. The nutrient contents in negative controls one and two were reduced progressively and these diets were supplemented with phytase levels of 250 and 500 ftu/kg of the diet, respectively. Two diets were formulated: pre-starter/starter, 1-21 days, and growth/finishing, from 21 to 40 days). In both phases, with the phytase supplementation in diets that had their nutritional levels reduced (negative control one + 250 ftu and negative control two + 500 ftu), feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion of the birds were similar to the positive control. In the period from 1 to 40 days of age, with the diets supplemented with phytase, the productive efficiency index of the birds was similar to that of the positive control group. Supplementation with 250 ftu/kg and 500 ftu/kg phytase in diets with reduced nutritional levels improved broiler performance, resulting in parameters similar to those shown by broilers fed with the diet with normal levels of nutrients. <![CDATA[<b>Poultry viscera and bone meal in broiler pre-starter and starter diets</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The use of viscera and bone meal in poultry pre-starter and starter diets and its effects on performance, digestive organ development and digestibility and nutrient retention were evaluated. In the first assay, 280-day-old Avian Cobb® chicks were allotted in four experimental groups with five replicates of 14 birds each, in the pre-starter phase; in the second assay, 280 eight-day-old Avian Cobb 48® chicks were allotted in four experimental groups with five replicates of 12 birds each. The experimental diet consisted of increasing levels of viscera and bone meal: 0% (control diet), 3%, 6% and 9% in pre-starter (Assay 1) and starter (Assay 2) diets, to meet nutritional requirements and feed composition proposed by the Brazilian Tables, all of them isonutritive and isoenergetic. A metabolic assay was developed and the total excreta collection was performed from the 4th to the 7th days in Assay 1 and from the 14th to the 17th days in Assay 2. On these days, one chick per experimental unit, representing the mean body weight of the parcel, was euthanized to perform digestive organ morphometry. Mean body weight was 45.4±0.4 on the 1st day in Assay 1 and 179.5±0.8 at 8 days of age in Assay 2. In Assay 1, a negative linear effect was observed for weight gain. Levels of viscera and bone meal influenced quadratically nitrogen digestibility index (Y = 66.0101 + 0.482425X - 0.0481086X²) and linearly the digestibility of dry matter (Y = 71.7775 - 0.615792X) and ether extract (Y = 78.3678 - 0.309136X). Morphometric measures of digestive organs were not influenced by viscera and bone meal levels. For Assay 2, negative and linear effect was observed for viscera and bone meal levels on weight gain (Y = 551.667 - 5.08341X) and feed intake (Y = 955.961 - 7.48435X). Quadratic effect was observed for ether extract digestibility (Y = 82.557 + 1.12021X - 0.150117X²) and maximum point was obtained at 3.7% viscera and bone meal inclusion for ether extract retention. Mortality was not affected by treatments in either of the assays. Viscera and bone meal can be used at 3 or 4% inclusion in broiler pre-starter and starter diets. <![CDATA[<b>Supply of whole or ground millet grain at two frequencies of supplementation for beef cattle</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Objetivou-se avaliar o processamento do grão de milheto inteiro ou triturado em suplementos fornecidos diariamente ou três vezes por semana para bovinos de corte em pastejo e seus efeitos sobre o desempenho produtivo e econômico e o comportamento ingestivo diurno durante o período da seca. Utilizaram-se 25 bovinos nelores não-castrados, com peso inicial de 350,92±31,7 kg, mantidos em cinco piquetes com área unitária de 1,45 ha formados por B. brizantha cv Marandu. Os animais foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 × 2 + 1, composto de duas formas físicas do grão de milheto (inteiro ou triturado), duas frequências de suplementação (diária ou três vezes por semana) e um tratamento controle (mistura mineral). A suplementação concentrada promoveu ganho de peso, enquanto a suplementação apenas com minerais acarretou perdas de peso de 0,16 kg/animal/dia. A moagem do grão de milheto proporcionou maiores ganhos (0,36 e 0,38 kg/animal/dia nos grupos com suplementação 3 e 7 vezes por semana, respectivamente), em comparação ao fornecimento de grão inteiro (0,22 e 0,24 kg/animal/dia, 3 e 7 vezes por semana, respectivamente), enquanto as frequências de suplementação estudadas não promoveram diferenças nestas variáveis. Foi encontrado efeito significativo da interação dia × tratamento para tempo gasto com consumo de suplemento, pastejo e hidratação. Para o tempo em ócio, foi encontrada diferença entre o grupo controle e os demais. Maior retorno econômico foi obtido quando se ofertou milheto triturado e em menor frequência de suplementação (R$ 22,70/animal). A utilização de suplementos múltiplos, assim como o processamento do grão de milheto, possibilita maiores ganhos de peso, independentemente da frequência de suplementação estudada, sendo que o fornecimento de suplemento 3 vezes por semana reduz os custos da suplementação.<hr/>The objective was to evaluate the processing of the grain of millet in supplements given daily or three times a week to grazing beef cattle on productive performance, economic and diurnal intake behavior during the drought period. Twenty-five non-castrated Nelore cattle with initial body weight of 350.92±31.7 kg were kept in five paddocks with unit area of 1.45 ha formed by B. brizantha cv. Marandu. The animals were distributed in a completely radomized design in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, as follows: two physical forms of the grain of millet (whole or ground), two frequencies of supplementation (daily or three times a week) and the control treatment (mineral mix). It was found that the concentrate supplementation promoted weight gains, while sole mineral supplementation resulted in weight loss of 0.16 kg/animal/day. Grinding the millet grain promoted higher gains (0.36 and 0.38 kg/animal/day for 3 and 7 times a week, respectively) when compared with the whole grain (0.22 and 0.24 kg/animal/day for 3 and 7 times a week, respectively), with no differences between the frequencies of supplementation. Significant effect of the day × treatment interaction was found for time in the trough, grazing and drinking water. For the resting time difference was found between the control treatment and the others. Greater economic return was achieved when ground millet was supplied at lower supplementation frequency (R$ 22,70/animal). The use of multiple supplements, as well as the processing of millet grain, enabled greater weight gain, regardless of the supplementation frequency studied. Providing supplement 3 times a week reduces the costs with supplementation. <![CDATA[<b>Influence of pre and postnatal energy restriction on the productive performance of ewes and lambs</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400017&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of feeding energy levels during the last third of gestation and lactation on performance of ewes and lambs up to weaning. The experiment was carried out in the sheep raising sector of Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), from August to December of 2007. Thirty-two adult lambs with 105 days of gestation, average live weight of 57.55 kg and average body condition scores of 3.42 were used in the beginning of the experiment. The animals were confined in collective pens, distributed randomly in three treatments: 2.4; 2.2 and 2.0 Mcal of metabolizable energy (ME)/kg of dry matter (DM). Feed supply was ad libitum during the last third of gestation and lactation. Weaning occurred at 70 days. Body weight, body condition score and milk production of ewes and body weight of the lambs were analyzed. There were no significant differences for body weight and body condition of ewes at lambing; however, the level of 2.4 Mcal enabled better results for those characteristics at weaning and higher gain in weight and body condition scoring during the experiment. Severe energetic restriction (2.0 Mcal ME/kg DM) determined lower average daily milk production. Lambs from levels 2.4 and 2.2 presented similar weights in all measurements and were superior to those in level 2.0. Lambs from level 2.4 presented higher average weight gain from birth to weaning. The energetic restriction upon lambs at the end of gestation and during lactation limits the performance of ewes and lambs up to weaning. <![CDATA[<b>Performance of lambs supplemented with fodder salt <i>Gliricidia sepium </i>(Jacq.)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this experiment was to evaluate productive performance of lambs fed different levels of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) in the making of gliricidia forage salt. A total of 30 180-day-old male crossbred Santa Inês lambs of 25 kg body weight were confined in 1 m² stalls, fed Tifton-85 (Cynadon spp.) hay, fodder salts and water ad libitum. The experimental design was randomized, composed of six repetitions of five treatments. The formulation of gliricidia forage salt was 0 (100% NaCl), 93, 95, 97 and 99% gliricidia hay with 7, 5, 3 and 1% NaCl, respectively. The experiment was conducted for 74 d, with 14 d for adaptation and 60 d for sampling. Gliricidia forage salt supplementation showed no effect (P&gt;0.05) on dry matter, organic matter or neutral detergent fiber intake, although it affected (P<0.05) crude protein and ether extract intake. The highest performance of animals was observed in gliricidia forage salt with 99% addition of gliricidia. <![CDATA[<b>Ruminal parameters of bovines fed diets based on sugar cane with doses of calcium hydroxide</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400019&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this study was to evaluate the administration of different doses of calcium hydroxide mixed with sugar cane fed to cows by the pH, ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acids concentration in ruminal content. Four cows with fistulated rumen were distributed in a Latin square (4 × 4) in split plot. The treatments involved adding doses of 0, 8, 16 and 24 g/kg of calcium hydroxide to sugar cane in natura. Samples of rumen fluid were collected and the pH and concentration of N-NH3 was determined before (time zero) and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 hours after the feeding time. The concentration of volatile fatty acids at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours was also determined. The calcium hydroxide contributed to maintain the pH of rumen fluid close to neutral. The average concentrations of N-NH3 in the ruminal fluid was 20.59, 20.49, 17.28 and 18.22 mg/100 mL for samples with calcium hydroxide at 0, 8, 16, 24 g/kg, respectively. There was an effect of the addition of calcium hydroxide on the volatile fatty acids concentration from before feeding until 12 hours after feeding time. There was an effect on doses tested for the concentration of volatile fatty acids. The calcium hydroxide added to the sugar cane influences on ruminal parameters. The dose of approximately 10 g of calcium hydroxide per kg sugar cane in natura is recommended. <![CDATA[<b>Characteristics of carcass and commercial meat cuts from Red Norte and Nellore young bulls finished in feedlot</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400020&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as características de carcaça e o peso dos cortes comerciais da carcaça de tourinhos Red Norte e Nelore terminados em confinamento. Utilizaram-se 44 animais, sendo 22 Red Norte com peso vivo médio inicial de 367±30 kg e 22 Nelore com peso vivo médio inicial de 361±30 kg. Os animais receberam ração à vontade com relação concentrado:volumoso de 50:50 durante 112 dias, sendo 28 dias de adaptação, e foram abatidos aos 519 e 482 kg para Red Norte e Nelore, respectivamente. A espessura de gordura subcutânea (EGS) e a área de olho-de-lombo (AOL) no músculo longissimus dorsi foram medidas entre a 12ªe 13ª costelas. Observou-se maior rendimento de carcaça nos animais Nelore (57,7 vs 54,7%). Entretanto, não houve diferença no peso de carcaça quente e fria entre os grupos. Os animais Red Norte apresentaram maior AOL, maiores pesos e rendimentos de traseiro e ponta-de-agulha, e menor peso e rendimento de dianteiro. O grupo genético Red Norte apresentou maior peso de picanha e contrafilé, enquanto o Nelore apresentou maior peso de paleta e coxão duro. Animais Nelore apresentam maior rendimento de carcaça em relação aos Red Norte, o que favorece o peso de carcaça quente, principal forma de remuneração paga aos produtores. Todavia, animais Red Norte apresentam maior rendimento de traseiro e maior peso dos cortes de maior valor comercial.<hr/>The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of carcass and weight of the commercial meat cuts from carcass of Red Norte and Nellore young bulls finished in feedlot. Forty four animals - 22 Red Norte with initial average weight of 367±30 kg and 22 Nellore at initial average weight of 361±30 kg - were used. The animals received feed ad libitum with concentrate:roughage ratio of 50:50 during 112 days, from which 28 days were for adaptation. Red Norte and Nellore animals were slaughtered at 519 and 482 kg, respectively. The subcutaneous fat thickness (FT) and longissimus muscle area (LMA) were measured between 12th and 13th ribs. Higher carcass yield of the Nellore breed was observed (57.7 vs 54.7%). However, there was no difference for weight of hot and cold carcass between the groups. Red Norte animals showed greater LMA, and hindquarter and spare ribs with higher weight and yield, and forequarter with lower weight and yielding. The Red Norte genetic group showed higher weight for cap and rump and striploin, while Nellore showed higher weight for shoulder and flatround. Nellore animals had better carcass yield, which contributes to hot carcass weight. Nevertheless, the group Red Norte have higher hindquarter yield and more weight from cuts of highest commercial value. <![CDATA[<b>Chemical composition and of fatty acids of the muscle <i>longissimus dorsi </i>and backfat of Red Norte and young Nellore bulls</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400021&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a composição química e o perfil de ácidos graxos do músculo longissimus dorsi e da gordura subcutânea de tourinhos Red Norte e Nelore terminados em confinamento. Utilizaram-se 44 animais, sendo 22 Red Norte com peso vivo inicial médio de 367±30 kg e 22 do grupo Nelore com peso vivo inicial médio de 361±30 kg. Os animais receberam ração à vontade durante 112 dias e foram abatidos com 519 e 482 kg, respectivamente. Amostras do músculo longissimus dorsi e da gordura subcutânea foram coletadas 24 horas após abate entre a 12ª e 13ª costelas para análise da composição centesimal e do perfil de ácidos graxos. As análises de ácidos graxos foram realizadas por meio de cromatografia gasosa, em coluna capilar de 100 m. Não houve diferença na composição química da carne entre os grupos genéticos. Nos animais Red Norte, foram maiores os teores dos ácidos graxos pentadecanoico, palmítico, palmitoleico, linoleico e ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA), enquanto nos animais Nelore foi encontrado o maior teor de ácido oleico. O músculo longissimus dorsi apresentou maiores teores dos ácidos láurico, heptadecenoico, esteárico, linoleico, α-linolênico e araquidônico. Em comparação ao músculo longissimus dorsi, na gordura subcutânea foram maiores os teores dos ácidos mirístico, miristoleico, pentadecanoico, palmítico, palmitoleico, oleico e CLA. Os animais Red Norte apresentaram maiores teores de ácidos graxos saturados em comparação aos Nelore. Em bovinos, o perfil de ácidos graxos depositados no músculo é diferente do observado na gordura subcutânea. O perfil de ácidos graxos da carne de tourinhos difere entre grupos genéticos.<hr/>The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and the fatty acid profile of the longissimus dorsi muscle and the backfat thickness of Red Norte and Nellore young bulls finished in feedlot. Fourty-four animals (22 Red Norte with initial average weight of 367±30 kg and 22 Nellore at initial average weight of 361±30 kg) were used. The animals were fed ad libitum during 112 days, slaughtered at 519 and 482 kg, respectively. Samples of the longissimus dorsi muscle and backfat thickness were collected 24 hours after slaughter between the 12th and 13th ribs for analysis of the chemical composition and the fatty acids profile. Fatty acid analyses were performed by gas chromatography with a 100-m capillary column. There was no difference for the chemical composition of the meat between the genetic groups. Red Norte animals showed higher contents of pentadecanoic, palmitic, palmitoleic, linoleic and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids, while Nellore animals had the highest content of oleic acid. The muscle longissimus dorsi showed greater concentrations of lauric, heptadecenoic, stearic, linoleic, α-linoleic and arachidonic acids. Comparing the fatty acid deposited in the longissimus dorsi muscle with backfat thickness, the latter showed higher contents of miristic, miristoleic, pentadecanoic, palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic and CLA acids. Red Norte animals showed higher contents of saturated fatty acid than Nellore. In bovine, the profile of fatty acids deposited in the muscle is different than the that in the backfat thickness. The fatty acids profile of the meat from young bulls differs between genetic groups. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of genotype on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of ewe lamb meat</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400022&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es O objetivo neste experimento foi avaliar os efeitos do genótipo sobre a composição química e o perfil de ácidos graxos no músculo longissimus dorsi de borregas. Foram utilizados 36 animais dos grupos genéticos: Santa Inês (SI), Ile de France (IF), Ile de France × Santa Inês (IF × SI), Dorper × Santa Inês (DO × SI), Texel × Santa Inês (TE × SI) e Suffolk × Santa Inês (SU × SI). Os animais foram distribuídos em blocos completos casualizados, definidos de acordo com o peso e a idade inicial. Não houve efeito do genótipo sobre os teores de umidade, cinzas e proteína no músculo. A carne das borregas dos genótipos Santa Inês e Suffolk × Santa Inês apresentou menor teor de gordura em comparação à das borregas Ile de France e Ile de France × Santa Inês. Os ácidos graxos identificados em maiores proporções no músculo foram o ácido oleico (C18:1cis), ácido palmítico (C16:0) e ácido esteárico (C18:0). No grupo genético Ile de France × Santa Inês, a relação entre os ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e saturados foi menor que nas borregas Santa Inês e Suffolk × Santa Inês. O genótipo Santa Inês e o cruzamento Suffolk × Santa Inês tem potencial para produção de carne de melhor valor nutricional, devido ao menor teor de gordura e à melhor relação entre ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e saturados.<hr/>The objective in this study was to investigate the effects of genotype (breed) on the chemical composition and the fatty acid profile in the longissimus dorsi muscle of feedlot ewe lambs. Thirty-six ewe lambs were assigned to a randomized complete block design with the following genotypes: Santa Inês (SI), Ile de France (IF), Ile de France × Santa Inês (IF × SI), Dorper × Santa Inês (DO × SI), Texel × Santa Inês (TE × SI) and Suffolk × Santa Inês (SU × SI). Blocks were defined by initial weight and age. Genotype did not affect moisture, ash or protein content of the longissimus dorsi. Meat from SI and SU × SI ewe lambs showed less fat compared with IF and IF × SI. Oleic (C18:1cis), palmitic (C16:0), and stearic (C18:0) were the fatty acids found in largest amounts in the intramuscular fat in this study. The genetic group IF × SI showed smaller ratio between polyunsatured fatty acid (PUFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) when compared with SI and SU × SI ewe lambs. Santa Inês and Suffolk × Santa Inês crossbred animals showed potential to produce meat with higher nutritional value due to lower fat content and better ratio between polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids. <![CDATA[<b>Yield, composition and sensory analysis of Minas cheese made with milk from crossbred cows fed different roughages</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400023&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a qualidade físico-química e sensorial e o perfil de ácidos graxos do queijo minas frescal produzido com o leite de vacas mestiças alimentadas com dietas contendo quatro volumosos: canade-açúcar, silagem de sorgo, silagem de girassol e pastagem de Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia. Foram avaliados o rendimento, a composição físico-química e o perfil de ácidos graxos. Também foi realizada a análise sensorial do queijo minas frescal e da composição físico-química do leite. Utilizaram-se oito vacas mestiças 1/2 Holandês/Gir, com período de lactação de 180 ± 12 dias, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos 4 × 4, com quatro animais, quatro dietas e quatro períodos. Os períodos foram de 18 dias, sendo 15 dias de adaptação e três dias de coletas de dados. Após o processamento do queijo, foi feita análise microbiológica, físico-química e posteriormente análise sensorial. Amostras do queijo foram congeladas e analisadas quanto ao perfil de ácidos graxos. O teor de gordura do queijo foi maior para as dietas com cana-de-açúcar e silagem de girassol em relação à silagem de sorgo e ao pasto de Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, que não diferiram entre si. O queijo produzido a partir do leite de vacas alimentadas com silagem de girassol apresentou melhor perfil de ácidos graxos e índices de qualidade nutricional, maior proporção e melhor perfil de ácidos graxos insaturados. O rendimento do queijo foi igual para todas as dietas, independentemente do volumoso utilizado em sua composição. O queijo produzido com o leite de vacas alimentadas com silagem de girassol tem maior preferência pelos julgadores no teste de análise sensorial, especialmente quanto ao atributo aparência.<hr/>The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical-chemical and sensory quality and fatty acid profile of Minas cheese produced from milk from crossbred cows fed diets with four roughages (sugar cane, sorghum silage, sunflower silage and pasture of Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania). Yield, physical-chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory analysis of Minas cheese, as well as the physical-chemical composition of milk were analyzed. For the experiment, eight 1/2 Holstein/Gir crossbred cows, with lactation period of 180 ± 12 days were distributed in two 4 × 4 latin squares (four animals, four diets and four periods). The experimental periods had a duration of 18 days: 15 days of adaptation and three days of data collection. After cheese processing microbiological, physical-chemical and sensory analysis were done. Cheese samples were frozen and analyzed for fatty acid profile. The fat content of cheese was higher for diets with sugar cane and sunflower silage compared with sorghum silage and pasture of Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. Cheese produced from milk from cows fed sunflower silage had superior fatty acid composition and nutritional quality indexes, and better profile and higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. Cheese yield did not differ between diets containing different roughages. Cheese produced from milk from cows fed a diet with sunflower silage presents higher preference at the sensory analysis test, especially regarding the attribute appearance. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of the ovulatory follicle diameter and progesterone concentration on the pregnancy rate of fixed-time inseminated lactating beef cows</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400024&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the ovulatory follicle diameter on the reproductive performance of lactating beef cows subjected to low progesterone fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols. Ninety-three lactating beef cows (60-80 days postpartum) at random stages of estrous cycle were given a luteolytic dose of prostaglandin F2α (500 μg cloprostenol; PGF) twice, 11 d apart. Ten days after the second PGF treatment, cows were given 1.5 mg of estradiol benzoate im and a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (Cue-Mate) with a single pod containing 0.78 g progesterone (Day 0). Cows received another luteolytic dose of PGF on Day 0. On Day 8, the Cue-Mate was removed. Fifty-four to 56 hours later, cows received 12.5 mg of porcine LH (pLH) i.m. and were concurrently artificially inseminated. Ultrasound examinations of the ovaries were performed on Days 10 and 17 to evaluate the diameter of ovulatory follicle and corpus luteum, respectively. Cows which presented ovulatory follicle &gt; 19 mm resulted in larger corpus luteum than cows that had ovulatory follicle <15 mm in diameter. However, cows with ovulatory follicle between 13-15 mm had higher pregnancy rate than other categories of ovulatory follicle. Although larger ovulatory follicles result in larger corpus luteum and consequently higher progesterone production, the optimal size of ovulatory follicles (13-15 mm) may result in positive benefits on pregnancy rate for cows subjected to FTAI with low progesterone concentration protocols. <![CDATA[<b>Reactivity, performance, color and tenderness of meat from Zebu cattle finished in feedlot</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400025&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this study was to study the animal reactivity and correlate it with performance and meat quality of cattle finished in feedlots. A total of 20 animals of the Tabapuã breed and 20 animals of the Nellore breed were confined for 112 days: 28 days of adaptation and 84 days of data collection. Performance was determined by the average daily weight gain (ADG) and average dry matter intake (DMI) estimated through the use of indicators. On the 1st, 42nd and 84th days of the experiment, two methods were used to measure the animal reactivity: animal reactivity in mobile cage and visual reactivity during handling. The characteristics of meat quality were evaluated by the color, shear force and pH24 after slaughter (pH24). Through the study of correlation, the degree and direction of linear association on animal reactivity, performance and meat quality were established. Regression equations were generated for the parameters evaluated according to the values of animal reactivity. Correlations between mobile cage and visual reactivity were 0.77, 0.56 and 0.45 in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd evaluations, respectively. There was no correlation between animal reactivity and DMI. The correlations between ADG, pH24, and color with animal reactivity were -0.31, 0.40, 0.47 and -0.34, and -0.33 for mobile cage, 0.74, 0.71 and -0.51, for visual reactivity, respectively. The parameters of meat quality varied according to the reactivity. Undesirable values of pH24, animal reactivity and color were found when mobile cage reactivity was higher than 780, 590 and 540, respectively. In general, animals that show greater reactivity tend to have lower daily weight gain and lower meat quality. The reactivity can be used in animal breeding programs, in order to improve performance and meat quality of Zebu cattle finished in feedlot. <![CDATA[<b>Performance and nutritional evaluation of beef cattle raised on pasture, castrated at different ages, with and without supplementation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400026&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and nutritional traits of beef cattle raised on pastures, castrated at different ages, with and without supplementation. Forty-four crossbred young bulls with predominance of Zebu breed at initial average age of 120±30 days were used in the experiment. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement with four ages of castration and two supplementation systems. The animals were distributed into four groups and placed on Brachiaria decumbens Stapf pastures, where they were fed concentrate supplementation or mineral salt ad libtum (control). Animals were castrated at 120, 240 and 360 days of age with average body weight of 115, 175 and 276 kg, castrated or not, in each supplementation group. Concentrate supplement composition and the amount supplied to the animals varied according to the time of the year and development phase of the animals. Trials were carried out to evaluate nutritional variables in each of the following phases: suckling, growth in the dry season and growth in the dry/rainy transition season. Concentrate supplementation improved the use of pasture, although it may have caused substitutive effect in all seasons evaluated. Castration of the animals before the dry season impaired animal development until the following dry/rainy transition season, especially when carried out during weaning. Concentrate supply may reduce some effects of this stress. <![CDATA[<b>Intake, digestibility and nitrogen use efficiency in crossbred F1 Holstein × Zebu grazing cows</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400027&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this study was to evaluate intake, digestibility and nitrogen (N) compounds use efficiency in F1 Holstein × Zebu grazing cows. Eighteen crossbred cows (six Holstein × Gir, six Holstein × Guzerat, and six Holstein × Nellore) were used in the experiment, constituting three experimental treatments in simple random samples, under the same feeding conditions. At the estimation of individual intake at grazing, titanium dioxide was used for estimating fecal excretion and indigestible neutral detergent fiber, in order to determine pasture intake. There was effect of the lactation period on nutrient intake, except for the intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) in % of body weight (BW), as well as those of non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC), in kg. The digestibility coefficients of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap) and the contents of TDN varied in function of the lactation period, whereas the coefficients of digestibility of DM, ether extract (EE) and OM did not present such effect. The total milk production projected at 305 days of lactation for Holstein × Gir cows was superior in relation to Holstein × Guzerat and Holstein × Nellore cows. The excretion of urea into urine and of urea N into the milk and the plasma presented quadratic behavior in function of the lactation period. The utilization of the genetic group from Holstein × Zebu grazing cows does not cause alterations in intake, nutrient digestibility or nitrogen use efficiency; however, there is variation in function of the lactation period. Holstein × Gir cows presented greater accumulated production during lactation and persistence, followed by Holstein × Guzerat and Holstein × Nellore cows. <![CDATA[<b>Relation between maternal behavior score with physiological characteristics of ewes</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400028&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Neste estudo objetivou-se avaliar a relação do escore de comportamento materno de ovelhas com os parâmetros fisiológicos relacionados ao seu temperamento. Durante a parição, foram avaliadas 258 ovelhas Corriedale e 50 ovelhas Ideal criadas em campo natural em três fazendas na região sudoeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Foram analisados os efeitos propriedade, idade, tipo de parto, escore de comportamento materno e escore de condição corporal antes do parto e ao desmame em relação às frequências cardíaca e respiratória e temperatura corporal dos animais ao desmame. Nas primeiras 24 horas de vida do cordeiro, o escore de comportamento materno foi atribuído à distância de fuga da ovelha em relação ao seu cordeiro: 1) &gt;10 m e não retorna ao cordeiro; 2) &gt;10 m do cordeiro e retorna; 3) 5 a 10 m; 4) entre 1 e <5 m; 5) <1 m; 6) mantém contato físico. Ovelhas com escore de comportamento materno <3 apresentaram maior frequência cardíaca, mas valores semelhantes de frequência respiratória e temperatura corporal se comparadas àquelas com escore de comportamento materno &gt;3. Ovelhas criadas em Bagé apresentaram os maiores valores de frequência cardíaca e respiratória. Ovelhas com escore de condição corporal antes do parto <2,0 apresentaram menores valores de frequência cardíaca e respiratória e temperatura corporal, enquanto ovelhas com escore de condição corporal ao desmame <2,0 tiveram maiores valores de frequência cardíaca e respiratória e menor temperatura corporal. A pouca associação entre os parâmetros fisiológicos medidos no desmane e o escore de comportamento materno não permite recomendar seu uso para estimar a reatividade pósparto e a habilidade materna das ovelhas.<hr/>The objective of this study to assess the relationship between ewe maternal behavior score and physiological parameters related to their temperament. During lambing, 258 Corriedale and 50 Polwarth ewes were evaluated. They were raised on native pasture in the southwest region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The effects of farm, age, type of lambing, maternal behavior scores and body condition score before lambing and during the weaning were evaluated in relation to heart rate, respiratory rate and body temperature of animals at weaning. In the first 24 hours after lambing, the maternal behavior score was assigned to the ewe as the distance from its lamb: 1) &gt;10 meters and does not return to the lamb; 2) &gt;10 meters from the lamb, but returns; 3) five to 10 meters; 4) between one and five meters; 5) less than one meter; 6) maintains physical contact. Ewes with maternal behavior score of <3 had a higher heart rate, but similar respiratory rates and body temperatures, compared with those with maternal behavior score &gt;3. Sheep raised on the farm in Bagé municipality had higher heart and respiratory rates. Ewes with a body condition score before lambing of <2.0 had lower levels of heart and respiratory rates and body temperatures. On the other hand, ewes with body condition score at weaning of <2.0 had the highest values of heart and respiratory rates, and the lowest body temperatures. The lack of association between the physiological parameters measured at weaning and maternal behavior does not allow for the recommendation of its use to estimate postpartum reactivity and maternal ability of ewes. <![CDATA[<b>Broiler meat characteristics relevant to the consumer</b>: <b>focus on animal welfare</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400029&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Objetivou-se neste trabalho estudar o comportamento dos consumidores de carne de frango em relação ao bem-estar animal e à disposição em pagar mais por produtos com certificação para esse atributo de qualidade. Para isso foi realizada uma pesquisa de mercado com consumidores de carne de frango da cidade de Curitiba, Paraná. Uma análise prévia foi realizada com peritos da cadeia avícola para estruturação do questionário. Após esta fase, 481 consumidores foram entrevistados. Perguntas objetivas resultaram em informações gerais e imagens de produtos hipotéticos geraram informações sobre a atitude de compra utilizando análise conjunta e posterior simulação de mercado. Os atributos mais observados na hora da compra foram validade, preço, cor e odor. O bem-estar animal inicialmente foi considerado pela minoria (3,7%). Dos entrevistados, 68,5% não conhecem o sistema de produção, porém, depois de observar fotos dos sistemas, acreditam que o modelo semiintensivo proporciona melhor bem-estar e resulte em produtos de melhor qualidade. Na análise conjunta, preço baixo, produção com melhores condições de bem-estar animal, carne firme e rosada e produção sem antibióticos são, respectivamente, as características com maiores valores de utilidade. O atributo de maior importância foi o preço (34,1%), seguido do tipo de carne (24,6%), bem-estar animal (24,1%) e utilização de antibióticos (17,0%). Na simulação de mercado, 70,9% dos consumidores pagariam mais por produtos que com certificação de bem-estar animal e carne firme e rosada. A baixa importância inicial do bem-estar animal para o consumidor pode estar relacionada à falta de conhecimento acerca dos sistemas produtivos, portanto o acesso a informações a respeito pode incentivar o pagamento por esse atributo.<hr/>The objective of this experiment was to study the behavior of chicken consumer, with emphasis on animal welfare and on the willingness to pay a higher value for products with certification for this attribute of quality. Thus, a market research was conducted with consumers of broiler meat in the city of Curitiba, Paraná. A primary analysis was done with experts of the avian chain. After this, 481 consumers were interviewed. Straight questions generated general information and images of the hypothetical products generated information about buying attitudes, using conjoint analysis. The most expressed attributes during the act of buying were shelf-life date, price, color and odor. Animal welfare was considered by a minority of 3.7%. Of the interviewed, 68.5% did not know the production system, but after having observed photos of the systems, they believed that the semi-intensive system provided higher animal welfare and originated a better product. It was possible to observe that low price, production with better conditions of animal welfare, firm pink meat, and production without antibiotics, respectively, present the highest utility values. The attribute of greater importance was price (34.1%), followed by the type of meat (24.6%), animal welfare (24.1%), and the usage of antibiotics (17.0%). The consumers said they would pay more for products that had attributes of animal welfare and firm pink meat. The low initial importance of animal welfare might be related to lack of knowledge of production systems by consumers, and that the improvement in information increases the disposition to pay more for this attribute. <![CDATA[<b>Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Aberdeen Angus steers finished on different pastures</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400030&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The present study was conducted to assess carcass features, physicochemical and sensory parameters of meat from steers finished on three types of pastures: natural pasture; natural pasture improved, fertilized and oversown with winter species; and annual summer grassland. The experiment was conducted from December 14, 2009 to November 30, 2010, with treatments distributed in a completely randomized design with a different number of replicates. Animals were used as experimental units. Experimental animals were Aberdeen Angus steers with twenty months of initial age and 354±27.4 kg of live weight, on average. The highest average daily gains were obtained for the annual summer grassland. There was no effect of treatments on carcass conformation. The highest carcass yield was obtained on the improved natural pasture. Forequarter yield, side cut yield and longissimus muscle area were similar between the pastures. Moisture and total lipids were not affected by the pasture. Thawing and cooking losses were higher in improved natural pasture and lower in sorghum pasture. Regardless of the treatment, the meat had luminosity ranging from intermediate to dark, high in red, high in yellow, and considered within the normal range for beef. Meat of higher shear force was found in natural pasture, and lower shear force was observed in meat from annual summer grassland. Average live weight daily gain explained 18% of the shear force. Sensory evaluation by duo-trio test showed differences between samples from distinct pastures in flavor. All the studied systems allow for desirable characteristics in carcass and meat. <![CDATA[<b>Insulin addition to swine semen diluted and cooled at 15 ºC</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400031&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding different doses of insulin to swine semen processed and stored at 15 ºC. The experiment used sixteen ejaculates from four commercial breeding pigs, distributed in a randomized block design (ejaculate) with split plot along time (0, 24, 48 and 72 hours of storage) with four treatments (insulin levels - 0.0 4.0 8.0 and 12.0 IU per dose) and 16 repetitions. The experimental unit was made of two insemination doses of 100 mL each, with 3×10(9) spermatozoids. Insulin used was NPH-human, added at the time of processing the doses. The addition of insulin did not affect motility, sperm viability, the percentage of abnormal cells, the osmotic resistance or the degradation rate of motility in 120 minutes. There was a linear decrease in semen quality over storage time, regardless of insulin levels. The addition of insulin at the mentioned concentrations does not influence the quality of insemination dose in pigs. <![CDATA[<b>Nutritive value of diets containing pods of faveira (<i>Parkia platycephala </i>Benth.) for confined finishing sheep</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400032&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Performance and apparent digestibility were evaluated in sheep fed diets containing different amounts of faveira (Parkia platycephala) pods in replace to corn. Twenty crossbred Santa Inês lambs of approximately four months of age and average 21 kg were kept in individual stalls in randomized blocks and distributed according to weight. The following characteristics were evaluated: average daily gain, feed conversion and voluntary intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), total carbohydrates (TCH), non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC); and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, TCH, NFC and total digestible nutrients (TDN). P. platycephala pods inclusion in the diets promoted no significant difference in the intakes of dry matter, organic matter, total carbohydrate and total digestible nutrients and also sheep performance. There was no treatment effect in the digestibility of organic matter, crude protein, fatty acids, neutral detergent fiber or total digestible nutrients. There was no effect of treatment for organic matter digestibility, crude protein, fatty acids, neutral detergent fiber or total digestible nutrients. The inclusion of up to 75% of faveira pods in substitution to corn grains in diets for finishing animals does not influence weight gain or feed conversion, although the replacement of more than 50% compromises the digestibility of dry matter. <![CDATA[<b>Potential of wet blue leather waste for ruminant feeding </b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400033&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this study was to find an alternative to minimize environmental contamination by leather waste using it as ruminant feed. The wet blue leather wastes (WB) without chrome extraction were compared with the leather wastes in which the chrome was extracted (CE). Both materials had 99.7% of dry matter (DM), but the crude protein level was higher (90.4%) in CE than in WB (74.3%). In situ effective ruminal degradability of DM was 59.7% and it was 63.1% for CP in CE. The WB did not suffer degradation in the rumen. In vitro abomasal digestibility of CE was 100%. The percentage of degradation per hour was higher for CE (8.2%) than for WB (0.08%). The mineral content was higher in wet blue leather wastes (10.4%) than in CE (0.4%) reflecting the chrome level and demonstrating that the removal process of this mineral is efficient. The use in animal feed is presented as a viable alternative for the disposal of waste and scrap generated by the leather tanning industry and treated by the extraction method, thus minimizing environmental contamination and providing a source of protein for animal feed.