Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1516-359820120007&lang=en vol. 41 num. 7 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[<b>Stress in pacu exposed to ammonia in water</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The present study evaluated stress indicators in pacu exposed to ammonia in water under the following conditions: without NH4Cl (0.00 g/L); with 0.0078 g NH4Cl/L; and with 0.078 g NH4Cl/L (pH 8.3 and 27 ºC). After the salt dilution the water flow was interrupted and reestablished in 24 hours. Sampling occurred prior to the addition of NH4Cl (control) and after 12, 24 and 48 hours. Glycaemia increased only in fish with the highest salt concentration when compared with group control, regardless of time, and at 24 hours, regardless of treatment. Plasma ammonia, highest in fish exposed to the highest NH4Cl concentration, decreased progressively up to 48 hours. Plasma chloride only decreased in fish not exposed to salt when compared with control and osmolality increased after 24 hours. Hematocrit (Ht), number and volume of erythrocytes and hemoglobin did not change when NH4Cl was added; Ht decrease was reported after 12 hours, but it was not followed by the other blood parameters. The results show tolerance of the pacu to ammonia in the environment. <![CDATA[<b>Polyculture of Nile tilapia and shrimp at different stocking densities</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study aimed to evaluate the productivity, growth performance and economic feasibility of polyculture of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei at different stocking densities. Feed was provided based on fish requirements. The experiment was conducted at the Aquaculture facility of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido - UFERSA, in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates each. Treatments consisted of a tilapia monoculture with 2 tilapias.m-2; and polyculture with 2 tilapias.m-2 and L. vannamei at four different densities (3, 6, 9 and 12 shrimps.m-2). The initial individual biomass for fish and shrimp were 1.23±0.12 g and 0.133±0.009 g, respectively. Water quality parameters, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and transparency were monitored. The experiment lasted 120 days and biomass gain was evaluated every two weeks. Final biomass, survival and feed conversion rates were calculated at the end of the experiment. The economic analysis showed that polyculture systems at stocking densities of nine and twelve shrimps.m-2 resulted in higher gross revenue and operational profits of 120.9% and 97.5% respectively, with mean gross return significantly higher than the monoculture. The O. niloticus and L. vannamei polyculture in oligohaline water was shown to be technically and economically feasible. These two species can be cultured together, without competing for the same resources, because they have different trophic niche, thus increasing productivity and economic returns for the farmers. <![CDATA[<b>Feeding rate for pacu reared in net cages</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding management of pacu juveniles (P. mesopotamicus) under different feeding rates and its relation with productive performance, body composition and hematological characteristics. A total of 300 fish with initial weight of 84.75±4.52 g were distributed in a completely randomized design composed of four treatments (100, 90, 80 and 70% of feed supply) and five repetitions. The amount of feed was stipulated according to the quantity supplied in the treatment until apparent satiation (100%) of the day before. The decrease in the feeding rate to 70% over satiation apparently improves the apparent feed conversion without harming performance, body composition or biochemical and hematological characteristics of pacu juveniles reared in net cages. <![CDATA[<b>Interrelationships between morphometric variables and rounded fish body yields evaluated by path analysis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to verify which morphometric measures and ratios are more directly associated with the weight and body yields of rounded fish. A total of 225 specimens of rounded fish (59 pacus, 61 tambaquis, 52 tambacus and 53 paquis) with average weight of 972.43 g (±115.52 g) were sampled, stunned, slaughtered, weighed, measured, and processed for morphometric and processing yield analysis. The morphometric measures taken were: standard length (CP); head length (CC); head height (AC); body height (A1); and body width (L1). For completeness, the following morphometric ratios were calculated: CC/CP, AC/CP, A1/CP, L1/CP, CC/A1, AC/A1, L1/A1, CC/AC and L1/CC. The yields of carcass, filet, rib and filet with rib were estimated after processing. Initially, a "stepwise" procedure was performed in order to eliminate multicollinearity problems among the morphometric variables, and the phenotypic correlations were then calculated for the dependent variables (weight and body yields) and independent variables (morphometric measurements and ratios). These correlations were later deployed in direct and indirect effects through path analysis, and the direct and indirect contributions of each variable were measured in percentage terms. The CC and A1 measures were important for determining the weight of rounded fish. The CC/A1 ratio was the variable most directly associated with carcass yield. For filet, filet with rib and rib yields, the L1/CC ratio was found to be more appropriate and can be used directly. <![CDATA[<b>Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass tillers at different ages under intermittent stocking</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this research was to assess morphogenetic and structural characteristics of tillers of guinea grass cv. Tanzania at different ages. The pastures of guinea grass were managed in six pasture conditions related to the combination of three frequencies (90, 95, and 99% light interception) and two post-grazing heights (25 and 50 cm). In these six pastures conditions, three tiller ages were evaluated (young, mature, and old). The design was of completely randomized block with three replications. Young tillers exhibited higher leaf appearance rate and leaf elongation rate and, consequently, higher final leaf length and number of live leaves than mature and old tillers, regardless of the pasture condition. On pastures managed with 90 or 95% light interception associated with a post-grazing height of 25 cm, old tillers presented longer leaf lifespan than young and mature ones. There is a progressive reduction in the vigor of growth of pastures of guinea grass cv. Tanzania with advancing tiller age. <![CDATA[<b>Forage yield and nitrogen nutrition dynamics of warm-season native forage genotypes under two shading levels and in full sunlight</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The successful achievement of a highly productive understorey pasture in silvopastoral systems depends on the use of well-adapted forage genotypes, showing good agronomic performance and persistence under shading and grazing. In this study, the herbage dry matter yield (DMY) and nitrogen nutrition dynamics were determined in three native warm-season grasses (Paspalum regnellii, Paspalum dilatatum and Paspalum notatum) and a forage legume (Arachis pintoi) under two shading levels compared with full sun. The experiment was conducted in the Campanha region, Bagé, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during two evaluation cycles (2008/2009 and 2009/2010). Three shade cloth levels (0%, 50% and 80% of light restriction) were applied to the forage genotypes in a split plot design, in which shading levels were the main plot and forage genotypes were the subplots, with three replications. P. regnellii showed the highest accumulated DMY (1500 and 1700 g m-2, respectively, for the first and second evaluation cycles) at all shading levels and showed no DMY decreased under the heavy shade (80%). Average DMY over the four genotypes under the 50% shade level was higher or equal compared with full sun. Influence of rainfall was observed on the DMY performance of all genotypes: the positive effect of moderate shading (50%) on P. dilatatum and P. notatum DMY was associated to a low soil water availability status. Increased shading level resulted in high nitrogen nutrition index values on grasses, in comparison with full sun. All genotypes performed well under the moderate shading level, but the DMY of both P. regnellii and P. dilatatum and the herbage N content in P. notatum and A. pintoi of all genotypes stood out, showing that those main genotypes are promising to grow in silvopastoral systems at the Campanha region in southern Brazil. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of boron and zinc fertilization on white oats grown in soil with average content of these nutrients</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fertilization with zinc or boron on the growth and dry matter production, nutritional value and accumulation of nutrients in white oats. The study comprised two experiments conducted in glasshouses, the first consisting of the application of four doses of zinc (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/dm³) in the form of zinc sulphate (20% Zn), and the second consisting of the application of four doses of boron (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/dm³) in the form of Borax (11% B). The experimental design in each case was a randomized block design, with five replicates. Fertilization with zinc and boron increased the growth of white oats, but had no significant effect on the nutritional value of the forage. Higher levels of absorption and accumulation of nutrients in plant tissues were observed following the application of boron and zinc at rates of up to 0.60 mg/dm³ of soil. <![CDATA[<b>Genetic divergence between genotypes of forage peanut in relation to agronomic and chemical traits</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic divergence of forage peanut in relation to agronomic and chemical traits in both rainy and dry seasons. This experiment was conducted with genotypes from the Forage Peanut Active Germoplasm Bank located in Embrapa Acre. Eighteen genotypes of forage peanut were used: 12 genotypes of A. pintoi, four genotypes of the A. repens species and two interspecific hybrids of A. pintoi × A. repens. The design was of randomized blocks with five replicates. All traits were submitted to analyses of variance and later, study of genetic divergence was done through multivariate analysis techniques, in which the Tocher's optimization method and the nearest neighbor method were used. Dissimilarity measure used in cluster analysis was the generalized distance of Mahalanobis. No pattern was found in the cluster based on species used, according to the results. There is genetic variability for all traits except neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose and lignin in the rainy season and for pests in the dry season. The traits which presented most relative contribution in the study of genetic divergence of forage peanut were flowering, dry matter yield and average height in the rainy season and crude protein and average height in the dry season. The established cluster may help the breeder to choose parents and crossings to be selected in forage peanut breeding programs. <![CDATA[<b>Characterization of tillers in deferred Piata palisade grass with different initial heights and nitrogen levels</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This experiment was conducted to estimate the effects of nitrogen fertilization associated with the initial height of the Piata palisade grass on the number and structural characteristics of individual tillers after the deferment period. An area with Brachiaria brizantha cv. Piata measuring approximately 288 m² was used. Combinations of levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 75 and 150 kg/ha of nitrogen) and initial heights of the sward (low - 20 cm, medium - 30 cm and high - 40 cm) were evaluated. The experimental design was of completely randomized blocks in subdivided plots with three replications. The number of vegetative tillers, the stem length of the vegetative, reproductive and dead tillers, and the number of dead leaves of the reproductive and the dead tillers linearly increased with the elevation in the nitrogen level. The deferred Piata palisade grass with low initial height showed lower number of dead basal tillers, shorter length of stems and leaf blades in reproductive tillers and lower number of live and dead leaves in vegetative tillers in relation to the one managed with height considered medium and high. Nitrogen fertilization, in association with low initial height, provides the optimization of forage of Piata palisade grass in deferment conditions. <![CDATA[<b>Forage mass and structure of piatã grass deferred at different heights and variable periods</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to determine the deferment period and the most adequate initial sward height of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Piatã for deferment in the region of Viçosa, Minas Gerais. For so, the following characteristics were evaluated: masses and bulk density of forage and its morphological components, light interception by the sward, leaf area index, leaf angle, sward and extended tiller height and falling index of the deferred piatã grass. The three deferment periods assessed (65, 85 and 105 days) were randomized to the plots and the three sward heights (20, 30 and 40 cm), randomized in the subplots. The experimental design was of completely randomized blocks, with three replicates, in a subdivided plots arrangement. Masses of forage, green stem and dead tissue were higher in the piatã grass managed with deferment period of 105 days. The mass of green leaf blade was higher in the piatã grass deferred with 20 cm height associated to the deferment period of 85 days, which had, as consequence, greater bulk density of green leaf blade. The interception of light by the sward was greater in the piatã grass kept longer in deferment associated with the higher leaf area index, regardless of its initial height. The heights of the sward and extended tillers were greater in the piatã grass under periods of 85 and 105 days of deferment; however, the falling index was not affected by the factors studied. In the region of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, B. brizantha cv. Piatã fertilized with 75 kg/ha nitrogen and deferred with initial height of 20 cm and for a period of 85 days, from mid April, has adequate productivity and structure for animal production. <![CDATA[<b>Post-weaning weight gain and pregnancy rate of beef heifers bred at 18 months of age</b>: <b>a meta-analysis approach</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to evaluate, using meta-analysis, the main factors related to post-weaning body weight and weight gain that affect pregnancy rate of heifers bred at 18 months of age. Data of 1398 beef heifers from six experiments were analyzed as a set. Information related to methodology and results of each experiment were codified in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. The independent variables analyzed were: body weight at seven months of age (BW7M), daily weight gain from seven to 12 months (DWG7-12), body weight at 12 months of age (BW12M), daily weight gain from 12 to 15 months (DWG12-15), body weight at 15 months of age (BW15M), daily weight gain from 15 to 18 months (DWG15-18), daily weight gain from 7 to 18 months (DWG7-18) and body weight at 18 months of age (BW18M). The response variable was pregnancy rate (PR). Body weight at 18 months of age and DWG7-18 showed high correlation with PR and between each other. The other variables presented low correlation with PR. Body weight at first breeding and daily weight gain from seven to 18 months are the most important variables affecting the pregnancy rate of heifers bred at 18 months of age in the autumn. Weaning weight and weight gain during intermediate steps of the post-weaning period are not good predictors of pregnancy rate. Higher pregnancy rates can be obtained provided enough post-weaning weight gain and minimum body weight at first breeding are achieved, irrespective of when weight is gained. <![CDATA[<b>Plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations and follicular dynamics in ewes fed proteins of different degradability</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The effects of overfeeding with protein of different degradability on body condition, plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations, ovulation number and follicular dynamics were assessed in Santa Ines ewes. Twelve ewes were assigned to a randomized block design according to body weight and received overfeeding with soybean meal or with corn gluten meal or maintenance diet for 28 days before ovulation and during the next estrous cycle. Blood samples were taken on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the beginning of treatments for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and on days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 into the estrous cycle for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone. Follicular dynamics was monitored daily by ultrasound during one estrous cycle. Dry matter and crude protein intake, weight gain, plasma urea nitrogen concentration before ovulation, number of ovulations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 1st and of the 2nd waves and the growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave were higher in the ewes that received overfeeding. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave was higher in the ewes fed maintenance diet. The back fat thickness, plasma urea nitrogen before ovulation and progesterone concentrations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 2nd wave and growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave were higher in ewes that received overfeeding with soybean meal. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave was higher in ewes that received overfeeding with corn gluten meal. Overfeeding with protein-rich feeds may increase the ovulation number and with soybean meal, it may be effective in increasing plasma progesterone concentration in ewes. <![CDATA[<b>Causes of rejection of beef bulls in breeding soundness evaluation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to analyze the rates of rejection in the different steps of the breeding soundness evaluation of beef bulls in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The breeding soundness of 22,113 young and mature bulls of 14 beef breeds, participating in the Program of Reproductive Evaluation (PARTO) was evaluated in the experiment. Data concerning to the causes of rejection in the four steps of the breeding soundness evaluation (general physical examination, genital tract examination, semen evaluation and sexual behavior assessment) were analyzed by the Chi-square test and univariate regression analysis. According to year, general physical examination, genital tract examination and semen evaluation determined the rejection of 0.9% to 2.5%, 5.1% to 7.7%, 1.8% to 5.3%; and 4.2% to 6.7%, 7.3 to 9.3%, and 2.5% to 5.5% of young and mature bulls, respectively. Mature bulls presented higher chances of rejection than young bulls in the general physical examination in every year evaluated; as to the genital tract examination, their chances of rejection were higher in years I and II, but not in year III. In the semen evaluation, there was no difference between the ages assessed in any of the three years evaluated. Sexual behavior assessment accounted for the rejection of 1.9 to 6.0% of the young bulls and 2.9% to 3.9% of mature bulls, in accordance with the years evaluated; in years I and II, mature bulls presented higher rejection rates than young bulls. These results confirm the importance of performing all steps of the breeding soundness evaluation, including the sexual behavior assessment as a work routine, rather than an additional, optional stage of the evaluation, which should be carried out before the breeding season. The results indicate the relationship between bull age and rejection rate in the breeding soundness evaluation. <![CDATA[<b>Crude glycerine in diets for piglets</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Two experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value and to evaluate performance of piglets fed two types of crude glycerine (CG), which were made from vegetable oil (CGS) and a mix of animal fat + % soybean oil (CGA). In experiment I, a digestibility assay was conducted using 32 crossbred piglets (19.20±1.52 kg). The experimental unit consisted of one pig, with a total of four experimental units per diet. The glycerine levels used in the digestibility assay were 4, 8, and 12% of the basal diet (corn + soybean based). The digestible (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) values of glycerine were estimated by regression of DE and ME intake (kcal/kg) vs. glycerine intake (kg). The values (as-fed basis) of DE and ME (kcal/kg) obtained were: CGS = 5,070 and 4,556; CGA = 5,143 and 4,488, respectively. The results indicate that these two types of glycerine are a highly-available energy source for the feeding of piglets (15-30 kg). In experiment II, 90 piglets (BW = 15.18±0.67 to 30.28±1.68 kg), were allotted in a completely randomized design in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement, with of two types of crude glycerine (CGS and CGA) and four inclusion levels (3, 6, 9, and 12%). Five experimental units (pens with two pigs) were used for each level of crude glycerine, resulting in five replicates per treatment in the diet. Additionally, a control diet containing no glycerine (0%) was formulated. There was no interaction between levels of CG and types of crude glycerine, and the regression analysis indicates no effects of crude glycerine inclusion on performance and plasma variables. The results suggest that it is feasible to use up to 12% of both tyes of crude glycerine (obtained from soybean oil and mixed) in the diet for piglets without impairing performance, in addition to promoting a reduction of about 11% in the cost with feeding. <![CDATA[<b>Apparent digestibility of simplified and semi-simplified diets, with and without addition of enzymes, and nutritional value of fibrous sources for rabbits</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objectives of this study were to evaluate the digestibility of the nutrients of simplified and semi-simplified diets, with and without inclusion of exogenous enzymes and to determine the nutritional value of the fibrous sources. The tested feedstuffs were: alfalfa hay, hay from the upper third of the cassava foliage and cassava leaf meal, using a completely randomized design with 11 diets and 8 repetitions. The treatments were constituted of 1 reference diet, 2 simplified diets and 8 semi-simplified diets (4 enzymatic inclusion). The enzymes used were carbohydrases (alpha-galactosidase, galactomanose, xylanase and beta glucanase) and phytase. It was observed that the digestibility of the nutrients of the diets was influenced by the type of feed studied. Semi-simplified diets presented coefficients inferior to the reference diet and superior to the simplified diets. Exogenous enzymes promoted improvements in the digestibility of the dry matter (DM), organic matter, crude protein and gross energy. It was also observed that great part of the crude protein of the cassava leaf meal complexed, which depreciated the digestibility of diets with high inclusion of this ingredient. The nutritional value of fibrous sources was 1822.7 kcal digestible energy - DE/kgDM and 122,6 g digestible protein - DP/kg DM, for the hay from the upper third of the cassava foliage; 2232.5 kcalDE/kgDM and 155.4 gDP/kgDM for alfalfa hay and 1888.9 kcalDE/kgDM and 73.6 gDP/kgDM for the cassava leaf meal. With the exception of diets with elevated inclusion of cassava leaf meal, the semi-simplified diets presented satisfactory coefficients of digestibility improved by the enzymatic inclusion. <![CDATA[<b>Electrolyte balance in diets with reduced protein for semi-weighted laying hens in the second production cycle</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective was to evaluate the effect of electrolyte balance in diets with reduced protein for semi-weighted Bovans Goldline laying hens in the second production cycle. The design was completely randomized with five treatments and seven replicates of six birds per experimental unit. Treatment 1 consisted of a control diet containing 165.0 g/kg crude protein (CP), formulated with the addition of DL-methionine to meet birds requirements during the experimental period. To compose the treatments 2-5 (BE149, BE167, BE185 and BE203), a basal diet with reduced protein (135.0 g/kg CP) supplemented with synthetic amino acids DL-methionine, L-lysine, L- threonine, L-valine and L-tryptophan was formulated. This basal diet was supplemented with potassium carbonate, to replace the inert, so as to provide four levels of potassium (5.86, 6.56, 7.26 and 7.96 g/kg) corresponding to the electrolyte balance of 171, 149, 167, 185 and 203 meq/kg, respectively. There was increased linear effect for feed intake and decreasing linear effect for albumen weight and yolk percentage and quadratic effect for conversion per dozen and per egg mass. Crude protein is recommended at 135.0g/kg with 6.77 g/kg potassium and electrolyte balance of 172.51meq/kg in the diet of semi-weighted laying hens in the second production cycle. <![CDATA[<b>Yeast extract with blood plasma in diets for piglets from 21 to 35 days of age</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of yeast extract as a partial replacemer of blood plasma in piglet diets and its effect on the performance and intestinal morphometry of pigs weaned at 21 days of age. One hundred and twenty animals were randomized into blocks, with five diets (4.0% blood plasma; 2.0% blood plasma with 0.0; 1.0; 2.0 or 3.0% yeast extract), six replicates and four pigs per experimental unit. At 35 days of age, one pig per experimental unit was slaughtered in order to evaluate duodenal and jejunal morphometry. The levels of yeast extract had a quadratic impact on daily feed intake and final weight, which increased up to the estimated level of 1.91%. Daily weight gain and feed conversion rate were not affected. A comparison between diets containing different levels of yeast extract and the basal diet showed that the diets containing 2.0% and 1.0% yeast extract provided the highest final weight and the worst feed conversion rate, respectively. Duodenal villus height and crypt depth were quadratically affected by yeast extract levels and the best results were achieved with the estimated levels of 1.64 and 1.16%, respectively. The levels of yeast extract provided a linear increase in the duodenal villus:crypt ratio, but did not change the morphometric variables of the jejunum. No difference was found in the morphometric variables of the duodenum and jejunum when diets containing different levels of yeast extract were compared with the basal diet. The results suggest that the inclusion of 1.91% yeast extract allows for a partial replacement for plasma in the diet, decreasing plasma inclusion from 4.0 to 2.0%. <![CDATA[<b>Herbal extracts in diets for broilers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding herbal extracts for broilers on performance and histology of the intestinal mucosa and its effects on the profiting from the metabolizable energy of experimental diets. For so, two experiments were conducted. In experiment I, the inclusion of different herbal extracts in diets on performance and intestinal histology of broilers was evaluated, and in experiment II, the values of apparent metabolizable energy and metabolizable energy corrected by the nitrogen balance of the experimental diets were studied. Treatments consisted of: positive control diet; positive control + avilamycin; negative control; negative control + 100 ppm of a complex containing three different herbal medicines (pepper, cinnamon and oregano); negative control + 75 ppm garlic extract; negative control + 150 ppm garlic extract. In the performance experiment, which comprised the period of 1 to 40 days of age, 960 male broilers were distributed in a randomized block design, with six treatments and eight replicates, with 20 birds per experimental unit. In experiment II, the method adopted was the traditional of total excreta collection with male broiler chicks in the age of 14 to 24 days, in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and eight replicates with five birds per experimental unit. The intestinal villus height was improved with addition of the composite containing the three herbal extracts; however, crypt depth and villus/crypt ratio were not affected. The use of herbal extract in diets for broilers promotes performance similar to that with the use of antibiotics. Herbal extracts can be incorporated into diets replacing antibiotics without compromising the metabolizable energy of diets, performance or intestinal mucosa for broilers in the period of 1 to 40 days of age. <![CDATA[<b>Nutritional levels of digestible methionine + cystine to brown-egg laying hens from 50 to 66 weeks of age</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to determine the requirement of digestible methionine + cystine of brown-eggs laying hens from 50 to 66 weeks age at the end of the first production cycle. The design was completely randomized, with 150 Brown Shaver hens, which were distributed in five treatments with six replications of five birds each. Birds received a basal diet with 2857 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and 15.97% crude protein, supplemented with 0.132; 0.174, 0.215, 0.256 and 0.298% DL-methionine (98%), in order to provide 0.572, 0.613, 0.653, 0.693 and 0.734% digestible methionine + cystine. The levels of digestible methionine + digestible cystine followed, respectively, the relations of 67, 72, 77, 81 and 86% with lysine fixed at 0.851%. Feed intake, methionine + cystine intake, feed conversion per dozen eggs, egg weigth and mass, percentage of egg components, internal egg quality and weight gain were evaluated. Methionine + cystine levels showed a quadratic effect on feed conversion per dozen eggs and egg weight, a linear effect on feed conversion per kilogram of eggs and percentage of albumen. There was also a positive linear effect on yolk percentage. The methionine + cystine requirement was estimated at 0.572%, corresponding to 682 mg of digestible methionine + cystine/bird/day. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of different digestible isoleucine/lysine ratios for broiler chickens</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Two experiments were conducted to evaluate different digestible isoleucine/lysine ratios on diets for broiler chickens in the starter (7 to 21 days) and finishing (30 to 43 days) phases. For the tests, the experimental design was of randomized blocks with seven treatments (six different digestible isoleucine/lysine ratios and a control treatment) and eight repetitions of 25 and 20 birds (COBB males) per experimental unit in the starter and finishing phases, respectively. The diets met the requirements, except for isoleucine and lysine. To avoid excess lysine in the experimental diets, the digestible lysine content was calculated to be 87% and 89% of the recommended for the starter and finishing phases, respectively. The control treatment was adequate in lysine and isoleucine. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and carcass yield in the two phases were evaluated. There was quadratic effect of different ratios on feed intake in the finishing phase and on weight gain and feed conversion rate in both phases. There was quadratic effect on breast meat yield and breast fillets in the starter phase, but there was no significant effect on carcass yield in the finishing phase. The digestible isoleucine/lysine ratio recommended for broilers in the starter phase (7 to 21 days) is 66% and for the finishing phase (30 to 43 days), it is 68%. <![CDATA[<b>Fatty acid composition of the <i>longissimus dorsi</i> muscle in crossbred steers fed different sources of fatty acids</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle in carcasses of ¾ Bos taurus taurus ¼ Bos taurus indicus steers fed different sources of fatty acids. Thirty-six steers aged 14 months, with a mean live weight of 320 kg, were fed the following diets for 96 days: 1) control diet, containing no supplemental fat source; 2) CaSFA, diet containing 50 g calcium salts of fatty acids per kg total dry matter; 3) CS diet, containing 210 g cottonseed per kg total dry matter. The fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle was determined by gas chromatography. No difference in slaughter weight, carcass weight, backfat thickness, or longissimus dorsi muscle area was observed between animals receiving the diets CaSFA and CS. Animals consuming the two fat-supplemented diets presented higher concentrations of oleic (C18:1), palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids, corresponding to an average 80.76% of total fatty acids, and higher concentrations of vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11) in the muscle when compared with the control group. Supplementation of the diet of feedlot crossbred steers with CaSFA or cottonseed did not promote significant alterations in the lipid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle. <![CDATA[<b>Use of different urea levels in the feeding of Alpine goats</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700022&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to evaluate intake, apparent digestibility, ingestive behavior and blood parameters of milking goats fed cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) and increasing urea levels in substitution to soybean meal. Ten multiparous Alpine goats with average weight of 31±6.0 kg were used and distributed into (5 × 5) Latin squares and assessed during five 17-day periods, receiving five treatments with the following substitution levels: 0; 5; 10; 15 and 20 g/kg of urea. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF), non-fiber carbohydrates, ether extract, organic matter and water intake values showed differences, whith average values ranging from 1.03 to 1.13; 0.12 to 0.14; 1.76 to 2.10 kg/day and 0.77 to 1.48 kg/day, respectively. The NDF and crude protein apparent digestibility values were significantly affected by urea levels. In relation to the ingestive behavior, the urea levels did not influence the feeding, idleness or rumination parameters. Difference was observed for the following physiological variables: feces frequency (11.5 to 15.9 times per day), urine frequency (10.8 to 14.2 times per day) and frequency of search for water (0.8 to 2.1 times per day). The urea levels influenced the blood parameters, whose average levels ranged from 29.83 to 40.76 mg/dL. Pear cactus and increasing urea levels in substitution to soybean meal do not alter the dry matter intake or ingestive behavior. The use of urea associated with forage cactus reduces water intake and increases the blood urea concentration of milking goats. <![CDATA[<b>Centesimal composition and fatty acids of meat from lambs fed diets containing soybean hulls</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to evaluate the centesimal composition and fatty acids in meat from animals fed diets containing levels of soybean hulls. The experiment was conducted at UESB in Itapetinga-BA, Brazil. Twenty-five confined Santa Inês rams were used. Treatments consisted of different levels of substitution of corn by soybean hulls (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) and elephant grass silage as forage. The design was completely randomized. Samples of concentrate and silage were collected to evaluate the fatty acid composition. The experimental period lasted 110 days. After this period, the animals were slaughtered and samples of the longissimus muscle were collected and vacuum-packed for further analysis. The levels of total lipid and protein showed quadratic effect with the increase of soybean hulls in the diet, as the moisture increased linearly with inclusion. There was no effect of treatments on the percentage of ash. The composition of saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), PUFA/SFA and omega 6 (n-6) did not change, but increases in n-3 and reduction in the n-6:n-3 ratio were observed when the the amount of soybean hulls in the diet increased. The content of fatty acid conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) ranged from 3.0 to 4.0 g/kg at levels of substitution. The inclusion of soybean hulls in the diet increased CLA, the n-3 and decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio. <![CDATA[<b>Feeding behaviors of feedlot bulls fed concentrate levels and babassu mesocarp meal</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700024&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of the present study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of feedlot Nellore bulls fed two levels of concentrate (650 and 710 g/kg dry matter) with or without the inclusion of 350 g babassu mesocarp meal/kg dry matter in the concentrate. Twenty-eight animals at 18 months of initial age and 356.66±19.25 kg initial body weight were used. A completely randomized design was used with treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Increase in concentrate level from 650 to 710 g/kg dry matter did not change the feeding time, of 194.41 and 189.64 minutes/day, respectively. The inclusion of 350 g babassu mesocarp meal/kg dry matter in the concentrate increased the feeding time from 173.92 to 210.12 minutes/day, ensuring similar energy intake in relation to the diets without this byproduct. Rumination time was not changed by increasing the concentrate level in diets with 350 g babassu mesocarp meal/kg dry matter in the concentrate, with average values of 420.48 and 398.09 minutes/day for the levels of 650 and 710 g concentrate/kg dry matter, respectively. However, in diets without babassu mesocarp meal, the rumination time was reduced by the concentrate level, with average values of 452.14 and 409.76 minutes/day for 650 and 710 g of concentrate/kg dry matter, respectively. Time spent on other activities increased from 810.23 to 860.00 minutes/day with increase in the concentrate level, which was not changed in the diets containing babassu mesocarp meal. The inclusion of babassu mesocarp meal in the diet altered the feeding behavior of feedlot cattle, due to the need to increase the feeding time to maintain the energy intake. <![CDATA[<b>Digestion of feed fractions and intake of heifers fed hydrolyzed sugarcane stored for different periods</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to evaluate, in Nellore heifers, intake and digestibility of hydrolyzed sugarcane stored for different periods. The experimental design used was a 4 × 4 Latin square, four diets, four Nellore heifers with ruminal cannulas (initial body weight 285.4±23.08 kg and average initial age 14 months) and four periods of 21 days. The diets were composed by fresh sugarcane (time zero) or hydrolyzed sugarcane with addition of 0.5% of hydrated lime, stored for 24, 48 or 72 hours, as the unique forage. Intake and digestibility of feed fractions, nitrogen balance, microbial synthesis efficiency, total number of ruminal protozoans and ammoniacal nitrogen did not significantly change by storing sugarcane with addition of 0.5% of hydrated lime. Sugarcane pH varied quadratically for storage time, with maximum pH of 7.02 after 24 hours from lime addition. Ruminal liquid pH values were higher for heifers fed fresh sugarcane, in comparison with those fed hydrolyzed sugarcane. Sugarcane treated with 0.5% of hydrated lime stored for up to 72 hours does not change ruminal digestion to alter the amount of feed consumed by pubescent Nellore heifers. Thus, lime is a viable technology, once it allows long-duration storage and bee control on treated forage, which contributes to animal feeding logistics. <![CDATA[<b>Rumen fermentation and nutrient flow to the omasum in Holstein cows fed extruded canola seeds treated with or without lignosulfonate</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700026&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Four multiparous Holstein cows averaging 548 kg of body weight and 74 d in lactation were used in a Latin square design with four 21-d experimental periods to determine effects of feeding extruded versus non-extruded canola seed, with or without 50 g/kg lignosulfonate on rumen fermentation, nutrient flow to the omasum, and degradability of dry matter (DM) and N of each diet. The DM effective degradability increased with extrusion and lignosulfonate treatment had no effect. The effective degradability of N was similar between diets. Lignosulfonate treatment of extruded versus non-extruded canola seeds decreased ruminal and total tract apparent digestibility of organic matter. The lowest apparent ruminal and highest intestinal digestibilities of protein, expressed as a percentage of N intake were observed for cows fed extruded canola seeds without lignosulfonate. Lignosulfonate treatment and extrusion had no effect on pH and concentrations of ammonia N and volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Results suggest that extruded canola seed untreated with formaldehyde may stimulate efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and is an effective means of increasing the availability of protein in the small intestine without affecting the total tract apparent digestibility of protein. <![CDATA[<b>Performance, carcass traits, meat quality and economic analysis of feedlot of young bulls fed oilseeds with and without supplementation of vitamin E</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700027&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this research was to evaluate average daily gain (ADG), carcass traits, meat tenderness and profitability of keeping cattle fed different oilseeds and vitamin E in feedlot. A total of 40 Red Norte young bulls with initial average body weight of 339±15 kg were utilized. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The experiment lasted 84 days and experimental diets presented soybeans or cottonseeds as lipid sources associated or not to daily supplementation of 2,500 UI vitamin E per animal. The concentrate:roughage ratio was 60:40. Diets had the same amount of nitrogen (13% CP) and ether extract (6.5%). The data were analyzed by means of statistical software SAS 9.1. Neither vitamin supplementation nor lipid source affected ADG. There was no interaction between lipid source and vitamin supplementation for the variables studied. The inclusion of cottonseed reduced the carcass yield. There was no effect of diets on hot and cold carcass weights or prime cuts. The inclusion of cottonseed reduced the backfat thickness. No effect of experimental diets on the rib-eye area was observed. There was no effect of lipid source or vitamin supplementation on meat tenderness, which was affected, however, by ageing time. Diets with soybeans presented higher cost per animal. The utilization of soybean implied reduction of the gross margin (R$ 59.17 and R$ 60.51 for diets based on soy with and without supplemental vitamin, respectively, vs. R$ 176.42 and R$ 131.79 for diets based on cottonseed). The utilization of cottonseed enables improvement of profitability of feedlot fattening, in spite of negatively affecting some carcass characteristics. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of different substrates on composting of poultry litter</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700028&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective was to evaluate the differences between distinct types of litter material and their combinations in the dynamics of degradation on the organic matter fractions and the quality of the final compound. The treatments were established according to material used as substrate for broiler litter: treatment 1 - rice husks; 2 - sugar cane bagasse; 3 - wood shavings; 4 - wood shavings + sugar cane bagasse; 5 - rice husks + sugar cane bagasse; and 6 - Napier grass. The following variables were monitored: temperature, levels of total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), mass and volume of the pile, fibrous fraction, and levels and reductions of N, P and K during the process. Piles formed with Napier grass and sugar cane bagasse presented the highest average temperatures during composting. The greater average reductions in TS and VS were attained in piles with sugar cane bagasse (68.12 and 73.07%, for TS and VS, respectively). The reductions of greatest volume occurred in piles with sugar cane bagasse (52.08%), followed by Napier grass (50.56%). Poultry litters composed of rice husks and wood shavings presented 13.21 and 10.23% of lignin, respectively, which contributed to the lower degradation of fibrous fraction and degradability. Substrates with lower lignin content were those with greatest organic matter degradation rate and had reduced losses of N levels during the process. Composting performance is affected by the initial substrate used to compose the poultry litter. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of reflective painting of the roof and artificial ventilation on performance and carcass yield of broilers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700029&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study was developed with the objective of evaluating reflective paint on covering and artificial ventilation on performance of broilers (males and females). A randomized design with a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used, as follows: 2 external management systems (coverage with and without reflective paint), 2 internal management systems (with and without artificial ventilation) and 2 sexes (male and female), totalizing 8 treatments. A total of 480 1-day old chicks of the Cobb strain were distributed randomly, according to sex, to treatments. Each treatment consisted of 4 pens - two pens for males and two for females - with 30 birds each. Six birds/pen were sampled. The studies were conducted at IFG-Urutaí Campus. For the performance evaluation, average weight, feed intake and mortality rate were measured weekly. There are differences between the performance of males and females, with males having greater weight gain and increased feed intake compared with females. The use of environmental changes, such as reflective paint or artificial ventilation, fosters weight gain and feed intake by broilers. There is positive effect of combined use of reflective paint and artificial ventilation in the feed intake of birds. <![CDATA[<b>Correlation between lipid, cholesterol and fatty acid contents in the shoulder of castrated and non-castrated Santa Inês lambs</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700030&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to establish a correlation between the content of total lipids, cholesterol and fatty acid profile of the edible portion of the shoulders of 12 castrated and 12 non-castrated Santa Ines lambs, slaughtered at different ages (84, 168, 210, 252 days). Shoulders and the edible portion (muscle and fat) were weighed and stored at -5 °C. Castrated and uncastrated lambs increased their body weight and half carcass weight, respectively. The shoulder weight increased in the carcasses of uncastrated animals. The edible portion of the shoulders of castrated lamb has greater amount of total lipids (16.09 g/100 g). The cholesterol content was influenced by castration, reducing with age. Santa Ines castrated lambs, under semi-extensive conditions, presented larger amounts of C18:1 T11 and CLA in the edible portion of the shoulder. Castration causes no significant correlation between total lipids, cholesterol and total saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of the edible portion of Santa Ines shoulder lambs from 84 to 252 days of age. <![CDATA[<b>Dehydrated brewery residue for pigs in the growth phase under high temperature conditions</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700031&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This research was developed to evaluate the nutritional, digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy values of dehydrated brewery residue (DBR) for growing pigs, as well as to evaluate the performance of these animals, subjected to five levels of DBR inclusion (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%). The experimental design was of randomized blocks, based on animal weight. In the digestibility assay, 12 male piglets of average weight of 34.8±4.8 kg were utilized, while the performance assay had 40 piglets with average weight of 26.7±3.3 kg. Digestible and metabolizable protein values of dehydrated brewery residue for growing pigs reared in an environment of high temperatures were 22.47 and 22.06%, respectively, whereas digestible and metabolizable energy values of DBR were 3,371 and 3,364 kcal/kg, respectively. Dehydrated brewery residue can be included in diets for growing pigs up to the level of 20%. <![CDATA[<b>Fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage inoculated with <i>Lactobacillus buchneri</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700032&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The characteristics of fermentation and aerobic stability were evaluated in corn silage inoculated with different doses of Lactobacillus buchneri. The whole corn plant (300 g/kg DM) was ensiled in quadruplicate laboratory silos (7L). L. buchneri 40788 was applied at 5×10(4), 1×10(5), 5×10(5) and 1×10(6) cfu/g of fresh forage. Silages with no additive were used as controls. After 130 d of ensiling, the silages were subjected to an aerobic stability evaluation for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters as well as the temperature of the silage were measured to determine the aerobic deterioration. The addition of L. buchneri resulted in increased acetic acid concentrations. The number of yeast colonies was low in all treated silages. The pH, lactic and propionic acid concentrations did not differ between silages. Under aerobic conditions, all the treated silages showed a low number of yeasts and a great aerobic stability. Therefore, L. buchneri is effective against yeasts and improves the aerobic stability of corn silage in laboratory silos. However, doses equal or superior to 1×10(5) cfu/g of fresh forage were more efficient in the control of aerobic spoilage. <![CDATA[<b>Sensory, morphometric and proximate analyses of Nile tilapia reared in ponds and net-cages</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700033&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The present study evaluated the sensory, proximate and morphometric differences of pond and net-cage-reared Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Thirty samples from ponds and 30 samples from net-cages were used. Morphometric measurements were performed in fish and the fillets; proximate composition of the fillets was determined; and sensory analysis of the meat was performed. The fish reared in ponds exhibited similar weights and larger measurements than those reared in net-cages. Fillet measurement and weight were similar for both rearing techniques. The proximate composition analysis of the fillets showed that there was less lipid deposition (12.6 g/kg) and higher moisture retention (792.6 g/kg) in fish reared in the ponds compared with those reared in net-cages (31.7 and 767.8 g/kg, respectively). Although the amount of lipid in the fillets from fish reared in net-cages was higher, the fillets do not contain excessive fat. There was no difference in fillet protein or ash. The flavor of the fillet was moderately good to good and was similar in both farming systems. Fillets produced with the 2 farming systems have similar morphometric, proximate and sensory characteristics.