Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1516-444620190005&lang=en vol. 41 num. 5 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[The challenge of measurement in psychiatry: the lifetime accomplishments of Per Bech (1942-2018)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000500369&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Drugs and suicidal behavior: a call for positive, broad and preventive interventions]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000500373&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Developing effective strategies for the management of depression and suicidal thoughts]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000500375&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Precision noninvasive brain stimulation: is it precise? Is it needed?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000500376&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[A tireless researcher in psychopharmacology and a gold-standard philosopher: the scientist and humanist João Romildo Bueno (1938-2019)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000500378&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Trends in suicide rates in Brazil from 1997 to 2015]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000500380&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objectives: To analyze time trends of suicide rates in Brazil overall and in Brazilian states and compare the estimated suicide rates projected for 2020 with the World Health Organization (WHO) Mental Health Action Plan target. Methods: This was an ecological time-series study from 1997 to 2015, stratified by Brazilian states, specific age groups, and sex. Data were obtained from the Mortality Information System (Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade [SIM]) of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Polynomial regression models were used to analyze the trends in suicide rates and to project suicide rates for 2020. Results: Considering 224 units of analysis, 21 (9.4%) showed a decreasing trend, 108 (48.2%) were stable, and 95 (42.4%) showed an increasing trend. Thus, 67% of units of analysis will not meet the WHO target in 2020. Mean suicide rates were higher in males than in females. People aged 60 years and older presented the highest suicide rates, while 84.7% of total deaths by suicide occurred among 15-to-59-year-olds. Conclusion: Overall, 90.6% of units of analysis had a stable or increasing trend in suicide rates from 1997 to 2015. If these trends remain, most of Brazil will fail to achieve the WHO-recommended reduction in suicide rates by 2020. <![CDATA[The association between adolescent suicide rates and socioeconomic indicators in Brazil: a 10-year retrospective ecological study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000500389&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objective: To examine suicide rates among adolescents from six large cities in Brazil and to analyze the relationship between adolescent suicide rates and socioeconomic indicators between 2006 and 2015. Methods: Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the impact of socioeconomic factors – including social inequality and unemployment rates – on adolescent suicide rates. Results: The rate of adolescent suicide increased by 24% over the course of the study period. Social inequality (assessed using the Gini index), was positively associated with overall adolescent suicide rates (β = 10.68; 95%CI = 2.32-19.05; p ≤ 0.012). After disaggregating the findings by age (10-14 and 15-19 years), social inequality was associated with suicide rate only for adolescents aged 15-19 years (β = 9.63; 95%CI = 2.31-16.96; p ≤ 0.005). Disaggregating these findings by sex, the association with economic variables became significant only among females. Males had a higher overall suicide rate than females, and the highest rate was observed in male adolescents aged 15-19 years. Higher levels of unemployment were associated with higher suicide rates. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that socioeconomic indicators, particularly unemployment and social inequality, are relevant social determinants of suicide in adolescence. <![CDATA[Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health-related risk factors for depression among men and women in a southern Brazilian city]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000500396&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objective: To assess the prevalence of depression and sociodemographic, behavioral, and health-related risk factors therefor in a southern Brazilian city. Methods: Population-based, cross-sectional study of adults from Rio Grande, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Individuals (n=1,295) were selected using a multistage sampling procedure. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was used to screen for major depressive episodes (MDEs). We used a conceptual causal framework to organize and assess risk factors for MDE and calculated prevalence ratios (PR) using regression models. Results: The prevalence of MDE was 8.4% (95%CI 6.0-10.7) for men and 13.4% (95%CI 11.0-15.8) for women. For men, physical inactivity (PR 2.34, 95%CI 1.09-5.00) and perceived stress (PR 20.35, 95%CI 5.92-69.96) were associated with MDE. In women, MDE prevalence was higher among those in the first tertile of economic index (PR 2.61, 95%CI 1.53-4.45), with 0-8 years of schooling (PR 2.25, 95%CI 1.24-4.11), alcohol users (PR 1.91, 95%CI 1.21-3.02), those physically inactive (PR 2.49, 95%CI 1.22-5.09), with the highest perceived stress (PR 9.17, 95%CI 3.47-24.23), with another mental disorder (PR 1.85, 95%CI 1.32-2.59), and with more noncommunicable diseases (PR 1.85, 95%CI 1.06-3.22). Conclusion: Women had a higher prevalence of depression, and socioeconomic disadvantages were important for the occurrence of MDE; however, for men, only physical inactivity and stress were important predictors, suggesting possible different causal pathways for each sex. <![CDATA[Psychological morbidity is the main predictor of quality of life among caregivers of individuals in first-episode psychosis: data from a year-long longitudinal study in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000500403&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objective: To investigate quality of life (QoL) and QoL predictors among caregivers of individuals in first-episode psychosis (FEP). Methods: This longitudinal study investigated predictors of QoL in caregivers of 80 individuals in FEP over a 1-year follow-up period, measured using a single component extracted from the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results: Mediation analysis demonstrated that, at 1 year, high scores in the Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20) were associated with high scores on the negative sub-scale of the Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI), which was also associated with low scores in the Essential Quality of Life (Essential QoL) component extracted from the SEF-36. Clinically, the resulting association indicates that depression and anxiety symptoms in caregivers at baseline are predictors of their 1-year quality of life, based on self-assessment of the caregiving experience. Conclusion: Supporting an individual in FEP can have a negative impact on QoL. Maintaining caregivers’ mental health and subjective evaluation of the caregiving experience must be primary goals of FEP services. Complementary studies of FEP caregivers’ QoL can support the design of personalized interventions in the near future. <![CDATA[Psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-SRPB BREF, Brazilian Portuguese version]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000500411&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objective: To test the reliability and the discriminant and convergent validity of the abbreviated Brazilian Portuguese World Health Organization’s Quality of Life Instrument – Spirituality, Religion, and Personal Beliefs module (WHOQOL-SRPB BREF). Methods: In a sample of 404 individuals, we applied a general questionnaire, the WHOQOL-BREF, the long-form SRPB, the Brief Religious-Spiritual Coping Scale (RCOPE), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Priority was given to the 9-item SRPB assessment: its unidimensionality was tested through confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis of the 9-item SRPB assessment indicated an adjusted model with acceptable fit to data. In the Rasch analysis, general fit measures showed adequate performance. The 9-item SRPB assessment showed good internal consistency (alpha = 0.85), and could differentiate (discriminant validity) between religious and atheist/agnostic respondents (mean = 74.7±14.1 and 56.8±15.5, respectively; t = 6.37; degrees of freedom [df] = 402; p &lt; 0.01) and between non-depressed and depressed respondents (mean = 76.5±12.9 and 67.1±16.5; t = 5.57; df = 190.5; p &lt; 0.01). Correlations (convergent validity) were significant with the positive-RCOPE subscale (r = 0.58, p &lt; 0.01) and the WHOQOL-BREF domains (Pearson coefficient ranging between 0.24 and 0.49; p &lt; 0.01), but were in the negative direction with the negative-RCOPE subscale (r = -0.10, p &lt; 0.05). Correlation with the long-form SRPB domain (r = 0.934) was almost perfect. Conclusion: The Brazilian Portuguese 9-item SRPB has good psychometric properties and confirmed the findings of the long-form Brazilian Portuguese version and the abbreviated English version. <![CDATA[Effects of lithium on inflammatory and neurotrophic factors after an immune challenge in a lisdexamfetamine animal model of mania]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000500419&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objective: To evaluate whether an animal model of mania induced by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) has an inflammatory profile and whether immune activation by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) has a cumulative effect on subsequent stimuli in this model. We also evaluated the action of lithium (Li) on inflammatory and neurotrophic factors. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to an animal model of mania. After the open-field test, they were given LPS to induce systemic immune activation. Subsequently, the animals’ blood was collected, and their serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]) were measured. Results: LDX induced hyperactivity in the animals, but no inflammatory marker levels increased except brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Li had no effect on serum BDNF levels but prevented iNOS levels from increasing in animals subjected to immune activation. Conclusion: Although Li prevented an LPS-induced increase in serum iNOS levels, its potential anti-inflammatory effects in this animal model of mania were conflicting. <![CDATA[Evaluation of affective temperament and anxiety-depression levels in fibromyalgia patients: a pilot study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000500428&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objective: Fibromyalgia (FM) patients have higher rates of depression and anxiety disorders than healthy controls. Affective temperament features are subclinical manifestations of mood disorders. Our aim was to evaluate the affective temperaments of FM patients and investigate their association with depression and anxiety levels and clinical findings. Methods: This cross-sectional study included FM patients and healthy controls. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to determine patient anxiety and depression levels, and the Temperament Scale of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego, self-administered version was applied to assess affective temperaments in all subjects. Disease severity was assessed in FM patients with the Fibromyalgia Criteria and Severity Scales and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Differences between groups were evaluated using Student’s t-tests. Correlations among parameters were performed. Results: This study involved 38 patients with FM (30 female) and 30 healthy controls (25 female). Depressive, anxious and cyclothymic temperaments were significantly higher in FM patients than healthy controls. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between HADS depression score and all temperaments except hyperthymic, as well as between HADS anxiety score and cyclothymic and anxious temperaments. HADS depression and anxiety scores were correlated with symptom severity. We found a higher risk of depression and anxiety among FM patients with higher FIQ scores. Conclusion: This study is the first to evaluate affective temperament features of FM patients. Evaluating temperamental traits in FM patients may help clinicians determine which patients are at risk for depression and anxiety disorders. <![CDATA[Contextual risk factors of depression and suicidal thoughts in Brazilian adults: a multilevel analysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000500433&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objective: To evaluate the association between social and health contextual variables, and between major depressive episodes (MDE) and suicidal thoughts in Brazilian adults. Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study used data from the 2013 National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde). The Patient Health Questionnaire was used to evaluate the presence of MDE and suicidal thoughts. We used number of Family Health Strategy teams (FHS) per 20,000 state population, number of Psychosocial Care Centers (Centros de Atenção Psicossocial [CAPS]) per 1,000 state population, gross domestic product (GDP), and Gini index for each Brazilian state as contextual variables. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to calculate OR and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: Prevalence of MDE and suicidal thoughts was 4.1% (95%CI 3.8-4.4) and 3.8% (95%CI 3.5-4.1), respectively. Multilevel regression models showed an ICC of 1.1% for MDE (95%CI 0.5-2.3) and 1.3% for suicidal thoughts (95%CI 0.6-2.6). Neither GDP, Gini, FHS, or CAPS showed evidence of association with the outcomes. Conclusions: In general, contextual variables, within each Brazilian state, do not seem to affect the prevalence of MDE and suicidal thoughts. <![CDATA[Suicidal behavior among substance users: data from the Second Brazilian National Alcohol and Drug Survey (II BNADS)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000500437&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objective: To investigate the prevalence rates of suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts (SA) and their association with substance use in a nationally representative sample of Brazilians. Methods: The Second Brazilian National Alcohol and Drug Survey (II BNADS) is a household cross-sectional survey that investigated the consumption of psychotropic drugs and associated risk factors. This national probability sample survey used a multistage cluster design to select 4,607 participants aged 14 or older and had a total response rate of 77%. Illegal drug use, SI and SA were obtained by confidential self-report assessment. Results: SI and SA were reported by 9.9 and 5.4% of the sample, respectively. This prevalence was 20.8 and 12.4% among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD), 31.5 and 16.5% among cannabis users and 40.0 and 20.8% among cocaine users. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, tobacco use, family history of suicide and depression, both SI and SA were positively associated with AUD, cannabis and cocaine use. Conclusion: AUD, cannabis and cocaine use were significantly associated with SI and SA, even after the adjustments. Public health initiatives targeting suicide prevention should consider including assessment and management of substance misuse, and therapeutic approaches to substance misuse should include assessment of suicidality. <![CDATA[Pharmacokinetics of antidepressants in patients undergoing hemodialysis: a narrative literature review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000500441&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We conducted a narrative literature review on studies that specifically addressed the pharmacokinetics of antidepressants in patients on hemodialysis. The search included the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Web of Knowledge databases and combined Medical Subject Headings and free-text search terms for chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease, renal replacement therapy, depression, and antidepressants; it was limited to studies conducted in humans, with no language or time constraints. The search yielded 212 studies. After screening titles and abstracts, 32 studies were read in full and 11 ultimately met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Most of the studies showed no difference in the pharmacokinetics of antidepressant drugs between patients with normal renal function and patients undergoing hemodialysis. However, studies with fluvoxamine and amitriptyline showed that variations in albumin levels might affect serum concentrations of these agents. The included studies have several limitations, and there are many obstacles to the adequate treatment of depression in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Further studies on this topic are needed to support proper treatment of these patients, improving their quality of life and reducing mortality. <![CDATA[Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the medial prefrontal cortex for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000500447&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objective: The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a highly connected cortical region that acts as a hub in major large-scale brain networks. Its dysfunction is associated with a number of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, autism, depression, substance use disorder (SUD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and anxiety disorders. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) studies targeting the mPFC indicate that it may be a useful therapeutic resource in psychiatry due to its selective modulation of this area and connected regions. Methods: This review examines six mPFC rTMS trials selected from 697 initial search results. We discuss the main results, technical and methodological details, safety, tolerability, and localization strategies. Results: Six different protocols were identified, including inhibitory (1 Hz) and excitatory (5, 10, and 20 Hz) frequencies applied therapeutically to patient populations diagnosed with major depressive disorder, OCD, autistic spectrum disorder, SUD, specific phobia, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the OCD and acrophobia trials, rTMS significantly reduced symptoms compared to placebo. Conclusion: These protocols were considered safe and add interesting new evidence to the growing body of mPFC rTMS literature. However, the small number and low methodological quality of the studies indicate the need for further research. <![CDATA[Satisfactory response to electroconvulsive therapy in an autistic patient with severe self-injurious behavior]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000500458&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objective: The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a highly connected cortical region that acts as a hub in major large-scale brain networks. Its dysfunction is associated with a number of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, autism, depression, substance use disorder (SUD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and anxiety disorders. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) studies targeting the mPFC indicate that it may be a useful therapeutic resource in psychiatry due to its selective modulation of this area and connected regions. Methods: This review examines six mPFC rTMS trials selected from 697 initial search results. We discuss the main results, technical and methodological details, safety, tolerability, and localization strategies. Results: Six different protocols were identified, including inhibitory (1 Hz) and excitatory (5, 10, and 20 Hz) frequencies applied therapeutically to patient populations diagnosed with major depressive disorder, OCD, autistic spectrum disorder, SUD, specific phobia, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the OCD and acrophobia trials, rTMS significantly reduced symptoms compared to placebo. Conclusion: These protocols were considered safe and add interesting new evidence to the growing body of mPFC rTMS literature. However, the small number and low methodological quality of the studies indicate the need for further research. <![CDATA[“I want it all, I want it all, I want it all, and I want it now!” Is higher impulsivity associated with higher satisfaction with life?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000500459&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objective: The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a highly connected cortical region that acts as a hub in major large-scale brain networks. Its dysfunction is associated with a number of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, autism, depression, substance use disorder (SUD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and anxiety disorders. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) studies targeting the mPFC indicate that it may be a useful therapeutic resource in psychiatry due to its selective modulation of this area and connected regions. Methods: This review examines six mPFC rTMS trials selected from 697 initial search results. We discuss the main results, technical and methodological details, safety, tolerability, and localization strategies. Results: Six different protocols were identified, including inhibitory (1 Hz) and excitatory (5, 10, and 20 Hz) frequencies applied therapeutically to patient populations diagnosed with major depressive disorder, OCD, autistic spectrum disorder, SUD, specific phobia, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the OCD and acrophobia trials, rTMS significantly reduced symptoms compared to placebo. Conclusion: These protocols were considered safe and add interesting new evidence to the growing body of mPFC rTMS literature. However, the small number and low methodological quality of the studies indicate the need for further research. <![CDATA[Catatonia – not only a schizophrenia subtype: a case report of Wilson’s disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000500460&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objective: The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a highly connected cortical region that acts as a hub in major large-scale brain networks. Its dysfunction is associated with a number of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, autism, depression, substance use disorder (SUD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and anxiety disorders. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) studies targeting the mPFC indicate that it may be a useful therapeutic resource in psychiatry due to its selective modulation of this area and connected regions. Methods: This review examines six mPFC rTMS trials selected from 697 initial search results. We discuss the main results, technical and methodological details, safety, tolerability, and localization strategies. Results: Six different protocols were identified, including inhibitory (1 Hz) and excitatory (5, 10, and 20 Hz) frequencies applied therapeutically to patient populations diagnosed with major depressive disorder, OCD, autistic spectrum disorder, SUD, specific phobia, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the OCD and acrophobia trials, rTMS significantly reduced symptoms compared to placebo. Conclusion: These protocols were considered safe and add interesting new evidence to the growing body of mPFC rTMS literature. However, the small number and low methodological quality of the studies indicate the need for further research. <![CDATA[Suicide by jumping from high places in a Brazilian city: regional peculiarities as a determining factor of variation in suicide methods]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000500462&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objective: The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a highly connected cortical region that acts as a hub in major large-scale brain networks. Its dysfunction is associated with a number of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, autism, depression, substance use disorder (SUD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and anxiety disorders. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) studies targeting the mPFC indicate that it may be a useful therapeutic resource in psychiatry due to its selective modulation of this area and connected regions. Methods: This review examines six mPFC rTMS trials selected from 697 initial search results. We discuss the main results, technical and methodological details, safety, tolerability, and localization strategies. Results: Six different protocols were identified, including inhibitory (1 Hz) and excitatory (5, 10, and 20 Hz) frequencies applied therapeutically to patient populations diagnosed with major depressive disorder, OCD, autistic spectrum disorder, SUD, specific phobia, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the OCD and acrophobia trials, rTMS significantly reduced symptoms compared to placebo. Conclusion: These protocols were considered safe and add interesting new evidence to the growing body of mPFC rTMS literature. However, the small number and low methodological quality of the studies indicate the need for further research.