Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1516-444620180004&lang=pt vol. 40 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Suicide rates in the United States continue to rise. Are rates in Brazil underestimated?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462018000400347&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[Psychoactive substance abuse and dependence and its association with anxiety disorders: a population-based study of young adults in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462018000400349&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: To evaluate the association between abuse of and dependence on different psychoactive substances and the presence of anxiety disorders in a sample of young adults from a city in southern Brazil. Methods: Between 2007 and 2009, we carried out a cross-sectional, population-based study of individuals aged 18-24 years who lived in Pelotas, a city in southern Brazil. We evaluated anxiety disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0 (MINI), and use of psychoactive substances with the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST 2.0/0MS). We used Fisher’s exact test for univariate analysis, and Poisson regression models with robust variance for multivariable analysis. Results: The sample consisted of 1,560 young adults. The overall prevalence of abuse/dependence was 26.9% for alcohol, 24.9% for tobacco, and 7.3% for illicit substances. Individuals with agoraphobia had a 32% higher prevalence of tobacco abuse/dependence (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.32 [95%CI 1.01-1.74]). Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) had a 2.41-fold (95%CI 1.22-4.77) and 1.76-fold (95%CI 1.00-3.11) higher prevalence of illicit substance abuse/dependence, respectively. Conclusion: In this population-based sample, we found associations between GAD, PTSD, and increased prevalence of illicit substance abuse/dependence. In addition, individuals with agoraphobia seem to have increased tobacco abuse/dependence. <![CDATA[Active Brazilian crack cocaine users: nutritional, anthropometric, and drug use profiles]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462018000400354&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: To evaluate the nutritional status of crack users and to analyze its correlation with drug use profiles. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 108 crack users. Anthropometric data were assessed through body mass index (BMI) and bioimpedance (BIA) measurements. A blood test to analyze hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose, and lipid profiles was also performed. Crack use was determined through a standardized interview. Results: Based on BMI and BIA, most individuals were eutrophic (about 70%). Regarding hematological parameters, we found that hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were below normal for 32.4 and 30.6% of patients, respectively. Considering normal parameters, a large part of the sample (60.2%) had low levels of HDL cholesterol and high levels of triglycerides (38%). There were no significant correlations between drug profile and nutritional variables. Conclusion: This is a pioneering study that examines the nutritional status of crack users. Our results showed that most crack users present normal anthropometric findings and the prevalence of underweight is low. However, blood analysis showed changes and a specific type of malnutrition. <![CDATA[Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on neurotrophic factors in patients with major depressive disorder]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462018000400361&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: To correlate neurotrophic factors – brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and beta-nerve growth factor (beta-NGF) – and severity of depressive symptoms in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) undergoing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, participants were selected by convenience and received 16 sessions of CBT. The outcomes of interest were severity of depressive symptoms and changes in neurotrophic factor levels after CBT. The differences between variables before and after treatment (deltas) were analyzed. Results: Patients had significant changes in symptom severity after treatment. No significant associations were found between Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) scores and any independent variable. No correlations were observed between BDNF or GDNF levels and BDI scores before or after treatment, although there was a trend toward significant differences in beta-NGF levels. Conclusion: BDNF, beta-NGF, and GDNF were not influenced by the effects of CBT on depressive symptoms. <![CDATA[<em>Hypericum perforatum</em> chronic treatment affects cognitive parameters and brain neurotrophic factor levels]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462018000400367&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: To evaluate the effects of Hypericum perforatum (hypericum) on cognitive behavior and neurotrophic factor levels in the brain of male and female rats. Methods: Male and female Wistar rats were treated with hypericum or water during 28 days by gavage. The animals were then subjected to the open-field test, novel object recognition and step-down inhibitory avoidance test. Nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels were evaluated in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Results: Hypericum impaired the acquisition of short- and long-term aversive memory in male rats, evaluated in the inhibitory avoidance test. Female rats had no immediate memory acquisition and decreased short-term memory acquisition in the inhibitory avoidance test. Hypericum also decreased the recognition index of male rats in the object recognition test. Female rats did not recognize the new object in either the short-term or the long-term memory tasks. Hypericum decreased BDNF in the hippocampus of male and female rats. Hypericum also decreased NGF in the hippocampus of female rats. Conclusions: The long-term administration of hypericum appears to cause significant cognitive impairment in rats, possibly through a reduction in the levels of neurotrophic factors. This effect was more expressive in females than in males. <![CDATA[Intermittent hypoxia, brain glyoxalase-1 and glutathione reductase-1, and anxiety-like behavior in mice]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462018000400376&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: Sleep apnea has been associated with anxiety, but the mechanisms of the sleep apnea-anxiety relationship are unresolved. Sleep apnea causes oxidative stress, which might enhance anxiety-like behavior in rodents. To clarify the apnea-anxiety connection, we tested the effect of intermittent hypoxia, a model of sleep apnea, on the anxiety behavior of mice. Methods: The rodents were exposed daily to 480 one-minute cycles of intermittent hypoxia to a nadir of 7±1% inspiratory oxygen fraction or to a sham procedure with room air. After 7 days, the mice from both groups were placed in an elevated plus maze and were video recorded for 10 min to allow analysis of latency, frequency, and duration in open and closed arms. Glyoxalase-1 (Glo1) and glutathione reductase-1 (GR1) were measured in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and striatum by Western blotting. Results: Compared to controls, the intermittent hypoxia group displayed less anxiety-like behavior, perceived by a statistically significant increase in the number of entries and total time spent in open arms. A higher expression of GR1 in the cortex was also observed. Conclusion: The lack of a clear anxiety response as an outcome of intermittent hypoxia exposure suggests the existence of additional layers in the anxiety mechanism in sleep apnea, possibly represented by sleepiness and irreversible neuronal damage. <![CDATA[By the book: ADHD prevalence in medical students varies with analogous methods of addressing DSM items]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462018000400382&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: The marked increase in the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among university students gives rise to questions about how best to diagnose in this setting. The aim of the present study was to calculate ADHD prevalence in a large non-clinical sample of medical students using a stepwise design and to determine whether ADHD diagnosis varies if interviewees use additional probing procedures to obtain examples of positive DSM items. Methods: A total of 726 students were screened with the Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and invited for an interview with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) adapted for adults. Results: The ASRS was positive for 247 students (37%), although only 83 (7.9%) received an ADHD diagnosis. ASRS sensitivity and specificity rates were 0.97 and 0.40, respectively. Probing procedures were used with a subgroup of 226 students, which decreased the number of ADHD diagnoses to 12 (4.5%). Conclusion: Probing for an individual’s real-life examples during the K-SADS interview almost halved ADHD prevalence rate based on the ASRS and K-SADS, which rendered the rate consistent with that typically reported for young adults. In reclassified cases, although examples of inattention did not match the corresponding DSM item, they often referred to another DSM inattention item. <![CDATA[Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in children with first degree relatives diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462018000400388&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: A first-degree relative affected by obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in childhood is an important risk factor for developing the disorder in adulthood. The relationship between a family history of OCD and the presence of OCS and its correlates in childhood is not well established. Methods: A total of 66 children whose parents or siblings have been diagnosed with OCD were assessed for the presence of OCS and clinical correlates. Results: Three children (4.5%) were reported to have received an OCD diagnosis and another 26 (39.4%) were identified as having OCS. Children with OCS had higher rates of coercive behavior and came from families with lower socioeconomic status. Contamination/cleaning dimension symptoms in the proband were associated with OCS in the assessed children. Conclusion: OCS are frequent among family members of individuals with OCD and are associated with socioeconomic status, coercive behaviors and proband contamination/cleaning symptoms. Future longitudinal studies should test the risk of developing OCD in association with these characteristics. <![CDATA[Gender-related dimensions of childhood adversities in the general population]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462018000400394&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: Childhood adversities (CAs) comprise a group of negative experiences individuals may suffer in their lifetimes. The goal of the present study was to investigate the cluster discrimination of CAs through psychometric determination of the common attributes of such experiences for men and women. Methods: Parental mental illness, substance misuse, criminality, death, divorce, other parental loss, family violence, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, physical illness, and economic adversity were assessed in a general-population sample (n=5,037). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis determined gender-related dimensions of CA. The contribution of each individual adversity was explored through Rasch analysis. Results: Adversities were reported by 53.6% of the sample. A three-factor model of CA dimensions fit the data better for men, and a two-factor model for women. For both genders, the dimension of family maladjustment – encompassing physical abuse, neglect, parental mental disorders, and family violence – was the core cluster of CAs. Women endorsed more CAs than men. Rasch analysis found that sexual abuse, physical illness, parental criminal behavior, parental divorce, and economic adversity were difficult to report in face-to-face interviews. Conclusion: CAs embrace sensitive personal information, clustering of which differed by gender. Acknowledging CAs may have an impact on medical and psychiatric outcomes in adulthood. <![CDATA[Satisfaction and burden of mental health personnel: data from healthcare services for substance users and their families]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462018000400403&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: To evaluate satisfaction and burden of mental health personnel providing mental health services for substance users and their families. Method: Five hundred twenty-seven mental health workers who provide treatment for substance users in five Brazilian states were interviewed. Data on sociodemographic characteristics and measures of satisfaction (SATIS-BR) and burden of mental health personnel (IMPACTO-BR) were collected. Results: Type of mental health service and educational attainment were associated with degree of satisfaction and burden. Therapeutic community workers and those with a primary education level reported being more satisfied with the treatment offered to patients, their engagement in service activities, and working conditions. Workers from psychosocial care centers, psychosocial care centers focused on alcohol and other drugs, and social care referral centers (both general and specialized), as well as workers with a higher education, reported feeling overburdened. Conclusion: This study offers important information regarding the relationship of mental health personnel with their work. Care providers within this sample reported an overall high level of job satisfaction, while perceived burden differed by type of service and educational attainment. To our knowledge, this is the first study with a sample of mental health professionals working with substance users across five Brazilian states. <![CDATA[Cross-cultural adaptation, validity, and reliability of the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire – Short Version (PSDQ) for use in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462018000400410&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: The Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) is used worldwide to assess three styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive) and seven dimensions of parenting. In this study, we adapted the short version of the PSDQ for use in Brazil and investigated its validity and reliability. Methods: Participants were 451 mothers of children aged 3 to 18 years, though sample size varied with analyses. The translation and adaptation of the PSDQ followed a rigorous methodological approach. Then, we investigated the content, criterion, and construct validity of the adapted instrument. Results: The scale content validity index (S-CVI) was considered adequate (0.97). There was evidence of internal validity, with the PSDQ dimensions showing strong correlations with their higher-order parenting styles. Confirmatory factor analysis endorsed the three-factor, second-order solution (i.e., three styles consisting of seven dimensions). The PSDQ showed convergent validity with the validated Brazilian version of the Parenting Styles Inventory (Inventário de Estilos Parentais – IEP), as well as external validity, as it was associated with several instruments measuring sociodemographic and behavioral/emotional-problem variables. Conclusion: The PSDQ is an effective and reliable psychometric instrument to assess childrearing strategies according to Baumrind’s model of parenting styles. <![CDATA[Pituitary gland volumes in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder before and after cognitive-behavioral therapy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462018000400420&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: The beneficial effects of psychopharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on the brain are not well understood. In a previous study, we found smaller pituitary volumes in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of CBT on pituitary gland volume. Methods: A total of 81 patients with various anxiety disorders and the same number of healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging, and their pituitary gland volumes were compared at baseline. Pituitary gland volumes were also measured before and after CBT in the patient group. Results: OCD patients had smaller pituitary gland volumes at baseline than healthy controls (0.54±0.29 cm3 for OCD patients vs. 0.82±0.30 cm3 for healthy controls; p &lt; 0.001). We found no significant changes in OCD patient pituitary gland volume after the 16-week treatment period, with mean pre- and post-treatment values of 0.54±0.29 cm3 and 0.56±0.32 cm3, respectively (p &gt; 0.05). Conclusion: Our results indicate an absence of post-CBT volumetric changes in the pituitary gland of OCD patients. <![CDATA[Sexual compulsivity, anxiety, depression, and sexual risk behavior among treatment-seeking men in São Paulo, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462018000400424&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: There is a lack of studies on negative mood states and sexual risk behavior in men of all sexual orientations who seek treatment for excessive sexual behavior (ESB). We aim to examine sexual compulsivity (SC), anxiety, depression, and sexual risk behavior in a treatment-seeking sample of men and controls. Methods: We enrolled 88 (37 [42%] gay or bisexual and 51 [58%] heterosexual) ESB outpatients and 64 controls. Assessments included the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and sexual risk behaviors. Results: Compared to controls, ESB outpatients showed increased SC, anxiety, and depression, which were correlated. Regarding sex with casual partners, ESB outpatients reported more sexual intercourse, a greater number of partners, more anal intercourse, and unprotected anal intercourse. Anxiety, depression, and SC were associated with protected vaginal intercourse with a main partner, whereas they were associated with unprotected anal intercourse with a casual partner. Depression was associated with unprotected vaginal intercourse with a casual partner. Condomless anal intercourse was predicted by SC and was also reported by the heterosexual ESB outpatients (36%). Conclusion: The data contribute to the field by providing information on men of all sexual orientations who are searching for mental healthcare. The connections among these psychopathological factors and sexual risk behavior have implications for public health, clinicians, and research. <![CDATA[Validation of the Mnemonic Similarity Task – Context Version]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462018000400432&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: Pattern separation (PS) is the ability to represent similar experiences as separate, non-overlapping representations. It is usually assessed via the Mnemonic Similarity Task – Object Version (MST-O) which, however, assesses PS performance without taking behavioral context discrimination into account, since it is based on pictures of everyday simple objects on a white background. We here present a validation study for a new task, the Mnemonic Similarity Task – Context Version (MST-C), which is designed to measure PS while taking behavioral context discrimination into account by using real-life context photographs. Methods: Fifty healthy subjects underwent the two MST tasks to assess convergent evidence. Instruments assessing memory and attention were also administered to study discriminant evidence. The test-retest reliability of MST-C was analyzed. Results: Weak evidence supports convergent validity between the MST-C task and the MST-O as measures of PS (rs = 0.464; p &lt; 0.01); PS performance assessed via the MST-C did not correlate with memory or attention; a moderate test-retest reliability was found (rs = 0.595; p &lt; 0.01). Conclusion: The MST-C seems useful for assessing PS performance conceptualized as the ability to discriminate complex and realistic spatial contexts. Future studies are welcome to evaluate the validity of the MST-C task as a measure of PS in clinical populations. <![CDATA[Comorbid addictive behaviors in disordered gamblers with psychosis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462018000400441&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: While it has been shown that disordered gamblers with psychosis are at increased risk for comorbid psychopathology, it is unclear whether this dual-diagnosis population is also at greater risk of problematic engagement with comorbid addictive behaviors. Methods: We tested for association between disordered gambling with psychosis and comorbid addictive behaviors in a sample of 349 treatment-seeking disordered gamblers. Results: Twenty-five (7.2%) disordered gamblers met criteria for psychosis. Disordered gamblers with psychosis were no more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for current alcohol/substance use disorder than disordered gamblers without psychosis. However, this dual-disorder population reported greater misuse of shopping, food bingeing, caffeine, and prescription drugs. When controlling for multiple comparisons, binge eating was the only addictive behavior to remain significant. Conclusion: Given these findings, a comprehensive assessment of addictive behaviors – specifically food bingeing – in this population may be warranted. <![CDATA[Psychometric properties of the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 in a large Brazilian sample]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462018000400444&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: The field of food addiction has attracted growing research attention. The modified Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 (mYFAS 2.0) is a screening tool based on DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorders. However, there is no validated instrument to assess food addiction. Methods: The mYFAS 2.0 has been transculturally adapted to Brazilian Portuguese. The data for this study was obtained through an anonymous web-based research platform: participants provided sociodemographic data and answered Brazilian versions of the the mYFAS 2.0 and the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11). Analysis included an assessment of the Brazilian mYFAS 2.0’s internal consistency reliability, factor structure, and convergent validity in relation to BIS-11 scores. Results: Overall, 7,639 participants were included (71.3% females; age: 27.2±7.9 years). The Brazilian mYFAS 2.0 had adequate internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89). A single factor solution yielded the best goodness-of-fit parameters for both the continuous and categorical version of the mYFAS 2.0 in confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, mYFAS 2.0 correlated with BIS-11 total scores (Spearman’s rho = 0.26, p &lt; 0.001) and subscores. Conclusion: The Brazilian mYFAS 2.0 demonstrated adequate psychometric properties in our sample; however, future studies should further evaluate its discriminant validity. <![CDATA[Potential antidepressant effect of amantadine: a review of preclinical studies and clinical trials]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462018000400449&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: Amantadine blocks N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and has dopaminergic and noradrenergic action, a neurochemical profile that suggests its potential as an antidepressant drug. We conducted a systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies addressing the effects of amantadine in animal models of depression and in patients with depression. Methods: PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science were searched up to September 1, 2017 to identify clinical and preclinical studies. The following search terms were used: “amantadine AND depress*”; “amantadine AND mood”; “amantadine AND animal models AND antidepres*”; and “amantadine AND (forced swim, learned helplessness, reserpine, chronic mild stress, anhedonia, sucrose preference).” Results: Amantadine had antidepressant-like effects in animal models and appeared to potentiate the antidepressant effects of other antidepressants. These preclinical findings have received some support from the results of small open-label clinical trials, suggesting that amantadine can reduce depressive symptomatology and potentiate the antidepressant effects of monoaminergic drugs. In addition to its glutamatergic and dopaminergic effects, the potential antidepressant-like effects of amantadine have been linked to molecular and cellular actions, such as increased expression of neurotrophic factors (e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor), activation of σ1 receptors, decreased corticosterone levels, and decreased inflammatory response to stress. Conclusion: Amantadine is an interesting candidate as new antidepressant drug for the treatment of depression. <![CDATA[Cocaine use by older populations, sleep quality, and associated risks]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462018000400459&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: Amantadine blocks N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and has dopaminergic and noradrenergic action, a neurochemical profile that suggests its potential as an antidepressant drug. We conducted a systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies addressing the effects of amantadine in animal models of depression and in patients with depression. Methods: PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science were searched up to September 1, 2017 to identify clinical and preclinical studies. The following search terms were used: “amantadine AND depress*”; “amantadine AND mood”; “amantadine AND animal models AND antidepres*”; and “amantadine AND (forced swim, learned helplessness, reserpine, chronic mild stress, anhedonia, sucrose preference).” Results: Amantadine had antidepressant-like effects in animal models and appeared to potentiate the antidepressant effects of other antidepressants. These preclinical findings have received some support from the results of small open-label clinical trials, suggesting that amantadine can reduce depressive symptomatology and potentiate the antidepressant effects of monoaminergic drugs. In addition to its glutamatergic and dopaminergic effects, the potential antidepressant-like effects of amantadine have been linked to molecular and cellular actions, such as increased expression of neurotrophic factors (e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor), activation of σ1 receptors, decreased corticosterone levels, and decreased inflammatory response to stress. Conclusion: Amantadine is an interesting candidate as new antidepressant drug for the treatment of depression. <![CDATA[Coronary calcium score as an expression of multisystemic progression of bipolar disorder]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462018000400460&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: Amantadine blocks N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and has dopaminergic and noradrenergic action, a neurochemical profile that suggests its potential as an antidepressant drug. We conducted a systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies addressing the effects of amantadine in animal models of depression and in patients with depression. Methods: PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science were searched up to September 1, 2017 to identify clinical and preclinical studies. The following search terms were used: “amantadine AND depress*”; “amantadine AND mood”; “amantadine AND animal models AND antidepres*”; and “amantadine AND (forced swim, learned helplessness, reserpine, chronic mild stress, anhedonia, sucrose preference).” Results: Amantadine had antidepressant-like effects in animal models and appeared to potentiate the antidepressant effects of other antidepressants. These preclinical findings have received some support from the results of small open-label clinical trials, suggesting that amantadine can reduce depressive symptomatology and potentiate the antidepressant effects of monoaminergic drugs. In addition to its glutamatergic and dopaminergic effects, the potential antidepressant-like effects of amantadine have been linked to molecular and cellular actions, such as increased expression of neurotrophic factors (e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor), activation of σ1 receptors, decreased corticosterone levels, and decreased inflammatory response to stress. Conclusion: Amantadine is an interesting candidate as new antidepressant drug for the treatment of depression.