Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1516-444620190004&lang=pt vol. 41 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Translational evidence for ayahuasca as an antidepressant: what’s next?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000400275&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[How challenging is to manage agitated patients?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000400277&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[Generalized anxiety disorder: advances in neuroimaging studies]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000400279&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[Acute effects of ayahuasca in a juvenile non-human primate model of depression]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000400280&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: The incidence rate of major depression in adolescents reaches approximately 14%. This disorder is usually recurrent, without remission of symptoms even after pharmacological treatment, and persists throughout adult life. Since the effects of antidepressants take approximately 2 weeks to begin, new pharmacological therapies are under continuous exploration. Recent evidence suggests that psychedelics could produce rapid antidepressant effects. In this study, we evaluated the potential antidepressant effects of ayahuasca in a juvenile non-human primate model of depression. Methods: While living with their families, juvenile marmosets (8 males; 7 females) were observed on alternate days for four weeks during a baseline phase. This was followed by 8 weeks of an induced depressive state protocol, the social isolated context (IC), in which the animals were monitored in the first and last weeks. Subsequently, five males and four females were randomly selected for treatment, first with a single administration of saline vehicle (1.67 mL/300 g of body weight, via gavage), followed by a single dose of ayahuasca (1.67 mL/300 g of body weight, via gavage). Both phases lasted 1 week and the animals were monitored daily. A third week of sampling was called the tardive-pharmacological effects phase. In all phases the marmosets were assessed for behavior, fecal cortisol levels, and body weight. Results: After IC, the animals presented typical hypocortisolemia, but cortisol recovered to baseline levels 24 h after an acute dose of ayahuasca; this recovery was not observed in vehicle-treated animals. Additionally, in males, ayahuasca, but not the vehicle, reduced scratching, a stereotypic behavior, and increased feeding. Ayahuasca treatment also improved body weight to baseline levels in both sexes. The ayahuasca-induced behavioral response had long-term effects (14 days). Thus, in this translational juvenile animal model of depression, ayahuasca presented beneficial effects. Conclusions: These results can contribute to the validation of ayahuasca as an antidepressant drug and encourage new studies on psychedelic drugs as a tool for treating mood disorders, including for adolescents with early-onset depression. <![CDATA[Behavioral, affective, and cognitive alterations induced by individual and combined environmental stressors in rats]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000400289&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: To evaluate whether exposing rats to individual or combined environmental stressors triggers endophenotypes related to mood and anxiety disorders, and whether this effect depends on the nature of the behavior (i.e., innate or learned). Methods: We conducted a three-phase experimental protocol. In phase I (baseline), animals subjected to mixed schedule of reinforcement were trained to press a lever with a fixed interval of 1 minute and a limited hold of 3 seconds. On the last day of phase I, an open-field test was performed and the animals were divided into four experimental groups (n=8/group). In phase II (repeated stress), each group was exposed to either hot air blast (HAB), paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) or both (HAB+PSD group) on alternate days over a 10-day period. Control group animals were not exposed to stressors. In phase III (post-stress evaluation), behavior was analyzed on the first (short-term effects), third (mid-term effects), and fifth (long-term effects) days after repeated stress. Results: The PSD group presented operant hyperactivity, the HAB group presented spontaneous hypoactivity and anxiety, and the HAB+PSD group presented spontaneous hyperactivity, operant hypoactivity, impulsivity, loss of interest, and cognitive impairment. Conclusion: A combination of environmental stressors (HAB and PSD) may induce endophenotypes related to bipolar disorder. <![CDATA[SIGMA-VB: Validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Montgomery-├ůsberg Depression Rating Scale using the Structured Interview Guide for the MADRS]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000400297&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: The Montgomery-├ůsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) is widely used to assess depression severity. The Structured Interview Guide for the MADRS (SIGMA) was created to standardize MADRS assessment. The objective of this study was to translate and validate the original SIGMA into a Brazilian Portuguese version (SIGMA-VB). Methods: We translated and cross-culturally validated the original SIGMA into the SIGMA-VB, and assessed its psychometric properties using data from 93 adult outpatients enrolled in the Integral Assessment in Unipolar Depression (AIUNI) trial. Participants were assessed by two raters on five visits over 8 weeks. We calculated multiple interrater reliability indexes for the SIGMA-VB and used the Hamilton Depression Hating Scale (HAM-D) for validation purposes. Results: According to the SIGMA-VB, participants had moderate depression at baseline followed by mild depression at 8 weeks. We found over 90% of correlation between scores attributed by different raters using the SIGMA-VB. Correlations between the SIGMA-VB and the HAM-D were above 66%. Conclusion: Our findings confirm that the SIGMA-VB is a valid and reliable instrument to assess depression severity in clinical research and practice. Its interrater reliability was similar to that of a previously published Japanese version of the SIGMA. <![CDATA[Aggression directed towards others vs. aggression directed towards the self: clinical differences between intermittent explosive disorder and nonsuicidal self-injury]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000400303&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: To investigate the clinical differences between intermittent explosive disorder (IED) (disorder of aggression primarily directed towards others) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) (disorder of aggression predominantly directed towards the self) in order to better understand the different clinical subtypes of aggression. Methods: We used treatment-seeking samples to compare demographic and clinical correlates between 82 participants with IED and 55 participants with NSSI. Results: The IED group was older, more likely to be male, in a relationship, and employed than the NSSI group. With respect to clinical variables, the NSSI group had more severe depressive symptoms and more social adjustment difficulties. Regarding psychiatric co-morbidities, the IED group had higher rates of generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the NSSI group had higher rates of major depressive disorder, agoraphobia, substance use disorder, and bulimia nervosa. Conclusions: Individuals with NSSI may benefit from better management of psychiatric comorbidities, specifically depressive symptoms and social adjustment difficulties. Conversely, the treatment of individuals with IED may be improved by targeting comorbid generalized anxiety disorder. Our results provide important insight for the development of tailored interventions for specific subtypes of aggression. <![CDATA[Psychological distress among transgender people in Brazil: frequency, intensity and social causation – an ICD-11 field study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000400310&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: To describe self-reported experiences of gender incongruence related to discomfort and body changes to be more congruent to the desired gender, and to examine whether experiences of psychological distress related to gender identity were more strongly related to the experience of gender incongruence per se or to experiences of social rejection. Methods: This field study used a structured interview design in a purposive sample of transgender adults (aged &gt;18 years or older) receiving health-care services in two main reference centers in Brazil. Results: A high proportion of participants (90.3%, n=93) reported experiencing psychological distress related to their gender identity and report having experienced social rejection related to their gender identity during the interview index period and that rejection by friends was the only significant predictor for psychological distress. Conclusions: Gender incongruence variables were not significant predictors of distress. This result supports the recent changes proposed by the Word Health Organization in ICD-11 to move transgender conditions from the Mental and Behavioral Disorders chapter to a new chapter on Sexual Disorders and Conditions Related to Sexual Health. <![CDATA[Prevalence of depression among patients with presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000400316&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: To estimate the prevalence of major depressive episode (MDE) in patients with presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis (pre-PTB, defined by cough lasting ≥ 3 weeks) and compare it between patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and without PTB. Methods: Patients with pre-PTB (n=260) were screened for depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Those individuals with scores ≥ 10 were subsequently assessed with the depression module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus) to confirm diagnosis. Associations of categorical variables with PTB and MDE were calculated using the chi-square test and OR. Results: PTB was confirmed in 98 patients (37.7%). A high proportion of both groups (active PTB and no PTB) screened positive for depression (60.2 vs. 62.1%, respectively). Among 159 patients who screened positive for depression, a subset of 97 (61.0%) were further evaluated with the MINI-Plus; current MDE was confirmed in 54.6% (53/97). On univariate and multivariate analysis, female sex was the only factor associated with the diagnosis of current MDE (p = 0.04). Conclusion: The prevalence of MDE was high among individuals with prolonged respiratory symptoms, independent of PTB diagnosis. This is consistent with other studies of depression in primary care in Brazil. <![CDATA[Brazilian guidelines for the management of psychomotor agitation. Part 2. Pharmacological approach]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000400324&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: To present the essential guidelines for pharmacological management of patients with psychomotor agitation in Brazil. Methods: This is a systematic review of articles retrieved from the MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and SciELO databases published from 1997 to 2017. Other relevant articles in the literature were also used to develop these guidelines. The search strategy used structured questions formulated using the PICO model, as recommended by the Guidelines Project of the Brazilian Medical Association. Recommendations were summarized according to their level of evidence, which was determined using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine system and critical appraisal tools. Results: Of 5,362 articles retrieved, 1,731 abstracts were selected for further reading. The final sample included 74 articles that met all inclusion criteria. The evidence shows that pharmacologic treatment is indicated only after non-pharmacologic approaches have failed. The cause of the agitation, side effects of the medications, and contraindications must guide the medication choice. The oral route should be preferred for drug administration; IV administration must be avoided. All subjects must be monitored before and after medication administration. Conclusion: If non-pharmacological strategies fail, medications are needed to control agitation and violent behavior. Once medicated, the patient should be monitored until a tranquil state is possible without excessive sedation. Systematic review registry number: CRD42017054440. <![CDATA[Structural and functional neuroimaging studies in generalized anxiety disorder: a systematic review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000400336&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objectives: Brain imaging studies carried out in patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have contributed to better characterize the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder. The present study reviews the available functional and structural brain imaging evidence on GAD, and suggests further strategies for investigations in this field. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed in PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar, aiming to identify original research evaluating GAD patients with the use of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as diffusion tensor imaging. Results: The available studies have shown impairments in ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, posterior parietal regions, and amygdala in both pediatric and adult GAD patients, mostly in the right hemisphere. However, the literature is often tentative, given that most studies have employed small samples and included patients with comorbidities or in current use of various medications. Finally, different methodological aspects, such as the type of imaging equipment used, also complicate the generalizability of the findings. Conclusions: Longitudinal neuroimaging studies with larger samples of both juvenile and adult GAD patients, as well as at risk individuals and unaffected relatives, should be carried out in order to shed light on the specific biological signature of GAD. <![CDATA[Sociodemographic, psychiatric, and personality correlates of non-prescribed use of amphetamine medications for academic performance among medical students]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000400363&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objectives: Brain imaging studies carried out in patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have contributed to better characterize the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder. The present study reviews the available functional and structural brain imaging evidence on GAD, and suggests further strategies for investigations in this field. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed in PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar, aiming to identify original research evaluating GAD patients with the use of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as diffusion tensor imaging. Results: The available studies have shown impairments in ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, posterior parietal regions, and amygdala in both pediatric and adult GAD patients, mostly in the right hemisphere. However, the literature is often tentative, given that most studies have employed small samples and included patients with comorbidities or in current use of various medications. Finally, different methodological aspects, such as the type of imaging equipment used, also complicate the generalizability of the findings. Conclusions: Longitudinal neuroimaging studies with larger samples of both juvenile and adult GAD patients, as well as at risk individuals and unaffected relatives, should be carried out in order to shed light on the specific biological signature of GAD. <![CDATA[Tourette’s disorder and sexual offenses: psychiatric-forensic considerations]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000400364&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objectives: Brain imaging studies carried out in patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have contributed to better characterize the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder. The present study reviews the available functional and structural brain imaging evidence on GAD, and suggests further strategies for investigations in this field. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed in PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar, aiming to identify original research evaluating GAD patients with the use of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as diffusion tensor imaging. Results: The available studies have shown impairments in ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, posterior parietal regions, and amygdala in both pediatric and adult GAD patients, mostly in the right hemisphere. However, the literature is often tentative, given that most studies have employed small samples and included patients with comorbidities or in current use of various medications. Finally, different methodological aspects, such as the type of imaging equipment used, also complicate the generalizability of the findings. Conclusions: Longitudinal neuroimaging studies with larger samples of both juvenile and adult GAD patients, as well as at risk individuals and unaffected relatives, should be carried out in order to shed light on the specific biological signature of GAD. <![CDATA[Prevention of suicide in older adults]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000400365&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objectives: Brain imaging studies carried out in patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have contributed to better characterize the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder. The present study reviews the available functional and structural brain imaging evidence on GAD, and suggests further strategies for investigations in this field. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed in PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar, aiming to identify original research evaluating GAD patients with the use of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as diffusion tensor imaging. Results: The available studies have shown impairments in ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, posterior parietal regions, and amygdala in both pediatric and adult GAD patients, mostly in the right hemisphere. However, the literature is often tentative, given that most studies have employed small samples and included patients with comorbidities or in current use of various medications. Finally, different methodological aspects, such as the type of imaging equipment used, also complicate the generalizability of the findings. Conclusions: Longitudinal neuroimaging studies with larger samples of both juvenile and adult GAD patients, as well as at risk individuals and unaffected relatives, should be carried out in order to shed light on the specific biological signature of GAD. <![CDATA[Corrigendum]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462019000400367&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objectives: Brain imaging studies carried out in patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have contributed to better characterize the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder. The present study reviews the available functional and structural brain imaging evidence on GAD, and suggests further strategies for investigations in this field. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed in PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar, aiming to identify original research evaluating GAD patients with the use of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as diffusion tensor imaging. Results: The available studies have shown impairments in ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, posterior parietal regions, and amygdala in both pediatric and adult GAD patients, mostly in the right hemisphere. However, the literature is often tentative, given that most studies have employed small samples and included patients with comorbidities or in current use of various medications. Finally, different methodological aspects, such as the type of imaging equipment used, also complicate the generalizability of the findings. Conclusions: Longitudinal neuroimaging studies with larger samples of both juvenile and adult GAD patients, as well as at risk individuals and unaffected relatives, should be carried out in order to shed light on the specific biological signature of GAD.