Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science]]> vol. 20 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Determination of the Quality and Shelf Life of Sous Vide Cooked Turkey Cutlet Stored at 4 and 12ºC]]> ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the quality and shelf life of sous vide turkey cutlet stored at 4 and 12ºC. Samples were packaged under vacuum into polyamide-polypropylene pouches, cooked using sous vide technology (65ºC/40 min), chilled at 3ºC and stored at 4 and 12ºC for 5 weeks. Microbial (TMAB, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, moulds and yeasts, Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, Cl. perfringens), physical-chemical (pH, water activity, TBARS, L*a*b* colour, texture profile analysis and shear force) and sensory (appearance, colour, odour, flavour, juiciness, chewiness and acceptance) parameters were determined. According to the results of mesophilic bacterial counts and sensory analysis, the shelf life of the sous vide turkey cutlet, cooked at 65ºC for 40 min, was determined as 28 days at 4ºC while 15 days at 12ºC. Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, Cl. perfringens were not detected in turkey cutlet samples during the storage period. It was detected that sous vide cooked provided convenient ready-to-eat foods and a long shelf life for turkey cutlet. <![CDATA[Utilizing the House Fly (Musca Domestica) Larva as an Alternative to Soybean Meal in Broiler Ration During the Starter Phase]]> ABSTRACT A total of 120 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to 12 pens of 10 birds in a completely randomized design (CRD). In four experimental diets, soya bean meal was replaced with a maggot meal at the rate of 0, 40, 50 and 60% designated as group A, B, C and D respectively. Body weight was significantly higher (p&lt;0.05), whereas feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly lower in group D than group A and B. Dressing percentage and apparent metabolizable energy were significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher in group D than group A, B and C. Digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract and ash were significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher, and crude fiber was significantly (p&lt;0.05) lower in group D than group A. It was concluded that 60% soybean meal could be safely replaced by a maggot meal in broiler ration during the starter phase. <![CDATA[Inclusion of Moringa Leaf Powder (Moringa oleifera) in Fodder for Feeding Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)]]> ABSTRACT This research evaluated the nutritional, nutraceutical, antimicrobial, as well as the growing promoter effect of Moringa oleifera (MOR) leaves flour in fodders for fattening Japanese quails. The antimicrobial activity was measured using the method of Kirby-Bauer. A completely random design with 4x2 factorial arrangement was used, fodders included 0, 7, 14, and 21% of MOR, with and without Virginiamycin (100 ppm), during 35 d of fattening, 480 one-day old unsexed quails were used, each treatment had 5 replicates with 12 quails/cage. MOR inhibited the growth of bacteria gram (+) and gram (-). The inclusion of MOR in the period from 1 to 14 d inhibited the weight gain (p&lt;0.001), increased feed conversion (p&lt;0.001), without affecting the feed intake; however, in the period of 15 to 35 d MOR did not affect weight gain and the feed intake; the hematological and biochemical profile were within the normal range for quails. The inclusion of MOR decreased (p≤0.001) cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), and creatinine decreased (p≤0.001) when the amount of substitution of MOR was 21%. The carcass weight and its yield with MOR up to 14% were similar (p&lt;0.001). The results of this experiment showed that flour from leaves of Moringa oleifera is a viable alternative to be included up to 14% in commercial diets of birds offering an option for AGP replacement without compromising the health of the animal and therefore its productivity. <![CDATA[Impacts of Breeder Age, Storage Time and Setter Ventilation Program on Incubation and Post-Hatch Performance of Broilers]]> ABSTRACT The impacts of breeder age (32 and 55 weeks), egg storage time (2-12 days), setter ventilation program (control-test) on incubation and post-hatch performance of broilers were investigated in this study. Young (Y) and old (O) breeders’ hatching eggs were incubated in two different setters operated by two different ventilation programs as control (C) and test (T). Incubation took place after a short (S) and long (L) time of storage in this study. According to the trial design, eight treatment groups were as YSC, YST, YLC, YLT, OSC, OST, OLC and OLT. In total 9600 eggs and 6400 chicks were used. Early stage embryonic mortality (ED) rates were lower and accordingly hatchability of fertile eggs (HF) were higher (p&lt;0.05) in YS than the other treatment groups. In contrast, incubation performance in eggs hatched in C and T programs were found to be similar. However, interaction between treatments were significant (p&lt;0.05) and ED and HF were significantly (p&lt;0.05) improved at OC. Liveability in growing period was affected (p&lt;0.05) by breeder age but it wasn’t affected by storage time and incubation program. Higher post-hatch performance was achieved in chicks of OST but differences between groups weren’t significant except for chick weights in comparison by breeder age. However, interactions between treatments were significant (p&lt;0.05) and reached the highest post-hatch performance in YST (p&lt;0.05). In conclusion, the long time storage of old breeders’ eggs improved incubation and post-hatch performance when they were incubated at test program. <![CDATA[Comparison of Gut Microbial Diversity in Beijing Oil and Arbor Acres Chickens]]> ABSTRACT The Beijing oil (BJO) chicken is an autochthona Chinese breed which shows outstanding meat quality characteristics compared with fast-growing imported chickens such as Arbor Acres (AA) chickens. Gut microbial diversity has been shown to influence host factors such as energy and nutrient metabolism, immune response and fertility. Consequently, it is hoped that analyses into host microbial populations will ultimately help to improve the quality of associated meat products. Two distinct chicken breeds, Arbor Acres (AA) and Beijing oil (BJO), were selected to analyze the composition of the 16S rRNA gene V3-V5 hypervariable regions using high-throughput sequencing technology. Upon elucidation of gut-colonizing bacteria, the Firmicutes were observed to encompass the dominant phylum. The abundance of Firmicutes in the BJO chickens (84.9%) was lower than in the AA chickens (89.9%). Conversely, the prevalence of Proteobacteria was 4.8% in BJO chickens, with a significantly lower abundance observed in AA chickens (1.3%). In the cecum, the Firmicutes were once more the dominant phylum in BJO chickens (60.2%) and AA chickens (63.7%). The abundance of bacteroidetes was 37.7% in BJO chickens and 34.9% in AA chickens, respectively. These discoveries provide a perception into the composition of the gut microbiotain both breeds. The study also provides a foundation for future research relating to gut bacterial factors that may influence the development and progression of gastrointestinal disease in chickens and other animals. <![CDATA[Effects of Dietary Copper on Growth Performance, Slaughter Performance and Nutrient Content of Fecal in Growing Goslings from 28 to 70 Days of Age]]> ABSTRACT A dose-response experiment with four dietary copper concentrations (4.17, 8.17, 12.17 and 16.17 mg/kg) was conducted to estimate the growth performance, slaughter performance, nutrient content of fecal and liver copper concentrations of growing Goslings from 28 to 70 d of age. Two hundred healthy male Yangzhou geese with similar body weight were randomized to four groups with five replicates per treatment and ten geese per replicate. Average daily feed intake, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio of geese for each pen were measured from 28 to 70 d of age. At 70 d of age, two geese were selected randomly from each pen and slaughtered to evaluate carcass quality. Metabolism experiment was conducted with five male geese from each group (one goose per pen) which body weight was close to the mean weight of the group from 64 to 70 d of age. Significant effects of dietary copper was found on body weight, feed conversion ratio, carcass yield, fecal copper concentrations and liver copper concentrations. Body weight, feed conversion ratio and carcass yield showed significant quadratic response to increase dietary copper concentration, while fecal copper concentration and liver copper concentration showed a significant linear response. The result showed that dietary Cu addition can improve growth by increasing the use of the feeding stuff and improving carcass yield in growing Goslings. Furthermore, taking into consideration, the optimal level of Gosling dietary copper was between 8.77 and 11.6 mg/kg from 28 to 70 days of age. <![CDATA[Effects of Nutritional Levels on Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Nutrient Digestibility of Sexed Broilers]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary nutrient levels on performance, carcass yield, commercial cuts, digestibility and economical viability of broilers from 1 to 42 days of age. During the experiment, 180 COBB 500™ chicks were housed in metal batteries and subjected to a completely randomized design in a 2x3 factorial arrangement, of two sexes and three diets (male, female and mixed), totaling 6 treatments and 6 repetitions of 5 birds each. Data were subjected to statistical analysis and the means were compared using the Tukey test, at 5% probability. The results indicate the effect of sex on performance and commercial cuts, except for breast and thigh fillets, in which males and females showed similar results when given the mixed diet. The influence of the nutritional levels on performance, digestibility and commercial cuts was observed, in which the female diet showed the highest results for feed intake, body weight and weight gain, in addition to greater retention of protein and crude energy. For drumstick and abdominal fat yield, the highest values were obtained using the mixed diet and the female diet, and the lowest values were obtained using the male diet. Regarding economic viability, the female diet showed the highest return per unit of Real (R$) spent on feed. Therefore, these data prove that the female diet had a positive effect when provided to both sexes, and it may be a promising alternative for its application at the production level. <![CDATA[Production Indicators and Levels of Corticosterone in Pullets Treated with Beak-Trimming Protocols]]> ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to compare the effects of beak trimming by hot blade or infrared radiation on production indicators and plasma levels of corticosterone in pullets. During the rearing phase, an entirely random delineation was used a 2 x 3 factorial design (two different techniques for beak trimming x 3 strains), a total of six treatments with six repetitions of 20 hens. In the growing phase, the previous treatments were divided into 12, with eight repetitions with seven hens. These treatments were then distributed in a factorial design of 2 x 3 x 2 (two methodologies for beak trimming during rearing phase x three strains x with or without beak trimming at ten weeks of age). In the rearing phase the birds treated by infrared radiation had a lower total consumption and a longer beak length. In the growing phase, the execution of beak trimming at ten weeks of age, led to a lower total consumption and a lower body weight, but a better food conversion, when compared to those hens that did not have beak treatment. Beak trimming at ten weeks did not change the plasmatic levels of corticosterone. <![CDATA[Standard Body Weight and Serum Estradiol and Progesterone Concentrations in Response to Total Lysine Content in Female Broiler Breeders from 14 to 42 Days after Hatch]]> ABSTRACT This study was conducted to determine the total lysine requirement for female broiler breeders from days 14 to 42. Two-hundred and ten female broiler breeders were used in a completely randomized design with 6 replicates per treatment and 5 chicks per pen under restricted feeding. The contents of total lysine used in this experiment were 0.68, 0.72, 0.76, 0.80, 0.84, 0.88 and 0.92% in the diet. A basal diet was formulated to meet or to exceed the Ross 308 female broiler breeders’ nutrient specifications except for the lysine. Body weight and feed intake were measured to calculate feed efficiency, and body weight uniformity was defined on a weekly basis. One chick per pen was randomly selected to collect blood samples, organ and an abundance of sexual maturity associated miRNAs (miR-21, mi-26a and mi-375) in the plasma was measured on day 42. Increasing total lysine contents in the diet improved body weight gain and feed conversion ratio from days 14 to 42. The combined values from the two models for BW, average daily gain and feed efficiency were estimated at 1.04, 1.00 and 1.21% total lysine, respectively. Total lysine contents did not affect the ovary weight, serum estradiol-17b, serum progesterone and plasma urea nitrogen or the expression levels of the three miRNAs on day 42. Therefore, the results from the current study indicated that female broiler breeders fed on 0.68% total lysine could achieve the recommended BW, suggested by field practice when data were fitted into the overlapped point of linear-, and quadratic-plateau models. <![CDATA[Effects of Light Intensity on Growth, Anti-Stress Ability and Immune Function in Yellow Feathered Broilers]]> ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of light intensity on growth, anti-stress ability, and immune function of yellow feathered broilers. A total of 480 one-day-old male Lingnan yellow feathered broilers were randomly allocated to 4 treatments based on light intensity (1, 5, 20 and 80 lx) with 8 replicates of 15 chicks each. The experiment lasted for 63 days. Compared with those under high light intensity, broilers exposed to low light intensity had higher (p&lt;0.05) total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), a-Naphthylacetate esterase (ANAE+), antibody titer, but lower (p&lt;0.05) malonaldehyde (MDA) levels and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio (H/L). There was a linear effect for T-AOC(p=0.002), GSH-Px(p≤0.047), MDA (p=0.003), H/L(p≤0.014), ANAE+ (p≤0.044), and antibody titer (p≤0.021) with T-AOC, GSH-Px, ANAE+, and antibody titer increased significantly as light intensity decreased, whereas MDA and H/L were decreased with the decrease in light intensity. These results suggested that broilers under low light intensity could have similar performance, better anti-stress ability, stronger immune function, and more efficient in energy usage as compared with those exposed to high light intensity environment. <![CDATA[Determination of Ochratoxin A Levels in Mixed Feed and Feed Stuffs Used in Some Laying Hens and Ruminant Enterprises of Sivas City]]> ABSTRACT Mycotoxins, which are produced by some fungi under improper storage conditions before or after harvesting in plant products, cause acute or chronic toxicities. Ochratoxin A (OA) which is also one of the harmful mycotoxins pose a threat to animal and human health. This study was carried out in order to determine OA levels in mixed feed and feedstuffs materials used in livestock enterprises throughout Sivas province. The 59 mixed feeds and 30 feedstuffs materials collected from different enterprises was analysed. Ochratoxin A concentrations were quantified using immunoassay (ELISA). In result, OA was found to be positive in 64 (71.91%) of the 89 samples analysed, whereas OA was not found in 25 samples (28.09%). <![CDATA[Effect of Storage in Display Cases on the Sensory Quality of Chicken Breast Meat (M. Pectoralis)]]> ABSTRACT This paper describes a study on the determination of sensory quality of chicken breast muscles packaged with a PVC overwrap and under high-oxygen modified atmosphere (MAP: 75% O2 and 25% CO2), and stored in the display case (exposure to light and temperature fluctuations). For a more complete characterization of the raw material, the volume of drip loss in the package, and meat pH, L*, a*, and b* color components were measured. For comparison purposes, the quality of meat maintained under dark cold storage was also evaluated (control samples). In total, 64 PVC overwrap and 64 MAP packages were evaluated. Chicken breast muscles stored in the display case on PVC overwrap and in MAP packaging presented acceptable, despite but not the highest sensory quality until days 7 and 8 of storage, respectively. The meat under dark cold storage maintained high quality until the end of the experiment. When stored in the display case, packaging in MAP allowed extending chicken breast meat shelf life by at least 1 day in comparison with PVC overwrap packaging. <![CDATA[Eggshell Qualities as Indicative of Eggshell Strength for Layer Selection]]> ABSTRACT The study aimed at investigating which of four traits is the most representative of eggshell strength (destructive eggshell thickness measurement, eggshell weight, egg specific gravity, ultrasonic measurement of eggshell thickness) and could be used for selection purposes. To date, investigations focused mostly on pairwise (eggshell strength vs. another eggshell feature) analyses, resulting in two-, maybe three-trait, models when eggshell traits are considered. Since the covariance estimates are also model dependent, we collected five eggshell traits within one analysis, which better reflects what occurs in nature. The eggs were collected from 4571 Rhode Island White and 2426 Rhode Island Red hens. A multiple-trait animal model and the REML method were employed to compute variance components for calculation of heritabilities and genetic correlations between the traits. On average, the highest correlations were found between the destructive measurement and the other quality traits. It is concluded, however, that the ultrasonic eggshell thickness measurement, also with high genetic correlations with the other traits and leaving an egg intact for further handling, can suit best, as an indirect criterion, the selection for eggshell strength. <![CDATA[Isolation and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Enterobacteria from Nestling Grey-Breasted Parakeets (Pyrrhura Griseipectus)]]> ABSTRACT The psittacine Pyrrhura griseipectus is a threatened species currently only found in Ceará State, Brazil. A microbiological survey was conducted to determine the composition of the enteric microbiota of this species, as well as the phenotypic profiles of antimicrobial susceptibility presented by the isolates. Cloacal swabs were collected from individual birds and submitted to microbiological processing. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were evaluated using the disk diffusion method. Bacteria of the genus Escherichia, Proteus, Citrobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Morganella, Hafnia, Enterobacter, and Serratia were isolated. The most frequently isolated species were Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris, corresponding to 36.1%, 26.4%, and 8.3%, respectively. Isolates were more frequently resistant to azithromycin and tetracycline, while Escherichia coli was the main species presenting multidrug resistance. In conclusion, free-living grey-breasted parakeets may harbor enterobacteria with high antimicrobial resistance rates. <![CDATA[Respiratory and Other Health Risks among Poultry-Farm Workers and Evaluation of Management Practices in Poultry Farms]]> ABSTRACT The current study was conducted on eight poultry farms in Lahore and Sheikhupura to monitor environmental conditions, determine workers’ health status and assess the implementation of standard management practices. Environmental monitoring, a health questionnaire survey and a respiratory function test were carried out. Seventy-one respondents were selected for the health assessment survey and lung function test. The results showed that the evaluated air-quality parameters, except for temperature and humidity, were well below the permissible occupational limits. Maximum temperature recorded was 32.75 ºC, while the highest humidity level was 85.5%. Farms were shown to be compliant with standard guidelines and management practices. The workers’ health survey indicated lower prevalence of work-related symptoms as compared to previous studies. However, most workers were not subjected to overall physical hazards, 21.1% of workers suffered from heat-induced dermatosis, and 38% suffered from heat exhaustion. Eye problems (watery, redness and itchiness) were experienced by 16.9% to 31%. Reported respiratory symptoms included wheezing during colds (18.3%), wheezing other than during colds (1.4%), chest tightness (16.9%), shortness of breath along with chest tightness (9.9%), regular breathing difficulties (14.1%), and coughing (15.5%). Observed lung function pattern, as measured by FEV1/FVC ratio, was 87 ± 17.7, with 65% workers having ‘restrictive’ disorder and 21% normal lung function pattern, while 21% presented ‘obstructive’ lung function. The study concludes an overall better health and safety management in the selected poultry farms. <![CDATA[Physical-Chemical Characteristics of Designer and Conventional Eggs]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to compare the internal and external quality of conventional and designer eggs. In total, 120 Tetra SL laying hens were randomly allotted to two treatments (K and P groups), with 12 replicates of five hens each. The control group (K) was fed a standard layer diet, producing conventional eggs, and the P group was fed a modified diet supplemented with 5% of an oil mixture, 0.5 mg organic selenium/kg, 200 mg lutein/kg and 200 mg vitamin E/kg, producing designer eggs. Treatments did not influence (p&gt;0.05) egg weight or egg component weights. Designer eggs presented higher albumen proportion and lower eggshell proportion than conventional eggs (p&lt;0.01). Relative to egg quality parameters, designer eggs presented higher HU values (83.99 vs. 80.81; p=0.042), more intense yolk color (14.38 vs. 8.70; p&lt;0.01), and lower albumen pH (8.39 vs. 8.67; p=0.007). Feeding treatments and duration of egg storage did not significantly influence egg yolk lipid oxidation (p&gt;0.05). <![CDATA[Effects of Dietary Zinc Levels on the Growth Performance, Organ Zinc Content, and Zinc Retention in Broiler Chickens]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal zinc (Zn) requirement of broiler chickens based on Zn retention. On the day of hatch, 350 male Ross 308 broilers were randomly assigned to seven treatments with five replicates of ten birds each. Zinc was supplemented as ZnSO4·7H2O at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, or 120 mg/kg in the starter diet (fed from 1 to 21 d of age) and at 0, 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, or 96 mg/kg in the grower diet (fed from 22 to 42 d of age). The analyzed Zn levels were 34.98 and 27.57 mg/kg in the basal starter and grower diets, respectively. Supplemental Zn levels did not influence body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, or liver Zn content of broilers at 21 and 42 d of age (p&gt;0.05). Tibia ash Zn content of 21-d-old broilers increased when Zn supplementation level increased from 0 to 40 mg/kg Zn in (p&lt;0.05). The highest breast muscle Zn content in 42-d-old broilers was observed when 100 and 80 mg Zn/kg was supplemented in the starter and grower diets, respectively. Fecal Zn content, Zn intake, Zn excretion, and Zn retention of 31- to 33-d-old broilers linearly increased with supplemental Zn levels (p&lt;0.05). Zinc retention values, calculated as the difference between Zn intake and Zn excretion, were negative, about zero, and positive when starter/grower diets were supplemented with 0/0 and 20/16, 40/32, and 60/48 and 120/96 mg/kg, respectively. These results indicate that supplementing 40 and 32 mg Zn/kg in starter and grower diets, respectively, promote the growth performance of broiler chickens, while reduce Zn excretion in the environment. <![CDATA[Effects of Organic Acids Supplement on Performance, Egg Traits, Blood Serum Biochemical Parameters and Gut Microflora in Female Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)]]> ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of acetic acid, lactic acid, and butyric acid on the production performance, egg parameters (quality and quantity traits), blood and liver serum biochemical parameters and gastrointestinal tract microorganism on female Japanese quails. A total of 640 female Japanese quails aged 35-84 days were housedfor eight treatments with four replicates. They were arranged in completely randomized design (CRD) to evaluate the effects of basal diet (BD) with a supplement of acetic acid (AA), lactic acid (LA) and butyric acid (BA). The performance parameters to study this effect are feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg traits such as egg weight, egg production, and egg mass along with specific gravity, internal quality unit (IQU), yolk and albumen indexes, and eggshell traits such as weight, thickness, and surface. It also includes blood serum biochemical parameters such as cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, albumin, globulin, glucose, and gastrointestinal tract microflora (E.Coli and Salmonella). Eight dietary treatments were formulated by addition of organic acids such as BD without organic acids additive, BD with 124 mg/kg AA additive, BD with 104 mg/kg LA additive, BD with 113 mg/kg BA additive, BD with 63.5 mg/kg AA+53.5 mg/kg LA additive, BD with 63.5 mg/kg AA+57 mg/kg BA additive, BD with 53.5 mg/kg LA+57 mg/kg BA additive and BD with 41.6 mg/kg AA+35 mg/kg LA+37 mg/kg BA additive. The results showed that the diets containing BD+LA+BA+AA and BD+AA alone considerably increased feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight, egg production and egg mass (p&lt;0.01). The diets containing BD+AA and BD+LA significantly affected some quality traits such as eggshell thickness, eggshell weight (p&lt;0.01), shell surface, and IQU (p&lt;0.05). The diets containing BD+AA and BD+LA alone increased serum cholesterol, HDL, albumin, globulin and total protein significantly (p&lt;0.01). Moreover, the groups containing BD+AA and BD+LA significantly decreased triglyceride contents in serum (p&lt;0.05). The results showed that the diets containing BD+LA and BD+BA significantly decreased the E.Coli and Salmonella population in the gastrointestinal tract (p&lt;0.01). Based on the experiment, it can beinferred that LA alone, or in combination with other organic acids, improved and showed positive effects on performance and egg traits in female Japanese quail. <![CDATA[Phylogenetic and Pathotypic Characterization of a Newcastle Disease Virus Strain Isolated from Ducks and Pigeons in Hubei, China]]> ABSTRACT Newcastle disease is a highly contagious disease responsible for major outbreaks and considerable economic losses in the poultry industry in China. There is still little information available regarding gene characterization of the NDV, especially in ducks and pigeons. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate NDV isolated from ducks and pigeons in Hubei, China. In this study, three NDVs from ducks and pigeons were isolated between 2013 and 2015.The fusion protein (F) gene of the NDV isolates was sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. The clinical signs and gross histopathological lesions were examined. Phylogenetic analysis of these strains indicated that all the sequences are classified as genotype II. The isolates shared a 112 G-R-Q-G-R-L 117motif at the F protein cleavage site, indicating that these three isolates strains are lentogenic. Necropsy and histopathology showed the typical pathological changes. It was concluded that commercial ducks and pigeons in Hubei province carry lentogenic NDV strains with regular genetic divergence, indicating that these species may act as the main reservoirs of NDV in poultry. Therefore, strategies and surveillance should be undertaken to reduce the risk of ND outbreaks. <![CDATA[Effect of Ultra-fine Traditional Chinese Medicine Compounds on Regulation of Lipid Metabolism and Reduction in Egg Cholesterol of Laying Hens]]> ABSTRACT This study has the objective of investigating the effects of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCM) on serum lipid, abdominal and hepatic fat percentage, cholesterol content in eggs, and mRNA expression of genes apoA I and apoB100. One hundred and thirty five healthy (300-day-old) layers were randomly assigned to three treatments. The hens in control group were fed with the basal diet. The hens in the experimental groups (TCM 1 and TCM 2) were fed with the basal diet supplemented with 1% TCM 1 and 1% TCM 2 respectively over a period of 60 days. Laying performance and the serum parameters relevant to fat metabolism were measured. The results showed that no significant differences were found in average daily feed intake and egg weight among three treatments. Average daily laying rate in TCM treatments was increased, and the cholesterol content in eggs was decreased. The serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in experimental treatments were decreased (p&lt;0.05), while the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level was increased (p&lt;0.05) compared to the control group. Additionally, abdominal fat percentage decreased in TCM 1 treatment (p&lt;0.05), and hepatic fat percentage decreased in both TCM treatments (p&lt;0.05). The expression of apolipoproteinA I (apoA I) and apolipoproteinB100 (apoB100) mRNA in the liver increased in both TCM treatments (p&lt;0.05). These results suggest that the diet supplemented with TCM could increase the expression of apoA I and apoB100 mRNA in the liver, and decrease lipid content in the serum, and reduce egg cholesterol in layers. <![CDATA[Investigation of Enteric Viruses in the Feces of Neotropical Migratory Birds Captured on the Coast of the State of Pará, Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Migratory birds can become long-distance vectors for a wide range of microorganisms and can cause human disease, being the Brazilian coast a gateway for northern migratory birds. These animals are considered natural reservoirs of different viruses that cause important diseases, being relevant research of viral pathogens in migratory birds to epidemiology surveillance. The objective of the study was to investigate the presence of avian rotavirus (AvRV), avian reovirus (ARV) and picobirnavirus (PBV) in Neotropical migratory birds captured on the coast of Brazil. A total of 23 individual fecal samples of the migratory birds species Calidris pusilla (20 birds), Numenius phaeopus (1 bird) and Charadrius semipalmatus (2 birds) were collected. Fecal suspensions were prepared from the collected samples for subsequent extraction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which was subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The electrophoretic profiles were not detected by PAGE, and the amplification for the studied viruses PBV, ARV and AvRV (specie D, gene VP6 and NSP4) were negative. Positivity for AvRVD, VP7 gene was of 4.35% (1/23) for the migratory bird Calidris pusilla. After sequencing and building the tree of phylogenetic relationships avian Rotavirus Group D identified in this study was phylogenetically related and grouped into one branch, together to previously reported AvRVD from Brazil in chicken flocks with 99.8% nucleotide and 100% amino acid similarities. <![CDATA[The Gene Ontology Differs in Bursa of Fabricius Between Two Breeds of Ducks Post Hatching by Enriching the Differentially Expressed Genes]]> ABSTRACT The bursa of Fabricius (BF) is the central humoral immune organ unique to birds. The present study investigated the possible difference on a molecular level between two duck breeds. The digital gene expression profiling (DGE) technology was used to enrich the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in BF between the Jianchang and Nonghua-P strains of ducks. DGE data identified 195 DEGs in the bursa. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis suggested that DEGs were mainly enriched in the metabolic pathways and ribosome components. Pathways analysis identified the spliceosome, RNA transport, RNA degradation process, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway and B cell receptor signaling pathway. The results indicated that the main difference in the BF between the two duck strains was in the capabilities of protein formation and B cell development. These data have revealed the main divergence in the BF on a molecular level between genetically different duck breeds and may help to perform molecular breeding programs in poultry in the future. <![CDATA[The Effect of Dietary Tarragon (Artemisia Dracunculus) Powders in Different Levels on Carcass Characteristics and Some Internal Organ’s Weight of Broiler Chickens]]> ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of Tarragon powder on head, chicken feet, some internal organs and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. One day -old two hundred forty Ross 308 male broilers were randomly allocated into four treatments and six replicates per treatment. At each replicate ten birds were used. All birds at 42 days had ad libitum access to water and feed and were exposed to a 23L:1D lighting program. The diets were set on the basis of corn, soybean and wheat meal, formulated according to the recommendations of the Ross 308 manual (starter days 1-14, grower days 15-37, and finisher days 38-42), and offered as mash. The tarragon plant used in the research was purchased from a vegetable market in Erzurum province in Turkey. Treatments were: base diet (Control), base diet + 0.1% of Tarragon powder (group A), base diet + 0.2% of Tarragon powder (group B), base diet + 0.5% of Tarragon powder (group C). Except for relative wing and head weight, other carcass traits were not significantly affected (p&gt;0.05) by different levels of Tarragon powder. The lowest relative head weight (p&lt;0.001), and the highest relative wing weight (p&lt;0.05) were observed in the control group. The results of this study suggest that the addition of Tarragon powder to broiler diets has no effect on other important carcass traits, except for the head and wing weights of broiler chickens. <![CDATA[Grape (Vitis Vinifera) Pomace Flour as Pigment Agent of Quail Eggs]]> ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of dietary grape pomace flour (GPF) inclusion on the performance and egg quality of European quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix) in lay. One hundred ninety-two (192), 42-day-old quails were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments (0, 2, 4 and 6% grape pomace flour inclusion) with six replicates of eight birds each. The performance parameters egg weight (g), average feed intake (g/bird), total feed intake (g/bird), egg production (%) and feed conversion ratio (kg/dozen) were evaluated, as well as egg quality traits Haugh unit, albumen weight (g), yolk weight (g), eggshell thickness (mm), egg specific gravity (g/cm3), and yolk pigmentation. There was no effect (p&gt;0.05) of dietary GPF levels on egg production, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. Egg weight, albumen weight, and egg specific gravity linearly decreased (p&lt;0.05) as GPM levels increased in the diet. Haugh unit and eggshell thickness were not affected (p&gt;0.05) by the treatments. A quadratic effect (p&lt;0.05) was observed for yolk weight, with an estimated maximal inclusion level of grape pomace flour of 4.18% to obtain the highest yolk weight. A quadratic effect (p&lt;0.05) was also observed on yolk pigmentation, with an estimated minimal level of 3.2% for this parameter. The minimal inclusion of 3.2% of grape pomace flour in quail diets influenced the egg yolk pigmentation, demonstrating its efficiency as a pigmentation additive.