Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola]]> vol. 18 num. SPE2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Poultry Egg Incubation: Integrating and Optimizing Production Efficiency]]> ABSTRACT Due to its central position in the production chain, in-ovo development is influenced by pre-incubation factors that affect the quality of embryonated eggs and incubation conditions themselves, and both may influence egg hatchability and chick quality, as well as bird survival, growth performance, and phenotype in the field. The evolution of the incubation process over the years is characterized by significant scientific and technological development. Presently, the main current focuses of research are the manipulation of thermal incubation conditions, eggshell temperature, and the integrated effects of factors that influence incubation. In this context, one of the questions that needs to be asked is how effective are the current physical conditions of incubation to promote greater hatchability and better quality chicks, and higher survival and better performance in the field under adverse conditions or not. What are the new and future prospects for incubation? The purpose of this paper was to review the role of the physical agents of incubation, such as temperature, relative humidity, O2 and CO2 concentration, and egg turning and position from an integrated perspective, considering egg incubation as the transitional link between egg and poultry production. <![CDATA[Effect of Incubator Type and Broiler Breeder Age on Hatchability and Chick Quality]]> ABSTRACT Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of broiler breeder age and incubator type on hatching parameters, hatch window, embryo diagnosis results, and hatchling physical quality. The treatments consisted of a combination of three broiler breeder ages (29, 35 and 59 weeks of age) and two incubator types (single stage, SS; or and multiple stage, MS). A completely randomized design in a 3x2 factorial arrangement was applied. In Experiment I, 1,896 eggs were used and 360 eggs in Experiment II. There was an interaction between breeder age and incubator type only for hatchling physical quality score. Independently of incubator type, hatchability rate, late embryo mortality, and egg contamination were higher in the eggs laid by older breeders (59-wk-old). Early mortality (0-4 days) was higher in the embryos from young breeders (29-wk-old). A shorter hatch window birth was obtained in the SS incubator, resulting in higher hatchling body weight relative to egg weight, and better hatchling physical quality score. Both types of incubators provide good conditions for embryo development; however, the physical quality of chicks derived from eggs from intermediate-aged breeders (35-wk-old) is better when eggs are incubated in SS incubators. <![CDATA[Analysis of Water in the Chicken Eggshell Using the 1H Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy]]> ABSTRACT The water content of the chicken eggshell has a major influence on gas (CO2 and O2) permeability. Inappropriate water loss during the incubation period increases embryo mortality and decreases chick quality. So far only the procedures that enable to determine the total water content in the eggshell have been described and developed. Our analysis of the 1H MAS NMR spectra of the chicken eggshell samples revealed three signals, differing significantly in the chemical shift and relaxation times (T1) parameters. In this work we have assigned those signals and described the changes in their intensities that occur during the incubation period. Using 1H MAS NMR it is possible to distinguish two types of water reservoirs in the chicken eggshell. This approach can be used for more detailed analysis of the water content in the eggshells. <![CDATA[Influence of a Commercial Hatchery Thermal Environmental on the Heat Loss of Fertile Broiler Eggs]]> ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to monitor the thermal environment of different hatchery locations during the transfer of fertile eggs from the setter and to the hatcher, to measure egg heat loss, and to determine its effects on hatchery results. In total, 1,728 fertile eggs of Cobb broiler breeders were divided into two treatments. In treatment 1 (T1), after 19 days of incubation, eggs were removed from the incubator and transferred to the hatcher in aninsulated box, and in treatment 0 (T0), eggs were transferred with no thermal insulation (T0). The duration of egg transfer was 10 minutes. Eggs were photographed using a thermographic camera at the exit of the setter, arrival at and exit from the candling room, and arrival at the hatcher. Based on the thermographic images, egg heat loss between these locations was calculated. At hatch, total hatchability, hatchability of fertile eggs, and hatchling weight were recorded and compared between T0 and T1. The temperature and relative humidity of the corridor between the setter and the candling room, of the candling room, of the corridor between candling roomand the hatcher were monitored using data loggers. The results indicated that T1 eggs lost 0.15 kJ less heat than T0 eggs during transfer. However, hatchability and hatchling weight were not affected by transfer treatment during the studies period. <![CDATA[Effect of High Incubation Temperature on the Blood Parameters of Layer Chicks]]> ABSTRACT Adequate environmental temperature control is essential for incubation efficiency. Layer breeder eggs (n=360) were weighed and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with two treatments, consisting of two incubation temperatures (T1=37.5 °C, control; and T2=39.0 °C, hot), with two incubators per temperature, and 90 eggs per incubator, totaling 360 eggs. Hatchability, embryo mortality, and chick cloacal and body surface temperatures were not affected by incubation temperature. Eggs incubated at the hot temperature presented greater egg mass loss and higher eggshell conductance than those incubated at the control temperature. Layer chicks derived from eggs incubated at control temperature showed greater absolute weight, yolk-free egg mass, and heavier hearts than those from eggs submitted to heat stress during incubation. The control group presented lower base excess and ionized calcium blood levels. Incubating eggs at temperatures higher than those recommended compromises body and heart development of layer chicks and negatively affects blood ionized calcium availability, and therefore, bone mineralization during embryo development. Efficient temperature control during the incubation of fertile eggs is essential to obtain good quality layer chicks. <![CDATA[The Effect of Eggshell Thickness on the Hatchability of Guinea Fowl and Pheasants]]> ABSTRACT Successful incubation affects the number of healthy chicks in all poultry species. This study examined the effect of eggshell thickness on the hatching rates of guinea fowl and pheasant eggs. In total, 964 guinea fowl and 1,728 pheasant eggs were used in the study. Eggshell thickness was measured directly with an ultrasound gauge. Thicknesses ranged between 0.27-0.47 mm in guinea fowl and 0.24-0.49 mm in pheasant eggs. Incubation periods were 28 days for guinea fowl and 25 days for pheasant eggs. At the end of the incubation period, unhatched eggs were broken to identify the causes of embryonic mortality. Eggs were classified as thin-, medium- and thick-shelled, and hatching rates were calculated as a function of eggshell thickness. Differences in hatching rates of guinea fowl and pheasant eggs with different shell thicknesses were not statistically significant (p&gt;0.05). <![CDATA[Evaluation of Incubation Yield, Vaccine Response, and Performance of Broilers Submitted to In-Ovo Vaccination at Different Embryonic Ages]]> ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of in-ovo vaccination on different incubation days of broiler embryos derived from young and old breeders on incubation indexes, vaccine response, and broiler performance. A number of 20,160 fertile eggs was distributed according to a completely randomized design in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement (in-ovo vaccination on 16, 17, 18, or 19 days of incubation, and breeders of 31 or 52 weeks of age), totaling eight treatments with 15 replicates of 168 eggs each. Vaccination procedures and vaccines (strains and doses) were those routinely applied in commercial hatcheries. After hatch, 960 male chicks were housed and distributed according to the same experimental design previously applied in the hatchery. There were hatching losses (p&lt;0.05) when eggs were vaccinated before 18 days of incubation. Greater Marek's disease antibody titers were obtained when the in-ovo vaccination was performed on day 19 of incubation, regardless breeder age. Embryonic age at vaccination did not compromise broiler performance in the field, and the flexibility of embryonic age for in-ovo vaccination can reduces incubation costs. <![CDATA[The Addition of Hatchery Liquid Waste to Dairy Manure Improves Anaerobic Digestion]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the optimal inclusion level of liquid egg hatchery waste for the anaerobic co-digestion of dairy cattle manure. A completely randomized experimental was applied, with seven treatments (liquid hatchery waste to cattle manure ratios of0: 100, 5:95, 10:90, 15:85, 20:80, 25:75 and 30:70), with five replicates (batch digester model) each. The evaluated variables were disappearance of total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and specific production of biogas and of methane. Maximum TS and VS disappearance of 41.3% and 49.6%, were obtained at 15.5% and 16.0% liquid hatchery waste inclusion levels. The addition of 22.3% liquid hatchery considerably reduced NDF substrate content (53.2%). Maximum specific biogas production was obtained with 17% liquid hatchery waste, with the addition of 181.7 and 229.5 L kg-1TS and VS, respectively. The highest methane production, at 120.1 and 151.8 L CH4 kg-1TS and VS, was obtained with the inclusion of 17.5 and 18.0% liquid hatchery waste, respectively. The addition of liquid hatchery waste atratios of up to 15.5%in co-digestion with cattle manure reduced solid and fiber levels in the effluent, and improved biogas and methane production. <![CDATA[Effect of Embryo Thermal Stimulation on the Serum Levels of Immunoglobulins and Corticosterone, and Organ Histopathology of 1 day-old Broilers]]> ABSTRACT Embryo thermal stimulation has been studied as a means to promote epigenetic changes and to improve broiler health and performance. This study aimed at evaluating immunoglobulin (IgM, IgG, and IgA) titers, serum corticosterone levels, and organ integrity of day-old male Cobb(r) and Ross(r) broilers. Embryos were submitted to hot and cold stimuli (thermal stimulation) on days 14-18 of incubation. The thermal manipulation treatments did not affect immunoglobulin titers of 1 day-old Cobb(r) or Ross(r) chicks, and caused severe bursal lesions (scores 3 and 4) in both strains. However, serum corticosterone levels of Cobb(r) chicks were higher when embryos were submitted to hot stimulus (+1.39ºC) compared with cold stimulus (+36 ºC). Serum corticosterone levels of Ross(r) chicks were not affected by embryo temperature manipulation. The only effect of broiler breeder age was observed on IgM titers of Cobb(r) chicks, which were higher in chicks from 33-wk-old breeders. Further studies are needed to detect the optimal period of embryo thermal stimulation. <![CDATA[Effect of Broiler Breeder Age on the Intestinal Mucosa Development of the Embryos at 20 Days of Incubation]]> ABSTRACT This study investigated the effect of broiler breeder age on the morphological development of the small intestine broiler embryos (villus height, crypt depth, microvillus height, and villus density) at 20 day of incubation. Eggs obtained from 30- and 60-wk-old broiler breeders were used. The results showed that embryos from older broiler breeders presented longer villi in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum compared with younger broiler breeders. In addition, embryos from older broiler breeders presented deeper crypts in the jejunum and ileum, longer microvilli in jejunal enterocytes, and lower villus density (microvillus number/mm2) in the duodenum and ileum than younger breeders. These results suggest that breeder age influences the gut mucosa development of broiler embryos. Embryos from older broiler breeder showed greater development of the small intestine mucosa than those from younger broiler breeder. <![CDATA[The Effects of In-Ovo Injection of Propolis on Egg Hatchability and Starter Live Performance of Japanese Quails]]> ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of in-ovo injection of a propolis water extract on hatchability, embryonic mortality, starter live performance, and livability of Japanese quails. In total, 500 fresh hatching eggs were randomly distributed into five treatment groups of 100 eggs per treatment with four replicates of 25 eggs each. On day 14 of incubation, eggs from group 1 were not injected (control), group 2 was injected with distilled water (water), group 3 was injected with 1% propolis water extract (1% propolis), group 4 was injected with 2% propolis water extract (2% propolis), and group 5 was injected with 3% propolis water extract (3% propolis). A completely randomized design was applied, and data were analyzed using the least-square methodology. Hatchability and embryonic mortality in the 2% propolis and 3% propolis treatment groups were significantly lower compared with the control group, but no significant differences were observed between the 1% propolis and control groups. There were no significant bodyweight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, or livability differences among treatments. The results of this study demonstrated that in-ovo injection of propolis water extract, especially at doses of 2% and 3% propolis, had negative effects on hatchability and embryonic mortality, but 1% propolis had no detrimental effects on hatchability or embryonic mortality. In all treatment groups, propolis did not negatively affect body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, or livability. <![CDATA[Study on the Morphological Development of Quail Embryos]]> ABSTRACT In this study, the SWKQ series microcomputer automatic incubator was used to study the growth and development of quail in the embryonic stage. Results showed that the embryo shape of became gradually defined as embryo aged. On day 6, the head and body of quail were clearly differentiated, the legs became longer and the wings appeared. At 7 embryo age, the entire embryo of quail was very clear, and the beak has formed. During 3 to 9 days of age, quail embryos length increased quickly, showing a linearly upward trend. At 9 day old, quail embryos length reached 2.2 cm. The regression equation of embryo length to day old was curve regression, giving as following: y=-0.464+0.325x-0.004x2, y: embryo length, x: the age of the embryo. <![CDATA[Action of Antimicrobial Copper on Bacteria and Fungi Isolated from Commercial Poultry Hatcheries]]> ABSTRACT Since 2008, when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registered copper and its alloys as an antimicrobial agent for contact surfaces, research has demonstrated their antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial copper against bacteria and fungi isolated from commercial poultry hatcheries in order to develop a microbiological control alternative in these environments. Samples were collected from the surfaces of hatcher baskets from two hatcheries. Mesophilic microorganisms and fungi/yeasts were isolated and standardized in concentration of 105 cells/mL. Four copper plates and four stainless steel plates were completely immersed for one minute in bacteria and fungi/yeasts solutions and left to dry for a day at room temperature. Subsequently, samples were collected from the metal plates with the aid of sterile swab and delimiter. These samples were planted onto Plate Count Agar (for mesophilic culture) and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (for fungi and yeast culture) and incubated at 36°C for 48 hours and at 25°C for 5-7 days, respectively. After incubation, the colonies recovered from the plates were counted according to IN 62 of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. Almost all contamination was eliminated from the surface of copper plates in a single day, while the stainless steel plates proved to be innocuous to the screened microorganisms. Copper, as a contact surface, proved to have important antimicrobial action on bacteria, fungi and yeasts common to hatcheries.