Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola]]> vol. 19 num. SPE lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Use of Soy Protein Concentrate in Pre-Starter and Starter Diets for Broilers]]> ABSTRACT Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of using soy protein concentrate (SPC) in pre-starter and starter diets for broilers. In the first experiment, 600 male Cobb broilers, between one and 40 days of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and six replications of 25 birds each. Treatments were ofered to broilers in the pre-starter and starter diets and consisted of inclusion of soy protein concentrate (0,3,6 and 9%) in diets. The parameters evaluated were: body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, consumption of ration, enzyme production in the pancreas, villus: crypt ratio, leukocyte count and immunoglobulin A (IgA) dosage. Aimed to determine the coefficient of nutrient metabolization of feeds, 144 male Cobb chicks were distributed, between 14 and 21 days of age, with four treatments and six replications of six birds per experimental unit. Treatments were the same as in the first experiment. The use of 3 and 9% of SPC did not affect weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion or viability of the poultry. The use of 6% of SPC provided an increase in trypsin activity, villi length and crypt depth; the coefficient of dry matter metabolization increased linearly; but no differences were observed in performance or immunological parameters. <![CDATA[Performance of Chicks Submitted to Fasting Post-Hatching and with Maltodextrine Supplementing to Diet as Hydrating and Energetic Additive]]> ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of maltodextrin on performance of chicks passed through four fasting periods. A completely randomized design was performed, consisting of three treatments (1 - control, 2 - 4% saccharose; 3-4% maltodextrin 20) and four fasting periods after hatching (0, 12, 24 and 36 hours) with four replications, totaling 1920 birds of both sexes. The studied variables were: water intake in the first 12 hours, average food intake, average body weight and real feed conversion. Data was submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared with each other by Dunnett test at 5% significance. The use of additives and imposing of different fasting periods did not influence the performance at 42 days old. Therefore, fasted chicks consumed significantly more water. At 7 days old, chicks fasted showed higher body weight and higher feed intake, however, the viability did not suffer any influence, the weight remained higher after 21days with the fast imposition and there was no influence on other variables. There was no effect of fasting on broiler chiken's performance at 42 days old. The inclusion of sucrose and maltodextrin to drinking water stimulated the chick´s water intake and provided higher viability after seven days old. <![CDATA[Citrus Peel Oils Supplementation in Broiler Diet: Effects on Performance, Jejunum Microflora and Jejunum Morphology]]> ABSTRACT This study was carried out to determine citrus peel oils (orange, lemon, bergamot) as food supplementation in different levels on performance, microflora and morphology in broilers. The trial consisted of 1-day-old male and female Ross 308 chicks (250 male 250 female). The study consisted of 10 groups in total and each group was replicated five times. Experimental diets were prepared by adding orange, lemon and bergamot peel oil levels (1,2 and 3 mL/kg) to basal diet. It was observed that the supplementation of citrus peel oils to the diet improved significantly the feed conversion rate. Especially the lowest feed intake and the best feed conversion ratio were received from broilers which were fed 3 mL/kg of orange peel oil. The study shows that the count of Escherichia coli (E.coli ) and lactic acid bacteria in the jejunum decreased significantly with the supplementation of bergamot peel oil to broilers diets. Citrus peel oil, in contrast to bergamot peel oil, significantly increased lactic acid bacteria count. The highest lactic acid bacteria count was determined in birds fed 3 mL/kg with orange peel oil. In the result of this study, both the length and density of villi and the density of blood and lymphatic capillary in the jejunum increased significantly by dietary 3 mL/kg orange peel oil supplementation. Finally, our results indicate that, especially 3 mL/kg orange peel oil has positive effects on performance, jejunum microflora, and jejunum morphology. It could be advised to supply broilers feed with 3 mL/kg orange peel oil as feed additives. <![CDATA[Effect of Synthetic Emulsifier and Natural Biosurfactant on Feed Process and Quality of Pelletized Feed in Broiler Diet]]> ABSTRACT A feed production trial was conducted to study the effect of synthetic emulsifier and natural biosurfactant the process and quality of pelletized broiler feed. A corn-soy based broiler diet was formulated with fixed ratio 2:1 of oil-to-water with two types of emulsifiers, namely glyceryl polyethylene glycol ricinoleate synthetic emulsifier and lysophosphatidylcholine natural biosurfactant. T1: Basal diet with no water and no emulsifier; T2: Basal diet with water and no emulsifier; T3: Basal diet with water and synthetic emulsifier glyceryl polyethylene glycol ricinoleate; T4: Basal diet with water and a natural biosurfactant lysophosphatidylcholine as comparative treatment. The treatment diets were manufactured by a commercial feed mill. The electricity cost and meal temperature were measured during the process of milling. Composite samples were collected from different processed points, tested for physical properties, chemical stability and biostability of pelletized feed. Pellet quality of emulsifier supplemented diets was significantly (p&lt;0.05) improved in crumble and pellet intact form. Correlation between emulsifier and pelletize processed cost was not observed in this present study. No deteriorate effect was observed in hydrolytic rancidity (AV), oxidation rancidity (PV), mold count, moisture content and water activity. However, percentage of starch gelatinization on pelletized feed was significantly (p&lt; 0.0001) improved in both types of emulsifier treated diets. These results demonstrated that the addition of emulsifier to broiler diet improved pellet quality to some extent although significant difference between synthetic emulsifier and natural biosurfactant was not observed. Abbreviations: AV, acid value; PV, peroxide value; amp, ampere; vol, voltage; T/h, tonne per hour; kW, kilowatt; Aw, water activity; PDI, pellet durability index <![CDATA[Chelated Minerals and Limestone Particle Sizes on Performance and Bone Quality of Brown-Egg Layers]]> ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate productive performance, egg quality, and bone quality of commercial brown-egg layers fed diets containing organic and inorganic minerals and three limestone particle sizes. A total of 288 birds at 64 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (two mineral sources and three limestone particle sizes) and eight replicates. The experiment lasted 112 days, divided into four periods. The following treatments were tested: T1 = inorganic minerals + 100% fine limestone; T2 = inorganic minerals + 50% fine limestone + 50% coarse limestone; T3 = inorganic minerals + 100% coarse limestone; T4 = inorganic + organic minerals + 100% fine limestone; T5 = inorganic + organic minerals + 50% fine limestone + 50% coarse limestone; and T6 = inorganic + organic minerals +100% coarse limestone. There was no significant interaction effect between the studied factors on any of the variables. No significant effect of the types of mineral mixes or limestone particle sizes were observed on the performance, egg quality, or bone quality variables evaluated. In conclusion, organic or inorganic minerals associated with limestone in fine, medium, or coarse particle sizes can be used in diets for brown-egg layers without affecting their productive performance, egg quality, or bone quality. <![CDATA[Effect of Sorghum Based Nutritional Programs on Performance, Carcass Yield and Composition of Breast in Broilers]]> ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to compare three nutritional programs, which were developed with tannin-free grain sorghum based diets, evaluating performance, carcass yield and bromatological composition of the pectoral muscle of broilers. A total 1360 chicks mixed (50:50), from one to 42 days old Hubbard Flex Broilers, were housed in a completely randomized design consisting of treatments and 10 replicates each, distributed as follows: three programs with whole sorghum grain based diets (nutritional program with daily adjustment, nutritional program with every three days adjustment and nutritional program with four stages and a program with ground and whole sorghum grain based feed (four stages). The cumulative performance was evaluated at, 21 and 42 days, determining feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and viability. At 42 days, the yield of eviscerated carcass, breast (full and boneless), thighs/drumsticks and wings and breast composition were evaluated. Nutritional adjustments showed better feed conversion, did not affect the carcass, commercial cuts yield and had a good breast meat quality. It can be concluded that daily feed programs could be performed in poultry industry with the mixture of whole sorghum grains and concentrates directly on farms contributing to better logistics and feed transportation cost. <![CDATA[Digestible Methionine + Cysteine-to-Lysine Ideal Ratio for Meat-Type Quails at Initial Phase]]> ABSTRACT This trial was performed to determine the ideal ratio of digestible methionine + cysteine (Met/Lys) with digestible lysine for meat-type quails from 1 to 14 days of age. A total of six hundred thirty, one-day-old, not sexed meat type quails were randomly assigned to six groups of treatments, each one with seven replicates and fifteen quails per experimental unit. A basal diet, methionine + cysteine-deficient, was graded supplemented with DL-Methionine (0.108; 0.169; 0.230; 0.291; 0.352 and 0.413%) to obtain the treatments, represented by six digestible Met/Lys ratios (0.60; 0.65; 0.70; 0.75; 0.80 and 0.85). Data was analyzed using ANOVA and polynomial regression and broken-line models were used to estimate the digestible Met/Lys ideal ratio, considering adjust of data to both models. Statistical significance was considered when p≤0.05. Feed intake, weight gain and final body weight was linearly increased as dig. Met/Lys ratio increased. Feeding conversion was improved with increasing in dig. Met/Lys ratios. A quadratic response on feathering percentage was observed with increasing dig. Met/Lys ratios. Digestible Met/Lys ratio which, maximized feathering percentage in meat-type quails, was 0.74. According to linear broken-line model, dig. Met/Lys ratio estimated for optimum feed intake, weight gain, final body weight and feeding conversion were, respectively, 0.66; 0.71; 0.71 and 0.74. The dig. Met/Lys ideal ratio for meat-type quails from one to 14 days of age is 0.74. <![CDATA[Effect of Feeding Conditions on the Methylation Status of Fatp1 Gene in Chicken Breast Muscle]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of feeding conditions on methylation status of FATP1 gene, which is an important candidate gene of Intramuscular fat and important indicator of chicken meat quality. We selected Daninghe (DNH) and Qingjiaoma (QJM) chickens under scatter-feeding and captivity-feeding conditions as experimental animals, and detected the methylation status of FATP1 genes in chicken breast muscle using Bisulfite Sequencing PCR method. The results showed that the methylation level of FATP1 in scatter-fed chicken was lower than in captivity-fed conditions in DNH and QIM chicken breast tissues; DNA methylation in the promoter and exon1 region was demonstrated to negatively regulate the expression of the FATP1 gene. These results suggested that feeding conditions affect the methylation status and expression level of FATP1, thereby affecting the Intramuscular fat content in DNH and QJM chicken breast muscle. <![CDATA[Effect of Different Dietary Threonine Levels on Optimal Growth Performance and Intestinal Morphology in 1-14 Days Old Ross 308 Broilers]]> SUMMARY This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of four levels of dietary threonine (Thr) supplementations on growth performance, gut size and histomorphometric alterations of small intestines in broiler chicks in 1-14 days. Two hundred eighty-eight Ross 308 one-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments with six replicates (12 birds per replication) received a common diet based on corn, wheat and soybean meal that met nutrients requirement of Ross 308. Birds were fed dietary treatments consisting of four levels of standardized digestible (SD) Thr: control diets (Basal diets) containing 0.65% SD Thr, 0.89% SD Thr (nutrients requirement of Ross 308), 0.93% and 0.97% SD Thr. Body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured at 1, 7 and 14 days old. Morphometric analysis of small intestine was carried out to investigate the effect of Thr levels on development of small intestines in starter period of broiler chicks. Results indicated that Thr levels improved FCR (quadratic effect, p=0.044) and BWG (quadratic effect, p=0.0009) for broilers given the diets containing 0.89% SD Thr in the starter period compared to other treatments (p&lt;0.05). Furthermore, villus height and muscular thickness in duodenumand muscular thickness in jejunum were increased by this treatment (p&lt;0.05). Villus width was increased by Thr treatments comparing to control group, as well. In conclusion, broiler performance and intestinal morphometry were improved by Thr supplementation which were efficiently obtained by 0.89% SD Thr in the first two weeks of the broiler´s diet. <![CDATA[Digestibility, Determination of Metabolizable Energy and Bone Mineralization of Broilers Fed with Nutritionally Valued Phytase]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of using exoenzyme phytase in broiler's diets on digestibility of nutrients, feed energy and tibia bone mineralization. A completely randomized design was used, with the following treatments: sorghum with dicalcium phosphate (SDP), corn with dicalcium phosphate (CDP), sorghum with meat and bone meal (SMBM), sorghum with valued phytase (SVP) and sorghum with phytase without valued (SPWV). For digestibility analysis, eighty 15 day old broilers were used, a total of 1400 male Hubbard Flex chickens, which were submitted to total excreta collection to obtain the percentages of food digestibility, crude protein, ether extract, apparent metabolizable energy, calcium and phosphorus while for tibias mineralization. Six birds per treatment were used, where determination of mineral matter, calcium and phosphorus were performed. Metabolizable energy (ME) and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn) of the feed were also calculated. Data were subjected to variation analysis and the average compared by 5% Tukey test. There was no difference between treatments for the digestibility at 15-20 day old as well as for the feed energy values, but the diets with phytase had higher phosphorous percentage values for tibia bone mineralization, demonstrating that exogenous phytase enzyme is able to hydrolyze phytate origininated from plant and release the phosphorus for assimilation by animals, acting as a substitute for phosphorus plant sources. <![CDATA[Performance and Cecal Bacteria Counts of Broilers Fed Low Protein Diets With and Without a Combination of Probiotic and Prebiotic]]> ABSTRACT A total of 360 one-day-old Cobb 500 chicks were randomly distributed in a completely randomized design according to a 3×2 factorial arrangement, consisting of three levels of dietary crude protein (100, 90 and 85% of NRCrecommended levels) and a feed additive (with or without feed additive). A blend of a commercial probiotic and a prebiotic were used as feed additives. Each treatment had four replicates of 15 birds each. Prebiotic and probiotic were added to the starter (days 1 to 21) and finisher (days 22 to 42) diets according to the manufacturer´s recommendations. The findings indicated that significant differences were not observed between 100 and 90% NRC for broiler performance (body weight, body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio) throughout the experiment, while the birds fed the diets containing 85% NRC had poorer performance than those fed 100% (p&lt;0.05). Feed additives had no significant effect on broilers performance. There was no significant interaction between protein level and feed additive for performance. Dietary inclusion of feed additives had no significant effect on cecal lactobacillus and Escherichia coli counts at 21 days of age, while, at 42 days of age, feed additive increased lactobacillus and decreased­ the counts of Escherichia coli (p&lt; 0.05). In conclusion, according to the findings of the current experiment, dietary crude protein could be reduced by 10%, without negative effect on broiler performance. Supplementation with feed additives had no significant effect on broiler performance, but beneficially influenced cecal bacteria counts at 42 days of age. <![CDATA[The Effect of Olive Cake, with or Without Enzymes Supplementation, on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Lymphoid Organs and Lipid Metabolism of Broiler Chickens]]> ABSTRACT An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of using olive cake (OC) in broiler diets, when it is supplemented with multi-enzymes or phytase enzyme. The OC was included in isocaloric, isonitorgneous diets at 5 and 10% levels and fed to broilers from 1-28 days of age. Experimental diets were fed with or without either of the two enzymes: galzym or phytase. This resulted in 3 OC levels (0, 5, 10%) × 3 enzyme supplementations (no enzyme, galzym enzyme, phytase enzyme). This included nine treatments, and each treatment was replicated eight times with seven broiler chickens each. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio, body weight gain, survival rate, dressing, inner and immune organ´s weights (compared to live body weight); and blood lipids constituents were investigated. According to the findings in this study, it could be concluded that OC is a valuable ingredient and might be included in the broiler diet up to 10% without galzym or phytase enzyme addition. Also, further studies should investigate the possibility of using higher ratios of it or mixed with another by-product in poultry diets; as a very cheap by-product. Moreover, these studies can be associated with suitable additives at different concentrations that might help to increase the utilization of olive cake or at least to keep performance equal to the control. On the other hand, it is worthwhile to follow the positive effect of phytase enzyme on cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentrations, which may relate it´s use with chicken´s health. <![CDATA[Evaluation of Dietary Glycerin Inclusion During Different Broiler Rearing Phases]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary addition of different levels of glycerin on the performance, litter moisture, pododermatitis incidence, and carcass and parts yield of broilers. In total, 1,610 broilers were reared in 35 pens with 46 birds each. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments with seven replicates was applied. The experimental treatments were: T1: control diet; T2: dietary inclusion of 5% glycerin from 1-42 days of age; T3: dietary inclusion of 10% glycerin from 1-42 days of age; T4: dietary inclusion of 5% glycerin from 7-42 days of age; T5: dietary inclusion of 10% glycerin from 7-42 days of age. The diets containing glycerin fed since the pre-starter period improved broiler weight gain and feed conversion ratio, but did not influence feed intake or livability. At the end of the experiment, the production efficiency index of the broilers fed 10% glycerin during the entire rearing period was significantly reduced compared with the other treatments. Litter moisture in the pens of broilers fed 10% glycerin during the entire rearing period was higher compared to the other treatments since day 21.Diets containing 10% glycerin, both for the entire rearing period (1-42 days) or only after the pre-starter phase (7-42 days), influenced broiler performance and incidence of severe pododermatitis, reducing the production efficiency indexes at 42 days. Glycerin may be added up to 5% in broiler´s diets with no effect on performance, litter moisture and carcass yield, indicating that this co-product of the biodiesel industry can be used as an alternative feedstuff for broilers. <![CDATA[Effects of in Ovo Infusion of Probiotic Strains on Performance Parameters, Jejunal Bacterial Population and Mucin Gene Expression in Broiler Chicken]]> ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of in ovo infusion of probiotic strains (Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium, and Pediococcus acidilactici ) on jejunal microbial population and mucin gene expression in broiler chicken. In a completely randomized design, 0.5 ml of mediums containing 107 cfu of different probiotic strains, was administered into amniotic fluid of the 480 Cobb fetus (day 18 of incubation), with four treatments, five replicates with twenty four eggs each. For mucin gene expression, samples from the jejunum were taken on day 21 of incubation and day 3 post-hatch. Microbial profile was determined for total lactobacillus and E. coli by sampling jejunal contents on days 1 and 3 of age. Expression of the mucin gene in the jejunum was higher (p&lt;0.05) in chicks that received Bacillus subtilis in comparison with the control group. Infusion of the probiotic strains had no effect on jejunal E. coli and lactic acid bacteria populations on day 1 post-hatch (p&gt;0.05). There were no significant differences among treatments for performance parameters at different periods and the whole period. It was concluded that infusion of probiotic bacteria during the late of incubation has no effect on feed intake, gain and feed conversion ratio, but has a positive effect on mucin gene expression in the jejunum. The best probiotic strain for mucin gene expression was Bacillus subtilis and for beneficiary bacteria colonization was Bacillus subtilis and Pediococcus acidilactici . <![CDATA[Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Oil Sources With or Without Vitamin E on Body Composition and Meat Oxidation Level in Broilers*]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rapeseed oil substitution and vitamin E supplemantation on performance and meat quality. 4 replacement levels of rapeseed oil with sunflower oil ( 0, 33.3 , 66.7 and 100%) and 2 levels of vitamin E (0 (50 I.U. from vitamin premix) 300 mg/kg) in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement for a total of 8 treatments with 4 replicates each, containing 10 day-old male Ross 308 broilers, were examined in the experiment. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on carcass parameters, feed conversion (FCR) and mortality (p&gt;0.05). However, a significant interaction was observed between oil replacement and vitamin E: the negative effect of 100% sunflower oil on BWG (p&lt;0.01) was alleviated by the addition of vitamin E. On the other hand, inclusion of rapeseed oil improved BWG (p&lt;0.01). Rapeseed oil substitution significantly increased amount of total n-3 PUFA and decreased n-6:n-3 ratio in thigh and breast meat (p&lt;0.01). Vitamin E supplemantation contributed to deposition of n-3 PUFA (p&lt;0.01). Replacement of rapeseed oil without vitamin E tended to increase (p&lt;0.01) malonaldehyde production. However, the dietary supplementation of vitamin E markedly (p&lt;0.01) decreased the susceptibility of meat to peroxidation. Inclusion of rapeseed oil did not cause any negative perception on olfactory, texture, and taste of broiler meat. So, it can be concluded that rapeseed oil substitution significantly increased n-3 PUFA deposition without altering performance and sensory properties of broiler meat and, vitamin E had strong potential to prevent the meat lipids from oxidation. <![CDATA[Effects of Different Amounts of Blue Lupine (L. Angustifolius L.) in The Diets of Heavy-Type Turkeys on Their Growth Rate, Carcass and Meat Qualities]]> ABSTRACT A study was carried out to determine the effects of soybean meal replacement with different amounts of blue lupine in the diets of turkeys on the growth rate, anatomic carcass dissection data, chemical indicators of breast and thigh muscles and the content of tryptophan and oxyprolin. In total three hundred and sixty cross BIG-6 turkeys were allotted to two control and ten experimental groups of 30 one-day-old turkeys. The control group of turkeys was fed the diet containing soybean meal, whereas the trial groups were offered different amounts (from 20 to 30%) of lupines. Group 4 and 5 were additionally given probiotic mixture Bio Plus 2B and allzyme SSF, respectively. Soybean oil replacement from 20 to 30% lupine in the diet had no influence on the growth rate, dressing percentage, edible parts and abdominal fat content of turkeys. The study indicated that lupines in the diet of turkeys had a different effect on the meat quality of different genders. Lupines did not have any negative effect on the meat quality of female turkeys and 30% lupines even improved the protein value index of breast muscles. However, 20-30 and 25-30% lupines in male turkey diets lowered dry matter and protein contents in breast muscles but had no negative influence on the main quality indicators in thigh muscles. The results of the study showed that the negative effect on the male breast muscle quality might be avoided using Bio Plus 2B or allzyme SSF additives in the male diets containing 30% lupines. <![CDATA[Feeding Programs for Broiler Breeders in the Start Phase]]> ABSTRACT The fast-growing Brazilian aviculture requires studies to improve zootechnical performance indexes for broiler breeders. The purpose of this study was to assess different feeding programs for broiler breeders on performance and development of digestive organs. A total of 48,000, 1d-old, Cobb 500 broiler breeders were divided into two sheds with 24,000 birds each. The experiment was randomized in block design, considering each shed a block, with 4 treatments and 6 replications per treatment with 2,000 birds in each. Treatments consisted of: Shed 1) T1 = starter feed; T2 = T1 + probiotics; Shed 2) T3 = pre-starter feed; T4 = T3 + probiotics. The productive performance characteristics (bird weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion), the development of digestive organs (gizzard, proventriculus, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and small bowel) as well as the small bowel length were assessed weekly for all experimental groups, in samples of 10 birds per treatment. The best feed conversion and weight gain were observed with pre-starter feed in the first 7 days of age, with or without probiotic. Small bowel, gizzard and proventriculus development at 28 days was better for birds on pre-starter feed compared to those on starter feed alone. It is possible to conclude that broiler breeders on pre-starter feed during the first 7 days of age are likely to show better physical and productive performances in the adult phase.