Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola]]> vol. 15 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>The role of poultry industry in indian economy</b>]]> Poultry farming in India, in spite of several constraints, has progressed considerably during the last decade. The present study has been undertaken to examine various aspects related to the growth and development of poultry production in the country. Poultry production in India was confined to backyards till recently. Local breed of birds were reared for the supply of eggs and meat. The increasing demand for poultry products necessitates augmenting the supply by importing improved breeds of poultry. In 1961, the proportion of hybrid populations in the total population of poultry was about 2 percent. Within a couple of decades, these birds have dominated the market sidelining the indigenous birds. The technological advances have revolutionized the role and the structure of poultry industry in India. It became one of the most specialized enterprises in many parts of the country. A general confidence has been created among the people that green revolution has ushered an era of self-reliance in the food grain production. The rapidly growing population has created some doubts in the said hypothesis. In fact, crop production alone may not solve the food problem of the country. The advances in cereal technology, of course, can fill the empty stomach, but it may not help in the balanced growth of the human body. The chief ingredients of balanced diet also comprise proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins, which are essential for growth. The supply of these items can easily be increased through increased production of livestock products. <![CDATA[<b>Phytogenic additives and glutamine plus glutamic acid in broiler diets</b>]]> The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary supplementation of phytogenic additives (PAs) and glutamine plus glutamic acid (Gln/Glu), associated or not, in replacement of antibiotic growth promoters and anticoccidials (AGP/AC) on the performance and carcass yield of broilers. Five hundred male Cobb broilers were housed in an experimental house and randomly distributed into five treatments, with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD); CD+AGP/AC; CD+Gln/Glu; CD+PAs; CD+Gln/ Glu+PAs. Diets were formulated only with plant feedstuffs, i.e., they did not contain any animal byproducts. Performance data were collected for the accumulated periods of 1-7, 1-21, and 1-42 days of age. Carcass yield and parts yield were determined at 42 days of age. Treatments did not influence performance during none of the evaluated periods. The greatest carcass yield (p<0.05) was obtained in birds in the treatments CD+Gln/Glu and CD+Gln/Glu+PAs relative to CD, but not different from birds in the AGP+AC and PAs treatments, which were not different from the CD treatment. Birds fed the CD+Gln/Glu diet presented greater breast yield (p<0.05) compared with those in the CD and AGP/AC treatments, but there was no difference in comparison with the other treatments. Under the conditions of the present experiment, the dietary supplementation with phytogenic additives and with glutamine plus glutamic acid does not affect the performance, but improves carcass yield and breast yield of broilers. <![CDATA[<b>Experimental infection of one-day-old chicks with Salmonella Serotypes Previously isolated from poultry facilities, wild birds, and swine</b>]]> In order to maintain the high production and export rates achieved by the Brazilian poultry industry, it is necessary to prevent and control certain disease agents, such as Salmonella spp. Using bacterial cultures, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in specimens collected from broiler facilities. Local wild birds were also sampled, as well as the feces of swine housed on the poultry farm. After sample collection, the isolated serotypes were subsequently inoculated into broiler chicks to determine their effects. Positive samples were collected from the following locations in the poultry facilities: poultry litter (S. serotype 4,5,12:R:-; S. Heidelberg; S. Infantis), broiler feces (S. Heidelberg; S. serotype 6,7:R:-; S. serotype 4,5,12:R:-; S. Tennessee), water (S. Glostrup; S. serotype 6,8:d:-;), and lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus) found in the litter (S. Tennessee). Among the 36 wild birds captured, S. Heidelberg was isolated from one bird's organs and intestinal contents (Colaptes campestris), and S. Enteritidis was isolated from another bird's intestinal contents (Zenaida auriculata). Salmonella Panama and Salmonella Typhimurium were isolated from swine feces. One-day-old chicks (150) were divided into 10 groups of 15 animals each. Each group was orally inoculated with a previously isolated serotype of Salmonella. Soft stools were observed on the cage floor and around the birds' cloaca between 3 and 12 days post-infection (dpi). The different serotypes of Salmonella used to inoculate the chicks were re-isolated from the spleen, liver, and cecal content samples of the infected birds on 15 and 21 dpi. <![CDATA[<b>Effects of feeding metabolite combinations from lactobacillus plantarum on plasma and breast meat lipids in Broiler Chickens</b>]]> The effects of feeding different doses of metabolite combination of L. plantarum RS5, RI11, RG14 and RG11 strains (Com3456) on cholesterol reduction in plasma and breast meat in broiler chickens and the possible mechanism was studied. A total of 504 male Ross broilers were grouped into 7 treatments and offered with different diets: (i) standard corn-soybean based diet (-ve control); (ii) standard cornsoybean based diet + neomycin and oxytetracycline (+ve control); (iii) standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.1% metabolite combination of L. plantarum RS5, RI11, RG14 and RG11 strains (Com3456); (iv) standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.2% of Com3456; (v) standard cornsoybean based diet + 0.3% of Com3456 (vi) standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.4% of Com3456 and (vii) standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.5% of Com3456. The metabolite combinations supplemented in the diet of broilers reduced protein, cholesterol esters concentration in very low-density lipoprotein particles. The present of organic acids and proteinaceous compound in the metabolite combinations as found in previous study also increased lactic acid bacteria count in small intestine digesta and improved bile salts deconjugation ability of lactic acid bacteria. <![CDATA[<b>Black bone syndrome in chiken meat</b>]]> Black bone syndrome (BBS) affects poultry industry, and it is caused by the darkening of the tissue adjacent to the bone due to leak age of bone marrow contents during cooking. The objective of this experiment was to estimate BBS incidence in chicken thighs. A completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (refrigerated or frozen) of 50 replicates each, was applied. The influence of BBS on meat quality was assessed according to bone lightness (*L), and meat appearance and sensorial characteristics. Lightness was measured using a colorimeter (Minolta® 410R) positioned on the proximal epiphyseal growth plate. Meat quality was evaluated after roasting by assigning scores for appearance (acceptable = no darkening, intermediate = little darkened, and unacceptable = severe darkening). Twelve refrigerated and 12 frozen thighs were used for sensorial analysis (adjacent muscle appearance, odor, tenderness, and flavor), assessed using a hedonic scale (1 = bad to 10 = very good) by trained panelists. Lightness was submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05), and the Wilcoxon test (p<0.05) was used to analyze other characteristics. Confidence intervals were established for BBS based on *L values (<37.5=BBS and &gt;37.5=normal). The incidence of BBS was 35%,with a 16%increase thighs were frozen. Meat taste was not influenced by the treatments. Meat appearance, flavor, and tenderness were not affected by freezing or refrigeration, only by BBS degree. It was concluded that freezing increases the incidence of BBS and chicken thighs with bones presenting lower luminosity have worse meat quality. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of bee pollen on the immunity and tibia characteristics in broilers</b>]]> This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of bee pollen (BP) levels on the IgG and IgM titers, weight of lymphoid organs, and on the tibia morphometric measures and mineralization in broilers at 21 and 42 days of age. Four hundred birds were used in an entirely randomized design with four treatments (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% of BP feed inclusion) and five replicates. At 21 and 42 days of rearing, blood samples were collected for IgG and IgM analysis, as well as lymphoid organs (bursa, thymus and spleen) and the tibiae. There was no effect (p>0.05) of the BP inclusion on IgG titers, bursa and spleen weights, tibia morphometric measures and mineralization at 21 and 42 days, IgM titer at 42 days or thymus weight at 21 days. However, IgM titers at 21 days and the thymus weight at 42 days linearly increased with BP dietary inclusion. It was concluded that up to 1.5% BP can be included in broiler feeds until 21 days of age to enhance bird immunity. <![CDATA[<b>Assessing paternity in japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) using microsatellite markers - inferences for its mating system and reproductive success</b>]]> Microsatellite markers were analyzed in Japanese quails, Coturnix japonica, using different methodologies (PAGE and automated genotyping), in order to evaluate their use in paternity testing. Ten animal triplets composed by a female and two males were used to mate and generate an offspring. Paternity was determined in five-day-old embryos, and the data generated by fluorescent labeled and tailored primers in PCR and further automated genotyping were robust. Three microsatellite markers were polymorphic (Na = 5-8, H E = 0.75) and no loci were found to deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or showed any evidence of linkage disequilibrium (p > 0.05). A slight heterozygote deficiency and some incompatibilities between the female known parent and its offspring that involved homozygous genotypes were observed at GUJ0001 locus and may indicate the presence of null alleles. Although a reduced set of microsatellite primers were applied, it was possible to determine the paternity of 96.87% of the embryos, using combined data of three loci. The approach was useful for parentage inferring in a captive population of C. japonica and the results evidenced a potential polyandric mating system in the species, in which no advantage mechanism of last-male sperm precedence seems to occur. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of different dietary concentrations of Amino Acids on the performance of two different Broiler Strains</b>]]> Four Nutritional Programs (NP) used in the Brazilian poultry industry were tested in two broiler strains (Cobb 500 and Ross 308). NP varied in the concentrations of their main essential amino acids (AA) and were classified as Low, Regular, High and Mixed (high AA concentrations up to 21 days and regular concentrations after that). Minimum digestible Met+Cys/Lys, Thr/Lys, Arg/Lys, Ile/Lys, and Val/Lys ratios were 0.74, 0.64, 1.05, 0.65 and 0.75, respectively, in all NP, and no minimum amount of CP was fixed. There were no interactions between strain and NP for any of the evaluated responses. From 1 to 47 days of age, birds fed the Low NP presented lower average body weight and body weight gain (BWG). The high NP allowed for better feed conversion ratio (FCR), followed by the Regular and the Mixed NP. Ross 308 broilers were heavier, presenting worse FCR due to higher FI. Birds fed the High NP had lower carcass yield than those fed the Low NP. The Low and Regular NP had lower costs per WG when compared with the High NP. Low and Regular NP presented higher gross margin returns compared with the High NP. The Regular and Mixed NP are the most recommended, presenting intermediate performance and higher economic returns. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of Forced Molting on body characteristics and post-molting egg production performance of Layers in Quetta, Pakistan</b>]]> White leghorn layer (n=2740), with 85weeksof age, were submitted to forced molting by fasting for 13 days and changes in body characteristics and subsequent laying performance during second laying cycle were evaluated. Live body weight (LBW),ovary weight (OW), oviduct weight (OvW) and oviduct length (OvL) were measured before and after fasting. Post-fasting restricted feeding was applied, initially feeding crushed corn with added 2% Ca for 20 days and thereafter layer crumble feed was offered. Layers lost 632.16g (36%) of their LBW and significant reductions of 45.32, 47.53 and 54% were observed in post-fasting/molt OW, OvW and OvL, respectively (p<0.05). Resting period was 49 days and birds consumed 4.79kg feed during resting period. Egg production reached 50% in the 3rd week and peak mean egg production (87%) was recorded between 13 to16th weeks of production. Hence, it is concluded that while molting exhausted layers, the procedure adapted to induce molting and season would be a core factor in the subsequent laying cycle egg production and gain. <![CDATA[<b>Nutritional Balance of broilers fed diets containing two calcium levels and supplemented with different phytase levels</b>]]> The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets containing different calcium and phytase levels on the nutritional balance of broilers.A total of 108 male AG Ross 308 broilers were used in each of the replicates phases used in the study: starter (1-21 days), grower (29-35 days) and finisher (36-42 days). A completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with three phytase levels (0, 600 or 1200 FTU/kg) and two calcium levels (0.94 and 0.66%; 0.84 and 0.59%; e 0.78 and 0.54% in the starter, grower, and finisher phases, respectively), totaling six treatments with six replicates each.The experimental feeds also contained reduced available phosphorus levels and minimum crude protein level.The method of total excreta collection was applied to determine dry matter, nitrogen, gross energy, calcium, and phosphorus nutritional balance.Reducing dietary calcium levels to 0.66, 0.59, and 0.54%, and using 0.27, 0.22, and 0.20% available phosphorus, 18.50, 17.50, and 16.00% crude protein, and 600 FTU phytase/kg in the diets of the starter, grower, and finisher phases, respectively, allow higher nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium retention in broilers.During the grower phase, there was positive linear effect of increasing phytase levels in high-calcium diets on AMEn utilization, and the optimal phytase levels for low-calcium diets was 598.71 FTU/kg.In the finisher phase, the best AMEn utilization was obtained with the high-calcium diets. <![CDATA[<b>Dietary fiber inclusion as an alternative to Feed Fasting to induce molting in Commercial Layers</b>]]> The objective of the present experiment was to compare the performance, egg quality and organ morphometrics of commercial layers submitted to alternative forced molting methods using dietary fibers. The experimental period included the phases of molting, rest, and second laying cycle (six periods of 28 days each). In the trial, 320 commercial Isa Brown layers with 72 weeks of age were distributed, according to a completely randomized experimental design into five treatments with eight replicates of eight birds each, totaling 40 experimental units. Molting was induced by feeding diets with the inclusion of alfalfa or soybean husks at 80% and 60% or feed fasting. Treatments were applied for 14 days. Performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated for the second laying cycle and organ morphometrics (liver, gizzard, proventriculus, reproductive apparatus) in two different slaughter dates. The obtained data were submitted to analysis of variance using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of SAS statistical package (SAS Institute, 2002). Alternative molting methods promoted similar performance and egg quality results after molting were similar to those obtained by the conventional fasting method. Feeding fiber produced the expected effects in terms of organ weight regression and recovery and may be used to induce molting in commercial layers. <![CDATA[<b>Performance of broilers fed during 21 days on mash or pellet diets containing whole or ground pearl millet grain</b>]]> An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of 20% whole-grain or ground pearl millet (PM) in mash and pelleted diets on the performance, carcass traits, and organ weights of broilers reared until 21 days of age. A randomized block experimental design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (diets containing corn and soybean meal, whole-grain PM, or ground PM x mash or pelleted diets), with five replicates per treatment and 10 birds per experimental unit, was applied. Diets were analyzed for mean geometric diameter, geometric standard deviation, pellet hardness, and density. Broiler performance, carcass yield, and organ weights were evaluated. On day 21, one bird with the average weight of each experimental unit was sacrificed for carcass evaluation. It was concluded that both as whole-grain and ground PM can be added to the diet of broilers up to 21 days of age. The dietary inclusion of PM results in higher abdominal fat deposition. Broilers fed the pelleted diets presented lower feed intake, better feed conversion ratio, lower gizzard and heart percentages, and higher carcass weight. <![CDATA[<b>Bone densitometry and calcium serum levels in chickens treated with filtered or unfiltered water</b>]]> The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the drinking water of the School of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, UNESP, Jaboticabal, Brazil, affected bone mineral density and serum calcium levels of 14-, 21-, and 45-day-old broilers. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the tibiae was assessed using optical densitometry radiographic technique and serum calcium levels. Tibial BMD increased as broilers aged, and achieved its peak at 45 days of age. It was higher in the distal epiphysis of the birds that ingested filtered water (p<0.05) compared with those supplied with unfiltered water. Therefore, it is concluded that filtered water promoted better bone quality in relative to those ingested unfiltered water. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and selenium levels on the performance, carcass yield, and blood changes in broilers</b>]]> The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance, carcass and parts yield, and blood changes in broilers fed different protein, carbohydrate, and lipid levels. Birds were fed a commercial diet until seven days of age. On day 8, birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement (control diet, low protein diet, low carbohydrate diet or low lipid diet vs. supplementation of 0 or 0.3ppm organic selenium) with four replicates of 15 birds each. Broilers fed low protein presented lower body weight, feed intake, and worse feed conversion ratio on day 42, as well as lower carcass and breast yields, higher leg and abdominal fat yields, higher triglyceride and lower uric acid blood levels. Broilers fed the low carbohydrate diets presented low glucose levels on days 14 and 42.Creatine-kinase (CK) levels increased as birds aged. The livability of broilers fed the low protein diets improved and of those fed low carbohydrate diets worsened with dietary selenium addition on days 35 and 42. Selenium supplementation increased glucose levels in 42-d-old broilers. Changes in dietary protein caused more impact on broiler performance compared with carbohydrates and lipids. Changes in macronutrients caused metabolic changes in broilers. Selenium affected broiler livability as measured on days 35 and 42, and glucose blood levels. <![CDATA[<b>Quality assessment of marketed eggs in bassekabylie (Algeria)</b>]]> Quality variations in retail eggs are widely reported. This study aims at assessing the quality of eggs according to the marketing channel in the department of Bejaia (Algeria). In spring and summer 2012, 3330 eggs were bought in 30 stores divided into 3 categories: 10 supermarkets (1146 eggs), 10 public markets (1048 eggs), and 10 shops (1136 eggs). Egg weights differed significantly between marketing channels with 58.9±0.14, 61.2±0.13 and 62.8±0.13 g for public markets, shops and supermarkets, respectively (p<0.001). Although shell thickness was similar for all marketing channels, the proportion of damaged eggs was higher in public markets (9.0%), intermediate in food shops (7.3%) and lower in supermarkets (5.7%; p<0.05). The yolk/albumen ratio was significantly higher for eggs from supermarkets (48.0%) compared with the other channels (around 47.4%; p<0.05). The freshness of the eggs, measured by the Haugh method, was lower in public markets (74.3 units), intermediate in shops (77.6 units) and higher in supermarkets (79.9 units; p<0.05). The price of eggs, expressed in Algerian Dinar (AD) per kg, was significantly lower in public markets (124 AD/kg) compared with the two other channels (around 131 AD/kg; p<0.05). It is possible to conclude that egg quality in Bass Kabylie differs significantly among marketing channels, with higher quality observed in supermarkets. The lower quality of eggs in public markets is associated with lower price. Eggs from shops present an intermediate quality. A one-year study would allow studying both the potential seasonal effect and compare intrinsic variability across marketing channels.