Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1516-848420150006&lang=en vol. 37 num. 6 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Torque teno virus: a ubiquitous vírus]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842015000600357&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Red blood cell storage and alloimmunization: a fact or a myth?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842015000600359&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Haptoglobin: an emerging candidate for phenotypic modulation of sickle cell anemia?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842015000600361&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Comment on sickle cell disease and left ventricular hypertrophy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842015000600364&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Qualitative polymerase chain reaction versus quantitative polymerase chain reaction for the detection of minimal residual disease in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842015000600366&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Scientific comment on health-related quality of life among blood donors with hepatitis B and hepatitis C: longitudinal study before and after diagnosis?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842015000600369&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<em>Clostridium difficile</em> infection is a frequent but well-controlled event after hematopoietic cell transplantation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842015000600371&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Comparison between qualitative and real-time polymerase chain reaction to evaluate minimal residual disease in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842015000600373&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Introduction: Minimal residual disease is an important independent prognostic factor that can identify poor responders among patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze minimal residual disease using immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements by conventional polymerase chain reaction followed by homo-heteroduplex analysis and to compare this with real-time polymerase chain reaction at the end of the induction period in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Seventy-four patients diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were enrolled. Minimal residual disease was evaluated by qualitative polymerase chain reaction in 57 and by both tests in 44. The Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox methods and the log-rank test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Nine patients (15.8%) were positive for minimal residual disease by qualitative polymerase chain reaction and 11 (25%) by real-time polymerase chain reaction considering a cut-off point of 1 × 10−3 for precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 1 × 10−2 for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Using the qualitative method, the 3.5-year leukemia- free survival was significantly higher in children negative for minimal residual disease compared to those with positive results (84.1% ± 5.6% versus 41.7% ± 17.3%, respectively; p-value = 0.004). There was no significant association between leukemia-free survival and minimal residual disease by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Minimal residual disease by qualitative polymerase chain reaction was the only variable significantly correlated to leukemia-free survival. Conclusion: Given the difficulties in the implementation of minimal residual disease monitoring by real-time polymerase chain reaction in most treatment centers in Brazil, the qualitative polymerase chain reaction strategy may be a cost-effective alternative. <![CDATA[Health-related quality of life among blood donors with hepatitis B and hepatitis C: longitudinal study before and after diagnosis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842015000600381&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Introduction: There is evidence that patients suffering from chronic hepatic diseases, including chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C, have a reduced health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the notification of test results for hepatitis B and hepatitis C on the quality of life of blood donors. Methods: Over a 29-month period, this study assessed the quality of life of 105 blood donors with positive serological screening tests for hepatitis B and hepatitis C and donors who presented false-positive test results. The Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey Questionnaire was applied at three time points: (1) when an additional blood sample was collected for confirmatory tests; (2) when donors were notified about their serological status; and (3) when donors, positive for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, started clinical follow- up. Quality of life scores for the confirmed hepatitis B and hepatitis C groups were compared to the false-positive control group. Results: The domains bodily pain, general health perception, social function, and mental health and the physical component improved significantly in donors with hepatitis C from Time Point 1 to Time Point 3. Health-related quality of life scores of donors diagnosed with hepatitis B and hepatitis C were significantly lower in six and four of the eight domains, respectively, compared to the false-positive control group. Conclusion: A decreased quality of life was detected before and after diagnosis in blood donors with hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Contrary to hepatitis B positive donors, the pos- sibility of medical care may have improved the quality of life among hepatitis C positive donors. <![CDATA[<em>Clostridium difficile</em> infection in Chilean patients submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842015000600388&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Introduction: Patients submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have an increased risk of Clostridium difficile infection and multiple risk factors have been identi- fied. Published reports have indicated an incidence from 9% to 30% of transplant patients however to date there is no information about infection in these patients in Chile. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of patients who developed C. difficile infection after hematopoietic stem cell transplantations from 2000 to 2013. Statistical analysis used the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Results: Two hundred and fifty patients were studied (mean age: 39 years; range: 17-69), with 147 (59%) receiving allogeneic transplants and 103 (41%) receiving autologous trans- plants. One hundred and ninety-two (77%) patients had diarrhea, with 25 (10%) cases of C. difficile infection being confirmed. Twenty infected patients had undergone allogeneic trans- plants, of which ten had acute lymphoblastic leukemia, three had acute myeloid leukemia and seven had other diseases (myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic myeloid leukemia, severe aplastic anemia). In the autologous transplant group, five patients had C. difficile infection; two had multiple myeloma, one had amyloidosis, one had acute myeloid leukemia and one had germinal carcinoma. The overall incidence of C. difficile infection was 4% within the first week, 6.4% in the first month and 10% in one year, with no difference in overall survival between infected and non-infected groups (72.0% vs. 67.6%, respectively; p-value = 0.56). Patients infected after allogeneic transplants had a slower time to neutrophil engraftment compared to non-infected patients (17.5 vs. 14.9 days, respectively; p-value = 0.008). In the autologous transplant group there was no significant difference in the neutrophil engraftment time between infected and non-infected patients (12.5 days vs. 11.8 days, respectively; p-value = 0.71). In the allogeneic transplant group, the median time to acute graft-versus- host disease was similar between the two groups (p-value = 0.08), as was the incidence of grades 1-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (40% vs. 48%; p-value &gt;0.05). Conclusion: The incidence of C. difficile infection after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was low, with a significant number of cases occurring shortly after transplantation. Allogeneic transplants had a three-time higher risk of infection compared to autologous transplants, but this was not associated with increased mortality, decreased overall survival or higher risk of acute graft-versus-host disease. <![CDATA[Could CD64 expression be used as a predictor of positive culture results in children with febrile neutropenia?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842015000600395&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Background: Early recognition of infectious processes in neutropenic patients is hampered by the fact that these processes may have dissimilar and non-specific clinical presentations. CD64 is a neutrophil surface marker that is not expressed in non-sensitized neutrophils. When the neutrophil is exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha it is activated and is measured via the CD64 index. Methods: This paper evaluated the relationship between the index value of CD64 on the first day of febrile neutropenia and a positive blood culture. The correlations with white blood count, C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were also evaluated. This case-control, prospective, diagnostic study included 64 episodes of neutropenia. Case group (n = 14) comprised positive blood cultures, and the control group (n = 50), negative blood cultures. Results: The median rates of CD64 were 2.1 (a ± 3.9) in the case group and 1.76 (a ± 5.02) in the control group. There was no correlation between the value of the CD64 index and blood cultures. The CD64 index was also not correlated with C-reactive protein positivity. Further- more, the CD64 index was not able to predict blood culture positivity. The sensitivity was 64.3%, the specificity was 42%, the positive predictive value was 23.7% and the negative predictive value was 80%. For C-reactive protein, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 71.4%, 32%, 22.7%, and 80%, respectively. Conclusion: The CD64 index is not suitable for predicting the positivity of blood cultures in this specific population of patients with febrile neutropenia. <![CDATA[Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842015000600400&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Nutritional iron deficiency anemia is the most common deficiency disorder, affecting more than two billion people worldwide. Oral iron supplementation is usually the first choice for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia, but in many conditions, oral iron is less than ideal mainly because of gastrointestinal adverse events and the long course needed to treat the disease and replenish body iron stores. Intravenous iron compounds consist of an iron oxyhydroxide core, which is surrounded by a carbohydrate shell made of polymers such as dextran, sucrose or gluconate. The first iron product for intravenous use was the high molecular weight iron dextran. However, dextran-containing intravenous iron preparations are associated with an elevated risk of anaphylactic reactions, which made physicians reluctant to use intravenous iron for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia over many years. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose is a stable complex with the advantage of being non- dextran-containing and a very low immunogenic potential and therefore not predisposed to anaphylactic reactions. Its properties permit the administration of large doses (15 mg/kg; maximum of 1000 mg/infusion) in a single and rapid session (15-minute infusion) without the requirement of a test dose. The purpose of this review is to discuss some pertinent issues in relation to the history, pharmacology, administration, efficacy, and safety profile of ferric carboxymaltose in the treatment of patients with iron deficiency anemia. <![CDATA[Proposal for the standardization of flow cytometry protocols to detect minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842015000600406&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Minimal residual disease is the most powerful predictor of outcome in acute leukemia and is useful in therapeutic stratification for acute lymphoblastic leukemia protocols. Nowadays, the most reliable methods for studying minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia are multiparametric flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction. Both provide similar results at a minimal residual disease level of 0.01% of normal cells, that is, detection of one leukemic cell in up to 10,000 normal nucleated cells. Currently, therapeutic protocols establish the minimal residual disease threshold value at the most informative time points according to the appropriate methodology employed. The expertise of the laboratory in a cancer center or a cooperative group could be the most important factor in determining which method should be used. In Brazil, multiparametric flow cytometry laboratories are available in most leukemia treatment centers, but multiparametric flow cytometry processes must be standardized for minimal residual disease investigations in order to offer reliable and reproducible results that ensure quality in the clinical application of the method. The Minimal Residual Disease Working Group of the Brazilian Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation (SBTMO) was created with that aim. This paper presents recommendations for the detection of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia based on the literature and expertise of the laboratories who participated in this consensus, including pre-analytical and analytical methods. This paper also recommends that both multiparametric flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction are complementary methods, and so more laboratories with expertise in immunoglobulin/T cell receptor (Ig/TCR) gene assays are necessary in Brazil. <![CDATA[Spurious laboratory alterations in pernicious anemia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842015000600414&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Minimal residual disease is the most powerful predictor of outcome in acute leukemia and is useful in therapeutic stratification for acute lymphoblastic leukemia protocols. Nowadays, the most reliable methods for studying minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia are multiparametric flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction. Both provide similar results at a minimal residual disease level of 0.01% of normal cells, that is, detection of one leukemic cell in up to 10,000 normal nucleated cells. Currently, therapeutic protocols establish the minimal residual disease threshold value at the most informative time points according to the appropriate methodology employed. The expertise of the laboratory in a cancer center or a cooperative group could be the most important factor in determining which method should be used. In Brazil, multiparametric flow cytometry laboratories are available in most leukemia treatment centers, but multiparametric flow cytometry processes must be standardized for minimal residual disease investigations in order to offer reliable and reproducible results that ensure quality in the clinical application of the method. The Minimal Residual Disease Working Group of the Brazilian Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation (SBTMO) was created with that aim. This paper presents recommendations for the detection of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia based on the literature and expertise of the laboratories who participated in this consensus, including pre-analytical and analytical methods. This paper also recommends that both multiparametric flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction are complementary methods, and so more laboratories with expertise in immunoglobulin/T cell receptor (Ig/TCR) gene assays are necessary in Brazil. <![CDATA[Axillary high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma presenting under the guise of inflammatory breast carcinoma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842015000600417&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Minimal residual disease is the most powerful predictor of outcome in acute leukemia and is useful in therapeutic stratification for acute lymphoblastic leukemia protocols. Nowadays, the most reliable methods for studying minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia are multiparametric flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction. Both provide similar results at a minimal residual disease level of 0.01% of normal cells, that is, detection of one leukemic cell in up to 10,000 normal nucleated cells. Currently, therapeutic protocols establish the minimal residual disease threshold value at the most informative time points according to the appropriate methodology employed. The expertise of the laboratory in a cancer center or a cooperative group could be the most important factor in determining which method should be used. In Brazil, multiparametric flow cytometry laboratories are available in most leukemia treatment centers, but multiparametric flow cytometry processes must be standardized for minimal residual disease investigations in order to offer reliable and reproducible results that ensure quality in the clinical application of the method. The Minimal Residual Disease Working Group of the Brazilian Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation (SBTMO) was created with that aim. This paper presents recommendations for the detection of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia based on the literature and expertise of the laboratories who participated in this consensus, including pre-analytical and analytical methods. This paper also recommends that both multiparametric flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction are complementary methods, and so more laboratories with expertise in immunoglobulin/T cell receptor (Ig/TCR) gene assays are necessary in Brazil. <![CDATA[Van den Berghe's 5q- syndrome and myelodysplastic syndrome with isolated del(5q)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842015000600420&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Minimal residual disease is the most powerful predictor of outcome in acute leukemia and is useful in therapeutic stratification for acute lymphoblastic leukemia protocols. Nowadays, the most reliable methods for studying minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia are multiparametric flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction. Both provide similar results at a minimal residual disease level of 0.01% of normal cells, that is, detection of one leukemic cell in up to 10,000 normal nucleated cells. Currently, therapeutic protocols establish the minimal residual disease threshold value at the most informative time points according to the appropriate methodology employed. The expertise of the laboratory in a cancer center or a cooperative group could be the most important factor in determining which method should be used. In Brazil, multiparametric flow cytometry laboratories are available in most leukemia treatment centers, but multiparametric flow cytometry processes must be standardized for minimal residual disease investigations in order to offer reliable and reproducible results that ensure quality in the clinical application of the method. The Minimal Residual Disease Working Group of the Brazilian Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation (SBTMO) was created with that aim. This paper presents recommendations for the detection of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia based on the literature and expertise of the laboratories who participated in this consensus, including pre-analytical and analytical methods. This paper also recommends that both multiparametric flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction are complementary methods, and so more laboratories with expertise in immunoglobulin/T cell receptor (Ig/TCR) gene assays are necessary in Brazil. <![CDATA[Diagnostic approach to hemolytic anemias in the adult]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842015000600423&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Minimal residual disease is the most powerful predictor of outcome in acute leukemia and is useful in therapeutic stratification for acute lymphoblastic leukemia protocols. Nowadays, the most reliable methods for studying minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia are multiparametric flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction. Both provide similar results at a minimal residual disease level of 0.01% of normal cells, that is, detection of one leukemic cell in up to 10,000 normal nucleated cells. Currently, therapeutic protocols establish the minimal residual disease threshold value at the most informative time points according to the appropriate methodology employed. The expertise of the laboratory in a cancer center or a cooperative group could be the most important factor in determining which method should be used. In Brazil, multiparametric flow cytometry laboratories are available in most leukemia treatment centers, but multiparametric flow cytometry processes must be standardized for minimal residual disease investigations in order to offer reliable and reproducible results that ensure quality in the clinical application of the method. The Minimal Residual Disease Working Group of the Brazilian Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation (SBTMO) was created with that aim. This paper presents recommendations for the detection of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia based on the literature and expertise of the laboratories who participated in this consensus, including pre-analytical and analytical methods. This paper also recommends that both multiparametric flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction are complementary methods, and so more laboratories with expertise in immunoglobulin/T cell receptor (Ig/TCR) gene assays are necessary in Brazil.