Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1516-848420140004&lang=es vol. 36 num. 4 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Is there justification for universal leukoreduction?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000400237&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[Genetic evaluation of mesenchymal stem cells]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000400238&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[Comment on: Transfusion practices in a neonatal intensive care unit in a Brazilian town ]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000400241&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[National neonatal screening program for hemoglobinopathies: how far have we advanced? ]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000400243&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[Transfusion practices in a neonatal intensive care unit in a city in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000400245&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es OBJECTIVE: Newborn infants are the most heavily transfused population inside intensive care units. The hemoglobin level used to indicate the need of transfusions is not well established. The aim of this study was to evaluate transfusional practices in newborns in the neonatal intensive care units of one specific city. METHODS: Red blood cell transfusion practices of all transfused newborns in all five of the neonatal intensive care units of the city were analyzed. Data are reported as descriptive statistics, including numbers and percentages and means and standard deviation. Univariate analysis, followed by stepwise logistic regression was performed in respect to transfusional data and outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 949 patients were admitted to the intensive care units during the 12-month study period with 20.9% receiving at least one transfusion, most (62.4%) of whom received more than one transfusion. The mean number of transfusions per infant was 2.7 ± 2.16; in the liberal transfusion group the mean number was 1.59 ± 1.63 and in the restrictive group it was 1.08 ± 1.51. The mean hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were 9.0 g/dL (±1.4 g/dL) and 27.4% (±4.3%), respectively. The most common indications for blood transfusions were sepsis and prematurity. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the characteristics and the transfusion practices for newborns admitted in the neonatal intensive care units of Juiz de Fora are similar to recent pubications. There was no significant reduction in the number of transfusions per child in the restrictive group compared to the liberal group. Restrictive transfusions are an independent risk factor for peri-intraventricular hemorrhages and death. <![CDATA[Follow-up of children with hemoglobinopathies diagnosed by the Brazilian Neonatal Screening Program in the State of Pernambuco]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000400250&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es OBJECTIVE: To determine the geographical distribution of hemoglobinopathies in the State of Pernambuco, to characterize the children with these diseases and to describe factors associated with their follow-up at the referral center during the period from 2003 to 2010. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out of 275 medical records from a total of 302 children with hemoglobinopathies diagnosed by the National Neonatal Screening Program in the State of Pernambuco in the study period. Microsoft Excel was used for data processing and analysis. The chi-square and the Fisher test were used for statistical analysis. The level of significance was set at 5%. Terra View software was used to analyze the geographical distribution of hemoglobinopathies in the State. RESULTS: A total of 8.9% of the cases of hemoglobinopathies detected in the period were not followed up at the referral center. For the mothers of children with diseases, this was their second or third or more pregnancy in 64.2% and 30.2%, respectively. Regarding the influence of region of residence and regular medical appointments, the study demonstrated that children from the Zona da Mata, Sertão and Vale do São Francisco regions did not attend 45.2%, 50% and 55.6% of their appointments in the outpatient department, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that a significant number of children do not begin consultations in the outpatient clinic and even those who started treatment early and who have the most severe form of the disease, usually miss medical appointments. <![CDATA[Clinical complications in pregnant women with sickle cell disease: prospective study of factors predicting maternal death or near miss]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000400256&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es OBJECTIVE: To evaluate complications in pregnant women with sickle cell disease, especially those leading to maternal death or near miss (severe obstetric complications). METHODS: A prospective cohort of 104 pregnant women registered in the Blood Center of Belo Horizonte (Hemominas Foundation) was followed up at high-risk prenatal units. They belonged to Group I (51 hemoglobin SS and three hemoglobin S/ß0-thalassemia) or Group II (49 hemoglobin SC and one hemoglobin S/ß+-thalassemia). Both groups had similar median ages. Predictive factors for 'near miss' or maternal death with p-value = 0.25 in the univariate analysis were included in a multivariate logistic model (significance set for p-value = 0.05). RESULTS: Group I had more frequent episodes of vaso-occlusive crises, more transfusions in the antepartum and postpartum, and higher percentage of preterm deliveries than Group II. Infections and painful crises during the postpartum period were similar in both the groups. The mortality rate was 4.8%: three deaths in Group I and two in Group II. One-third of the women in both the groups experienced near miss. The most frequent event was pneumonia/acute chest syndrome. Alpha-thalassemia co-inheritance and ß-gene haplotypes were not associated with near miss or maternal death. In multivariate analysis predictors of near miss or death were parity above one and baseline red blood cell macrocytosis. In Group I, baseline hypoxemia (saturation &lt; 94%) was also predictive of near miss or death. CONCLUSION: One-third of pregnant women had near miss and 4.8% died. Both hemoglobin SS and SC pregnant women shared the same risk of death or of severe complications, especially pulmonary events. <![CDATA[Analysis of the feasibility of early hospital discharge after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the implications to nursing care]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000400264&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es INTRODUCTION: Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a conduct used to treat some hematologic diseases and to consolidate the treatment of others. In the field of nursing, the few published scientific studies on nursing care and early hospital discharge of transplant patients are deficient. Knowledge about the diseases treated using hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, providing guidance to patients and caregivers and patient monitoring are important nursing activities in this process. Guidance may contribute to long-term goals through patients' short-term needs. AIM: To analyze the results of early hospital discharge on the treatment of patients submitted to autologous transplantation and the influence of nursing care on this conduct. METHODS: A retrospective, quantitative, descriptive and transversal study was conducted. The hospital records of 112 consecutive patients submitted to autologous transplantation in the period from January to December 2009 were revisited. Of these, 12 patients, who remained in hospital for more than ten days after transplantation, were excluded from the study. RESULTS: The medical records of 100 patients with a median age of 48.5 years (19-69 years) were analyzed. All patients were mobilized and hematopoietic stem cells were collected by leukapheresis. The most common conditioning regimes were BU12Mel100 and BEAM 400. Toxicity during conditioning was easily managed in the outpatient clinic. Gastrointestinal toxicity, mostly Grades I and II, was seen in 69% of the patients, 62% of patients had diarrhea, 61% of the patients had nausea and vomiting and 58% had Grade I and II mucositis. Ten patients required hospitalization due to the conditioning regimen. Febrile neutropenia was seen in 58% of patients. Two patients died before Day +60 due to infections, one with aplasia. The median times to granulocyte and platelet engraftment were 12 days and 15 days, respectively, with median red blood cell and platelet transfusions until discharge of three and four units, respectively. Twenty-three patients required rehospitalization before being discharged from the outpatient clinic. CONCLUSION: The median time to granulocyte engraftment was 12 days and during the aplasia phase few patients were hospitalized or suffered infections. The toxicity of the conditioning was the leading cause of rehospitalization. The nursing staff participated by providing guidance to patients and during the mobilization, transplant and outpatient follow-up phases, thus helping to successfully manage toxicity. <![CDATA[Transfusion-transmitted malaria in endemic zone: epidemiological profile of blood donors at the Fundação HEMOAM and use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria screening in Manaus]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000400269&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es OBJECTIVE: With 99% of the cases in Brazil, malaria is endemic in the Amazon region. Transfusion-transmitted malaria, an important risk in endemic areas, has been reported. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological profile of blood donor candidates at the Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas and evaluate the efficacy of rapid diagnostic tests used for malaria screening of blood donors within endemic regions. METHODS: Between May 2008 and May 2009, 407 blood donor candidates were selected and grouped based on the Malaria Annual Parasite Index of the geographic area in which they originated: Group 1 (eligible donors - n = 265) originated from areas of low to medium risk of exposure to malaria and Group 2 (ineligible donors - n = 142) originated from high-risk areas. All samples were concurrently screened using two immunochromatic antigen-based rapid tests and by the thick smear test. RESULTS: All samples were negative by all three methods. The demographic profile indicated that the majority of participants were male, ages ranged from 18 to 39 years and less than half the candidates had only elementary schooling. Two issues need to be addressed: one is the ineligibility of donors and its impact on blood donor centers as, in this study, 22.7% of the donors were considered ineligible. The other is the limited sensitivity of the parasitological tests used, allowing a risk of false-negative results. CONCLUSION: New methods are needed to ensure transfusion safety without rejecting potential donors, which would ensure safe transfusion without harming the blood supply. <![CDATA[Concentrations of blood folate in Brazilian studies prior to and after fortification of wheat and cornmeal (maize flour) with folic acid: a review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000400275&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es BACKGROUND: In July 2004, the Brazilian Ministry of Health through the National Health Surveillance Agency made the fortification of wheat flour and cornmeal (maize flour) with iron and folic acid mandatory, with the intention of reducing the rate of diseases such as neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of the folic acid fortified wheat flour and cornmeal on serum and red blood cell folate levels and on the reduction of neural tube defects in different Brazilian studies. METHODS: In order to compare folate concentrations in the Brazilian population prior to and following the implementation of mandatory fortification of wheat and cornmeal, studies that involved blood draws between January 1997 and May 2004 (pre-fortification period), and from June 2004 to the present (post-fortification period) were chosen. The data search included PubMed and Scopus databases as well as the Brazilian Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations. The following keywords were employed for the query: folate, folic acid, fortification, Brazil, healthy population, the elderly, children and pregnant women. RESULTS: A total of 47 Brazilian studies were selected; 26 from the pre-fortification period and 22 after the fortification implementation. The studies were classified according to the cohort investigated (pregnant women, children, adolescents, adults and the elderly). After the implementation of flour fortification with folic acid in Brazil, serum folate concentrations increased in healthy populations (57% in children and adolescents and 174% in adults), and the incidence of neural tube defects dropped. CONCLUSION: Folic acid fortification of wheat flour and cornmeal increased the blood folate concentrations and reduced the incidence of neural tube defects. <![CDATA[Transmission of lupus anticoagulant by allogeneic stem cell transplantation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000400287&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Passive transmission of autoimmune diseases by allogeneic stem cell transplantation is rare and is ascribed to passive transfer of memory B-cells from donor to recipient. We hereby report a case of transmission of an asymptomatic lupus anticoagulant from a sibling donor to a recipient of transplantation for secondary acute myeloid leukemia. On pre-harvest evaluation, the sibling donor with no history of bleeding or thrombosis was found to have a lupus anticoagulant. After engraftment, the recipient was found to have a new prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time and was subsequently shown to have a lupus anticoagulant on Day +73 after stem cell transplantation. The recipient remained well with no evidence of bleeding, thrombosis, or graft-versus-host disease and was on a stable dose of tacrolimus at the time the lupus anticoagulant was detected. There was no other identifiable trigger for the appearance of a lupus anticoagulant. <![CDATA[Pathologic rupture of the spleen in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia and leukostasis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000400290&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Rupture of the spleen can be classified as spontaneous, traumatic, or pathologic. Pathologic rupture has been reported in infectious diseases such as infectious mononucleosis, and hematologic malignancies such as acute and chronic leukemias. Splenomegaly is considered the most relevant factor that predisposes to splenic rupture. A 66-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia evolved from an unclassified myeloproliferative neoplasm, complaining of fatigue and mild upper left abdominal pain. He was pale and presented fever and tachypnea. Laboratory analyses showed hemoglobin 8.3 g/dL, white blood cell count 278 × 109/L, platelet count 367 × 109/L, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) ratio 2.10, and international normalized ratio (INR) 1.60. A blood smear showed 62% of myeloblasts. The immunophenotype of the blasts was positive for CD117, HLA-DR, CD13, CD56, CD64, CD11c and CD14. Lactate dehydrogenase was 2384 U/L and creatinine 2.4 mg/dL (normal range: 0.7-1.6 mg/dL). Two sessions of leukapheresis were performed. At the end of the second session, the patient presented hemodynamic instability that culminated in circulatory shock and death. The post-mortem examination revealed infiltration of the vessels of the lungs, heart, and liver, and massive infiltration of the spleen by leukemic blasts. Blood volume in the peritoneal cavity was 500 mL. Acute leukemia is a rare cause of splenic rupture. Male gender, old age and splenomegaly are factors associated with this condition. As the patient had leukostasis, we hypothesize that this, associated with other factors such as lung and heart leukemic infiltration, had a role in inducing splenic rupture. Finally, we do not believe that leukapheresis in itself contributed to splenic rupture, as it is essentially atraumatic. <![CDATA[T-cell/myeloid mixed-phenotype acute leukemia with monocytic differentiation and isolated 17p deletion]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000400293&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Mixed phenotype acute leukemia is a rare subtype of leukemia that probably arises from a hematopoietic pluripotent stem cell. The co-expression of two of myeloid, B- or T-lymphoid antigens is the hallmark of this disease. Herein, the case of a 28-year-old female patient is reported who presented with hemoglobin of 5.8 g/dL, white blood cell count of 138 × 109/L and platelet count of 12 × 109/L. The differential count of peripheral blood revealed 96% of blasts. Moreover, the patient presented with lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly and bone marrow infiltration by monocytoid blasts characterized as 7% positivity by Sudan Black cytochemical staining. Immunophenotyping revealed the involvement of blasts of both T- and monocytic lineages. The cytogenetic analysis showed an isolated 17p deletion. Thus, the diagnosis of T-cell/myeloid mixed phenotype acute leukemia was made with two particular rare features, that is, the monocytic differentiation and the 17p deletion as unique cytogenetic abnormalities. The possibility of concomitant expressions of T-cell and monocytic differentiation antigens in the same blast population is hard to explain using the classical model of hematopoiesis. However, recent studies have suggested that myeloid potential persists even when the lineage branches segregate toward B- and T-cells. The role of an isolated 17p deletion in the pathogenesis of this condition is unclear. At present, the patient is in complete remission after an allogeneic stem cell transplantation procedure. <![CDATA[Bleomycin-induced flagellate dermatitis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000400297&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es A 29-year-old woman with stage IVB Hodgkin's lymphoma was treated with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine. Two weeks after the first cycle was completed, she developed pruritic, linear erythematous lesions in a flagellate-like pattern on the trunk, neck and arms. After oral prednisone therapy and cessation of bleomycin, the lesions started to recede. <![CDATA[Mycobacterium leprae in bone marrow]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000400300&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es A 29-year-old woman with stage IVB Hodgkin's lymphoma was treated with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine. Two weeks after the first cycle was completed, she developed pruritic, linear erythematous lesions in a flagellate-like pattern on the trunk, neck and arms. After oral prednisone therapy and cessation of bleomycin, the lesions started to recede. <![CDATA[Correcting an unintentional injustice: a comment on the doctorate thesis 'Transfusion' by José Carvalho Tolentino presented in 1878]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000400302&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es A 29-year-old woman with stage IVB Hodgkin's lymphoma was treated with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine. Two weeks after the first cycle was completed, she developed pruritic, linear erythematous lesions in a flagellate-like pattern on the trunk, neck and arms. After oral prednisone therapy and cessation of bleomycin, the lesions started to recede. <![CDATA[Perspectives on the production of pluripotent cells from hematopoietic cells]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000400305&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es A 29-year-old woman with stage IVB Hodgkin's lymphoma was treated with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine. Two weeks after the first cycle was completed, she developed pruritic, linear erythematous lesions in a flagellate-like pattern on the trunk, neck and arms. After oral prednisone therapy and cessation of bleomycin, the lesions started to recede. <![CDATA[Erratum on "Risk factors associated with the occurrence of adverse events in plateletpheresis donation" [Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter. 2014;36(3):191-5]]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000400307&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es A 29-year-old woman with stage IVB Hodgkin's lymphoma was treated with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine. Two weeks after the first cycle was completed, she developed pruritic, linear erythematous lesions in a flagellate-like pattern on the trunk, neck and arms. After oral prednisone therapy and cessation of bleomycin, the lesions started to recede.