Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1516-848420140001&lang=es vol. 36 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[The Guidelines Project: Brazilian guidelines for acute promyelocytic leukemia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[Reticulocyte parameters: why should clinical laboratories evaluate and report them?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[Genetic polymorphisms, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and the future: are we there yet?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[Prophylaxis with levofloxacin: bacterial infections and antimicrobial resistance in hematological malignancies]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[Oral features of graft-versus-host disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000100009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[Comment: seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 among blood donors in the state of Maranhão, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000100012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[Scope and efficiency of the newborn screening program in identifying hemoglobin S]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000100014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: In 2001, the Brazilian Ministry of Health added hemoglobinopathies to the National Neonatal Screening Program to be implemented in three steps. In order to meet the proposed goals, it is crucial to establish periodic assessments of this program with the aim of monitoring its implementation. Objective: To assess the scope and the efficiency of the stages of the National Newborn Screening Program in identifying hemoglobin S. Methods: A cross-sectional study was developed with the results of the heel prick test using the high performance liquid chromatography method for babies born in Mato Grosso do Sul from 2006 to 2010. The following variables were investigated: year, number of live births, total screening, coverage ratio, prevalence, time between the child birth and the blood collection; age at diagnosis; age at the time of the first consultation; and time between the diagnosis and the first appointment. Results: Over the five years of the study, the mean coverage rate was 91.77%.The prevalences of hemoglobin FAS and hemoglobin FS were 1.65% and 0.011%, respectively. Blood samples from 43.48% of children were collected from the second to the seventh day. The age at diagnosis was within the first 28 days in 87.80% of the screened children. The lowest mean indices for the first consultation and the time between the diagnosis and the first appointment (58.8 and 46.4 days, respectively) occurred in 2010. Conclusions: The scope of the National Neonatal Screening Program for hemoglobinopathies is good, with a large number of individuals being tested. Efficiency is a suitable indicator to assess the program steps. Three points are recommended: the training of the individuals involved, studies to assess the assistance provided to the affected child, and genetic counseling to the mothers. <![CDATA[Outcomes of autologous transplantation for multiple myeloma according to different induction regimens]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000100019&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Induction therapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous transplantation is the standard treatment for suitable patients with multiple myeloma. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether induction therapy with thalidomidecontaining regimens was associated with improved results compared to vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone, and whether cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone were associated with better results than thalidomide and dexamethasone. Methods: The records of 152 patients who underwent autologous transplantation at this institution from August of 2004 to January of 2012 were reviewed, selecting those with at least partial response to a maximum of eight cycles of induction therapy and sufficient follow-up information for analysis. Results: This study included 89 patients; 44 were female, with a mean age of 55 years (there was a significant trend for increasing age over the years of the study).The median number of induction therapy cycles was four, again with a trend of increase over the years.At least a very good partial response to induction therapy was achieved more often in the cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone group (61.1%) and in the thalidomide and dexamethasone group (59.2%) than in the vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone group (16.2%). The overall median progression-free survival was 34 months, with no statistically significant difference between the three groups. The overall median survival was not reached, and there was no significant difference between the three groups; the estimated five-year overall survival was 55%. Conclusion: Although the quality of responses appeared to be better with thalidomidecontaining regimens, these improvements did not translate into improved long-term outcomes. Given its track record, cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone is currently considered the preferred regimen for first-line induction therapy in the Brazilian public health system. <![CDATA[Reticulocyte maturity indices in iron deficiency anemia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000100025&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the reticulocyte maturity indices (low, medium, and high fluorescence ratios) in iron deficient 1- to 6-year-old children, and identify the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in this population. Methods: The present study included 39 subjects, divided into two groups: control subjects (n = 33), and subjects with iron deficiency anemia (n = 6). The results were analyzed by Student's t-test for comparison of means. Differences were considered significant when two-tailed p-value &lt; 0.05. Results: Subjects with iron deficiency anemia presented increases in the proportion of mean (10.3 ± 4.7% vs. 6.0 ± 3.4%; p-value = 0.003), and high fluorescence reticulocytes (2.3 ± 0.87% vs. 0.9 ± 0.9%; p-value = 0.03) compared to the control group. The prevalence of anemia in this population was 15% (n = 6). Conclusion: The indices related to immaturity of reticulocytes are higher in the presence of iron deficiency, thus demonstrating a deficiency in the raw material to form hemoglobin and are, therefore, possible early markers of iron deficiency and anemia. We emphasize the need to standardize these indices for use in clinical practice and lab test results. <![CDATA[<italic>Mannose-binding lectin 2</italic> (<italic>MBL2</italic>) gene polymorphisms do not influence frequency of infections in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000100029&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Infectious complications represent the main cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. It has been reported that polymorphisms of the mannosebinding lectin 2 (MBL2) genes are correlated with MBL protein serum levels and, consequently, are associated with the development of infectious diseases. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible association between MBL2 gene polymorphisms and risk of infection in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. Methods: Peripheral blood samples from 116 chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients were collected; after genomic DNA extraction, real time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the polymorphisms of the promoter region and exon 1 of the MBL2 gene. Results: A high frequency of Binet stage A (p-value = 0.005) and absence of splenomegaly (p-value = 0.002) were observed in patients with no infection; however, variant alleles/ genotypes and haplotypes of this gene had no impact on the risk of infection. Conclusion: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study describing the association between MBL2 polymorphisms and infectious disease in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Although it was not possible to demonstrate any influence of MBL2 polymorphisms as a genetic modulator of infection in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the authors believe that the present data are clinically relevant and provide the basis for future studies. <![CDATA[Prophylaxis with levofloxacin: impact on bacterial susceptibility and epidemiology in a hematopoietic stem cell transplant unit]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000100035&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The emergence of resistance has been demonstrated in cancer treatment centers where prophylaxis with fluoroquinolone is used. Objective: Considering the importance of epidemiological monitoring as a strategy in choosing protocols involving antibiotics, this study aimed to evaluate the emergence of quinolone resistance and changes in the local epidemiology in a hematopoietic stem cell transplant service. Methods: For this study, 60 positive cultures before the prophylactic use of levofloxacin (period A: 2007-2008) and 118 cultures after starting the use of prophylactic levofloxacin (period B: 2010-2011) were evaluated. Results: Resistance increased for all the different types of bacteria isolated (from 46.0% to 76.5%; p-value = 0.0002). Among Gram-negative bacteria, resistance increased from 21.4% to 60.7% (p-value = 0.0163) and among Gram-positive bacteria, it increased from 55.6% to 82.9% (p-value = 0.0025). The use of levofloxacin increased from 19.44 defined daily doses per 1,000 patient-days in period A to 166.64 in period B. The use of broad spectrum antibiotics remained unchanged. Considering bacteria associated with infection, 72 and 76 were isolated in periods A and B, respectively. There was a reduction in the rate of Gramnegative bacteria in cultures associated with infection (3.81 vs. 2.00 cultures/1,000 patientdays; p-value = 0.008). Conclusion: The study of prophylaxis with levofloxacin demonstrated that there was a decrease in infections by Gram-negative bacteria; however, bacterial resistance increased, even though the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics remained unchanged. Constant monitoring of local epidemiology combined with research on clinical outcomes is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of prophylaxis. <![CDATA[Early and late oral features of chronic graft-versus-host disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000100043&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Chronic graft-versus-host disease is a serious complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, and the mouth is one of the affected sites. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral features of this disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation. Methods: This was a cross-sectional multicenter study that enrolled patients submitted to transplantation. Oral evaluations used the National Institutes of Health criteria, salivary flow rates, and the range of mouth opening. Pain and xerostomia were evaluated through a visual analogue scale. Patients were divided into two groups based on the transplantation time (up to one year and more than one year). Results: Of the 57 evaluated recipients, 44 had chronic graft-versus-host disease: ten (22.72%) in the group with less than one year after transplantation, and 34 (77.27%) in the group with more than one year after transplantation. Lichenoid/hyperkeratotic plaques, erythematous lesions, xerostomia, and hyposalivation were the most commonly reported oral features. Lichenoid/hyperkeratotic plaques were significantly more common in patients within the first year after the transplant. The labial mucosa was affected more in the first year. No significant changes occurred in the frequency of xerostomia, hyposalivation, and reduced mouth opening regarding time after transplantation. Conclusion: Oral chronic graft-versus-host disease lesions were identified early in the course of the disease. The changes observed in salivary gland function and in the range of mouth opening were not correlated with the time after transplantation. <![CDATA[Seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 among blood donors in the state of Maranhão, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000100050&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Infection with human T-lymphotropic virus 1 or 2 (HTLV-1/2) is a major health problem. There is a public health policy defining measures for state hematology and hemotherapy centers in Brazil, in order to avoid virus transmission through blood donors. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of HTLV -1/2 in blood donors in the State of Maranhão, Brazil, during routine blood unit screening. Methods: Screening tests of blood donors using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect seropositivity for HTLV-1/2 performed at the Hematology and Hemotherapy Center of the State of Maranhão (HEMOMAR) between July of 2003 and December of 2009 were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Of the 365,564 blood donors, 561 (0.15%) were HTLV-1/2-positive, of whom 72 (12.8%) performed the confirmatory test (Western blot). In donors who had a confirmatory test, 53 (73.6%) were positive. The ages of the infected individuals ranged from 18 to 65 years; 305 (54%) were aged over 40 years. Among the infected individuals, 309 (55%) were male, 399 (71%) were mixed-race, and 259 (46%) were single. Co-infections were frequently found, especially with hepatitis B (in 68.6% of the cases). Conclusion: The results obtained will contribute to the planning and implementation of control measures by the epidemiological surveillance agency of Maranhão, and will also contribute to reducing morbidity. The high seropositivity in a small sample in donors who had confirmatory tests indicates the need for confirmatory tests for all donors who initially test as seropositive. <![CDATA[Importance of adherence to BCR-ABL tyrosine-kinase inhibitors in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000100054&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia with BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors requires full adherence in order to maximize the likelihood of achieving optimal responses, and to minimize healthcare costs. In this article, we review some of the methods available for assessing compliance, the main consequences of nonadherence on treatment outcomes, major factors commonly associated with poor compliance, a few successful measures for improving adherence and the most accepted recommendations for proactively managing adverse events. <![CDATA[Involvement of memory T-cells in the pathophysiology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000100060&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The role of T-cells in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia has recently gained much attention due to the importance of the constant interaction between neoplastic B-cells with microenvironment substratum and T-cells. It is believed that these interactions modulate the clinical course of the disease, mainly through the regulation of the expansion, differentiation, and survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B-cells. Importantly, this crosstalk may also change the number, function, and memory phenotype of normal T-cells, thereby altering the amplitude and/or efficiency of adaptive immunity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. The present study presents an overview on important aspects of this immunological crosstalk, particularly on the abnormalities of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B-cells and the alterations in normal T-cells, with focus on the CD4 memory T-cell compartment that could offer survival signals to chronic lymphocytic leukemia B-cell clone(s) and contribute to the establishment and progression of the disease. The authors believe that understanding the biological consequences of the interaction between normal T- and neoplastic B-cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia may allow for improvements in the prognostic information and therapeutic approaches for this disease. <![CDATA[Oral cancer after prolonged immunosuppression for multiorgan chronic graft-versus-host disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000100065&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Long-term survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are recognized as a risk group for malignization. Malignant oral neoplasms are increasingly being reported in the literature as a consequence of lesions of chronic graft-versus-host disease, and prolonged multidrug treatment to control its manifestations. This report describes a 43-year-old patient who, after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, developed an oral squamous cell carcinoma secondary to the use of azathioprine, cyclosporine, prednisone, and tacrolimus, associated with multiorgan chronic graft-versus-host disease involving the oral mucosa, skin, eyes, and liver. This report aims to discuss the possible role of immunosuppressant therapy for chronic graft-versus-host disease on the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma, and the relevance of a close oral follow-up of patients to detect dysplastic or malignant alterations at an early stage. <![CDATA[Histopathological evaluation of the bone marrow in refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis associated to the JAK2-V617F mutation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000100069&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Long-term survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are recognized as a risk group for malignization. Malignant oral neoplasms are increasingly being reported in the literature as a consequence of lesions of chronic graft-versus-host disease, and prolonged multidrug treatment to control its manifestations. This report describes a 43-year-old patient who, after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, developed an oral squamous cell carcinoma secondary to the use of azathioprine, cyclosporine, prednisone, and tacrolimus, associated with multiorgan chronic graft-versus-host disease involving the oral mucosa, skin, eyes, and liver. This report aims to discuss the possible role of immunosuppressant therapy for chronic graft-versus-host disease on the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma, and the relevance of a close oral follow-up of patients to detect dysplastic or malignant alterations at an early stage. <![CDATA[Guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia: Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular Guidelines Project: Associação Médica Brasileira - 2013]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000100071&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Long-term survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are recognized as a risk group for malignization. Malignant oral neoplasms are increasingly being reported in the literature as a consequence of lesions of chronic graft-versus-host disease, and prolonged multidrug treatment to control its manifestations. This report describes a 43-year-old patient who, after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, developed an oral squamous cell carcinoma secondary to the use of azathioprine, cyclosporine, prednisone, and tacrolimus, associated with multiorgan chronic graft-versus-host disease involving the oral mucosa, skin, eyes, and liver. This report aims to discuss the possible role of immunosuppressant therapy for chronic graft-versus-host disease on the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma, and the relevance of a close oral follow-up of patients to detect dysplastic or malignant alterations at an early stage.