Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1516-848420140006&lang=pt vol. 36 num. 6 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Accreditation program for blood banking and cell therapy services – a defining moment in the expansion and qualification of Brazilian services]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000600383&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[We need to talk more about transfusion-transmitted malaria in <em>Plasmodium vivax</em> endemic areas]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000600385&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[Scientific comment on the theme of palliative care in pediatric hematological oncology patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000600388&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA['Leaky gut' in hematological malignancies]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000600390&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[Comment on "Nutritional status of patients submitted to transplantation of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells: a retrospective study" ]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000600392&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[Normative evaluation of blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region in respect to the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000600394&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: To evaluate blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region with regard to structure and procedures directed toward the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM). Methods: This was a normative evaluation based on the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) Resolution RDC No. 153/2004. Ten blood banks were included in the study and classified as 'adequate' (≥80 points), 'partially adequate' (from 50 to 80 points), or 'inadequate' (&lt;50 points). The following components were evaluated: 'donor education' (5 points), 'clinical screening' (40 points), 'laboratory screening' (40 points) and 'hemovigilance' (15 points). Results: The overall median score was 49.8 (minimum = 16; maximum = 78). Five blood banks were classified as 'inadequate' and five as 'partially adequate'. The median clinical screening score was 26 (minimum = 16; maximum = 32). The median laboratory screening score was 20 (minimum = 0; maximum = 32). Eight blood banks performed laboratory tests for malaria; six tested all donations. Seven used thick smears, but only one performed this procedure in accordance with Ministry of Health requirements. One service had a Program of External Quality Evaluation for malaria testing. With regard to hemovigilance, two institutions reported having procedures to detect cases of transfusion-transmitted malaria. Conclusion: Malaria is neglected as a blood–borne disease in the blood banks of the Brazilian Amazon region. None of the institutions were classified as 'adequate' in the overall classification or with regard to clinical screening and laboratory screening. Blood bank professionals, the Ministry of Health and Health Surveillance service managers need to pay more attention to this matter so that the safety procedures required by law are complied with. <![CDATA[Palliative care in pediatric hematological oncology patients: experience of a tertiary hospital]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000600403&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: To evaluate the approach to palliative care for hematological oncology patients in the pediatric ward of a tertiary hospital. Methods: This was a retrospective, descriptive study of 29 hematological oncology patients who died between 2009 and 2011. Data regarding the approach and prevalence of pain, prevalence of other symptoms, multidisciplinary team participation, communication between staff and family and limited invasive therapy were collected from the medical records. Results: Twenty-seven (93.1%) patients displayed disease progression unresponsive to curative treatment. The median age at death was ten years old. Pain was the most prevalent symptom with all patients who reported pain receiving analgesic medications. The majority took weak (55.2%) and/or strong (65.5%) opioids. The patients were followed by pediatricians and a pediatric hematologist/oncologist. Participation of other professionals was also documented: 86.2% were followed by social services and 69% by psychologists, among others. There were explicit descriptions of limitation of invasive therapy in the medical records of 26 patients who died with disease progression. All these decisions were shared with the families. Conclusion: Although the hospital where this study was conducted does not have a specialized team in pediatric palliative care, it meets all the requirements for developing a specific program. The importance of approaching pain and other prevalent symptoms in children with cancer involving a comprehensive multidisciplinary team is evident. Discussions were had with most of the families on limiting invasive therapy, but no record of a well-defined and coordinated treatment plan for palliative care was found. <![CDATA[Intestinal permeability in leukemic patients prior to chemotherapy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000600409&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the intestinal barrier function in leukemia patients before the start of the chemotherapy with an intestinal permeability test using lactulose and mannitol as markers. Methods: The study enrolled 20 patients diagnosed with leukemia (acute and chronic). Ten healthy volunteers were also submitted to the test as a control group. Results: The median lactulose/mannitol ratio was 0.019 for the Leukemia Patient Group, whereas in healthy controls the median was 0.009 (p-value = 0.244). The median lactulose/mannitol ratio in acute leukemia patients was 0.034 giving a p-value of 0.069 when compared to healthy controls. This same comparison was made between acute myeloid leukemia patients and healthy controls with a p-value of 0.149. There was no significant difference in the intestinal permeability between acute and chronic leukemia patients (p-value = 0.098). Conclusion: The intestinal barrier function measured using the intestinal permeability test was similar in leukemic patients overall and healthy controls, but a tendency toward a different pattern was found in the intestinal barrier function of acute leukemia patients. <![CDATA[Nutritional status of patients submitted to transplantation of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells: a retrospective study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000600414&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: This study aimed to describe and compare the nutritional status of adult patients submitted to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at two different time points (admission and discharge). Methods: A retrospective, descriptive and quantitative study was performed based on clinical, laboratory and nutritional data obtained from medical records of adult patients of both genders submitted to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a bone marrow transplantation reference center in Rio de Janeiro in the period from 2010 to 2013. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software (version 22.0). Results: Sixty-four patients were evaluated. The mean age was 42.1 ± 3.2 years and the most prevalent disease was acute myeloid leukemia (39%). There was a high prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms including nausea (100%), vomiting (97%) and mucositis (93%). Between admission and discharge there was a significant decrease in the median weight (−2.5 kg; 71.5 vs. 68.75 kg; p-value &lt; 0.001), body mass index (−0.9kg/m2; 24.8 vs. 24.4kg/m2; p-value &lt; 0.001), and serum albumin levels (−0.2g/dL; 3.7 vs. 3.6g/dL; p-value = 0.024). The survival time after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation correlated negatively with C-reactive protein at discharge (CC = −0.72; p-value &lt; 0.001) and positively with serum albumin levels (CC = 0.56; p-value = 0.004) and with high total protein level at discharge (CC = 0.53; p-value = 0.006). Conclusion: Our results suggest that patients submitted to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have compromised nutritional status during the hospital stay for transplantation. <![CDATA[Nutritional status of children and adolescents at diagnosis of hematological and solid malignancies]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000600420&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: To assess the nutritional status of child and adolescent patients with cancer at diagnosis. Methods: A total of 1154 patients were included and divided into two groups: solid and hematological malignancies. The parameters used for nutritional assessment were weight, height, triceps skinfold thickness, mid-upper arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, body mass index and percentage weight loss. Results: At diagnosis, below adequate body mass index was observed by anthropometric analysis in 10.85% of the patients – 12.2% in the solid tumor group and 9.52% in the hematologic group. The average weight loss adjusted for a period of 7 days was −2.82% in the hematologic group and −2.9% in the solid tumor group. Conclusions: The prevalence of malnutrition is higher among patients with malignancies than in the general population, even though no difference was observed between the two groups. <![CDATA[Evaluation of red cell and reticulocyte parameters as indicative of iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000600424&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mature red cell and reticulocyte parameters under three conditions: iron deficiency anemia, anemia of chronic disease, and anemia of chronic disease associated with absolute iron deficiency. Methods: Peripheral blood cells from 117 adult patients with anemia were classified according to iron status, and inflammatory activity, and the results of a hemoglobinopathy investigation as: iron deficiency anemia (n = 42), anemia of chronic disease (n = 28), anemia of chronic disease associated with iron deficiency anemia (n = 22), and heterozygous β thalassemia (n = 25). The percentage of microcytic red cells, hypochromic red cells, and levels of hemoglobin content in both reticulocytes and mature red cells were determined. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of the parameters in differentiating between the different types of anemia. Results: There was no significant difference between the iron deficient group and anemia of chronic disease associated with absolute iron deficiency in respect to any parameter. The percentage of hypochromic red cells was the best parameter to discriminate anemia of chronic disease with and without absolute iron deficiency (area under curve = 0.785; 95% confidence interval: 0.661–0.909, with sensitivity of 72.7%, and specificity of 70.4%; cut-off value 1.8%). The formula microcytic red cells minus hypochromic red cells was very accurate in differentiating iron deficiency anemia and heterozygous β thalassemia (area under curve = 0.977; 95% confidence interval: 0.950–1.005; with sensitivity of 96.2%, and specificity of 92.7%; cut-off value 13.8). Conclusion: The indices related to red cells and reticulocytes have a moderate performance in identifying absolute iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease. <![CDATA[Klotho: its various functions and association with sickle cell disease subphenotypes]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000600430&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The Klotho protein, whose gene has predominant renal expression, acts in the control of serum phosphorus and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and regulates the function of ion channels. It also participates in the mechanism of protection against oxidative stress and acts on the vascular endothelium by inducing the production of nitric oxide. Mutations that reflect defects in the Klotho gene expression may be implicated in the onset of osteonecrosis, priapism, and leg ulcers in patients with sickle cell disease, as a result of oxidative stress and endothelial impairment, important factors in the development and severity of this disease. Previous reports regarding the association of Klotho single nucleotide polymorphisms with sickle cell disease subphenotypes have found that these polymorphisms are important to identify genetic markers of risk in these individuals and allow early and more effective therapeutic intervention. <![CDATA[Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a case series of a Brazilian institution]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000600437&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: To describe the clinical and laboratory presentation of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in children treated at a referral institution. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was carried out of seven children diagnosed with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis between 2010 and 2012. The criteria for diagnosis were those proposed by the Histiocyte Society. When indicated, immunochemotherapy was prescribed according to the HLH94 and HLH2004 protocols of the Histiocyte Society. Results: The patients' ages at diagnosis ranged from one month to nine years. All patients had splenomegaly, fever, anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperferritinemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Bone marrow hemophagocytosis was detected in six patients. In six cases, infectious diseases triggered the syndrome. In two cases, associated with visceral leishmaniasis, remission was achieved after treatment of the underlying infection. Three patients, who had Epstein–Barr-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, required treatment with immunochemotherapy. They are alive and in remission; one patient had symptoms of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and another, who was suspected of having primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, entered into remission after bone marrow transplantation. Two deaths (28.6%) occurred in patients with suspected primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis; one whose clinical picture was triggered by cytomegalovirus infection did not respond to immunochemotherapy and the other died before any specific treatment was provided. Conclusion: As reported before, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis has a multifaceted presentation with nonspecific signs and symptoms. In secondary forms, remission may be achieved by treating the underlying disease. In the primary forms, remission may be achieved with immunochemotherapy, but bone marrow transplantation is required for cure. <![CDATA[Myelodysplastic syndrome with synchronous gastric cancer: when the symptoms suggest something else]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000600442&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Although myelodysplastic syndromes have a clear definition in theory, the morphologic dysplasia associated with ineffective hematopoiesis may be subtle and difficult to recognize and can commonly be mimicked by systemic conditions, such as infections, autoimmune disorders, nutritional deficiencies, toxic factors and non-hematological malignancies. However, myelodysplastic syndromes may truly coexist with other systemic diseases, which can be masked when the patient's symptoms are attributed exclusively to myelodysplastic syndromes without further investigation. To better illustrate this, we herein describe two cases associated with synchronous gastric cancers. <![CDATA[Accident involving a 2-year-old child and <em>Lonomia obliqua</em> venom: clinical and coagulation abnormalities]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000600445&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Poisons of caterpillars have different effects on inflammatory and coagulation systems. This is a case report of a 2-year-old child that accidentally came in contact with several caterpillars of the species Lonomia obliqua. At first, the patient's exams presented abnormal coagulation and decreased fibrinogen, but the patient did not evolve to active bleeding or acute renal failure. The patient received antilonomic serum 15 h after the accident and the treatment was repeated after another 12 h due to persistent alterations shown by the coagulation exams. The venom of L. obliqua has several substances that act on the coagulation and inflammatory systems. The event is characterized by a hemorrhagic syndrome with decreases in fibrinogen. L. obliqua Stuart-factor activator (Losac) and L. obliqua prothrombin activator protease (Lopap) are components that act with procoagulatory effects. The pro-inflammatory action occurs due to metalloproteases, hyaluronidases and other substances with inflammatory activity. Studies on caterpillar venom can give new perspectives on the treatment of cancer and other diseases that cause dysfunction of the extra-cellular matrix. <![CDATA[Prevalence of anemia in 2673 of 6- and 7-year-old schoolchildren from São José dos Campos, State of São Paulo]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000600448&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Poisons of caterpillars have different effects on inflammatory and coagulation systems. This is a case report of a 2-year-old child that accidentally came in contact with several caterpillars of the species Lonomia obliqua. At first, the patient's exams presented abnormal coagulation and decreased fibrinogen, but the patient did not evolve to active bleeding or acute renal failure. The patient received antilonomic serum 15 h after the accident and the treatment was repeated after another 12 h due to persistent alterations shown by the coagulation exams. The venom of L. obliqua has several substances that act on the coagulation and inflammatory systems. The event is characterized by a hemorrhagic syndrome with decreases in fibrinogen. L. obliqua Stuart-factor activator (Losac) and L. obliqua prothrombin activator protease (Lopap) are components that act with procoagulatory effects. The pro-inflammatory action occurs due to metalloproteases, hyaluronidases and other substances with inflammatory activity. Studies on caterpillar venom can give new perspectives on the treatment of cancer and other diseases that cause dysfunction of the extra-cellular matrix. <![CDATA[Guidelines on the treatment of anemia of chronic renal failure using recombinant human erythropoietin: Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular Guidelines Project: Associação Médica Brasileira – 2014]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000600450&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Poisons of caterpillars have different effects on inflammatory and coagulation systems. This is a case report of a 2-year-old child that accidentally came in contact with several caterpillars of the species Lonomia obliqua. At first, the patient's exams presented abnormal coagulation and decreased fibrinogen, but the patient did not evolve to active bleeding or acute renal failure. The patient received antilonomic serum 15 h after the accident and the treatment was repeated after another 12 h due to persistent alterations shown by the coagulation exams. The venom of L. obliqua has several substances that act on the coagulation and inflammatory systems. The event is characterized by a hemorrhagic syndrome with decreases in fibrinogen. L. obliqua Stuart-factor activator (Losac) and L. obliqua prothrombin activator protease (Lopap) are components that act with procoagulatory effects. The pro-inflammatory action occurs due to metalloproteases, hyaluronidases and other substances with inflammatory activity. Studies on caterpillar venom can give new perspectives on the treatment of cancer and other diseases that cause dysfunction of the extra-cellular matrix.