Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1516-848420140005&lang=pt vol. 36 num. 5 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Official communique: Chikungunya virus - a press release of the Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular regarding the safety of transfusions and transplants]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000500309&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[Does angiogenesis matter in primary myelofibrosis?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000500311&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[Pregnancy in sickle cell disease – do we know what to expect?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000500313&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[Comment on "Molecular analysis and association with clinical and laboratory manifestations in children with sickle cell anemia"]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000500315&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[An eye on sickle cell retinopathy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000500319&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[Increased angiogenesis in primary myelofibrosis: latent transforming growth factor-β as a possible angiogenic factor]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000500322&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: The aim of this work was to demonstrate a possible relationship between anti-latency-associated peptide human latent transforming growth factor beta 1 (latent TGF-β1) expression in megakaryocytes and microvascular density in bone marrow biopsies from patients with essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis. Methods: Microvascular density was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis and the expression of latent TGF-β1 in samples (100 megakaryocytes per bone marrow sample) from 18 essential thrombocythemia and 38 primary myelofibrosis (19 prefibrotic and 19 fibrotic) patients. Six bone marrow donor biopsies were used as controls. Fibrosis in the bone marrow biopsies was evaluated according to the European Consensus. Results: The average fibrosis grade differed between essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis groups when compared to the control group. Latent TGF-β1 expression differed significantly between the fibrotic primary myelofibrosis (PMF) group and the control group (p-value &lt; 0.01). A high degree of neo-angiogenesis (demonstrated by analysis of CD34 expression) was detected in patients with myelofibrosis. There were correlations between latent TGF-β1 expression and microvascular density (r = 0.45; p-value &lt; 0.0009) and between degree of microvascular density and fibrosis grade (r = 0.80; p-value &lt; 0.0001). Remarkable differences for neo-angiogenesis were not observed between patients with essential thrombocythemia and controls. Conclusion: Angiogenesis participates in the pathogenesis of primary myelofibrosis, in both the prefibrotic and fibrotic stages, while latent TGF-β is differentially expressed only in the prefibrotic stage. <![CDATA[Sickle cell disease and pregnancy: analysis of 34 patients followed at the Regional Blood Center of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000500329&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: The objective of this study was to verify the evolution of pregnancies in sickle cell patients followed at one institution over a period of 12 years (January 2000 to June 2012). Methods: The study evaluated 34 pregnant women with sickle cell disease with a mean age of 23.9 ± 5.3 years. The incidence of obstetric complications, non-obstetric complications linked to sickle cell disease and complications in the newborn were analyzed. Results: A total of 26% of the cases reported previous miscarriages, 20% had preterm labor, 10% had pre-eclampsia, and 5% had gestational diabetes. Forty-one percent of the deliveries were cesarean sections and 29% of patients required blood transfusions. In respect to sickle cell disease, 62% of patients had vaso-occlusive crises, 29% had acute chest syndrome, 23% had urinary tract infection, 15% had impaired cardiac function and 6% developed pulmonary hypertension. Only one patient died in the postnatal period due to acute chest syndrome. The mean gestational age was 37.8 ± 2.63 weeks, and mean newborn weight was 2.809 ± 643.8 g. There were seven fetal losses, including three stillbirths and four miscarriages. The impact of transfusion therapy on the incidence of maternal–fetal complications during pregnancy was evaluated. Conclusions: Pregnancy in sickle cell patients is still associated with complications. Although no statistical difference was observed between transfused and non-transfused women, there were no deaths (fetal or maternal) in transfused patients whereas one maternal death and three stillbirths occurred in non-transfused women. A larger study of sickle cell pregnant women will be necessary to elucidate the actual role of transfusion during pregnancy in sickle cell disease. <![CDATA[Molecular analysis and association with clinical and laboratory manifestations in children with sickle cell anemia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000500334&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objectives: To analyze the frequency of βS-globin haplotypes and alpha-thalassemia, and their influence on clinical manifestations and the hematological profile of children with sickle cell anemia. Method: The frequency of βS-globin haplotypes and alpha-thalassemia and any association with clinical and laboratorial manifestations were determined in 117 sickle cell anemia children aged 3–71 months. The confirmation of hemoglobin SS and determination of the haplotypes were achieved by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and alpha-thalassemia genotyping was by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (single-tube multiplex-polymerase chain reaction). Results: The genotype distribution of haplotypes was 43 (36.7%) Central African Republic/Benin, 41 (35.0%) Central African Republic/Central African Republic, 20 (17.0%) Rare/atypical, and 13 (11.1%) Benin/Benin. The frequency of the α3.7 deletion was 1.71% as homozygous (−α3.7/−α3.7) and 11.9% as heterozygous (−α3.7/αα). The only significant association in respect to haplotypes was related to the mean corpuscular volume. The presence of alpha-thalassemia was significantly associated to decreases in mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and reticulocyte count and to an increase in the red blood cell count. There were no significant associations of βS-globin haplotypes and alpha-thalassemia with clinical manifestations. Conclusions: In the study population, the frequency of alpha-thalassemia was similar to published data in Brazil with the Central African Republic haplotype being the most common, followed by the Benin haplotype. βS-globin haplotypes and interaction between alpha-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia did not influence fetal hemoglobin concentrations or the number of clinical manifestations. <![CDATA[Sickle cell disease retinopathy: characterization among pediatric and teenage patients from northeastern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000500340&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: The aim of the present study was to characterize sickle cell disease retinopathy in children and teenagers from Bahia, the state in northeastern Brazil with the highest incidence and prevalence of sickle cell disease. Methods: A group of 51 sickle cell disease patients (36 hemoglobin SS and 15 hemoglobin SC) with ages ranging from 4 to 18 years was studied. Ophthalmological examinations were performed in all patients. Moreover, a fluorescein angiography was also performed in over 10-year-old patients. Results: The most common ocular lesions were vascular tortuosity, which was found in nine (25%) hemoglobin SS patients, and black sunburst, in three (20%) hemoglobin SC patients. Peripheral arterial closure was observed in five (13.9%) hemoglobin SS patients and in three (13.3%) hemoglobin SC patients. Arteriovenous anastomoses were present in six (16.5%) hemoglobin SS patients and six (37.5%) hemoglobin SC patients. Neovascularization was not identified in any of the patients. Conclusions: This study supports the use of early ophthalmological examinations in young sickle cell disease patients to prevent the progression of retinopathy to severe disease and further blindness. <![CDATA[Study of enzyme replacement therapy for Gaucher Disease: comparative analysis of clinical and laboratory parameters at diagnosis and after two, five and ten years of treatment]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000500345&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: To evaluate the impact of enzyme replacement therapy for Gaucher Disease on clinical and laboratory parameters after two, five and ten years of treatment. Methods: Data were collected from patient records and analyzed using BioEstat software (version 5.0). Student's t-test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Wilcoxon test and Kruskal–Wallis test were used for statistical analysis. Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly were analyzed using the Kappa test. Results: There was a significant increase in hemoglobin levels (p-value &lt;0.01) and platelet counts (p-value = 0.01) within two years of therapy. At the same time, the frequencies of splenomegaly (p-value &lt;0.01) and hepatomegaly (p-value &lt;0.05) reduced. These results were similar at five and ten years of enzyme replacement therapy. Conclusions: There are substantial and quick (within two years) laboratory and clinical responses to enzyme replacement therapy. These improvements continue as long as enzyme replacement therapy is administered every two weeks, as recommended by the literature. <![CDATA[Frequency of p190 and p210 <em>BCR-ABL</em> rearrangements and survival in Brazilian adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000500351&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: This study investigated the occurrence of the p190 and p210 break point clusterregion-Abelson (BCR-ABL) rearrangements in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and possible associations with clinical and laboratory characteristics and survival. Methods: Forty-one over 18-year-old patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia of both genders followed-up between January 2008 and May 2012 were included in this study. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical charts of the patients. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers was employed to identify molecular rearrangements. Results: At diagnosis, the median age was 33 years, and there was a predominance of males (61%). The most common immunophenotype was B lineage (76%). BCR-ABL rearrangements was detected in 14 (34%) patients with the following distribution: p190 (28%), p210 (50%) and double positive (22%). Overall survival of patients with a mean/median of 331/246 days of follow up was 39%, respectively, negative BCR-ABL (44%) and positive BCR-ABL (28%). Conclusion: These results confirm the high frequency of BCR-ABL rearrangements and the low survival rate of adult Brazilian patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. <![CDATA[The concurrent occurrence of <em>Leishmania chagasi</em> infection and childhood acute leukemia in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000500356&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: This study investigated the co-existence of Leishmania chagasi infection and childhood leukemia in patients naïve to treatment; this has serious clinical and epidemiological implications. Methods: The seroprevalence of L. chagasi antibodies prior to any treatment was investigated in children with clinical features of acute leukemia. Serological tests were performed in 470 samples drawn from under 14-year-old children from different regions of Brazil with clinical suspicion of acute leukemia. Acute leukemia subtypes were characterized by immunophenotyping using flow cytometry. Morphological analyses of bone marrow aspirates were systematically performed to visualize blast cells and/or the formation of L. chagasi amastigotes. Data analysis used a standard univariate procedure and the Pearson's chi-square test. Results: The plasma of 437 children (93%) displayed antibodies against L. chagasi by indirect immunofluorescence assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests. Of the 437 patients diagnosed from 2002 to 2006, 254 had acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 92 had acute myeloid leukemia, and 91 did not have acute leukemia. The seroprevalence of L. chagasi antibodies according to the indirect immunofluorescence assay test (22.5%) was similar in children with or without acute leukemia (p-value = 0.76). The co-existence of visceral leishmanasis and acute leukemia was confirmed in 24 children. The overall survival of these children was poor with a high death rate during the first year of leukemia treatment. Conclusion: In the differential diagnosis of childhood leukemia, visceral leishmanasis should be considered as a potential concurrent disease in regions where L. chagasi is endemic. <![CDATA[Influence of cyclosporine on the occurrence of nephrotoxicity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a systematic review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000500363&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Cyclosporine, a drug used in immunosuppression protocols for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation that has a narrow therapeutic index, may cause various adverse reactions, including nephrotoxicity. This has a direct clinical impact on the patient. This study aims to summarize available evidence in the scientific literature on the use of cyclosporine in respect to its risk factor for the development of nephrotoxicity in patients submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A systematic review was made with the following electronic databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, SciELO and Cochrane BVS. The keywords used were: "bone marrow transplantation" OR "stem cell transplantation" OR "grafting, bone marrow" AND cyclosporine OR cyclosporin OR "risk factors" AND "acute kidney injury" OR "acute kidney injuries" OR "acute renal failure" OR "acute renal failures" OR "nephrotoxicity". The level of scientific evidence of the studies was classified according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine. The final sample was composed of 19 studies, most of which (89.5%) had an observational design, evidence level 2B and pointed to an incidence of nephrotoxicity above 30%. The available evidence, considered as good quality and appropriate for the analyzed event, indicates that cyclosporine represents a risk factor for the occurrence of nephrotoxicity, particularly when combined with amphotericin B or aminoglycosides, agents commonly used in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. <![CDATA[Quantification of mixed chimerism allows early therapeutic interventions]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000500369&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the curative option for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome; however, it requires a long post-transplantation follow-up. A 53-year-old woman with a diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome underwent related donor allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in July 2006. Three months after transplantation, a comparative short tandem repeat analysis between donor and recipient revealed full chimerism, indicating complete, healthy bone marrow reconstitution. Three years and ten months after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the patient developed leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Another short tandem repeat analysis was carried out which showed mixed chimerism (52.62%), indicating relapsed disease. A donor lymphocyte infusion was administered. The purpose of donor lymphocyte infusion is to induce a graft-versus-leukemia effect; in fact, this donor's lymphocyte infusion induced full chimerism. Successive short tandem repeat analyses were performed as part of post-transplantation follow-up, and in July 2010, one such analysis again showed mixed chimerism (64.25%). Based on this finding, a second donor lymphocyte infusion was administered, but failed to eradicate the disease. In September 2011, the patient presented with relapsed disease, and a second related donor allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was performed. Subsequent short tandem repeat analyses revealed full chimerism, indicating complete bone marrow reconstitution. We conclude that quantitative detection of mixed chimerism is an important diagnostic tool that can guide early therapeutic intervention. <![CDATA[Gaucher disease in a family from Maranhão]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000500373&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Gaucher disease is an inborn, autosomal recessive error of the metabolism which belongs to the group of lysosomal storage disorders. Objective: This work reports on the treatment of Gaucher disease in several members of the same family from the countryside of Maranhão. Methods: This was an observational, retrospective and prospective, descriptive case study about the efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy. Results: The results showed that women were more affected (80% of patients) by the disease, age at diagnosis ranged from 24 to 33 years, the predominant ethnicity was mulatto (80%) and all cases were classified as type 1. The diagnosis of these patients was performed by measuring the levels of glucocerebrosidase and chitotriosidase enzymes and confirmed by genotyping. All patients suffering from Gaucher disease had low glucocerebrosidase levels. Before replacement therapy, hepatosplenomegaly was the most common clinical manifestation (100%) and osteopenia was seen in 80% of the cases. Regarding hematological manifestations, anemia and leukopenia were found in 40% of patients at diagnosis; however the hemoglobin and leukocyte levels were normalized after four years of therapy. Thrombocytopenia, observed in 20% of cases, was normalized after the second year of treatment. Conclusion: In these cases, despite gaps in the treatment as the family resides in the rural region of the state, the patients with Gaucher disease showed satisfactory therapeutic response over time. <![CDATA[Detection of cytogenetic abnormalities in mature B-cell neoplasms: the value of cultures with different mitogens]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000500379&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Gaucher disease is an inborn, autosomal recessive error of the metabolism which belongs to the group of lysosomal storage disorders. Objective: This work reports on the treatment of Gaucher disease in several members of the same family from the countryside of Maranhão. Methods: This was an observational, retrospective and prospective, descriptive case study about the efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy. Results: The results showed that women were more affected (80% of patients) by the disease, age at diagnosis ranged from 24 to 33 years, the predominant ethnicity was mulatto (80%) and all cases were classified as type 1. The diagnosis of these patients was performed by measuring the levels of glucocerebrosidase and chitotriosidase enzymes and confirmed by genotyping. All patients suffering from Gaucher disease had low glucocerebrosidase levels. Before replacement therapy, hepatosplenomegaly was the most common clinical manifestation (100%) and osteopenia was seen in 80% of the cases. Regarding hematological manifestations, anemia and leukopenia were found in 40% of patients at diagnosis; however the hemoglobin and leukocyte levels were normalized after four years of therapy. Thrombocytopenia, observed in 20% of cases, was normalized after the second year of treatment. Conclusion: In these cases, despite gaps in the treatment as the family resides in the rural region of the state, the patients with Gaucher disease showed satisfactory therapeutic response over time. <![CDATA[Erratum to "Are the review criteria for automated complete blood counts of the International Society of Laboratory Hematology suitable for all hematology laboratories?": [Rev. Bras. Hematol. Hemoter. 2014;36(3):219–225]]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842014000500381&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Gaucher disease is an inborn, autosomal recessive error of the metabolism which belongs to the group of lysosomal storage disorders. Objective: This work reports on the treatment of Gaucher disease in several members of the same family from the countryside of Maranhão. Methods: This was an observational, retrospective and prospective, descriptive case study about the efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy. Results: The results showed that women were more affected (80% of patients) by the disease, age at diagnosis ranged from 24 to 33 years, the predominant ethnicity was mulatto (80%) and all cases were classified as type 1. The diagnosis of these patients was performed by measuring the levels of glucocerebrosidase and chitotriosidase enzymes and confirmed by genotyping. All patients suffering from Gaucher disease had low glucocerebrosidase levels. Before replacement therapy, hepatosplenomegaly was the most common clinical manifestation (100%) and osteopenia was seen in 80% of the cases. Regarding hematological manifestations, anemia and leukopenia were found in 40% of patients at diagnosis; however the hemoglobin and leukocyte levels were normalized after four years of therapy. Thrombocytopenia, observed in 20% of cases, was normalized after the second year of treatment. Conclusion: In these cases, despite gaps in the treatment as the family resides in the rural region of the state, the patients with Gaucher disease showed satisfactory therapeutic response over time.