Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1516-848420120005&lang=en vol. 34 num. 5 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[<b>Challenges for medical residency in hematology and transfusion medicine in Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842012000500001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>BCR-ABL rearrangement and HLA antigens</b>: <b>a possible link to leukemia pathogenesis and immunotherapy</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842012000500002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Comment on</b>: <b>clinical impact of systematic nutritional care in adults submitted to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842012000500003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Importance of functional evaluation after hematopoietic cell transplantation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842012000500004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Anemia and the blood donor</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842012000500005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Blood donation, blood supply, iron deficiency and anemia</b>: <b>it is time to shift attention back to donor health</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842012000500006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>A step towards the cure of Burkitt's lymphoma in developing countries</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842012000500007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Clinical impact of systematic nutritional care in adults submitted to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842012000500008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: The development of nutrition care programs for patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is necessity in view of the rapid and aggressive consequences frequently seen with this procedure. Patients require constant care to reduce complications and to contribute to the success of therapy. METHODS: In an attempt to ascertain the impact of systematic nutritional care on patients submitted to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the present study assessed the nutritional and clinical status, use of parenteral nutrition, and complication and mortality rates in two groups of patients, who were submitted to transplantation between April 2003 and December 2004 (Non-intervention Group - NIG; n = 57) and between March 2006 and January 2008 (Intervention Group - IG; n = 34). RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups in terms of clinical or nutritional profiles. Additionally, the length of hospital stay and complication and mortality rates were similar for both groups. However, time on parenteral nutrition during treatment was shorter for the IG [median 6.5 days (range: 1-28) for related donor recipients and 11 days (range: 1-21) for unrelated donor recipients] than for the NIG [median 20.5 days (range, 4-73) for patients submitted to myeloablative conditioning and 18.5 days (range: 11-59 days) for those submitted to nonablative conditioning]. CONCLUSION: The implementation of a nutritional follow-up and therapy protocol for adult patients submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation shortens the duration of parenteral nutrition. It certainly has an impact on hospitalization costs and, potentially, on the rate of complications, even though this was not demonstrated in this study. <![CDATA[<b>A model of genetic guidance for hemoglobinopathy patients and laboratory diagnosis of family members as educational and preventive measures</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842012000500009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: The high frequency of hemoglobinopathies in Brazil constitutes a public health problem and thus educational and preventive measures are necessary to reduce the incidence. Genetic guidance, a modality of genetic counseling, and family screening are measures that can assist in reproductive decisions and mitigate clinical, psychological and social problems of families with these disorders. OBJETIVE: The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of educational and preventive measures for hemoglobinopathies using genetic guidance and laboratory screening of families. METHODS: The diagnoses of patients with hemoglobinopathies were confirmed and then the level of knowledge about their disease was evaluated and genetic guidance was provided. Three months later, the level of assimilated information of these patients was evaluated. In addition, laboratory diagnosis of family members was carried out. RESULTS: Diagnosis of sickle cell anemia was confirmed for most patients. Moreover, the majority of the patients who had a low level of knowledge before genetic guidance (68.8%) demonstrated a higher level of assimilated information after the process (81.8%). Almost 70% of the family members had hemoglobin changes and some had hemoglobinopathies (2.6%). They were duly informed about the results of the examinations, which made it possible to investigate further. CONCLUSION: Genetic guidance and family screening were effective preventive and educational measures that improved the quality of life of patients, preventing complications and sequels and allowed the referral of those who may transmit altered genes for clinical diagnosis and to genetic counseling services. <![CDATA[<b>Functional evaluation indicates physical losses after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842012000500010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To perform a function evaluation of patients before and after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. METHODS: From November 2008 to November 2010, 29 female (58%) and 21 male patients (42%) with median age of 48 years (range: 24-67) were enrolled in this study. Data collection was performed before and after autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Evaluation instruments included the 2-minute walking test to evaluate gait performance with assessment of the oxygen saturation, heart rate and Borg Scale before and after the test; grip strength for strength evaluation, Schober Test for spine mobility testing and maximum and adapted activity scores of the Human Activity Profile questionnaire to test functionality in daily activities. RESULTS: Fifty patients were evaluated at baseline; six did not undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (three died, one refused and two were excluded). Thus 44/50 (88% - 21 allogeneic and 23 autologous) transplantations were performed. Only 33 of the 44 patients (75%) performed evaluations after transplantation (nine died and two were excluded). Of the patients who performed both evaluations, significantly lower values were found in the evaluation after transplantation for the 2-minute walking test (p-value = 0.004), grip strength of both right and left hands (p-value = 0.004 and p-value < 0.0001, respectively), the Schober Test, and maximum and adapted activity scores (p-value < 0.0001). The heart rate was higher (p-value = 0.01) before the 2-minute walking test and oxygen saturation was higher (p-value = 0.02) after. CONCLUSION: Statistical differences indicate functional impairment after transplantation showing physical losses in this population. <![CDATA[<b>Serum concentrations of nitrite and malondialdehyde as markers of oxidative stress in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842012000500011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Chronic myeloid leukemia is a neoplasm characterized by clonal expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells resulting from the (9:22)(q34,11) translocation. The tyrosine kinase abl fusion protein,the initial leukemogenic event in chronic myeloid leukemia, is constitutively activated thus inducing the production of reactive oxygen species. Of particular relevance is the fact that an increase in reactive oxygen species can facilitate genomic instability and may contribute to disease progression. OBJETIVE: To evaluate oxidative stress by determining the levels of malondialdehyde and nitrite in chronic myeloid leukemia patients under treatment with 1st and 2nd generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors monitored at a referral hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed of 64 male and female adults. Patients were stratified according to treatment. The levels of malondialdehyde and nitrite were determined by spectrophotometry. Statistical differences between groups were observed using the Student t-test and Fisher's exact test. The results are expressed as mean ± standard error of mean. The significance level was set for a p-value < 0.05 in all analyses. RESULTS: The results show significantly higher mean concentrations of nitrite and malondialdehyde in chronic myeloid leukemia patients using second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors compared to patients on imatinib. Conclusion: It follows that chronic myeloid leukemia patients present higher oxidative activity and that the increases in oxidative damage markers can indicate resistance to 1st generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors. <![CDATA[<b>Etiology of anemia of blood donor candidates deferred by hematologic screening</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842012000500012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and one of the main factors in the clinical deferral of blood donors. This fact prompted the current study that aimed to determine the prevalence and etiology of anemia in blood donor candidates and to evaluate the hematological screening technique used for the exclusion of these donors. METHODS: This was a prospective study that compared two groups (Anemic and Non-anemic). Initially screening for anemia was performed by manually measuring hemoglobin (Bioclin® Kit); the results were subsequently compared with an automated screening method (Coulter T-890). The etiology was investigated by hemoglobin electrophoresis in alkaline and acid pH, Hb A2 dosage and measurement of the ferritin concentration by immunoagglutination. Differences and associations of interest were analyzed using the Yates and McNemar's Chi-square tests and the Fisher, Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: The deferral rate due to anemia was 4.2%; iron deficiency was identified in 37.5% and beta thalassemia in 9.3% of the excluded candidates. There was a significant discrepancy between the two techniques used to measure hemoglobin with 38.1% of initially deferred donors presenting normal hemoglobin levels by the automated method. CONCLUSION: The results show a high rate of blood donors being deferred for anemia and confirm that iron deficiency is the most prevalent cause. The discrepancies found by comparing screening methods suggest that hemoglobin and hematocrit levels should be confirmed before deferring a donor due to anemia; this may increase supplies in blood banks. <![CDATA[<b>Clinical course and prognostic factors of children with Burkitt's lymphoma in a developing country</b>: <b>the experience of a single centre in Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842012000500013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: Burkitt's lymphoma is the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical course and prognostic factors of children and adolescents with Burkitt's lymphoma treated in the Hematology Unit of Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was made of 50 consecutive cases of children and adolescents aged 16 years or less with Burkitt's lymphoma admitted between January 1981 and December 2007. Prognostic factors associated with death were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the two-tailed log-rank test. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 4.7 years. Most patients had abdominal tumors (66.7%) and advanced disease (68.9%) at diagnosis. Thirty-eight patients (84.4%) achieved complete clinical remission and 33 (73.3%) were alive at the first remission. Twelve children (26.7%) died. The median follow-up was 35 months with the probability of overall survival being 73% (89.2% and 35.7% for patients with uric acid < 7 mg/dL and &gt; 7.0 mg/dL, respectively - p-value < 0.001). Uric acid was the only significant prognostic factor at diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm the favorable prognosis of children with Burkitt's lymphoma even when treated with intermediate doses of methotrexate (500 mg/m2). Survival was significantly lower for individuals with concentrations of uric acid &gt; 7 mg/dL. <![CDATA[<b>Chronic myeloid leukemia treatment guidelines</b>: <b>Brazilian Association of Hematology, Hemotherapy and Cell Therapy. Brazilian Medical Association Guidelines Project - 2012</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842012000500014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: Burkitt's lymphoma is the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical course and prognostic factors of children and adolescents with Burkitt's lymphoma treated in the Hematology Unit of Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was made of 50 consecutive cases of children and adolescents aged 16 years or less with Burkitt's lymphoma admitted between January 1981 and December 2007. Prognostic factors associated with death were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the two-tailed log-rank test. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 4.7 years. Most patients had abdominal tumors (66.7%) and advanced disease (68.9%) at diagnosis. Thirty-eight patients (84.4%) achieved complete clinical remission and 33 (73.3%) were alive at the first remission. Twelve children (26.7%) died. The median follow-up was 35 months with the probability of overall survival being 73% (89.2% and 35.7% for patients with uric acid < 7 mg/dL and &gt; 7.0 mg/dL, respectively - p-value < 0.001). Uric acid was the only significant prognostic factor at diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm the favorable prognosis of children with Burkitt's lymphoma even when treated with intermediate doses of methotrexate (500 mg/m2). Survival was significantly lower for individuals with concentrations of uric acid &gt; 7 mg/dL. <![CDATA[<b>Use of antifungal drugs in hematology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842012000500015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Invasive fungal disease represents a major complication in hematological patients. Antifungal agents are frequently used in hematologic patients for different purposes. In neutropenic patients, antifungal agents may be used as prophylaxis, as empiric or preemptive therapy, or to treat an invasive fungal disease that has been diagnosed. The hematologist must be familiar with the epidemiology, diagnostic tools and strategies of antifungal use, as well as the pharmacologic proprieties of the different antifungal agents. In this paper the principal antifungal agents used in hematologic patients will be discussed as will the clinical scenarios where these agents have been used. <![CDATA[<b>Neonatal screening in the state of Piauí</b>: <b>an urgent need - a study on the prevalence of sickle cell disease in newborns</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842012000500016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Invasive fungal disease represents a major complication in hematological patients. Antifungal agents are frequently used in hematologic patients for different purposes. In neutropenic patients, antifungal agents may be used as prophylaxis, as empiric or preemptive therapy, or to treat an invasive fungal disease that has been diagnosed. The hematologist must be familiar with the epidemiology, diagnostic tools and strategies of antifungal use, as well as the pharmacologic proprieties of the different antifungal agents. In this paper the principal antifungal agents used in hematologic patients will be discussed as will the clinical scenarios where these agents have been used. <![CDATA[<b>Leukocyte superoxide dismutase activity in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842012000500017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Invasive fungal disease represents a major complication in hematological patients. Antifungal agents are frequently used in hematologic patients for different purposes. In neutropenic patients, antifungal agents may be used as prophylaxis, as empiric or preemptive therapy, or to treat an invasive fungal disease that has been diagnosed. The hematologist must be familiar with the epidemiology, diagnostic tools and strategies of antifungal use, as well as the pharmacologic proprieties of the different antifungal agents. In this paper the principal antifungal agents used in hematologic patients will be discussed as will the clinical scenarios where these agents have been used. <![CDATA[<b>The utility of multiparametric flow cytometry for the detection of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842012000500018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Invasive fungal disease represents a major complication in hematological patients. Antifungal agents are frequently used in hematologic patients for different purposes. In neutropenic patients, antifungal agents may be used as prophylaxis, as empiric or preemptive therapy, or to treat an invasive fungal disease that has been diagnosed. The hematologist must be familiar with the epidemiology, diagnostic tools and strategies of antifungal use, as well as the pharmacologic proprieties of the different antifungal agents. In this paper the principal antifungal agents used in hematologic patients will be discussed as will the clinical scenarios where these agents have been used.