Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology]]> vol. 59 num. SPE lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Editorial]]> <![CDATA[The physiological and biochemical mechanism of nitrate-nitrogen removal by water hyacinth from agriculture eutrophic wastewater]]> ABSTRACT Large amount of agriculturl wastewater containing high level nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 --N) is produced from modern intensive agricultural production management due to the excessive use of chemical fertilizers and livestock scale farming. The hydroponic experiment of water hyacinth was conducted for analyzing the content of NO3 --N, soluble sugar content, N-transported the amino acid content and growth change in water hyacinth to explore its purification ability to remove NO3 --N from agriculture eutrophic wastewater and physiological and biochemical mechanism of this plant to remove NO3 --N. The results showed that the water hyacinth could effectively utilize the NO3 --N from agriculture eutrophic wastewater. Compared with the control, the contents of NO3 -change to NO3 --N in the root, leaf petiole and leaf blade of water hyacinth after treatment in the wastewater for a week was significantly higher than that in the control plants treated with tap water, and also the biomass of water hyacinth increased significantly, indicating that the accumulation of biomass due to the rapid growth of water hyacinth could transfer some amount of NO3 --N.13C-NMR analysis confirmed that water hyacinth would convert the part nitrogen absorbed from agriculture eutrophic wastewater to ammonia nitrogen, which increased the content of aspartic acid and glutamic acid, decreased the content of soluble sugar, sucrose and fructose and the content of N-storaged asparagine and glutamine, lead to enhance the synthesis of plant amino acids and promote the growth of plants. These results indicate that the nitrate in agriculture eutrophic wastewater can be utilized by water hyacinth as nitrogen nutrition, and can promote plant growth by using soluble sugar and amide to synthesis amino acids and protein. <![CDATA[Research on the spatial distribution characteristics of arable land economic quality composite grade and ecology environment in Yunnan Province, China]]> ABSTRACT Understanding the distribution characteristics of arable land in Yunnan Province is of significant importance to make scientific decisionsto use and improve the quality of arable land. In this study, the distribution characteristics of the arable land grade including 129 counties were analyzed based on the accomplishment of cultivated land classification in Yunnan Province. The results showed that the average economic quality composite grade was 2.9, in a range of 1 to 13, which means that the economic quality of arable landof Yunnan Province is relatively lower. In excellent zone, the grade ranges from 1 to 10, and the average grade is 2.4. In good zone, it ranges from 1~13, and the average grade is 3.1. In medium zone, it ranges from 1~12, and the average value is 3.2. In poor zone, it ranges from 1~11, and the average is 3. In worse zone, it ranges from 1~10, and the average is 2.2. The middle and poor arable land has the largest area, which concentrated in the middle and poor zones and dominantly influenced the average grade in the whole province. This research will serve as a reference forarable landpolicy making in the future, especiallyon apace arrangement optimization, quality improvement and ecology environment protection in Yunnan Province. <![CDATA[Research on the space environment characteristic and the development of the traditional village in China: Taking Pengzhuang in the northern Jiangsu province as an example]]> ABSTRACT Traditional villages in the northern Jiangsu province have a local character and history unique artistic style, traditional culture and art Jiangsu indispensable part. How to make achieving sustainable and harmonious for development in rural areas, it is a major problem currently in these places. In this paper, field research and theoretical analysis a multidisciplinary approach, the traditional villages of northern Jiangsu space environment features, including location and spatial pattern are elaborated, analyzed the current conditions of rural development. Then taking Pengzhuang Village in the northern Jiangsu as example, discuss the current situation as well as its architectural characteristics of the space environment group and architectural types. Discussing the necessity of architectural features traditional villages in Northern implementation of conservation is proposed as the main ecological environmental protection and rural development policy space. Beautiful traditional village development should be coordinated development of economic and social environment, especially in the process of our socialist new rural construction, village spatial patterns of Jiangsu for basic research has positive practical value and far-reaching historical significance. <![CDATA[Impact of Simulated Warming on Growthand Floral Characteristics of Two Varieties of Medicinal Epimedium]]> ABSTRACT An open top chamber (OTC) warming system was established in natural field conditions to study the impact of simulated warming on growth and floral characteristics of E. wushanense and E. acuminatum. Results: plant height and leaf growth were affected significantly.In +2°C warming condition, increment of plant height, leaf length and width and daily mean incrementof the two varieties were significantly greater than those of the control group; however, in warming +5°C condition, the increments were significantly lower than those of the control group. Floral differentiation was presented when different treatment was adopted. Floral quantitative character of E. acuminatum increased markedly after +2°C warming, but declined markedly after +5°C warming; however, floral quantitative characters of E. wushanense declined after +2°C and +5°C warming. The results can be used as a reference for cultivation and introduction of the two varieties. <![CDATA[Establishment of an Embryonic Tip Regeneration System of Soybean]]> ABSTRACT In order to establish an optimal soybean embryonic tip regeneration system that can serve as soybean genetic transformation receptor, and be used for the study of genetic function verification, the influences of single factor on the adventitious bud of embryonic tip induction, elongation and rooting stage, are researched and compared.The single factors includes seeds soaking time, different kinds of hormones, different concentration of hormone and different concentration of sucrose. By one-way ANOVA and LSD ad hoc test , the results show that, for the embryonic tip adventitious bud induction stage, 12h is the optimal seeds soaking time, 2.0mg·L-1 is the optimal concentration of 6-Benzyl Aminopurine(6-BA), for the embryonic tip adventitious bud elongation stage, 0.2mg·L-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is optimal and 2.0mg·L-1Gibberellic acid (GA3) is optimal, and for the adventitious bud of embryonic tip rooting stage, 2.0mg·L-1 IBA is optimal,the average rooting rate is 93.34%. An Optimal embryonic tip regeneration system is established, and optimum mediums in different stages are found. <![CDATA[Effects of organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of bush bean, winged bean and yard long bean]]> ABSTRACT VC (20%), TC (20%) and N:P:K fertilizer (farmer's practice) were used to determine the growth and yield attributes of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) and yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata). Plants grown with VC (20%) produced the highest fresh biomass for bush bean (527.55 g m-2), winged bean (1168.61 g m-2) and yard long bean (409.84 g m-2). In all the tested legumes the highest pod weight, pod number, pod dry weight and pod length were found in the VC (20%) treatment. Photosynthetic rates in the three legumes peaked at pod formation stage in all treatments, with the highest photosynthetic rate observed in winged bean (56.17 µmol m-2s-1) grown with VC (20%). The highest yield for bush bean (2.98 ton ha-1), winged bean (7.28 ton ha-1) and yard long bean (2.22 ton ha-1) were also found in VC (20%) treatment. Furthermore, protein content was highest in bush bean (26.50 g/100g), followed by yard long bean (24.74 g/100g) and winged bean (22.04 g/100g), under VC (20%) treatment. It can be concluded that legumes grown with VC (20%) produced the highest yield and yield attributes. <![CDATA[Development of a Rapid and Sensitive Method for Detection of African Swine Fever Virus Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification]]> ABSTRACT A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV). A set of LAMP primers was designed based on the sequence of the ASFV gene K205R. Reaction temperature and time were optimized to 64 oC and 60 min, respectively. LAMP products were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis or visually with the addition of fluorescent dye. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was approximately 6 copies of the target gene per microliter, 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR. LAMP is a simple and inexpensive molecular assay format for ASFV detection. To date, African swine fever has not been reported in China. LAMP can be used to monitor ASFV spread into China, thereby reducing the threat of ASF. <![CDATA[Effects of Leached Amylose and Amylopectin in Rice Cooking Liquidon Texture and Structure of Cooked Rice]]> ABSTRACT Effects of leached amylose (AM) and amylopectin (AP) on textural and morphological properties of cooked rice were investigated separately by replacing cooking liquid with AM and AP separated from pouring cooking liquid. The pouring of cooking water reduced the hardness (from 28.45 to 19.42N) and stickiness (from 1.74 to 1.19N·s) significantly. However, the addition of AM and AP enhanced the hardness (27.63N) and stickiness (1.71N·s).Scanning electron microscopy show that the leached short-chain AM entered the surface hollows in the cooked rice after water evaporation. Meanwhile, the Long-chain AM cross-linked to formed a three-dimensional network structures, which covered on the filled hollows. This distribution led to a harder texture of cooked rice. The leached AP absorbed water and swelledto form masses. Atthe gelatinization temperature,theAPmassesagglomeratedtoformafilmlayer,whichcoveredtheunevenstructure, the thicker and smoother film contributed to the sticky texture. <![CDATA[Research on manufacturing text classification based on improved genetic algorithm]]> ABSTRACT According to the features of texts, a text classification model is proposed. Base on this model, an optimized objective function is designed by utilizing the occurrence frequency of each feature in each category. According to the relation matrix oftext resource and features, an improved genetic algorithm is adopted for solution with integral matrix crossover, transposition and recombination of entire population. At last the sample date of manufacturing text information from professional resources database system is taken as an example to illustrate the proposed model and solution for feature dimension reduction and text classification. The crossover and mutation probabilities of algorithm are compared vertically and horizontally to determine a group of better parameters. The experiment results show that the proposed method is fast and effective. <![CDATA[Research and Applications of Shop Scheduling Based on Genetic Algorithms]]> ABSTRACT Shop Scheduling is an important factor affecting the efficiency of production, efficient scheduling method and a research and application for optimization technology play an important role for manufacturing enterprises to improve production efficiency, reduce production costs and many other aspects. Existing studies have shown that improved genetic algorithm has solved the limitations that existed in the genetic algorithm, the objective function is able to meet customers' needs for shop scheduling, and the future research should focus on the combination of genetic algorithm with other optimized algorithms. In this paper, in order to overcome the shortcomings of early convergence of genetic algorithm and resolve local minimization problem in search process,aiming at mixed flow shop scheduling problem, an improved cyclic search genetic algorithm is put forward, and chromosome coding method and corresponding operation are given.The operation has the nature of inheriting the optimal individual ofthe previous generation and is able to avoid the emergence of local minimum, and cyclic and crossover operation and mutation operation can enhance the diversity of the population and then quickly get the optimal individual, and the effectiveness of the algorithm is validated. Experimental results show that the improved algorithm can well avoid the emergency of local minimum and is rapid in convergence. <![CDATA[Research on Value Assessment and Compensation for Health Hazards of Urban Air Pollution-A Case Study of Urumqi]]> ABSTRACT With the acceleration of urbanization and industrialization, urban air pollution has become a serious threat to the health of urban residents. In this study, to investigate health hazards caused by air pollution for urban residents, concentrations of main air pollutants and annual coal consumption amounts during the period from 2000 to 2013 were analyzed. Our results showed that economic losses of Urumqi caused by air pollution amounted to 63.155 million yuan in 2013, accounting for 0.2 ‰ of its GDP and 5.7% of public utility expenditures for that year. The compensation mechanism analysis suggested that it is necessary to further improve the health care system and increase corporate environmental taxes. More environmental health protection taxes should be levied on key monitoredenterprises in Urumqi to achieve effective compensations for urban residents affected by air pollution-related health hazards. <![CDATA[Research on Phosphorus Removal in Artificial Wetlands by Plants and Their Photosynthesis]]> ABSTRACT Urban rainfall runoff pollution has become a major reason for water eutrophication problem in the process of urbanization in China, while phosphorus is a significant restrictive factor that influences primary productivity of freshwater system. It's rather significant to conduct phosphorus control in waste water with engineering measures. This research, based on material balance research of phosphorus in artificial wetlands, HRT (hydraulic retention time) and analysis of wetland plant photosynthesis and removal rate of phosphorus, simulates purification of phosphorus in urban runoff sewage by artificial wetland system. Experiment shows that removal rate of total phosphorus in urban runoff sewage by artificial wetland system reaches 42.23%-60.89%, and contribution rate in removal of phosphorus which is assimilated and absorbed by plants is 14.74%; contribution rate in removal of phosphorus which is accumulated and absorbed by substrates is 43.22%; contribution rate in removal of phosphorus which is absorbed by means like microorganisms is 2.93%. Pollutant absorption by substrates is a process of dynamic equilibrium. With extension of HRT, phosphorus removing effect of wetlands present an increasing and then decreasing tendency; Net photosynthetic rate and TP removal rate of canna and reed have significant positive correlation, and correlation coefficients are respectively 0.941(P&lt;0.001) and 0.915(P&lt;0.05). Substrates and plants are main pathways for phosphorus removal of artificial wetlands, covering 95% of the total removing effect. <![CDATA[Establishment of the carbon label mechanism of coal chemical products based oncarbon footprint]]> ABSTRACT After redefining the carbon footprint and carbon label, the paper analyzesthe significance of the carbon labels under the background of the low carbon economy development, and establishes the concept of model of the carbon labels mechanism to chemical products. At the same time, the paper quantitatively studies carbon label data sourceof three kinds of coal chemical industry power products, which are fromhaving not CCS technologies of supercritical boiler of coal, using CCS technologies of supercritical boiler of coal and adopting CCS and IGCC technologies to power generation in CCI. Based on the three kinds of differences, the paper puts forward of establishing the carbon labels mechanism of chemical products under the low carbon consumption. <![CDATA[Distribution of copper in soil and rice system of Hainan Island, China]]> ABSTRACT This research aimed to discover the distribution and the primary influence factors of Cu in the soil-rice systems of tropical farmland. Soil samples of farmland and rice plant (stalk and polished rice) from the western region of Hainan Island were collected and studied. The results showed that the average Cu content in the topsoil of the study area was 15.75 mg kg-1; the highest Cu content (45.92 mg kg-1) was found in the rice fields of the northern area, where pyroclastic parent material is distributed. Thus, there is a potential for Cu contamination of the rice grown in this region. The average contents of Cu in the rice stalks and polished rice were 16.9 and 5.68 mg kg-1, respectively, indicating that the stalks had a larger capacity for Cu bioaccumulation than the polished rice. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of Cu in rice was found to decrease with increased Cu contents in the soil. In regards to the northern farmlands with high Cu contents in the soil derived from pyroclastic deposits, an alkaline fertilizer should be used to prevent the risk of Cu pollution in the polished rice, as soil acidification can promote the uptake and accumulation of Cu to some extent. <![CDATA[Experimental Study on the Changing Rules of Coal Fire Indictor Gases of the Whole Combustion Phases in Confined Space]]> ABSTRACT When the coal mine fire occurs, it is crucial to judge the fire combustion state by analyzing indicator gases concentration and changing trends of various gas ratios in order to formulate proper rescue measures. It's an effective methodology to estimate the changes of combustion state in coal mine fire accurately by the trends analysis of indicator gases and gas ratios independent of the external environment disturbs, such as air leakage and inner gases injection. However, there are few experimental researches about the changing rules of indicator gases and gas ratios at different combustion phases at present. Therefore, this paper has established a small-sized coal combustion experimental platform in confined space, on which the experimental studies on variation trends about indicator gases and gas ratios of the whole combustion phases are conducted. The experiment results have shown that the coal combustion trends could be accurately estimated by analyzing the relationship between indicator gases and gas ratios among different combustion phases. In the end of this paper, the conclusions are verified by a real coal mine fire disaster relief case, and the practical results are in agreement with the experimental analysis.