Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1516-891320180002&lang=en vol. 61 num. SPE lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Storage of purified biogas (biomethane) at low pressure]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200200&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The global use of fossil energy sources has led to the need to develop technologies capable of mitigating its consequences. One such option is anaerobic biodigestion, which is already scientifically well-established, although the use of its main products (biogas and biomethane) still requires further development before they can be employed in automotive vehicles, largely due to technical issues concerning their storage. The storage of methane using adsorption (Adsorbed Natural Gas - ANG) is a technology that requires less energy and moderate pressures and temperatures. However, the main storage techniques continue to be those that involve high pressures and/or cryogenic temperatures. The present work evaluates the performance of an unprecedented prototype developed by UFPR for the storage of methane by adsorption, employing commercial activated carbon. The factorial design (2²) indicated that the storage capacity of the system was 39.41 V /V using activated carbon, and the desorption process was effective at 60ºC. Thus, the use of adsorbents of low cost and easy access can provide very interesting results (&gt;100 V / V), which contributes to make the technology viable. <![CDATA[Multi-criteria Selection of Distributed Mini Generation Systems Using Rice Husk]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200201&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT This paper presents a multi-criteria methodology to support decision making for management and selection of distributed mini generation sources (GD) using rice husk. Considering the potential of residual biomass, the developed model is based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method to evaluate the main technological arrangements of generation against the technical, economical, social-environmental aspects. Considering the possibility of energy transformation of rice husk, the following alternatives for distributed mini generation are considered: steam turbine, gas turbine, micro turbine, fuel cells, alternative combustion engine and Stirling engine. Regarding the evaluation aspects, it is defined energy efficiency, environmental impacts, social impacts, lifespan, access to technology, generation capacity, installation cost &amp; operation and maintenance costs. Finally, the alternatives to use rice husk with these sources are classified according scenarios turned to social-environmental and economical purposes. <![CDATA[Analysis of the Impacts of the Electrification of the Vehicle Fleet in the Electric Power System in Curitiba]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200202&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The Market share of electrical vehicles has been rising in the past few years and tends to rise even more. According to the International Energy Agency, an increase of 50% in the number of electrical vehicles is expected. Whilst that increase is beneficial from a greenhouse gases emissions drop point of view, that rise could, on the other hand, represent a major increase in the electrical power consumption. Besides, other problems such as harmonics and overloads could emerge from the massive connection of electrical vehicles to the electrical grid. Therefore, it is necessary to perform studies and simulations in order to estimate those problems and to mitigate the problems related to the inevitable expansion of the electric vehicle fleet in the near future. The present work intends to run simulations so as to identify the main effects of the electrification of the vehicular fleet in the city of Curitiba, as well as understand how the provision of ancillary services through the electrical vehicles can help in the process. <![CDATA[Energy Management in Industry: An Enterprise Engineering Approach]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200203&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Companies have needs and experience new opportunities to build their structure and align organizational process to achieve energy management with higher priority facing economic and environmental issues. The objective of this paper is to present the design and modeling of the Energy Management System (EnMS) in energy-intensive industries in an enterprise engineering approach, according to the management discipline called Business Process Management (BPM). The design of the process is based on the ISO 50001 standard and in good practices cited in the scientific literature. The methodology is characterized as basic, experimental, qualitative, and oriented according to the BPM development cycle. The process design created in the “should be” format presents a framework based on the Plan, Do, Check and Act (PDCA) cycle. The process is described in a necessary and sufficient way, arranging activities, actors and roles to establish an energy management process. The key process model of the energy review was developed in the Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN). The design and modeling allows to: analyze the EnMS as a process for understanding the activities; assist decision making; automate processes; enable collaboration; allow alignment of the process with the strategy; support the change and assisting with the evaluation of the organizational potential to implement the EnMS. <![CDATA[Simplified Methodology for Temperature Calculation of Operation and Photovoltaic Modules Yield in Non-Standardized Environmental Conditions]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200204&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT This work proposes a simplified methodology to obtain the needed data to determine and investigate the variation of photovoltaic modules performance under non-standardized environmental conditions - Standard Test Conditions and Nominal Operating Cell Temperature. This methodology uses a previously developed mathematical model in association with environmental parameters as wind speed, air temperature and irradiance in different cities, located in different regions in Brazil. These data are obtained from both SWERA project and the National Institute of Meteorology of Brazil websites, both of them with free access on the internet. The result of this methodology is the operating temperature of a commercial polycrystalline module of 330 Wp and 1.95 m², and this methodology also results in the maximum power of the module and efficiency for each set of analyzed environmental parameters. As conclusion, from the the results, it is possible to suggest the investigated environmental parameters have a significant impact on the module performance and therefore cannot be neglected. <![CDATA[Technical Losses Reduction in Underground Reticulated Distribution Systems using Artificial Neural Networks and Smart Grid Features]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200205&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT This work presents the methodology, development and testing of an autonomous system, based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), for the reduction of technical losses in reticulated underground systems through the optimal control of the capacitor banks (CBs) present in the grid. The proposed methodology includes Smart Grid features, including practical solutions for current transformers positioning in underground networks, collecting field measurements for the Distribution Operation Centre (DOC) and real-time control of field equipment (capacitors banks). The steps of the proposed methodology and the main aspects of the development of the system are also described, as well as the tests performed to prove the results and validate the system. <![CDATA[Effects of the Photovoltaic Distributed Generation on Electricity Distribution System Voltage - Updated Review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200206&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Concerns about the environment and a growing demand for electricity have led to the intensive search for renewable energy sources. Photovoltaic solar energy, in the form of distributed generation, has shown a very high growth rate to an extent that in some regions it will be adopted on a large scale, thus being responsible for the supply of a significant portion of the load of this region. Some factors have favored the adoption of distributed generation: the drop in the price of solar panels and inverters, as well as its easy installation and maintenance. However, the large-scale adoption of solar distributed generation brings new challenges to the power distribution system. Network voltage control is an example. In conventional systems, voltage control is a properly addressed problem, but in networks with the presence of distributed generation, where at certain times of the day reverse energy flows can be observed, more detailed studies on voltage behavior are necessary concerning the power quality. This article makes an analysis of relevant studies on the effects that the insertion of photovoltaic distributed generation can cause in the voltage of the electric power distribution system under the optics of two phenomena: the fluctuation and the voltage ripple. <![CDATA[Determination of the Ideal Time for Cleaning of Photovoltaic Panels Aiming at Better Productivity - Case Study of the Implanted Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System at the Federal University of Technology of Paraná]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200207&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Considering the development of new technologies in the electricity generation sector, such as solar photovoltaic energy, some studies are made necessary to obtain the best performance of these systems. This generation model consists of modules, which are exposed to adverse climatic conditions, they receive direct influence of the dirt, according to the environment from which they were installed, which directly influences the performance of the system since, due to the disposal of waste on the module, a smaller portion of the solar radiation can reach the photovoltaic cell effectively. The objective of this work is to determine the ideal time for cleaning photovoltaic panels, aiming at high system productivity, having as object of study the photovoltaic panels of the Federal University of Technology - Paraná (UTFPR) Campus Curitiba, installed in the Green Office (GO) and at Neoville´s headquarters. Within this objective, it was necessary to verify its merit indexes, parameters used to compare grid-connected photovoltaic systems. The study shows the importance of frequent cleaning of panels, especially when they are installed in urban areas and close to high traffic access roads. <![CDATA[Assessment of the Potential Implementation of Solar Energy Generation in State Schools in Curitiba/PR]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200208&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Solar energy as a form of electric power generation is gaining ground in Brazil, being the subject of worldwide discussions on sustainability. The electric energy, a right of all citizens, represents a consumption of natural resources on a large scale. State schools in Paraná invested more than R$ 46 million to guarantee electricity and thus provide essential running conditions to the system in 2016. Through open data, 15 schools from "Regional Administrativa do Cajuru", in Curitiba/PR, were evaluated in consumption and expenses of electric energy from January to May of 2017 and a solar photovoltaic system was dimensioned to supply the demand of each school. From that, it was estimated the total saving from the electricity that would no longer be spent on electricity which could be directed to other educational programs and projects of interest to the community towards sustainability within the school. The savings estimated totalized more than R$ 435 thousand annually. <![CDATA[Main Variables of Brazilian Public Policies on Biomass use and Energy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200209&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Biomass is an important energy source, since it considers wastes discarded by other productive processes as inputs. As such, the determination of the most relevant variables, within an institutional dimension, exerts a significant influence to point out actions that should receive greater attention for the satisfactory implementation and monitoring of national public policies. Therefore, the general objective of this study is to determine, within the institutional dimension of the State, the most relevant variables for the decision making of public policies that consider the biomass source as an alternative to the energy matrix of the Brazilian territory. In order to reach the proposed objective, the method used for this research is qualitative and descriptive, using content analysis and the establishment of indexes for the determination of the variables. As a result, 12 most relevant variables have been considered, following the criterion of greater direct and / or indirect frequency, in the formation of these public policies considering the reuse of waste and energy generation: 1) greenhouse effect, 2) contamination, 3) waste disposal, 4) inputs, 5) technology, 6) biofuel, 7) biogas, 8) electric power, 9) society, 10) composting, 11) costs, and 12) investments. <![CDATA[State-of-the-Art Impacts of Smart Grid in the Power Systems Operation and Expansion Planning]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200210&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT In this article, a state-of-the-art review on the impacts of Smart Grid in the operation and planning of the expansion of the Electric Power System is presented. The concept of Smart Grid is increasingly integrated in conventional networks, and the impact that this new technology generates on operation and planning must be investigated. Thus, in this article a survey of the main scientific publications was made with the purpose of determining the impacts and methodologies most used in this analysis. Efforts to analyze impacts are large because of the high degree of uncertainty of this new technology added to the problem. After the bibliographic survey, it was concluded that Robust Optimization and Genetic Algorithms are methodologies that are effective in problems of this nature and are the most adopted methods. <![CDATA[Solar Energy for Residential Use and Its Contribution to the Energy Matrix of the State of Paraná]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200211&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The present study evaluates the economic viability of the application of solar energy for electric power generation via the use of photovoltaic systems in a residential consumption unit in the city of Curitiba. Since the energy from the sun is abundant, clean, renewable and has the potential to compete in productivity and profitability, the evaluation of the applicability of these systems in homes, not only in industrial parks, is of great interest. A household with the determined consumption profile was chosen for this case study through simulations with the HomerPro software. After analyzing the data, the photovoltaic potential of the State of Paraná was estimated to investigate the possibility of photovoltaic generation growth in the state energy matrix and its consequences. <![CDATA[Physicochemical Characteristics of Oil Obtained from the Treatment of Poultry Abattoir Effluents and its Potential for Biodiesel Production]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200212&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Sludge oil derived from the effluent generated in poultry abattoirs offers a promising biomass for the production of biodiesel. In this work, determination was made of its physicochemical characteristics, including acidity, density at 20ºC, peroxide index, moisture content, and saponification index, together with evaluation of a route for its conversion to biodiesel. <![CDATA[Proposal for a Monitoring and Dispatch System for Distributed Micro-Generation of Renewable Energy in Virtual Energy Centers]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200213&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The creation and updating of ANEEL (National Electricity Regulatory Agency) regulatory resolution on distributed generation provided a new business environment for the electricity sector, as well as enabling consumers to generate energy. In this context, distributed microgeneration plants management is a challenge, mainly for electric power distributors and for the entire supply chain and services. In this sense, it is urgent to develop a monitoring and dispatch system in microgeneration plants, in order to optimize the capacity factor of the enterprises and to enable the creation of Virtual Power Plants (VPP). VPPs are part of a new dynamic of the energy sector's strategic environment, which strengthens distributed generation through smart meters capable of communicating with operational centers and thus influencing new business models already diffused by the known smart grids. Included in this scenario, this paper presents a proposal for a monitoring and dispatch system for distributed micro-generation of renewable energies, as well as the engineering solution for a final product focused on market expectations. <![CDATA[Comparison of the Performance of the Grid- Connected Photovoltaic System Installed In the Brazilian Cities: Blumenau - SC and Curitiba- PR]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200214&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT This is a study that contemplates the analysis of the main characteristics of 8 grid connected photovoltaic systems (GCPVS), 3 of which are located in the city of Curitiba-PR and 5 located in the city of Blumenau-SC. Data were collected on irradiation in the horizontal plane, generated energy and rainfall, being the first two to calculate the merit indexes, such as Yield, Performance Ratio and Capacity Factor - of those on grid connected Photovoltaic systems. <![CDATA[Computational Model for Microgeneration Simulation, From Solar and Wind Renewable Sources, With Optimal Allocation of Loads, Electric Vehicle and Energy Storage, In a Residential Electrical Micro Network]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200215&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The electrical sector is under constant evolution. One of the areas refers to the consumers that come to be generators, implementing distributed generation, interconnected to a smart grid. This article discusses the improvement of an algorithm, already presented in the literature, to make the best temporal allocation of loads, electric vehicle, storage and many sources of generation, aiming at the maximum financial performance, that is, the lowest value for the energy invoice The modeling consists of a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) algorithm, which considers each component of the system and weighs the maintenance and shelf life of storage devices, basically batteries, loads that can be reallocated and the concept of Vehicle-to-grid, performing a daily analysis. The simulation has considered the hypothetical case of a residence, in which are included storage, electric vehicle and redistribution of loads, as well as wind and solar generation. Several scenarios are simulated, with or without the presence of some of the components. The results indicate that the simplest model, only redistributing the loads, can provide a sensible monetary savings of approximately 60%, while with the application of all the components modeled, there can be a reduction in the invoice of 90%. <![CDATA[Development of a Prototype for Measurement of Electrical Energy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200216&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The present work presents the development of a system of measurement of electric energy consumption. This system shows the consumer the amount of energy consumed and its respective monetary value in real time. The prototype was used in a case study to validate its operation. Data were collected to discuss the results obtained. In order to verify if the results obtained in the prototype were correct, several measurements of energy consumption were made in different residential equipment. The consumption values measured by the prototype were compared with the values obtained by the certified and calibrated energy meter provided by COPEL and were satisfactory. <![CDATA[Sanitation and Drying of Sewage Sludge on Radiant Floors Using Solar Energy and Biogas: Comparison between Different Thicknesses of Deposited Mass]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200217&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Sewage sludge is a solid waste composed of water, rich in organic matter and nutrients, but concentrator of pathogenic microorganisms. Its use as agricultural fertilizer in the state of Paraná, Brazil is common. However, it is necessary to eliminate or significantly reduce microorganisms by means of a hygiene process. This can be obtained thermally, requiring a source of energy for heat generation. In this sense, a pilot system was constructed consisting of a stainless steel radiant floor, capable of transferring heat to the sewage sludge from coils coupled in base, through which the heated water circulates. The energy comes from solar radiation and is complemented by biogas from the anaerobic sewage treatment. Aiming to investigate the system's ability to transfer heat and, consequently, to sanitize and dry the sludge, a layer of 0.10 m was deposited on the radiant floor, the temperature being monitored at two different heights, obtaining averages of 328.95 K (55.8 ° C) and 336.95 K (63.8 ° C), respectively. The sludge was still submitted to a drying process, where a 68.68% increase in the total solids content was verified. Finally, the energy consumption was measured where a demand of 29.22 Nm³ of methane per m³ of treated sludge had been estimated. <![CDATA[Projection of the Demand of Electricity in the State of Paraná for 2050 and Proposal of Complementarity of the Electrical Matrix through the Solar Photovoltaic Source]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200218&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Energy is essential for human activities and, considering the prospect that the demand for energy increases, it is necessary to carry out studies of new technical solutions so as to make the use of the available sources feasible. Greater participation of renewable energy sources in the electricity matrix has been stimulated worldwide and a number of public policies have been adopted by different countries in order to seek greater energy security and sustainability. In this context, photovoltaic solar energy potentially plays an important role in the evolution of the participation of alternative sources in the world energy matrix, considering its abundance and wide availability in the terrestrial surface. This work proposes a methodology to model a scenario that estimates the consumption of electricity in 2050 in the State of Paraná and how it can contribute to the complementarity of the Brazilian electricity matrix. In addition, it indicates, based on decision factors, which are the most indicated mesoregions for possible deployments of grid-connected photovoltaic systems in Paraná to meet this demand. <![CDATA[Feasibility Study through Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in Curitiba]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200219&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The increase in energy demand in Brazil encourages the country to increasingly invest in generation of electric energy, where the demand for other renewable sources increases gradually because they have a lower impact on the environment. The use of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems (GCPVS) is a viable solution for the country, since it presents favorable natural conditions for the use of solar energy. This study approaches the current scenario of three photovoltaic systems installed in Curitiba in 2016 and part of 2017: Green Office (GO) located in Curitiba Campus Downtown, Curitiba Campus Neoville, both of the Federal Technological University of Paraná (UTFPR), as well as a residence. By means of performance parameters, performance analysis of these systems were carried out and, in order to measure the length of time of the return of the initial investment in its installation, a study of the economic viability of these systems according to the current rate model in Brazil through economic engineering tools was carried out: Simple Payback and Discounted Payback, Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return. Finally, the application of the saved value of electric energy bills was simulated in a bank account during the system´s lifespan. <![CDATA[Study of the Performance Reduction Due to the Dirt Effect in the Photovoltaic Systems of UTFPR - Curitiba]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200220&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Photovoltaic systems have been consolidated in the global energy scenario as an option of low environmental impact energy generation, high reliability and great applicability in urban centers, acting like energy generators near the point of consumption. The Federal University of Technology of Paraná (UTFPR), with the proposal of testing the performance of grid-connected photovoltaic systems (On Grid PV Systems) and help its entry into the Brazilian energy matrix, implemented this technology in two of its buildings: Green Office (GO) And Neoville. This paper analyzed the effects of dust on the Photovoltaic Systems performance based on daily energy. The analysis was carried out from the solar irradiance data from the places where the panels are installed and the electrical power data collected at the mass memory of the inverter of the two systems, in order to be analyzed and compared before and after the cleaning of the photovoltaic modules. The results at the end of the study indicate that dust directly impacts in the performance of the PV system. <![CDATA[Characterization of grid-connected photovoltaic systems in Curitiba, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200221&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT In the search for new options for the establishment of the energy matrix of Brazil, the Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems (GCPVS) are configured as an alternative to urban centers, because they allow the power generation at distributed mode, that is, generate energy at the place where it will be consumed and inject the surplus energy into the network. Faced with the prospect of installing Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System, the objective of this research is to characterize this type of photovoltaic system installed in Curitiba, State of Paraná, Brazil. This paper highlights that up to July 2017 the State of Paraná has 1031 GCPVS in operation, which corresponds to 6,6MW, while Curitiba has 204 GCPVS that represents 997.4 kW in operation, 82% of which are installed in residences. In addition, the study of a sample of 41 GCPVSs installed in Curitiba shows that 98% of these systems use multicrystalline modules, 75% use single phase inverters and 95% of these use inverters transformerless. This shows that the losses in the conversion process are reduced and the equipment is more compact using better technology than the inverters with transformer. Therefore, the main trend of photovoltaic energy market is to use transformerless inverters. <![CDATA[Analysis of shifting and reduction of the demand peak with the inserting of photovoltaic systems in the Neoville’s Headquarters of Federal University of Technology - Paraná Curitiba Campus]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200222&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Photovoltaic solar energy is increasingly present in the urban environment through the distributed generation. This kind of generation is characterized by the installation along the distribution network feeders, in low or medium voltage, and contribute to provide energy near the point of consumption. In this sense, this study aims to analyze the demand and consumption curves of the buildings of the Federal University of Technology - Paraná (UTFPR) in the Neoville’s headquarters. The methodology consists in the application of COPEL's CAS Hemera platform, in order to determine the potential for the implementation of the Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in this place, because they allow the reduction of costs with electric energy from the application of distributed generation. In February 2016, a grid-connected photovoltaic system was installed in one of the university’s blocks, which generated approximately 11 MWh of electric energy this year. This work proposes a scenario for the expansion of this photovotaic system and presents the contribution of photovoltaic generation, using the available coverage showing the shifting or reduction of energy demand peaks and the energy contribution to UTFPR's Neoville headquarters. The results of this study show that the proposed scenario will effectively change the profile of the university demand curve. <![CDATA[Power Flow Analysis and Self-recovery of Electrical Energy Distribution Network Using Artificial Neural Networks]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200223&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT A computational model for self-recovery of electricity distribution network was developed to simulate it, emulated by the IEEE 123 node model. The electrical system considered has automatic switches capable of identifying a momentary failure in the line and finding the best reconfiguration for its reclosing. An artificial neural network (ANN), backpropagation, was used to classify the type of failure and determine the best reconfiguration of the distribution network. Initially, five power failure scenarios were simulated in certain different parts of the power grid, and power flow analysis via OpenDSS was performed. Next, the most suitable switching was observed within the shortest time interval to restore the power supply. With the purpose of better visualization to identify the reclosing, an implementation was carried out via ELIPSE SCADA. In this way, it is possible to identify the faulted segment in order to isolate it, leaving the smallest number of consumers without power supply in shortest possible time. With the results of the simulations, tests and analyzes were performed to verify their robustness and speed, in the expectation that the model developed be faster than an experienced Operating Distribution Center. <![CDATA[Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Wind Power Generation: Application of the Methodology and the Generator to Power System]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200224&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Sustainability and economics are current issues in the generation of electricity. The energy matrix is diversified and some forms have stood out, such as wind. Some tools have been developed to improve project efficiency, one of which is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This presents solidity when assisting projects financially and environmentally, evaluating materials and processes. The present study aimed to analyze the application of LCA in a wind power plant. After searching the main databases and using filters, the analysis was developed from the information of an article that described the application of the LCA to a wind power plant using computational simulation, providing an overview of the production and potential environmental impacts for the process manufacturing, parts maintenance, disposal and recycling at end of lifespan. The phases, steps and the threshold diagram of the LCA system were observed. The results showed a high rate of reuse/recycling of some materials and significant reductions in emissions, financial costs and abatement of environmental payback if the materials were recycled at the end of lifespan. Recycling has shown positive environmental aspects and a significant cost reduction, allowing the expansion of markets and optimization of wind projects. <![CDATA[Protection of Grid Connected Photovoltaic Systems (GCPVS)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200225&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Installations of photovoltaic systems connected or not to the electrical network have become increasingly popular, but it is often carried out by unqualified people using low quality components. The present study aims to describe the methodology adopted for the protection of grid connected photovoltaic systems (GCPVS) and the implications caused by their lack. Photovoltaic modules are typically installed in galvanized, painted, stainless aluminum or steel structures, which must be connected to a common ground, as these structures and any other components of the system could be energized by the photovoltaic array and may cause serious injuries or even death during routine maintenance, these fatalities can still result in ramifications for the entire industry, with millions of dollars in liability (for death or injury), negative publicity for GCPVS, and increased complications in obtaining licenses. Also, its components must be of good quality and the systems of protection must be well dimensioned and correctly installed, in order to avoid fire and electric damages, with reduction of possible damages in cases of short circuits. <![CDATA[Implementation of a Photovoltaic Panel to Supply Electric Cars Energy Demands]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200226&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The gradual shifting of the energy matrix to renewable sources is one of the main global strategies for sustainable development. According to studies, the use of electric energy by automobiles would lead to a reduction in gasoline consumption of 40.7% in 2031, accompanied by an increase in electricity consumption of 42.1% in relation to official projections. However, the gradual and constant dissemination and use of electric vehicles, a new paradigm emerges, which is the need to supply the energy demand of this new charge in the electric system The use of solar radiation to generate electricity to meet this new demand presents a sustainable alternative. From these questions, a structure was designed with the installation of a photovoltaic solar panel linked to the use of electric vehicles, analyzing estimated values of energy production and avoided emissions of CO2, compared to the average consumption of several models to cover 21,900km per year. The results show that the Renault Twizy was the only model whose consumption was below the energy production of the projected photovoltaic system. In contrast, all models had a positive balance in the estimates of avoided CO2, forming an environmentally sustainable solution. <![CDATA[The Photovoltaic Generation and its Energy Contribution and Demand Shifting at the Center Headquarters of the Federal University of Technology - Paraná - Campus Curitiba]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200227&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation is characterized by the application of several small power plants in urban centers. This form of energy deserves special mention due to the possibility of installation in existing areas such as roofs and facades. Thus, the implementation of these systems represents positive modifications of the urban scenario, with the adhesion of PV modules, presenting much smaller social and environmental impacts than that of large conventional plants. In this sense, this study aims at analyzing the demand and consumption curves of the Center headquarters buildings of Federal University of Technology - Paraná (UTFPR) in Curitiba, by applying the COPEL’s CAS Hemera platform, in order to determine the potential for implementation of grid-connected photovoltaic systems in this premise, because they allow the cost reductions in electric power. The first UTFPR’s grid-connected photovoltaic system was introduced in December 2011, at the Center’s headquarters, in one of the blocks of the university, which by the end of 2016 generated a total of 11.67 MWh of electricity. This paper proposes an expansion scenario for the existing grid-connected photovoltaic system, using the available coverage showing the shifting or reduction of energy demand peaks and the energy contribution to UTFPR's Center headquarters. <![CDATA[Energy Analysis in Supermarkets]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200228&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT This study shows, through several analyses, ways to reduce costs with electric power in supermarkets. For this purpose, one of those establishments was visited and several data were collected for subsequent analysis. The results have shown that the combinations of several actions of energy efficiency can be applied when the objective is the reduction of costs with electric power. <![CDATA[Bioenergetics Potential of RR2 PRO Transgenic Soybean Subjected to Application of Herbicides Isolated and in Combination]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200229&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT In Brazil, there are several crops producing oil for biofuel production, such as canola, sunflower, peanut, cotton, castor bean, soybean, among others. There are parameters that indicate the energetic and economic viability for the production of biofuels, and that can be applied, for example, in transgenic soybeans. The present study aimed to evaluate the energetic viability of Intacta RR2 PROTM soybean for biofuel production.Experiments were conducted in the municipalities of Palotina and Marechal Cândido Rondon, both in the State of Paraná. Energy balance calculations were carried out from the production system, estimating energy expenditure, including the agricultural and industrial stages. The inputs used were considered as input of energy, while grain production, as output of energy. The energy balance of soybean biofuel showed positive values in the treatments with lower doses up to the recommended doses, highlighting the treatment glyphosate at 720 g.e.a. per hectare, which reached a positive energy balance (1: 1.11) for both municipalities. However, the Intacta RR2 PRO TM soybean was sensitive to treatments with high doses of glyphosate, which impaired productivity and consequently generated low economic returns. <![CDATA[Mapping and Characterization of the Grid-connected Photovoltaic Systems in the City of Curitiba: Preliminary Results]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200230&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT This work presents the mapping of grid-connected photovoltaic systems supported by the Normative Resolution (NR) of the National Agency of Electric Energy (ANEEL) Nº 482/2012 in the city of Curitiba. Firstly, a brief introduction was made justifying the reasons that led to the development of this study, followed by the explanation about the methodology, procedures and criteria adopted in the study. A general mapping of all on-grid photovoltaic systems supported by NR Nº 482/2012 installed in the city of Curitiba, identified by class, is presented, indicating how the urban distribution of these photovoltaic systems occurs, and it is possible to observe in which regions the highest prevalence of installations occurs. From this, the general characterization of these photovoltaic systems is performed, classifying them by class, number of installed systems, power, number of modules, total occupied area, average power of modules and average efficiency of photovoltaic systems. Considerations are also raised regarding the reliability of the Database of Distributed Generation Consumer Units made available by ANEEL. <![CDATA[Generation of Electrical Energy Obtained Through a Continuous Current Generator Coupled to the Pedal of an Ergometric Bicycle]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200231&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT This study presents a system of conversion of mechanical energy produced by physical activity into electric energy obtained by a CC generator coupled to the pedal of an ergometric bicycle. It presents the converter that will be used to adjust the voltage and power coming from the system, as well as the details of the converter design, the simulation and the primary experimental results of the structure. The methodological procedures related to the development of the converter and data acquisition through simulation were carried out based on the bibliographic research. The study is documentary as equipment manuals were used. <![CDATA[Generation of Photovoltaic Solar Energy. Evaluation of the Demand Curve with the Insert of Grid-connected Photovoltaic Power System at CINDACTA II, Curitiba-PR, Brazil.]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200232&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Unlike some countries, Brazil has a predominantly hydraulic energy matrix, a clean and renewable source. But, in recent years, both the non-renewal of the normal volumes of water in the reservoirs and the lack of consciousness in the consumption of water and energy have placed the country in a critical state of energy supply leading to many intensive policies to reduce its consumption. In contrast, energy from Photovoltaic (PV) on-Grid Systems has grown dramatically in recent years. In this sense, this study presents an analysis of the contribution of the energy generated by a PV on-Grid Systems to be installed in CINDACTA II, in order to make re-contracting a lower demand possible and also reduce electric energy consumption and its cost. <![CDATA[Analysis of Production and Consumption of Electric Energy in the Green Office of UTFPR in Curitiba]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200233&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The increasing demand for electricity and the scarcity of resources, require renewable energy sources and efficient equipment that reduce the consumption of electricity. The Green Office (GO) of the Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR) is a sustainable building that uses strategies to reduce impacts to the environment, one of them being the use of the grid connected photovoltaic system (on-grid). The on-grid was installed in 2011 and since then has been feeding the GO and another building (block V) belonging to UTFPR. This article presents a comparison between an estimate of energy consumption and the generation of energy through the on-grid. By means of the estimated consumption, a survey in loco of the scenario of expenditures of the electrical equipment used in the GO was made, estimating hours of use and power, so the consumption scenario was 145 kWh/month. The power generation of the EV is lower in the months May - July, period in which the solar irradiation is smaller, but according to the measurements the on-grid produces more energy than it consumes. <![CDATA[Analysis of the Insertion of Particular Photovoltaic Generation in the Low Voltage Installations, Under the Approach to Performance, Safety, Maintenance and Operation of the PVS]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200234&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The growing use of Photovoltaic Solar Energy in Brazil, both in power plants and in distributed generation systems, brings with it a series of practical and technical questions that are not limited to the design and project of the systems. Environmental factors and resources related to the use, operation, maintenance, decommissioning and final disposal of the equipment and components that constitute them, should be taken into consideration, so that these systems maintain an adequate performance during their lifespan granting the safety for users, properties and avoid negative environmental impacts. Within the concept of Risk Analysis within the Life Cycle of these systems, the present study addresses a perspective of the growth of the use of Solar Photovoltaic Energy in Brazil and the risks and impacts resulting from the lack of information on how good practices for a maintenance of its facilities, its performance, safety and sustainability of Photovoltaic Solar Power Generation Systems. <![CDATA[Case-Based Reasoning for the Design of Start-Stop Logic of Hydroelectric Power Stations]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200235&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The present article focuses on the construction of an Intelligent System for the Project Start-Stop Logic of Hydropower Plants, work carried out as master dissertation, allowing the retention of knowledge of previous cases which set a valuable intellectual capital, organizing knowledge generated by specialists and consultants of the area. The tool aims at saving time as well as standardizing solutions, allowing future developments for the construction of other necessary logic (such as those related to asset management and tools to aid the operation and maintenance of hydroelectric power plants). The MyCBR, software that proved to be of easy programming, but with some limitations, is used for such an attempt of a shell of current use. The recovery of the cases based on calculations of global and local similarity allows the selection of solutions already used in hydroelectric plants with analogous technological solutions. The results were satisfactory in view of the periodicity of the use of the tool and the possibility of increasing the case base as the logics are implemented in other projects, besides allowing the inclusion of other logics and documentation pertinent to the Hydropower Plants. <![CDATA[Characterization of the Physicochemical Properties of Different Biodiesel Samples]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200236&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT For combustion engines to perform well, it is necessary that the fuel used be of high quality. Fuel quality can be analyzed through different physicochemical properties. This study presents comparisons between the values presented in literature, legislation and those obtained through experimental tests of different biodiesel samples. Biodiesel is a promising alternative of renewable energy obtained from raw material. The properties observed in this study are: Viscosity, density, cloud point, pour point and calorific value. The data explored by this work aims to bring solidification to the methodologies and equipment necessary for a better characterization of biodiesel. <![CDATA[Analysis of the Operation of Photovoltaic Systems Installed at Federal University of Technology - Paraná in Curitiba]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000200237&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The Federal University of Technology - Paraná (UTFPR), Campus Curitiba, has a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System (GCPVS) of 2.1 kWp in the Green Office (GO), which has been in operation since December 2011, and until September 2017 generated little more than 13.64 MWh and a GCPVS of 10.2 kWp, in operation since February 2016. The photovoltaic panel of the 2.1 kWp system was set up following the inclination of the roof of the building, which does not give its maximum performance. On the other hand, the panel of the 10.2 kWp system in Neoville was installed in optimum conditions, that is, oriented to the north and with slope equal to the latitude of Curitiba and, up tol September 2017 generated more than 20.65 MWh. This paper presents the monitoring of the electric energy generated by the systems and also a history of the merit indexes of the GCPVS, which are: Productivity (Yield); Performance Ratio; and Capacity Factor. These indexes allow to evaluate the performance of the GCPVS and make a comparison between them. Finally, the photovoltaic generation of both GCPVS proved to be a sustainable and effective form of distributed generation of electric energy in the urban environment.