Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1516-891320180001&lang=en vol. 61 num. lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Evaluation of Anticancer Activity of Extracted Flavonoids from Morus Alba Leaves and its interaction with DNA]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Morous Alba, known as white mulberry contains many oxidative flavonoids, widely used in the treatment of many diseases like hyperglycemia, inflammation, fever and cancer. In the present study we investigated the interaction of extracted flavonoids from Iranian Morus Alba leaves with DNA as a main target for anticancer drugs. Various spectroscopic techniques (UV/Vis, CD and Fluorescence Spectroscopy) were used to detect the interaction. In vivo studies also were done to confirm the effectiveness of the extracted flavonoids. The spectroscopic results showed that the extracted flavonoids bind to DNA especially to the sugar-phosphate backbone and making DNA conformational changes upon this binding. Experiments on the cancerous mice with solid tumors indicated that the treatment of mice with these extracted flavonoids increased significantly the life span but they did not have any effects on the tumor size reduction. These data suggest that Morus Alba flavonoids may use as an effective natural anticancer drug in the near future. <![CDATA[Novel Food Supplements Formulated With S <em>pirulina</em> To Meet Athletes’ Needs]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100302&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The food, training, and health are crucial for a good performance in sports. Intense physical activity takes the athlete to maintain a very unstable balance between energy demand and consumption of nutrients. Spirulina microalga has a nutritional profile that renders it an ideal food supplement, because has high protein content, also contains vitamins, minerals, and pigments. In this context, the study aimed to develop, characterize and evaluate the stability of foods enhanced with Spirulina, which are intended for athletes. In this study, six different supplements were developed (electrolyte replenisher, muscle enhancer, and recovery supplement), without and with Spirulina. The electrolyte replenisher with Spirulina compared to the product without the microalga, showed an increase of 0.35% (w/w) in mineral content. The carbohydrates content of the developed recovery supplement with Spirulina was 2% (w/w) higher than the muscle enhancer without Spirulina. It was not observed increased in the nutritional content of muscle recovery when added Spirulina. However, it is known that Spirulina presents active compounds with important functions for the body. Thus, the composition of the foods satisfied the nutritional needs of athletes. Regarding the stability of developed foods, the shelf life was estimated between 9 and 11 months. <![CDATA[Polyphenols From Cutch Tree ( <em>Acacia catechu</em> Willd.): Normalize <em>In Vitro</em> Oxidative Stress and Exerts Antiproliferative Activity]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100303&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Oxidative stress, being the main cause of most of the human diseases, has always been the highlight of research worldwide. This stress can be overcome by administration of natural polyphenols. The Acacia catechu Willd. has many refrences available in Ayurveda as important disease curative plant. Its leaves are investigated for ameliorating oxidative stress in present work. Leaves of A. catechu were extracted with 80% methanol to get methanol extract (AME). It was assessed for antioxidant activity using DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, ferric ion reducing, superoxide scavenging and peroxyl radical scavenging assays. DNA protective activity was also investigated using plasmid nicking assay. Further, antiproliferative activity was determined using MTT assay in various human cancer cell lines. The quantification of polyphenols was done by UHPLC analysis. Results confirmed that polyphenols of A. catechu were successful in normalizing oxidative stress. AME was found to be most effective in scavenging ABTS radicals while least effective in scavenging ferric ions. UHPLC analysis showed abundance of ellagic acid, rutin and quercetin in AME. Further, AME showed maximum antiproliferative activity against Hep G2 cancer cells. It is concluded that the polyphenols from A. catechu effectively remediates oxidative stress and hence can be used in curing numerous dreadful diseases. <![CDATA[Gene Expression Analyses of HER-2/neu and ESR1 in Patients with Breast Cancer]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100304&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Background: Her-2 and ESR1 genes, that interact in the cell signaling pathway, are the most important molecular markers of breast cancer, which have been amplified or overexpressed in 30% and 70%, respectively. This study was performed to evaluate the gene expression levels of Her-2 and ESR1 genes in tumor cells and its adjacent normal tissue of breast cancer patients and compared them whit clinical-pathological features. Methods: In total, 80 tissue specimens from 40 patients, with an average age of 48.47 years, were examined by Real-time PCR technique, and ultimately evaluated the expression level of Her-2 and ESR1genes. The data were analyzed by REST 2009 V2.0.13 statistical software. Results: HER2 and ESR1 overexpression was identified in 19 (48%) and 12 (30%) of 40 patients respectively, which was higher and lower than that recorded in international statistics, respectively. ESR1 overexpression was associated with Stage 3A and lymph node involvement 2 (N2) (P = 0.04 and P = 0.047, respectively). No significant correlation was observed between the expression of HER2 and ESR1 and other clinical-pathological features, however, the relative differences were identified in the expression levels of genes between main group and groups that were classified according to the clinical-pathological features and age. Conclusions: Overexpression of Her-2 and ESR1 genes in the patients of our study are higher and lower than international statistics, respectively, indicating the differences in genetic, environmental and ethnic factors that involved in the developing of breast cancer. <![CDATA[Determination of the Effect of the Elimination Diet Applied for Overweight and Obese People with Food Intolerance on Body Composition and Biochemical Parameters]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100305&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Food Intolerance, is a reaction against food, but not immunological manner, and may be confused with real food allergies. In this study, effects of special weight-loss diet together with an elimination diet on body composition and biochemical parameters of overweight and obese people who were diagnosed with food intolerance were investigated. The study group consists of 20 patients in total who were followed-up and treated in Yorktest Turkey Laboratory; who were diagnosed with food intolerance, and whose BMI was &gt; 26kg/m2. Bloodletting for these patients was executed with Lancet from their fingertips, and the blood drawn from these patients was assessed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELİSA) method, and food reactions of patients were determined for each food. Biochemical parameters of these patients are routine tests, which are necessary for food intolerance tests, and they are analyzed at Yorktest Turkey Laboratory for two times: before and after elimination diet plus special weight-loss diet. It has been determined that, the most common sensivity is obtained against yeast, egg yolk and white, cranberry, cow’s milk, chicken, lentils and parsley. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters before and after elimination diet plus special weight-loss diet applied to participants, were significantly improved in statistical manner. Due to positive changes in body composition and biochemical parameters obtained through application of special weight-loss diets together with elimination diet applied to fat and obese people, we think that this diet might be used for medical nutrition treatment of obesity as a treatment option. <![CDATA[Phenolic Composition and Leishmanicidal Activity of Red Propolis and Dalbergia ecastaphyllum (L.) Taub (Fabaceae) Extracts from Sergipe, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100306&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by protozoa of the Leishmania genus. It may manifest in visceral and tegumentary forms, and pentavalent antimonials are the first choice drugs used for the treatment. Frequently these drugs show low efficiency and high toxicity to mammalian host. The present study describes the chemical profile and the in vitro leishmanicidal effects of red propolis and Dalbergia ecastaphyllum extracts from Sergipe, Brazil, in Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. The phenolic composition of the extracts was evaluated by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) fingerprinting. The leishmanicidal effect was evaluated by the Resazurin colorimetric method. Similar composition profiles have been found for D. ecastaphyllum and propolis samples. The isoflavones formononetin, biochanin A, daidzein and pinocembrin were identified in both extracts. Propolis extract showed leishmanicidal activity in both L. chagasi and L. amazonensis, with IC50 values of 21.54 and 9.73 µg/mL, respectively. The D. ecastaphyllum extract presented activity only in L. amazonensis, with IC50 of 53.42 µg/mL. These results suggest that red propolis extract from Sergipe has the leguminosae D. ecastaphyllum as botanical origin, and that it presents potential leishmanicidal activity, which may be associated with the presence of the phenolic compounds found in its composition. <![CDATA[Solexa Profiling Identifies Differentially Expressed MiRNAs Between Sexually Immature and Mature Equine Testis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100307&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNAs identified as potent regulators of gene expression. Previous studies have suggested that miRNAs are involved in mammalian spermatogenesis. Stallion fertility is an important trait for the horse breeding industry, but stallion fertility traits are largely ignored in the industry. In this study, we generated expression profiles of miRNAs in foal (immature) and stallion (mature) testes using Solexa sequencing. We identified 438 known and homologous equine miRNAs and 199 novel miRNAs which were distributed among all the chromosomes. The two developmental stages showed significant differences in miRNA expression patterns. Our result expands the horse miRNA database and provided additional information on the stallion fertility and possible spermatogenesis regulation through specific miRNAs. <![CDATA[Early and Accurate Model of Malignant Lung Nodule Detection System with Less False Positives]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100308&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The objective of this work is to identify the malignant lung nodules accurately and early with less false positives. ‘Nodule’ is the 3mm to 30mm diameter size tissue clusters present inside the lung parenchyma region. Segmenting such a small nodules from consecutive CT scan slices are a challenging task. In our work Auto-seed clustering based segmentation technique is used to segment all the possible nodule candidates. Efficient shape and texture features (2D and 3D) were computed to eliminate the false nodule candidates. The change in centroid position of nodule candidates from consecutive slices was used as a measure to remove the vessels. The two-stage classifier is used in this work to classify the malignant and benign nodules. First stage rule-based classifier producing 100 % sensitivity, but with high false positive of 12.5 per patient scan. The BPN based ANN classifier is used as the second-stage classifier which reduces a false positive to 2.26 per patient scan with a reasonable sensitivity of 88.8%. The Rate of Nodule Growth (RNG) was computed in our work to measure the nodules growth between the two scans of the same patient taken at different time interval. Finally, the nodule growth predictive measure was modeled through the features such as compactness (CO), mass deficit (MD), mass excess (ME) and isotropic factor(IF). The developed model results show that the nodules which have low CO, low IF, high MD and high ME values might have the potential to grow in future. <![CDATA[Exosomes as Biomarker of Cancer]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100309&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Rapid advances in medicine and biotechnology resulted in the development of non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers enabling convenient and accurate detection. Exosomes has recently emerged as non-invasive biomarker for a number of diseases including cancer. Exosomes are the small endosome originated membranous vesicles secreted in a number of biological fluids such as serum, saliva, urine, ascites, cerebrospinal fluid, etc. Exosomes contain microRNA proteins and mRNA which can be used as disease specific biomarkers. Here we reviewed recent advancement in the field of exosomes as diagnostic biomarker for cancer along with a brief overview of their biogenesis, function and isolation. <![CDATA[Chromosome Mapping and Molecular Characterization of the Tc1/Mariner Element in Rineloricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100310&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The Tc1/Mariner sequence was isolated and mapped on chromosomes aiming to verify the association of this transposable element (TE) and chromosomal rearrangements in Rineloricaria. Cytogenetic analysis showed that Tc1/Mariner does not co-localize with chromosomal fusion points, in addition the analysis revealed intense molecular degeneration in its DNA sequence. <![CDATA[SSR-Marker assisted evaluation of Genetic Diversity in Mungbean ( <em>Vigna radiata</em> (L.) Wilcezk) genotypes]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100400&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) also known as green gram is an important source of protein in the category of food legumes. In the present study, SSR marker is used to analyze the genetic diversity amongst 23 genotypes of mungbean. Out of a total of 10 primers used for SSR analysis revealed generation of 15 alleles. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one (CEDG006, CEDG010, CEDG050, CEDG088, CEDG092 and CEDG232) to three (CEDG 214), with an average of 1.5 allele per primer. The index for expected heterozygosity was 0.29 ranging from 0.15 to 0.49 revealed a deficit in heterozygosity. The size of amplification products varied in case of each primer and the range was found to be 100 bp to 190 bp. 13 out of 15 alleles were found polymorphic. The average PIC value of SSR marker was found to be 0.205. The value of Jaccard’s similarity coefficient had ranged from 0.28-1.00 with an average value of 0.64. The dendrogram constructed on SSR molecular marker data through UPGMA method and PCA using average linkage, had enabled grouping of the genotypes into three main clusters. Clustering pattern based on SSR marker data clearly indicated the narrow genetic base of mungbean genotypes that emphasizes the need to explore and exploit more number of germplasm from additional source to study genetic variation in mungbean for genetic improvement. The results indicated the marked usefulness of SSR in the assessment of genetic diversity in mungbean crop. <![CDATA[Alterations in Biomarkers Associated with Sterility in <em>Pectinophora gossypiella</em> (Saunders) Induced by Gamma Irradiation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100401&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Nowadays, radiation technology is widely used to produce changes in Biosystems. The goal of this work is to determine the variation induced male Pectinophora gossypiella in gamma-irradiated as pupae using 50Gy and 150Gy. Comparing elements composition and DNA (using RAPD-PCR) between substerile 50Gy and the sterile dose 150Gy in P. gossypiella showed variation between them. Potassium (K) was the most abundant elements in unirradiated and irradiated males followed by magnesium (Mg). The percentage of heavy metals as copper, zinc, and cadmium concurrent with K was directly proportional to the radiation dose. While the percentage of Mg, Phosphorous and calcium decreased as the radiation dose increased. The results also revealed that some extra bands appeared and others disappeared, as a result of irradiation. The appearance of extra bands may be due to the repair mechanism of the irradiation damaged DNA. The banding patterns obtained and the dendrograms drawn on the basis of presence and absence of bands revealed that 150Gy irradiated pupae are more different from the unirradiated pupae than the 50Gy irradiated pupae. It was concluded that the sterile male technique could be used as a benefit tool in controlling P. gossypiella. <![CDATA[Secure Deduplication for Cloud Storage Using Interactive Message-Locked Encryption with Convergent Encryption, To Reduce Storage Space]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100402&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The digital data stored in the cloud requires much space due to copy of the same data. It can be reduced by dedupilcation, eliminating the copy of the repeated data in the cloud provided services. Identifying common checkoff data both files storing them only once. Deduplication can yield cost savings by increasing the utility of a given amount of storage. Unfortunately, deduplication has many security problems so more than one encryption is required to authenticate data. We have developed a solution that provides both data security and space efficiency in server storage and distributed content checksum storage systems. Here we adopt a method called interactive Message-Locked Encryption with Convergent Encryption (iMLEwCE). In this iMLEwCE the data is encrypted firstly then the cipher text is again encrypted. Block-level deduplication is used to reduce the storage space. Encryption keys are generated in a consistent configuration of data dependency from the chunk data. The identical chunks will always encrypt to the same cipher text. The keys configuration cannot be deduced by the hacker from the encrypted chunk data. So the information is protected from cloud server. This paper focuses on reducing the storage space and providing security in online cloud deduplication. <![CDATA[Anti-Quorum Sensing Potential of Antioxidant Quercetin and Resveratrol]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100403&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Quorum sensing system plays an active role in the regulation of pathogenicity of many microorganisms. Inhibition of pathogenicity or virulence factors will increase the success of treatment by preventing the development of antibiotic resistance. In this study, anti-quorum sensing activities of quercetin and resveratrol compounds, which have antioxidant property without damaging to host, have been determined via using biosensor bacteria: Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. As quorum sensing inhibitors, quercetin and resveratrol's cutting off the bacterial communication will prevent the treatment failures caused by the development of bacterial resistance. The development of layered drugs with antioxidant compounds such as quercetin and resveratrol will pave the way for new horizons for new therapeutic strategies. <![CDATA[Production of Cellulose and Profile Metabolites by Fermentation of Glycerol by <em>Gluconacetobacter Xylinus</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100404&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Because of the widespread occurrence of cellulose in nature, many organisms use glycerol as a source of carbon and energy, so these organisms have drawn attention to the potential use of glycerol bioconversion. The bacteria Gluconacetobacter xylinus, a strictly aerobic strain that performing incomplete oxidation of various sugars and alcohols to cellulose biosynthesis. For this reason, we modify the Hestrim-Schram medium, associating glycerol, glucose and sucrose varying their concentration. The fermentations were performed statically at a temperature of 28˚C for a period of 10 days. The pH, membrane formation, crystallinity and the production of some metabolites of the 4th, 7th and 10th days was evaluated. The results showed a higher yield of membrane in the medium containing glucose, gly 1 + glu2 on 10 fermentation of 3.5 g %. Through solid-state NMR gave the crystallinity of the membranes, where there was a clear trend toward higher crystallinity membranes with 7 days of fermentation. Metabolic products found in the media by analysis of NMR spectroscopy in liquid were similar, especially for the production of alanine and lactate that were present in all media. The leucine and threonine were present in various media, although in small quantities has been found glutamate. <![CDATA[Effects of clonal integration on the proximal and distal ramets of Cynodon dactylon under shade stress]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100405&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT In a pot experiment, clonal ramets of Cynodon dactylon, a stolon herbaceous plant, were treated with heterogeneous lighting. Proximal ramets (elder ramets) were subjected to shade stress at three different degrees, and stolons between proximal and distal ramets of each pair were treated in a connected or severed manner. Results showed that in moderate shade stress, the number of ramets and leaves, biomass, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield of PSII (ФPSII), and soil and plant analysis development values (SPAD) of proximal ramets were significantly reduced, regardless of whether stolons were kept intact or severed. However, the growth of distal ramets was not significantly influenced, and keeping the stolons intact also did not bring apparent benefits for the whole clonal fragments. These results show that clonal integration does not help alleviate the shade stress suffered by proximal ramets and the costs of distal ramets and does not significantly influence the whole clonal fragments. The possible reasons are that distal ramets may be at the cost of metabolism for resource transportation when the proximal ramets suffer from shade stress; thus, clonal integration is not favorable. <![CDATA[Assesment of the Genotoxic Effect of the Diazinon on Root Cells of Allium cepa (L.)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100406&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Organophosphorous pesticides (OPs) posses a great potential of acute toxicity for exposed animals and men. To evaluate the toxic potential of the organophosphate diazinon on root meristematic cells of Allium cepa L., was created two groups: In group 1 (control group), was not given any chemical. In group 2 (diazinon-treatment group), different doses (10, 40, 80 and 160 ppm) and times periods (24, 48 and 72 h) were administered. After exposure, cell death, effective concentration (EC50), mitotic index, cellular /chromosome aberrations, DNA damage by comet assay and RAPD-PCR were assessed at exposure times. EC50 value of diazinon was detected approximately 80 ppm. Hyperchromasia, later segragation, micronucleus, pulverised nucleus, nuclear cytoplasmic shrinkage and cell death, cytoplasmic vacuolation were detected in meristem cells as chromosome/celular aberrations for 72 h at 80 ppm. DNA damage was identified using tail DNA%, tail lengths and tail moment from these cells. Increasing exposure doses of diazinon caused increasing tail DNA% and tail lengths at 72 h. DNA bands of increasing concentrations treated groups were more distant to compare with the control group according to RAPD-PCR method. Diazinon cause cytotoxic and genotoxic on A. cepa root and could be considered for further toxicological evaluations. <![CDATA[Effect of Nutrient Sources on the Alginate Accumulation in the Culture Liquid of Azotobacter vinelandii D-05 and Obtaining Biocomposite Materials]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100407&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Using the classic biotechnological methods, the dependence of A. vinelandii D-05 culture alginate production from the media carbon and nitrogen content was investigated. The maximal alginate production was observed during cultivation bacterium in the medium with 2 to 4% of sucrose, but the maximal growth was found in the medium with 4% glucose. It was found that for the alginate production the optimal nitrogen contents could take from 0.05% yeast extract (carbon: nitrogen ratio 168:1). For the first time we demonstrated possibility the A. vinelandii growth during the cultivation in a medium with molasses (a by-product of sugar production) and the significant polysaccharide production (16.6 g/l) was obtained. It was established, that A. vinelandii culture broth could be used as a biological binder for obtaining the biocomposite materials. <![CDATA[Pandan (Pandanus sp), Rotan (Calamus sp), and Rengas (Gluta sp) from Kajuik Lake, Riau Province, Indonesia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100408&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Pandan (Pandanus sp), Rotan (Calamus sp), and Rengas (Gluta sp) are the three most important plants growing at Kajuik Lake, Langgam, Riau Province, Indonesia; however, their species names have not been identified. This study aimed to identify their species names using nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer sequences. The method employed was DNA isolation from fresh leaves, PCR using primer pairs of ITS region for Pandanus sp and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer for Calamus sp and Gluta sp, electrophoresis, sequencing, and data analysis using BLASTn program and MEGA software version 6.0. Pandanus tectorius was the only one accession that was similar to Pandanus sp with the identity was 90%, however the query cover was too small, only 39%. On the contrary, Calamus sp showed the highest genetic similarity to Calamus travancoricus, but in fact, both were differed morphologically. There was no database of psbA-trnH intergenic spacer sequence available for species in Gluta. In conclusion, the species names for those plants still could not be determined. It because they might be the identified plants but their sequences databases were not available in large quantities or they were new species which had never been identified and published in public database. <![CDATA[Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Thermal Inactivation of β-Galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100409&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT For optimization of biochemical processes in food and pharmaceutical industries, the evaluation of enzyme inactivation kinetic models is necessary to allow their adequate use. Kinetic studies of thermal inactivation of β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae were conducted in order to critically evaluate mathematical equations presented in the literature. Statistical analysis showed that Weibull model presented the best adequacy to residual enzymatic activity data through the processing time and its kinetic parameters as a function of the temperature, in the range of 58-66 ºC. The investigation suggests the existence of a non-sensitive heat fraction on the enzyme structure, which is relatively stable up to temperatures close to 59 ºC. Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and showed that such β-galactosidase presents activation energy of 277 kJ mol-1 and that the enzyme inactivation is due to molecular structural changes. Results shown that the enzyme is quite stable for biotechnological applications. <![CDATA[Carbon Dioxide Biofixation and Production of Spirulina sp. LEB 18 Biomass with Different Concentrations of NaNO<sub>3</sub> and NaCl]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100410&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Microalgae are efficient at using solar energy to turn CO2 and nutrients into biomass containing lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and other compounds that may be used to produce bioproducts for human and animal consumption and pharmaceutical use. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the NaNO3 and NaCl concentration on the growth kinetics, the biomass composition and the ability to biofix CO2 using the microalga Spirulina sp. LEB 18. The assays were carried out according to a 22 central composite design (CCD) with different concentrations of NaNO3 (1.25, 1.88 and 2.50 g L-1) and NaCl (1.00, 15.0 and 30.0 g L-1). The assays were carried out in 2 L vertical tubular photobioreactors at 30°C, 12 h light/dark and an injection of 12.0% v/v of CO2 at 0.3 vvm. The best growing results (Xmax = 1.60 g L-1, Pmax = 0.109 g L-1 d-1, μmax = 0.208 d-1) and CO2 biofixation rate (197.4 mg L-1 d-1) were observed in the assay with 1.25 g L-1 NaNO3 and 1.00 g L-1 NaCl. Increasing the NaCl concentration produced biomass with a higher carbohydrate content, while increasing the NaNO3 concentration reduced the protein concentration. According to the results, in addition to using Spirulina as a source of protein, it can also be used as a source of carbohydrates and to biologically remove CO2 from the atmosphere. <![CDATA[Modelling the growth of lactic acid bacteria at different temperatures]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100411&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Mathematical models are widely used to predict the shelf life of foods. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), particularly Lactobacillus plantarum, Weissella viridescens and Lactobacillus sakei, are the main spoilage bacteria of refrigerated, vacuum-packed meat products, stored in modified atmosphere, and their growth determines the shelf life length of these products. The objective of this study was to model the growth of L. plantarum, W. viridescens and L. sakei under different isothermal cultivation conditions and establish secondary models to describe the effect of temperature on the growth parameters of these bacteria. The LAB growth was evaluated in culture medium at temperatures of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 30 ºC. The fit of Baranyi and Roberts (BAR) and Gompertz (GO) primary models to the growth curves of LAB was compared by statistical indices, in which the BAR model showed slightly better fits to the experimental data. The BAR growth parameters were used to establish the secondary models, µmax and Nmax were established for the three LAB. The power model described the influence of temperature on the parameter λ for L. plantarum, and other bacteria showed no lag phase. The growth of LAB was strongly influenced by storage temperature and the obtained models allow predicting the growth of these bacteria within the temperature range from 4 to 30 ºC. <![CDATA[A Novel Raw Starch Hydrolyzing Thermostable α-Amylase Produced by Newly Isolated Bacillus mojavensis SO-10: Purification, Characterization and Usage in Starch Industries]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100412&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The aim of this study is the production, purification, and characterisation of thermostable raw starch hydrolyzing α-amylase produced by Bacillus mojavensis SO-10. The maximum production conditions of α-amylase were found at 36th hour, 35 °C and pH 7.0. We utilized three steps to purify the thermostable α-amylase and as a result, 34-fold and 18% yield were obtained. The molecular weight of purified α-amylase was determined as 73 kD. The Km and Vmax rates were detected as 0.010 mM and 3.38 µmol min−1, respectively. This purified α-amylase exhibited the highest activity at pH 5.0-6.0 and 70 ºC and showed stability over a wide variety of pH and temperature at 4.0-8.0, and 40-50 ºC, respectively. The thermostable purified α-amylase exhibited stability in the presence of denaturing agents and heavy metal ions. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed the raw starches of corn and wheat grains in the ratio of 36.7% and 39.2% respectively. The end-yields of soluble starch hydrolysis were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). In addition, the usage of purified α-amylase in clarification of apple juice and domestic washing detergent industries were evaluated. <![CDATA[Can lychee reducing the adipose tissue mass in rats?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100413&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Lychee fruit has been studied owing to the presence of several bioactive compounds that can contribute to weight loss in obese individuals. However, the anti-obese potential of the fruit has not been explored yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different parts of lychee in reducing the adipose tissue mass of cafeteria diet-fed rats. Phenolic compounds and scavenging capacities were quantified. The food intake, apparent digestibility, weight of the body and liver, body mass, Lee Index, and the mass of epididymal and visceral adipose tissues were evaluated. The results were estimated by Tukey’s Test at 5% probability. A higher amount of phenolic compounds and scavenging capacity were observed in the peel of lychee as compared to the other parts of the fruit. The hypercaloric diet with lychee flour resulted in a higher apparent digestibility. There was no difference between groups control (C), hypercaloric (H), hypercaloric with lychee flour - 50.00% peel and 50.00% seeds (H2F), and hypercaloric with lychee flour - 33.33% peel, 33.33% pulp and 33.34% seeds (H3F) with respect to body and liver weight, corporal mass, and Lee Index. The hypercaloric diet-fed group exhibited an increase in visceral and epididymal adipose tissue mass, whereas the group fed with hypercaloric diets and flour made from the peel and seed of lychee presented a lower visceral adipose tissue mass. In conclusion, the use of lychee flour was considered viable because it decreased visceral adipose tissue mass in rats. <![CDATA[Arsenic tolerance of Microcystis novacekii (Komárek-Compère, 1974) and its arsenic decontamination potential]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100414&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Cyanobacteria possess metallic ion interaction properties that should be explored with the aim of recovering arsenic (As) contaminated areas. Contamination of As is an issue of worldwide concern due to the risk of human chronic intoxication and negative environmental health effects. In this study the potential decontamination of As(III) and As(V) using cyanobacteria cultures was assessed. Microcystis novacekii (Komárek-Compere, 1974) showed normal growth in concentrations of As(V) similar to those found in natural environments contaminated with As, demonstrating its resistance to As(V). Growth rates gradually decreased upon exposure to high As(V) concentrations from 600 to 5630 mg.L-1 while As(III) affected growth from 14.7 - 85.7 mg.L-1. The As(III) EC50 value (41.0 mg.L-1) was 140-fold lower possibly due to differences in As(III) and As(V) absorption pathways. Upon exposure to 14.7 mg.L-1 As(III), 21.2% of As was removed from culture medium. The absorption capacity (12000 mg.kg-1) remained constant with increasing As(III) concentrations in a dose independent effect. The potential of M. novacekii for As decontamination was demonstrated in this study. This microorganism is recommended in As bioremoval studies due to its autotrophic-mixotrophic growth, low nutritional requirements and high As(III) absorption capacity. <![CDATA[Combining a probiotic with organic salts presents synergistic in vitro inhibition against aquaculture bacterial pathogens]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100415&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate 1) the in vitro effect of organic salts on the growth of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum and then 2) the combined use of a probiotic with organic salts on the in vitro inhibition of V. alginolyticus, A. hydrophila, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. agalactiae. In vitro tests were performed with eight different organic salts, including butyrate, propionate, succinate, citrate, formate, fumarate, glutamate, and acetate, at two pH values (6.2 and 7.1) to determine their effect on the growth kinetics of L. plantarum. In addition, each organic salt was tested alone and in combination with L. plantarum to evaluate the inhibitory effect against the pathogenic bacteria noted above in either condition. Sodium citrate and formate inhibited the growth of L. plantarum, but sodium glutamate, succinate and fumarate stimulated it. Sodium propionate, butyrate, and acetate did not affect probiotic growth at all. Inhibition against all pathogens was significantly higher in the presence of the probiotic and lower pH. Comparing all organic salts at the two pH values, butyrate, acetate, and propionate exhibited more inhibition against V. alginolyticus than the others, while propionate had higher inhibition against A. hydrophila, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and fumarate successfully inhibited S. agalactiae. Based on these results, it can be concluded that organic salts showed better in vitro inhibition against the aquaculture pathogenic bacteria tested when combined with the probiotic L. plantarum. <![CDATA[Working Optimally with Serial Sections in Glycol Methacrylate Resin]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100416&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The present work presents an optimized form for distributing serial sections in a glycol methacrylate slide set. This consists of filling the first row with sections from each slide, thus proceeding in the same way with the other rows. Therefore each slide will contain sections of three distinct sample segments. <![CDATA[Content Based Geographic Image Retrieval using Local Vector Pattern]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100600&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Large image archives formed by satellite remote sensing missions are getting an increasing valuable source of information in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The need for retrieving a required image from a huge image database is increasing significantly for the purpose of analyzing resources in GIS. Content Based Geographic Image Retrieval (CBGIR) in the image processing field is the best solution to meet the requirement. In this work, we used Local Vector Pattern (LVP) to extract fine features present in the geographical image and retrieve the applicable images from a large remote sensing image database. The primary idea of our method is generating micro patterns of LVP by the vectors of each pixel that are constructed by calculating the values between the centre pixels and its neighbourhood pixels with various distances of different directions. Then the proposed method was designed for concatenating these vector patterns to produce more unique features of geographical images and comparing the results with Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Local Derivative Pattern (LDP) and Local Tetra Pattern (LTrP). Ultimately, the extensive analysis carried out on different geographical image collections proved that the proposed method achieves the improved classification accuracy and better retrieving results. <![CDATA[Cytotoxicity Assessment of a Poly(methyl methacrylate) Synthesized for the Direct Fabrication of Bone Tissues]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100601&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT A cytotoxicity study is performed on a poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer (PMMA) to be used for the fabrication of bone tissue by Rapid Prototyping (RP). The solution polymerization is conducted in a pilot plant reactor using more appropriated reagents in consideration of the medical application. Moreover, the polymer is efficiently handled to avoid the side effect of the monomer, reducing the concentration of this specie to 287,731 µg MMA/kg PMMA. The cytotoxicity of the polymer is determined through growth monitoring, adherence and morphology of L-929 cells. Additionally, MTT and LIVE/DEAD tests are performed. The results showed continuous and progressive growth of the cells on the surface of the specimens. Moreover, the material did not influence on the viability of mesenchymal cells and inverted fluorescence microscopy images showed a polyanionic dye calcein well retained in the cells in contact with the PMMA as well as the negative control after 72 hours. Thus, the polymer was efficiently synthesized and handled for the expected demands. <![CDATA[Investigation on Solar PV generation and design of switched reluctance motor for Smart Agriculture actuation system]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100603&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT This paper presents standalone solar photovoltaic (PV) powered fed actuation system employing a switched reluctance motor (SRM) particularly used in remote and rural areas. The converter efficiency is achieved by changing ON and OFF state of solar PV drive. An electronic commutation drives SRM drive with achieved by position hall sensor and encoder. The modified boost converter is proposed in single stage to conversion of PV fed power and inverter with reduced switching losses. Further proposed system is designed to reduce cost of system using simple design and control. This paper also proposes the speed control strategy of SRM motor with an artificial intelligent based Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference (ANFIS) system to achieve desired motor velocity as stated in reference velocity in farm lands. The system proposed is subjected to analysis the performance of drive and controller in both load and no-load conditions. Initially, a simulation model is modeled in MATLAB-SIMULINK with corresponding environments. The experimental setup for proposed system is developed using FPGA based SPEEDGOAT real time target machine. The simulation and hardware results suggest feasibility of proposed system in real time. <![CDATA[Diversity of Plant Species in The Steel City of Odisha, India: Ethnobotany and Implications for Conservation of Urban Bio-Resources]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100700&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The vegetation of the Steel City (Rourkela) of Odisha, India has high ethnobotanical values by virtue of its rich floral diversity. People in the urban area are highly dependent on the plants available in and around the city for their primary needs. The present study highlights the use of local flora, explore, identification, ethnobotany and conservation of wild and cultivated plant species in the city of Rourkela, Odisha, India. It also pays heed to the proper utilization of urban flora as a way of highlighting its ethnopharmacological importance. A field survey was conducted to collect information about floral diversity in and around the city. Data on the use of plants was collected with a semi-structured questionnaire and from the peer-reviewed literature. A total of 154 plant species, belonging to 128 genera and 55 families, were identified, along with their botanical name, vernacular name, family and habitat. Of these plant species, 53 are medicinal, 43 are ornamental, and 33 are edible, while 23 are weeds. Paderia foetida and Saraca asoka fall into the RET (rare, endangered and threatened) group and are very effective against various diseases. Traditional uses of local plants in an urban area like Rourkela are very interesting. This shows that, not only rural and tribal areas are rich in useful bio-resources but so are urban or semi-urban areas. The documentation of all useful flora with ethnomedicinal potential is helpful in conserving plant biodiversity as well as in environmental studies along with potential applications in drug discovery and oriental medicine.