Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Matéria (Rio de Janeiro)]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1517-707620160001&lang=en vol. 21 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Charge Transfer in Ceramic Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Tensile properties and color and mass variations of GFPR composites under alkaline and ultraviolet exposures]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of two different environmental conditions on the quantitative change of color and mass, tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) produced in Brazil. For this purpose, specimens were taken from pultruded composite profiles with two different matrices (vinylester and phenolic resins) reinforced with glass fibers. The first condition consisted of exposing them to cycles of ultraviolet radiation followed by water spray. In the second environment, the specimens were continuously exposed to alkaline solution at a constant temperature of 40 °C. After the exposure, both vinylester and phenolic composites were characterized according to the following parameters: variation of mass, tensile strength and modulus of elasticity. The CIE 1976 L*a*b* color system was used to determinate the color variation of the specimens after degradation using a spectrophotometer. Results indicated significant reductions in tensile strength values for both composites, in addition to expressive variations of mass and color. However, the color variation was not directly related with the loss of mechanical strength. <![CDATA[Effective low-energy mixing procedure to develop high-fluidity cementitious pastes]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Preparing a high fluidity paste is a major step in ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) development with respect to its self-compacting ability as well as its ultra-high strength. In this regard, some experiments have been carried out in order to study various superplasticizer (SP) addition methods and times. Among these procedures, stepwise and delayed methods seem to be more efficient compared to direct addition of SP with or immediately after water addition. However, few studies regarding water addition time and method have been conducted since now. In this research work, the effects of water and SP addition methods on the fluidity of paste were investigated. The results demonstrated that stepwise and delayed water beside delayed SP addition remarkably reduce the flow time. This maximum fluidity was achieved after totally 15 minutes of mixing including 3 minutes after 70% of water addition to powder, as first-part water, 6 minutes after SP addition and finally an extra 6 minutes after second-part water which is 30% of the total water. Based on this procedure, the opportunity for developing self-compacting and durable UHPC could be accessible. Furthermore, using higher content of aggregates and supplementary cementitious materials would be possible due to higher fluidity of the paste which finally results in an eco-efficient UHPC. <![CDATA[Bending answer and toughness analysis of mortar reinforced with Curauá fibers]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O desenvolvimento e comercialização de materiais compósitos produzidos a partir de fibras naturais são considerados extremamente importante, uma vez que essas fibras reduzirão a dependência dos materiais produzidos com recursos não renováveis. Dentre essas fibras naturais destaca-se a fibra do curauá, sua utilização na produção de compósitos melhora de forma notável as propriedades do conjunto fibra matriz, logo o presente artigo objetiva estudar as propriedades mecânicas de compósitos reforçados com fibra de curauá, em especial sua resistência à flexão e tenacidade. Para isso foram confeccionadas cinco famílias de argamassas, uma de referência sem utilização da fibra e as outras quatro reforçada com fibra variando o comprimento da fibra e sua fração volumétrica. Verificou-se que a fibra do curauá ao ser adicionada em matriz cimentícia melhora suas propriedades mecânicas comparada a um compósito não reforçado com fibra, sua deformação, resistência à flexão e tenacidade são melhoradas.<hr/>The composites material produced from natural fibers development and commercialization are considered extremely important because these fibers will reduce the material produced with non-renewable resources dependence. Among these fibers, there is the Curauá fiber, its use in composites production improves the ensemble matrice fiber properties, then this article aims to study the composites reinforced with Curauá fibers mechanical properties, especially its bending resistance and toughness. For achieve those objectives, it was produced five mortar groups, one for reference, without the fiber utilization, and another four groups with fiber reinforcement varying the fiber length and its volume fraction. It was noted that Curauá fiber, when added to cement matrice, improves its mechanical properties compared to a composite without the fiber reinforcement, its deflection, bending resistance and toughness are improved. <![CDATA[The stretched plate problem analyzed by a boundary element formulation with quadratic convergence]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en No presente trabalho foi desenvolvida a formulação não-linear do método dos elementos de contorno para a análise estrutural de chapas escrita em termos de deslocamentos e forças nas direções normal e tangencial ao contorno da sua superfície. A equação integral do deslocamento é deduzida a partir do Teorema de Reciprocidade de Betti, considerando-se espessura constante na chapa. Para calcular a integral de domínio envolvendo o campo de esforços iniciais (ou inelásticos) deve-se discretizar o domínio em células. A solução não linear se obtém por uma formulação implícita, na qual as correções das deformações são feitas através do operador tangente consistente que se atualiza a cada nova iteração, tendo como referência os valores das variáveis internas referentes ao incremento convergido, o que leva a uma convergência quadrática do processo iterativo. Utilizou-se como critério de ruptura o de von Misses e exemplos foram analisados a fim de mostrar a convergência quadrática no processo iterativo e também a convergência dos resultados numéricos a medida que se refinava a discretização do contorno em elementos e do domínio em células.<hr/>In this paper the non-linear formulation of the boundary element method (BEM) for analyzing the stretching plate problem written in terms of displacements and tractions in the normal and tangential directions to the boundary has been developed. The integral equation of displacement is derived from Betti's reciprocity theorem, considering constant thickness on the plate. To obtain the non-linear solution an initial (or inelastic) force field must be considered over the plate domain, requiring therefore the plate domain discretization into cells. Besides, an implicit formulation is adopted, where the strains correction to be computed for each iteration is obtained by considering the consistent tangent operator, leading to a quadratic convergence rate in the iterative procedure required to achieve the plate equilibrium. In the numerical examples the results are compared to software ANSYS and the Von Mises criterion has been adopted to model the material behavior, showing the quadratic convergence rate. Besides, different discratizations have been analyzed in order to show as well the results convergence. <![CDATA[Study of the structure and mechanical properties in 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia coating manufactured by suspension plasma spraying]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en El estudio de recubrimientos nanoestructurados fabricados mediante proyección térmica ha generado un gran interés en las últimas dos décadas debido a su considerable mejora en sus propiedades sobre todo en las propiedades físicas y mecánicas. Esta mejora resulta de reducir los tamaños de grano de su materia prima a escalas de 100 a 1000 veces más bajas comparadas con los recubrimientos convencionales microestructurados. Así, estos recubrimientos con estructuras a nivel nano y/o submicrométrica están empezando a ser usados en la industria gracias a sus sobresalientes propiedades y es fundamental el estudio de sus propiedades mecánicas para determinadas aplicaciones. En la actualidad, la indentación es la principal técnica de caracterización de recubrimientos y películas delgadas, a pesar de estar altamente influenciada por los defectos propios del recubrimiento en la vecindad de la indentación. La nanoindentación y la microindentación se presentan como la mejor opción para evaluar el comportamiento mecánico de estos recubrimientos nanoestructurados. Por esta razón, en este trabajo se analizó el efecto de la estructura de un recubrimiento de circona estabilizada con 8% en mol de itria (8YSZ) elaborado por proyección térmica por plasma a partir de suspensiones nanométricas (SPS) y su relación con sus propiedades mecánicas (dureza y módulo de elasticidad) medidas por las técnicas de nanoindentación y microindentación. El análisis de la estructura de la sección transversal mostró que el recubrimiento exhibe una estructura bimodal, la cual está compuesta por una zona con partículas nanométricas semifundidas (ZS) y lamelas con mayor grado de fusión (ZF). Los ensayos de nanoindentación mostraron una distribución de Weibull bimodal de sus propiedades mecánicas, la cual característica de este tipo de recubrimientos; mientras que la dureza (HV) y el módulo de elasticidad evaluados por microindentación, presentaron una distribución monomodal. Estos resultados de microindentación estuvieron influenciados por el área de contacto en las zonas indentadas en la estructura bimodal del recubrimiento.<hr/>The study of nanostructured coatings manufactured by thermal spraying has generated a great interest in the last two decades due to their considerable improved properties especially in the physical and mechanical properties. This improvement is to reduce grain sizes of their raw materials at scales of 100-1000 times lower compared to conventional coatings (microstructured). Thus, these coatings structured at the nano and sub micrometric scale start to be used in the industrial applications and, it is essential to study their mechanical properties for certain applications. Currently, the indentation is the main technique for characterizing thin films and coatings, despite being highly influenced by the defects of the coating in the vicinity of the indentation. Nanoindentation and microindentation is presented as the best option for evaluate the mechanical behavior of nanostructured coatings. For this reason, in this work the study of the effect of the structure of the 8 mol% yttria-stabilised zirconia coating (8YSZ) manufactured by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) and the relationship with its mechanical properties (hardness and elastic modulus) measures for nanoindentation and microindentation techniques was analyzed. Analysis of the structure of the cross section of coating exhibit a bimodal structure, which is composed by a zone with semi-molten nanoparticles (ZS) and lamellaes with a higher grade of fusion (ZF). Nanoindentation tests showed a bimodal Weibull distribution of the mechanical properties (hardness and elastic modulus) which is related to the two zones (ZF and ZS) present in the coating, while hardness (HV) and elastic modulus measured by microhardness, showed a monomodal distribution. These results of microhardness were influenced by the contact area of the indentation in zones composed of the bimodal structure of the YSZ coating. <![CDATA[Investigation of Adhesion and Tribological Behavior of Borided AISI 310 Stainless Steel]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In the present study, the effects of the boriding process on adhesion and tribological properties of AISI 310 steel were investigated. Boriding was performed in a solid medium consisting of Ekabor-II powders at 1123 and 1323K for 2 and 6 h. The boride layer was characterized by optical microscopy, the X-ray diffraction technique and the micro-Vickers hardness tester. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the boride layers on the surface of the steels revealed the existence of FexBy, CrxBy and NixBy compounds. Depending on the chemical composition of substrates, the boride layer thickness on the surface of the AISI 310 steel was found to be 56.74 μm. The hardness of the boride compounds formed on the surface of the AISI 310 steel ranged from 1658 to 2284 HV0,1, whereas the Vickers hardness value of the untreated steel AISI 310 was 276 HV0,1. The wear tests were carried out in a ball-disc arrangement under a dry friction condition at room temperature with an applied load of 10N and with a sliding speed of 0.3 m/s, at a sliding distance of 1000m. The wear surfaces of the steel were analyzed using an SEM microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy EDS. It was observed that the wear rate of unborided and borided AISI 310 steel ranged from 4.57 to 71.42 mm3/Nm. <![CDATA[Asphalt binders modified with Moringa Oleifera Lam oil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The concern with sustainable development has driven efforts to the study of green technologies to minimize the environmental impacts without compromising pavement quality. In this scenery, the paving industry has started to research and apply warm asphalt mixtures, which are produced in lower temperatures than conventional mixtures and reduce the expenses in fuels. The warm mixtures can result from the addition of an oil, usually organic, to the conventional binder, decreasing the binder's viscosity. Moringa oleifera Lam Seeds possess an oil content varying between 38 and 40% and have antioxidant and lubricant properties. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in properties related to consistency and the effective variation of mixing and compaction temperatures due to asphalt modification with the oil of Moringa oleifera Lam as green additive. The Moringa oleifera Lam oil was extracted by pressing of seeds. Then, 6 mixtures were made using 50/70 PAC and Moringa Oleifera Lam oil in different proportions (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5% and 3%), as well as a reference sample (pure PAC). The binders were analysed using Brookfield Viscosity, Penetration, Softening Point and Rolling Thin Film Oven (RTFOT) Tests. The results showed that the addition of Moringa oleifera Lam oil must be made for contents in the range of 0.5% to 1%, once that to these contents there is a significant reduction in machining and compaction temperatures (≈ 5 °C) without compromising the asphalt binder performance.<hr/>A preocupação com o desenvolvimento sustentável tem levado ao estudo de tecnologias verdes que minimizem os impactos ao meio ambiente sem comprometer a qualidade do pavimento. Neste cenário, a indústria da pavimentação tem começado a pesquisar e aplicar as misturas asfálticas mornas. Estas são produzidas em temperaturas mais baixas que as convencionais e reduzem o gasto com combustível. As misturas mornas podem ser resultados da adição de um óleo, geralmente orgânico, ao ligante convencional, diminuindo a viscosidade deste. As sementes de Moringa Oleífera Lam possuem um teor de óleo compreendido entre 38 e 40%, e propriedades antioxidantes e lubrificantes. O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu em avaliar as mudanças das propriedades de consistência e a variação das temperaturas de usinagem e compactação com a adição do óleo da Moringa Oleífera Lam como aditivo verde. O óleo da Moringa Oleífera Lam foi extraído por prensagem a partir da torta das sementes. Em seguida, foram realizadas 6 misturas utilizando CAP 50/70 e o óleo da Moringa Oleífera Lam em diferentes proporções (0%, 0,5%, 1%, 1,5%, 2%, 2,5% e 3%). Os ligantes foram analisados utilizando-se ensaios de viscosidade Brookfield, penetração, ponto de amolecimento e o envelhecimento por meio do ensaio em estufa de filme fino rotativo (RTFOT). Os resultados mostraram que a adição do óleo da Moringa Oleífera Lam deve ser efetuada para teores no intervalo compreendido entre 0,5% a 1%, pois nestes teores ocorre uma diminuição significativa das temperaturas de usinagem e compactação (≈ 5oC ) sem comprometer o desempenho do ligante asfáltico. <![CDATA[Experimental determination of the level of damage suffered by rigid PVC pipes under quasi-static impact load]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This paper presents a approach to determining the level of damage on rigid PVC pipes (polyvinyl chloride), destined for the supply of drinking water, and previously subjected to quasi-static impact. The originality of the work has been to experimentally characterize the level of damage via readily measurable physical quantities obtained under operating conditions. For this purpose, a wide range of experiments were performed. Firstly, trials involving impact with a hemispherical-end hammer weighing 16kg, dropped from a height of between 0 - 2m on portions of rigid PVC pipe. Thereafter, the dimensions of the affected area on the portions of the pipe are measured using a Tridimensional Measuring Machine (TMM). Finally, tensile tests on flat test pieces from around the impacted area of the pipe section were used to determine the post-impact residual mechanical strength. This investigation on post-impact properties allows the definition of the level of damage reached via the unified theory model of Bui Quoc. By analogy to the latter, the damage is expressed as a function of the area of the impacted section. <![CDATA[Portland cement pastes evaluation containing ground bottom ash]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Neste trabalho avalia-se a influência da incorporação de cinza pesada moída, obtida da combustão de carvão mineral, em pastas de cimento Portland. A cinza pesada foi incorporada as pastas de cimento em três distribuições granulométricas distintas e dosadas para teores de substituição ao cimento, em volume, de 10%, 30% e 50%. As pastas foram dosadas com duas relações água/aglomerante, em massa, de 0,35 e 0,40. As primeiras idades foram investigadas por calorimetria isotérmica. Após passarem por cura úmida, as pastas foram testadas por termogravimetria, resíduo insolúvel e resistência mecânica à compressão para as idades de 7, 28 e 91 dias de hidratação. Foi observado um aumento do grau de hidratação para as pastas produzidas com cinza pesada moída, independentemente da finura e do teor incorporado. O aumento de calor liberado e resistência à compressão, juntos com a redução do percentual de resíduo insolúvel, levaram a conclusão que cinza pesada moída apresentou, simultaneamente, atividade química e física junto a hidratação do cimento. Os resultados sugerem que a cinza pesada moída pode substituir em até 50% o volume do cimento Portland sem redução da resistência mecânica aos 91 dias de hidratação.<hr/>In this study, the influence of adding ground coal bottom ash in Portland cement pastes was evaluated. Blended cements were prepared with ground bottom ash of three distinct particle size distributions and substitutions, by volume, of 10%, 30%, and 50%. For each blended cements, pastes were prepared with water to binder ratios of 0.35 and 0.40, by mass. Early age hydration was investigated by isothermal calorimetry. After being subject to wet curing, the pastes were tested for thermogravimetric analysis, insoluble residue content and compressive strength tests at 7, 28, and 91 days. Degree of hydration increased with the addition of ground bottom ash for all fineness and replacement contents. Increase in heat evolution and compressive strength, along with the decrease in the insoluble residue content, lead to the conclusion that the added ground bottom ash acted both chemically and physically in the hydration of the blended cements. The findings suggest that the ground bottom ash could replace up to 50% of the ordinary Portland cement without compromising compressive strength at 91 days of hydration <![CDATA[WO<sub>3</sub>-based varistors - a review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Varistores são elementos que fazem parte do sistema de transmissão e distribuição de energia elétrica ou de instalações elétricas especiais. Estes dispositivos são amplamente produzidos variando a escala, dependendo de sua aplicação, como dispositivos de baixa voltagem, com poucos grãos, exibindo ruptura de alguns volts, a vários kilovolts como usado em para-raios em rede de distribuição de energia. A física de operação dos varistores tem sido amplamente estudada e tem elementos comuns como barreiras Schottky formado na junção metal/semicondutor. Vários estudos têm sido desenvolvidos a fim de obter cerâmicas varistoras para aplicação em alta e baixa tensão. Dentre esses estudos encontram-se os varistores a base de ZnO, SnO2, TiO2 e mais recentemente os de WO3. Diferente das três composições citadas, os a base de WO3 apresentam comportamento varistor intrínseco devido a presença das fases monoclínica e triclínica. A adição de dopantes doadores e aceitadores de elétrons e o tratamento térmico em diferentes atmosferas também alteram as propiedades não lineares desses sistemas, uma vez que influencia na formação da barreira Schottky. Neste estudo foi realizada uma revisão sobre trabalhos relacionados a nova composição de cerâmica varistora a base de óxido de tungstênio (WO3).<hr/>Varistors are elements that are part of electric power transmission and distribution systems or of special electrical installations. Varistors are manufactured in a wide variety of types, depending on their application, such as low-voltage devices with a layer of a few grains of thickness and low breakdown voltage, to varistors with a breakdown voltage of several kilovolts, such as those used in the lightning arresters of electric power distribution networks. Varistors, whose physical operation has been extensively studied, share common elements such as metal-semiconductor Schottky barrier junctions. Several studies have focused on the development of varistor ceramics for high and low voltage applications, including ZnO, SnO2, TiO2, and more recently, WO3-based ceramics. Unlike the first three compositions, WO3-based ceramics present an intrinsic varistor behavior because they contain monoclinic and triclinic phases. The addition of electron donor and acceptor dopants and heat treatments in different atmospheres also alter the non-linear properties of these systems, since they affect the formation of the Schottky barrier. This paper offers a review of the literature on the new varistor ceramic composition based on tungsten oxide (WO3). <![CDATA[Epoxy/aliphatic amine networks with perspectives for cardiovascular applications. In vitro biological properties]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Este trabalho descreve as propriedades biológicas in vitro de três redes epoxídicas à base do éter diglicidílico do glicerol (DGEG) curadas com poli(oxipropileno) diamina (D230), isoforona diamina (IPD) e 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-dimetil-diciclohexilmetano (3DCM). As interações biológicas entre os polímeros e o sangue foram estudadas por ensaios biológicos in vitro. Estudos de adsorção de proteínas, adesão de plaquetas, atividade do lactato desidrogenase (LDH) e propriedades de tromboresistência estão apresentados. Os ensaios de adsorção de proteínas na superfície dos polímeros mostrou que as redes epoxídicas adsorvem mais albumina do que fibrinogênio. Os resultados relacionados à adesão de plaquetas, atividade do lactato hidrogenase e propriedades de tromboresistência indicaram que as redes DGEG/IPD e DGEG/3DCM exibem comportamento hemocompatível. Desta maneira, assumimos que estes polímeros epoxídicos são materiais compatíveis com o sangue.<hr/>This work describes the in vitro biological properties of three epoxy networks based on diglycidyl ether of glycerol (DGEG) cured with poly(oxypropylene) diamine (D230), isophorone diamine (IPD) and 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-dimethyl-dicyclohexylmethano (3DCM). The biological interactions between epoxy polymers and blood were studied by in vitro assays. Studies of the protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and thromboresistance properties are presented. The protein adsorption assays onto polymeric surfaces showed that the epoxy networks adsorbed more albumin than fibrinogen. The results about platelet adhesion, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and thromboresistance properties indicated that the DGEG/IPD and DGEG/3DCM networks show hemocompatible behavior. In this way, we can assume that these epoxy polymers are blood compatible materials. <![CDATA[Synthesis and characterization of chitosan scaffolds with antineoplastic agent]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O sistema de liberação controlada de fármacos através da utilização de biomateriais poliméricos associados a compostos com ação antineoplásica pode ser empregado como alternativa de tratamento de neoplasias. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo a síntese e caracterização de sistemas de arcabouços de quitosana com o agente antineoplásico (1,4-naftoquinona), cuja taxa de liberação pode ser controlada pela utilização de um agente reticulante como o tripolifosfato de sódio (TPP). O método de preparação consistiu da solubilização da quitosana em ácido acético, adição do fármaco, congelamento, liofilização e reticulação com TPP. Todas as amostras foram caracterizadas por Difração de Raios X (DRX), Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV), Espectroscopia de Energia Dispersiva de Raios X(EDS), grau de intumescimento e biodegradação enzimática. Na MEV foi evidenciada a formação de poros interconectados com tamanhos e formas variadas em todas as estruturas estudadas caracterizando a formação de arcabouços. Já no EDS foi observada a presença de elementos químicos característico da composição química de cada material. No entanto foi observada a presença do sódio que pode estar relacionado ao agente neutralizante utilizado. A reticulação de parte dos arcabouços foi comprovada pelo DRX, EDS e aumentou a taxa de degradação enzimática in vitro dos mesmos. A incorporação do fármaco foi confirmada por DRX, grau de intumescimento e EDS. Desta forma, pode-se concluir que ocorreu à formação de arcabouços reticulados e não reticulados porosos, com propriedades morfológicas e físico-químicas que podem contribuir para carrear fármacos antineoplásicos, sendo possível controlar a taxa de degradação dos mesmos e provável liberação do fármaco.<hr/>The controlled release system of drugs through the use of polymeric biomaterials compounds associated with antineoplastic action can be employed as an alternative treatment of neoplasms. Thus, this study had as objective the synthesis and characterization of the systems of scaffolds of chitosan loaded with the antineoplastic agent (1,4-naphthoquinone), whose release rate can be controlled by using a crosslinking agent such as sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). The preparation method consisted of solubilizing the chitosan in acetic acid, drug addition, freezing, lyophilization and crosslinking TPP. All samples were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), degree of swelling and enzymatic biodegradation. SEM showed the formation of interconnected pores with varying shapes and sizes in all the studied structures characterizing the formation of scaffolds. In EDS the presence of chemical elements characteristic of the chemical composition of each material was observed. However, the presence of sodium was observed which can be related to the neutralization agent used. The crosslinking of the scaffolds was confirmed by XRD and EDS which increased the enzymatic degradation rate in vitro in the same sample. The incorporation of the drug was confirmed by XRD, degree of swelling and EDS. Thus, it can be concluded that occurred the formation of crosslinked and non-crosslinked porous scaffolds with morphological and physicochemical properties that can contribute to the carrying of antineoplastic drugs, being possible to control the degradation rate thereof and probable the release of the drug. <![CDATA[Efecto del almacenamiento sobre las propiedades físicas de las películas de quitosano con inclusión de aceites esenciales de tomillo y romero]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Se estudió el efecto de factores como humedad, temperatura y tiempo de almacenamiento sobre las propiedades físicas de las películas de quitosano con y sin inclusión de aceites. Se incluyeron aceites de tomillo (TEO) y de romero (REO) en proporciones de 0,5:1 y 1:1 v/p (EOs: CH), así como su combinación 50:50 (TEO:REO). Las películas formadas se almacenaron a temperaturas de 5, 20, 33°C y humedades relativas de 60 y 93% durante cuatro semanas. Las condiciones de almacenamiento alteraron las propiedades mecánicas y físicas de las películas, tales como humedad y capacidad de retención de agua debido a la hidrofícidad del polímero, al efecto plastificante de las moléculas de agua y a fenómenos de retrogradación influenciados por la temperatura y el tiempo de almacenamiento.<hr/>The effect of factors of humidity, temperature and time on the physical properties of chitosan films with and without the thyme and rosemary essential oils inclusion was studied. The thyme (TEO) and rosemary (REO) essential oils were included in 0.5:1 and 1:1 v/w (EOs:CH), as well as their combination 50:50 (TEO:REO). The films were stored at temperatures of 5, 20, 33°C and relative humidities of 60 and 93% during four weeks. Storage conditions modify the physical properties of the films due to their hydrophilic behavior, the plasticizing effect of the water molecules and the retrogradation phenomena influenced by storage temperature and time. <![CDATA[Investigating atmospheric corrosion behavior of carbon steel in coastal regions of Mauritius using Raman Spectroscopy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Low carbon steel was exposed at two sites in Mauritius, namely Port Louis and Belle Mare. The site at Port Louis is basically an industrial marine one whereas the one at Belle Mare is a purely marine site. Though the corrosion loss trend at both sites follow the power law, the corrosion loss at Port Louis was found to be higher than that at Belle Mare. This study has been performed to investigate the surface characteristics of the rust layers of the samples exposed at the two sites, through Raman spectroscopy and SEM, so as to get a better insight into the mechanism of the atmospheric corrosion process. For Port Louis, it was observed that there was not much change in the corrosion products in the rust layer over the 3 years period. The structure was less compact than that at Belle Mare with the presence of lepidocrocite and akaganeite as commonly observed corrosion products. The corrosion rate at Port Louis is, therefore, expected to follow the same trend over the long term. For Belle Mare, the corrosion products changed significantly after 3 years of exposure. Though lepidocrocite and akaganeite were observed on the surface after 0.2 years of exposure, magnetite was the most probable corrosion product in the more compact rust layer after 3 years of exposure. This compactness of the rust layer is expected to have reduced the corrosion rate as compared to that of Port Louis. Significant changes in the corrosion rate at Belle Mare are, therefore, expected over the medium and the long term. <![CDATA[Experimental study of the use of conventional wheels on steel processing VP-50 used in the cylindrical grinding by means of different methods of lubrication and cooling]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A retificação é um processo de usinagem preciso, sendo uma das etapas mais caras na fabricação dos moldes para injeção de termoplásticos. Na retificação o rebolo é a ferramenta abrasiva responsável pela retirada do material. O número de tipos de abrasivos e granulometrias disponíveis são bastante grandes e junto com a quantidade de ligas possíveis, estruturas e durezas, além dos formatos, fazem com que se chegue a um número enorme de produtos. O conhecimento das suas características técnicas, vantagens, defeitos e condições de trabalho são fundamentais para os engenheiros de produto, de processos e, naturalmente, para os gerentes de área industrial, identificarem qual o rebolo mais indicado para realização do processo de retificação. Dentre os aços utilizados na fabricação de moldes para injeção de termoplásticos destaca-se o aço VP-50, o qual foi o aço usado neste experimento, sendo usinado pelo processo de retificação cilíndrica. No processo de retificação, também foi adotado para fins de experimento dois métodos de lubrirrefrigeração, sendo eles o método convencional com lubrirrefrigeração abundante e o MQL que é a técnica com mínima quantidade de lubrirrefrigeração. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar de forma comparativa o desempenho de corte executado com três tipos de rebolos convencionais: rebolo de óxido de alumínio branco, rebolo de carbureto de silício verde e rebolo de carbureto de silício preto com óxido de alumínio branco. Os resultados foram analisados e comparados pelas variáveis de saída dos três tipos de rebolos, tipo de refrigeração e espessura equivalente de corte.<hr/>The grinding is a precise machining process, one of the most expensive steps in the manufacture of in-jection molds for thermoplastic. In grinding the grinding wheel abrasive tool is responsible for removal. The number and types of abrasive grit sizes available are quite large and together with the number of possible alloys, structures and shapes of hardness beyond cause reach an enormous number of products. The knowledge of their technical characteristics, advantages, defects and working conditions are fundamental for product engineers, process and of course to the industrial area managers, which identify the most suitable grinding wheel to perform the grinding process. Among the steels used in the manufacture of molds for ther-moplastic injection highlight the VP-50 steel, which was the steel used in this experiment being machined by the cylindrical grinding process. In the grinding process was also adopted for the purpose of experiment two methods of lubrication and cooling them with the conventional method with abundant lubrication and cooling and MQL is the technique with minimal amount of lubrication and cooling. The objective of this study was to analyze comparatively cutting performance, performed with three types of conventional wheels: grinding of white aluminum oxide, green silicon carbide grinding wheel and grinding of black silicon carbide with white aluminum oxide. The results were analyzed and compared by the output variables of the three types of wheels, type of refrigeration and equivalent thickness. <![CDATA[Study of sintering of a Fe-22,5Cr-5,5Ni alloy obtained by elemental powders mixture]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Usualmente a sinterização de Aços Inoxidáveis AID (ligas Fe-Cr-Ni) ocorre a partir de pós pré-ligados de AID ou pelo balanceamento entre pós de aços inoxidáveis austeníticos misturado com pós de aços inoxidáveis ferríticos, proporcionando uma microestrutura duplex. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a possibilidade de desenvolver uma rota alternativa de produção do AID com menor custo, além de avaliar as características microestruturais e mecânicas da liga Fe-22,5Cr-5,5Ni. Neste contexto, buscou-se desenvolver uma liga a partir de misturas de pós elementares de formulação similar ao AID UNS S32205 e com diferentes isotermas buscando a difusão entre os elementos, com o intuito de eliminar a necessidade de obtenção de pós pré-ligados de elevado custo. Os pós de partida foram caracterizados por Difração de Raios X (DRX) e Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV), e empregados na produção de 10 (dez) formulações que foram uniaxialmente conformadas em pastilhas de 18,88 mm de diâmetro e tratadas termicamente com tempos variando entre 1 (uma) e 6 (seis) horas; com isotermas de 1000ºC; 1100°C e 1200ºC e sob atmosfera controlada de nitrogênio. Com o uso de Microscopia Óptica (MO), foram selecionadas 4 (quatro) misturas para avaliação complementar. Esse estudo englobou a análise de difusão dos elementos Fe, Cr e Ni por Espectroscopia de Energia Dispersiva (EDS) acoplada ao MEV, e avaliação microestrutural por (MO, MEV, DRX). Os resultados obtidos com as análises por MO e MEV revelaram uma baixa difusão do cromo na matriz de ferro. Espectros obtidos por DRX apresentaram a formação de picos de ferrita e em algumas das amostras pequenos picos de austenita, não sendo possível apontar a formação de uma estrutura duplex. A análise de espectroscopia Raman indicou a formação de óxido de cromo no entorno das partículas de cromo, evitando sua difusão na matriz ferrítica. Por fim, os ensaios de microdureza revelaram uma relação diretamente proporcional ao aumento da temperatura e tempo de sinterização com as microdurezas apresentadas pelas misturas obtidas com pós elementares.<hr/>Usually the Sintering of Duplex Stainless Steels SS (Fe-Cr-Ni alloy) from prebounded powders of duplex stainless steels or a balance mixture between austenitic and ferritic powders are used to form a duplex microstructure. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility of developing an alternative route to produce Duplex SS in a rather low cost, and, in addition, to evaluate the microstructural and mechanical characteristics of the Fe-22,5Cr-5,5Ni alloy. In this context, it was pursued the development of an alloy by the mixing of elementary powders with similar formulation of the duplex SS UNS S32205, in order to eliminate the need of obtaining prebounded powders. The powders were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to be used in the production of 10 (ten) uniaxial tablet shaped mixtures of 18,88 mm of diameter and thermally treated varying times between 1 (one) to 6 (six) hours; isotherms from 1000ºC (1273K/1832ºF); 1100ºC (1373K/2012ºF) and 1200ºC (1473K/2192ºF) and under nitrogen controlled atmosphere. Optical Microscopy (OM) allow one to selected 4 (four) sintered mixtures to further evaluation. This study comprises the diffusion analysis of Fe, Cr and Ni elements using SEM by Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and microstructural evaluation using (OM, SEM, XRD). The results obtained from OM and SEM analysis revealed the low diffusivity of chrome in the iron matrix. XRD spectra showed peaks of ferrite formation and austenite in some of the samples, so it was not possible to indicate the formation of a duplex structure. The Raman spectra indicated chromium oxide in the vicinity of chromium particles, preventing its spread to the ferritic matrix. Finally, the microhardness tests revealed a direct proportion to the increase of temperature and sintering time with the microhardness submitted by the mixtures obtained with elemental powders. <![CDATA[Surface analyze and osseointegration of dental implant with biomimetic surface with Ca, Mg and F]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Os tratamentos das superfícies dos implantes dentários osseointegráveis sofreram modificações significativas com o objetivo de melhorar a estabilidade primária e secundária. Entre as modificações destaca-se a deposição de íons, como flúor, cálcio e magnésio. Estes íons possuem baixa taxa de degradação no meio corpóreo e ótima interação biológica com as células e com os tecidos ósseos. No presente trabalho, para avaliar os efeitos do F, Ca e do Mg na osseointegração foram realizados ensaios in vitro e in vivo. Implantes foram inseridos em tíbias de coelhos e determinou-se os torques de inserção e remoção após 2, 4 e 8 semanas. Os ensaios in vivo foram complementados pela medida da rugosidade, molhabilidade e análise da superfície em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados foram comparados com os obtidos com implantes com a superfície tratada com ácido (superfície Porous) e com deposição de flúor (superfície Porous Nano). Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o torque para remover os implantes Porous 8 semanas após a cirurgia foi de 16,96 + 1,32 N.cm, o tratado com flúor apresentou melhores resultados (17,93 ± 4,47 N.cm) e a superfície com Ca e Mg foi a que apresentou a interface osso-implante com menor resistência (10,83 + 1,20 N.cm). O maior torque indica que a adição de flúor facilita os mecanismos envolvidos na osseointegração dos implantes e permite o carregamento da prótese em tempos menores.<hr/>Surfaces treatments improve the primary and secondary stability of dental implants. Among surfaces modifications the deposition of ions, such as fluorine, calcium and magnesium has been studied. These ions have low degradation rate in the body environment and great biological interaction with the cells and bone tissue. In the present work, in vitro and in vivo test evaluated the effects of F, Ca and Mg in osseointegration. Implants were inserted into the tibia of rabbits, insertion and removal torque was measured after 2, 4 and 8 weeks. In vivo testing was complemented by measuring the roughness, wettability and surface analysis in scanning electron microscopy. The results were compared with those obtained with implants with the acid treated surface (Porous surface) and fluoride deposition (Porous Nano surface). The results showed that the group treated with fluoride showed better results on the removal torque (17.93 ± 4.47 N.cm) and the surface with Ca and Mg (10,83 + 1,20 N.cm) ) showed the lowest bone-interface implant resistance. The higher torque indicates that the addition of fluoride facilitates the mechanisms involved in the dental implant osseointegration and allows the loading of the prosthesis in early time. <![CDATA[Fiborous and tubular clays to modified release of drugs: a review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Nas últimas décadas o uso de argilominerais nas áreas de Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais tem recebido notória atenção para a sua utilização no carreamento de fármacos. Dentre os diversos tipos de argilas, as fibrosas e as tubulares tem sido utilizadas na preparação de bionanocompósitos, devido as suas propriedades inerentes, como exemplo a elevada área superficial. Esta pesquisa visou o levantamento bibliográfico da utilização das argilas tubulares e fibrosas para o carreamento de fármacos. A busca por artigos foi realizado no banco de dados Web of Science, utilizando combinação dos termos: Fibrous Clay and drug delivery, Tubular Clay and drug delivery, Halloysite and drug delivery, Imogolite and drug delivery, Palygoskite and drug delivery e Sepiolite and drug delivery. Foram encontrados o total de 36 artigos durante a pesquisa. Observou-se que a maioria dos artigos utilizam as argilas em combinação com outros materiais (com formação de compósitos e blendas), principalmente polímeros, a fim de expandir as propriedades que melhoram a vetorização de insumos farmacêuticos ativos (IFAs), tais como a modificação do tamanho dos poros, do pH, da energia de ligação entre as moléculas, entre outros. Assim, evidencia-se que o interesse pela utilização das argilas no campo terapêutico tem aumentado, mostrando a relevância de pesquisas na área de medicamentos e materiais.<hr/>In recent decades the use of clay minerals in the areas of Materials Science and Engineering has received notable attention for its use in carrying of drugs. Among the various types of clay, and fibrous tubes have been used in the preparation of bionanocompósitos due to their inherent properties, for example high surface area. This research aimed a review at the literature of the use of tubular and fibrous clays for the carrying of drugs. The search for articles was conducted in the Web of Science database, using combination of terms: Fibrous Clay and drug delivery, Tubular Clay and drug delivery, Halloysite and drug delivery, imogolite and drug delivery, drug delivery and Palygoskite and Sepiolite and drug delivery. Found total of 36 articles during the search. It was observed that most of the clay articles used in combination with other materials (with formation of composites and blends), in particular polymers in order to extend the properties that improve the vectoring of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), such as modification pore size, the pH, the binding energy between molecules, among others. Thus, it is clear that the interest in the use of clays in the therapeutic field has increased, showing the relevance of research in the area of drugs and materials. <![CDATA[Hydration products of geopolymeric mortars based on Tunisian clay for repair of concrete structures]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A reparação de estruturas degradadas de concreto representa uma oportunidade para a indústria da construção mas também um desafio para a comunidade científica. O desenvolvimento de novas argamassas de reparação constitui por isso uma importante área de investigação. Os geopolímeros são ligantes inovadores alternativos ao cimento Portland pelo que as argamassas à base destes materiais, geopolíméricas, apresentam algumas potencialidades no campo da reparação das estruturas de concreto. O presente artigo apresenta resultados de uma investigação sobre o desenvolvimento de argamassas geopoliméricas à base de uma argila da Tunísia sujeita a tratamento térmico. É incluída uma análise da argila e também dos produtos de hidratação da argamassa os quais apresentam fases geopoliméricas típicas.<hr/>The rehabilitation of concrete structures represents an opportunity for the construction industry as well as a challenge for the scientific community. The development of new repair mortars is thus an important research area. Gopolymers are innovative binders alternative to Portland cement being that the geopolymeric mortars present some advantages concerning the repair of concrete structures. This paper presents investigations results regarding the development of gepolymeric mortars based on a calcined Tunisian clay. A characterization of the clay is included as well as of the mortars hydration products that show typical geopolymeric phases. <![CDATA[Influence of heat input on the morphology of the austenite and the quantity of phases in welded duplex stainless steel sheet SAF2205]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Os aços inoxidáveis duplex possuem uma microestrutura na qual a composição de ferrita e austenita, tem frações volumétricas próximas a 50 %. Esses são utilizados na fabricação de diversos componentes e produtos, principalmente para aplicações na indústria petrolífera. Nestas aplicações muitas vezes são utilizados processos de soldagem. Para mitigar as alterações provocadas por esse processo nas propriedades do material é necessária uma escolha adequada dos parâmetros de soldagem. Neste contexto, o objetivo desse trabalho é avaliar o efeito do aporte térmico sobre a morfologia da austenita e na quantidade das fases, além de identificar qual condição de soldagem proporciona um equilíbrio das frações volumétricas de ferrita e austenita. Os materiais analisados são chapas de aço inoxidável duplex SAF2205, soldadas pelo processo de soldagem GMAW, na ESAB, variando-se o aporte térmico em 0,5, 1,0 e 1,5 kJ/mm. Após a soldagem, as chapas foram cortadas, preparadas para a análise metalográfica da morfologia de austenita formada e para a quantificação das fases. Os resultados mostraram a presença da austenita alotriomórfica de contorno de grão, a austenita de Widmanstätten e a austenita intragranular. Foi verificado que o aporte térmico que menos alterou o balanceamento das fases ferrita e austenita foi o de 1,5 kJ/mm, concluindo que se deve utilizá-lo quando o objetivo for manter a proporção volumétrica das fases no aço duplex SAF2205.<hr/>The duplex stainless steels have a microstructure wherein the composition of ferrite and austenite volume fraction is near 50%. These are used in the manufacture of various components and products, mainly for applications in the oil industry. In these applications often welding processes are used. To mitigate this process changes due to the material properties a suitable choice of the welding parameters is needed. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat input on the morphology of the austenite and the amount of the phases, and identify which welding condition provides a balance of volume fractions of ferrite and austenite. The materials analyzed are stainless steel duplex sheet SAF2205, welded by GMAW welding process, the ESAB, varying the heat input in 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kJ / mm. After welding, the sheets were cut, prepared for metallographic examination of the morphology formed and austenite phases for quantification. The results showed the presence of alotriomórfica austenite grain boundaries, the austenite Widmanstätten and intragranular austenite. It was found that the heat input less altered the balance of ferrite and austenite phases was 1.5 kJ / mm, concluding that one should use it when the goal is to keep the volume ratio of the phases in duplex steel SAF2205. <![CDATA[Bonding orthodontic braces in acrylic resin with cyanoacrylate:does it improve adesion?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100022&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Pacientes em tratamento ortodôntico apresentam restaurações provisórias com frequência. No entanto, poucos estudos avaliam a influência dos adesivos na resistência ao cisalhamento dos bráquetes nessas superfícies. A resina acrílica é comumente indicada para colagem de bráquetes, porém o uso do cianoacrilato como adesivo ortodôntico é uma opção analisada. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho do cianoacrilato associado aos materiais comumente utilizados para a fixação de bráquetes metálicos em restaurações provisórias de resina acrílica. Quarenta amostras em resina acrílica foram preparadas e as superfícies homogeinizadas com lixas de carboneto de silício (320 e 600). Em seguida, as amostras foram divididas aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n=10) com base no tratamento de superfície e agente de união: G1 - bráquetes colados com resina acrílica; G2 - bráquetes colados com resina acrílica e aplicação de cianoacrilato; G3 - bráquetes colados com Transbond(tm) XT; G4 - bráquetes colados com Transbond(tm) XT e aplicação de cianoacrilato. Foram utilizados bráquetes ortodônticos de aço inoxidável, prescrição Roth, Kirium (3M/Abzil) para incisivos centrais superiores direitos, slot 022. Após colagem, as amostras foram submetidas ao teste de cisalhamento a uma velocidade de 0,5mm/min em uma máquina de ensaios universal (EMIC DL-1000). Os dados foram coletados e submetidos à análise estatística pelo teste ANOVA com nível de significância de 5%. A associação de resina acrílica ao cianoacrilato (G2) resultou na maior resistência ao cisalhamento (13,76 MPa), mas não significativa em comparação aos valores obtidos para a resina acrílica (G1= 7,76 MPa). O mesmo pôde ser observado para a associação Transbond(tm) XT e cianoacrilato (G4= 4,03 MPa) em relação a utilização da Transbond(tm) XT de forma isolada (G3= 3,87 MPa) e resina acrílica. O tratamento de superfície tem efeito significativo na resistência da união dos bráquetes colados aos materiais provisórios. A associação de cianoacrilato ao monômero de metilmetacrilato apresentou maior resistência ao cisalhamento, sendo mais indicada clinicamente.<hr/>Patients in orthodontic treatments frequently present composite restorations. However, few studies evaluated the influence of bonding materials within braces shearing bond strength on composite surfaces. The acrylic resin became the recommended material for bonding brackets on these surfaces; however the use of cyanoacrylate emerged as a potential option. The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of cyanoacrylate associated with orthodontic materials commonly used for the fixation of metallic braces on temporary restorations of acrylic resin. Forty samples were prepared with acrylic resin and homogenized with silicon carbide sand paper (320 and 600). The samples were randomly divided in four groups (n=10) based on the material treatment and bonding agent: G1 - braces bonded with acrylic resin; G2 - braces bonded with acrylic resin combined with application of cyanoacrylate; G3 - braces bonded with Transbond(tm) XT; G4 - braces bonded with Transbond(tm) XT combined with application of cyanoacrylate. Only stainless steel braces were used, prescription Roth, Kirium (3M/Abzil) designed for maxillary right central incisors, slot 022. After bonding, the sample underwent shearing tests at 0.5mm/min within a standard testing device (EMIC DL-1000). Statistical data consisted of ANOVA with significance level set at 5%. Group 2 (G2) reached major shearing strength (13.76 MPa). However, it was not statistically significant in face of the outcomes of Group 1 (G1) (G1= 7.76 MPa). The same was observed for the association of Transbond(tm) XT and cyanoacrylate (G4= 4.03MPa) compared with isolated Transbond(tm) XT (G3= 3.87 MPa) and acrylic resin. Surface treatment of orthodontic material revealed a significant effect on shearing strength of temporary materials. The association between cyanoacrylate with monomer of methyl methacrylate presented major shearing strength, becoming more indicated for clinical interventions. <![CDATA[Fracture toughness of 3Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>*2SiO<sub>2</sub>/Ag composites manufactured by high energy milling technology]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en La fabricación de materiales compuestos de matriz cerámica reforzados con partículas metálicas han propiciado la formación de nuevos materiales conocidos como compuestos CERMETS, materiales que debido a sus elementos precursores poseen propiedades distintas a las de los materiales convencionales. En este trabajo se establece la ruta de fabricación de materiales compuestos cermets base 3Al2O3*2SiO2 reforzados con partículas metálicas de Ag a partir de la formación de la composición química en peso de polvos de 3Al2O3*2SiO2 / 1% Ag en busca de un aumento en la tenacidad a la fractura con respecto al cerámico base. La composición química de polvos es sometida a un proceso de mezcla molienda de alta energía en seco en un molino tipo planetario por 2 horas a 200 rpm. Los polvos posteriormente son conformados en muestras cilíndricas de 20 mm de diámetro y 3 mm de espesor mediante la aplicación de carga uniaxial en frío de 200 MPa. Las muestras son sinterizadas a 1500°C y 1600°C por una y dos horas en un horno de resistencia eléctrica en atmósfera controlada de gas nitrógeno. Los compuestos fabricados son analizados microestructuralmente por microscopia óptica y electrónica de barrido. Se determina la densidad y las propiedades mecánicas de dureza y tenacidad a la fractura, las dos últimas por el método de indentación. Los resultados muestran la viabilidad de fabricación de materiales compuestos cermets así como los cambios en la densidad, la dureza y la tenacidad a la fractura, con respecto al cerámico 3Al2O3*2SiO2 sin refuerzo metálico.<hr/>The composites known as CERMETS are a combination between ceramics and metallic materials. The properties of these materials are different in comparison to conventional materials and their derivatives. The processing methodology of 3Al2O3*2SiO2 reinforced with silver metallic particles (CERMET) was established and discussed in this research. The final chemical composition of the powder mixture obtained by high energy mechanical milling technology was 3Al2O3*2SiO2 / 1 wt.% Ag in order to improve the fracture toughness aptitude as related to the ceramic base material. The milling was carried out for 2 hours at 200 rpm in dry. The powders were uniaxially pressed into cylindrical samples at a pressure of 200 MPa and then were subjected to a sintering treatment at 1500°C and 1600°C for 1 and 2 hours respectively using an electric furnace with nitrogen gas atmosphere. The resulted materials were microstructurally analyzed by using optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The density and the mechanical properties of hardness and fracture toughness were also evaluated, these last two were obtained by using the indentation method. The results showed the microstructural features and properties of density, hardness and fracture toughness have significant changes in CERMETS as that compared to unreinforced materials. <![CDATA[Characterization of copper microelectrodes, following a homemade lithography, technique, and gold electroless deposition]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100024&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We report the fabrication and characterization of copper microelectrodes obtained by a homemade lithography technique and after gold electroless deposition. For the fabrication, planes consisting of arrays of electrodes (black in color) with bow tie shape were designed and printed on a transparent paper (Canson ltd.). Using an embroidery frame with a silk fabric, a photographic emulsion was spread on the silk and simultaneously pressing the Canson paper on it. The system was introduced into a closed box and exposed with a UV light. The designed electrode templates prevented direct exposition of the UV light over copper films and indelible ink was spread over it. After the ink was dried, the copper film is immersed into ferric acid to attack the uncovered copper parts (where there is no ink). In this way, we obtained copper electrodes with initial gap separation of ~142μm and subsequently, they followed electroless deposition of gold to make the copper electrodes to contact. For the characterization, electrical measurements were performed. They present ohmic resistance values in the order of 106 Ω produced by surface scattering of the electrons within the gold microwire and enhanced by oxidation of the copper electrodes. <![CDATA[Influence of upward and horizontal growth direction on microstructure and microhardness of an unsteady-state directionally solidified Al-Cu-Si alloy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762016000100025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In order to analyze the effect of the growth direction on dendrite arm spacing (λ1) and microhardness (HV) during horizontal directional solidification (HDS), experiments were carried out with the Al-3wt.%Cu-5.5wt.%Si alloy and the results compared with others from the literature elaborated for upward directional solidification (UDS). For this purpose, a water-cooled directional solidification experimental device was developed, and the alloy investigated was solidified under unsteady-state heat flow conditions. Thermal parameters such as growth rate (VL) and cooling rate (TR) were determined experimentally and correlations among VL, TR, λ1 and HV has been performed. It is observed that experimental power laws characterize λ1 with a function of VL and TRgiven by: λ1=constant(VL)-1.1 and λ1=constant(TR)-0.55. The horizontal solidification direction has not affected the power growth law of λ1 found for the upward solidification. However, higher values of λ1 have been observed when the solidification is developed in the horizontal direction. The interrelation of HV as function of VL, TR and λ1 has been represented by power and Hall-Petch laws. A comparison with the Al-3wt.%Cu alloy from literature was also performed and the results show the Si element affecting significativaly the HV values.