Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Matéria (Rio de Janeiro)]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1517-707620140001&lang=en vol. 19 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Editorial]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762014000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Physical and mechanical properties of particleboard bamboo waste bonded with urea formaldehyde and castor oil based adhesive]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762014000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study evaluated the physical and mechanical characteristics of particleboards made of bamboo waste from the species Dendrocalamus giganteus bonded with two different types of adhesives: urea-formaldehyde (UF) and a castor oil based adhesive (M). Thus, eight types of particleboards were produced in the proportions of 6%, 8%, 10% and 12% for each adhesive. The results showed that particleboards produced with UF and M adhesives had acceptable behavior for physical tests according to the Brazilian standard NBR 14810. The results attained in mechanical tests (MOR and MOE), for all particleboards, were below the requirements for structural usage. This indicates that the residue of bamboo is a feasible raw material alternative for particleboards produced for non structural purposes, such as liners, partitions and other uses for internal seal. Regarding the adhesives, the particleboards produced with UF particleboards showed superior results for both physical and mechanical characteristics, when compared to M particleboards with the same percentage of adhesive. <![CDATA[Caracterização física e mecânica de um compósito de polipropileno reciclado e farinha de madeira sem aditivos]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762014000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Compósitos de matriz polimérica reciclada reforçados com farinha de madeira podem ser uma alternativa viável para a substituição da madeira e de polímeros virgens em materiais empregados em pisos, batentes de portas, janelas e revestimentos externos. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi determinar alguns parâmetros físicos e mecânicos de compósito com farinha de madeira de Pinus taeda e elliotti e polipropileno reciclado, sem o emprego de compatibilizantes ou aditivos. Os compósitos foram separados em quatro traços, sendo eles: 100% polipropileno, 90% polipropileno com 10% de farinha de madeira, 80% de polipropileno com 20% de farinha de madeira e 70% de polipropileno com 30% de farinha de madeira. Para caracterização do compósito foram utilizadas as normas ASTM D-638-10, ASTM D256-00, ASTM D570-98, ASTM D1238-10 e ASTM G-155-05 e também a análise de superfície por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os ensaios de estabilidade dimensional apresentaram resultados satisfatórios. Mesmo o compósito com maior porcentagem de farinha de madeira (30%) apresentou um melhor índice de fluidez de 10,0MFI, sendo considerado compatível com os índices para PP (polipropileno) virgem da norma ASTM D-1238-10. A inclusão de farinha de madeira (FM) proporcionou a obtenção de compósitos com boas características mecânicas que podem ser aplicados na fabricação de diferentes materiais, empregados especificamente em ambientes externos.<hr/> Recycled polymer matrix composites reinforced with wood flour can be a viable alternative for the replace-ment of wood and virgin polymers in materials used in floors, door frames, windows and external cladding. The objective of this research was to determine some physical and mechanical parameters of composite made with Pinus taeda and elliottii wood flour (WF) and recycled polypropylene (PP), without the use of compatibilizers or additives. The composites were separated into four traits, namely 100% PP, 90% PP with 10%, WF 80% PP with 20% WF and 70 % PP with 30% WF. The characterization of the composite followed the standards ASTM D-638-10, ASTM D256-00, ASTM D570 -98, ASTM D1238 -10 and ASTM G 155-05, it was also employed the surface analysis by scanning electron microscopy. The dimensional stability tests showed satisfactory results. Even the composite with a higher percentage of wood flour (30%) had a flow index of 10 MFI, considered compatible with that observed for PP (polypropylene) virgin by standard ASTM D 1238-10. The inclusion of wood flour (FM) afforded composites with good mechanical characteristics which can be applied in manufacture of different materials, specifically employed outdoors. <![CDATA[Titanium bioactivity surfaces obtained by chemical/electrochemical treatments]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762014000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en There are various surface treatments used to modify titanium surfaces to render it bioactive. In this study commercially pure titanium surfaces (cp Ti), grade 2 were modified by acid etching (AE) and anodic oxidation (OA) in order to evaluate the bioactivity in vitro of these surfaces using the simulated body fluid (SBF). The AE was realized using a mixture of acids and AO using 1 mol.L-1 sulfuric acid. The anodic films were obtained under potentiostatic mode, during 60s using as anode a bar of titanium. All the surfaces that means cp Ti, AE and AO were analyzed concerning to morphology, rugosity, structural changes before in vitro bioactivity tests. It was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that all surfaces presented different morphologies: those with AE showed a surface with peaks and rounded valleys, with Ra = (564±80) nm, the oxidized surfaces with sulfuric acid showed a morphology with small pores uniformly distributed over the surface and Ra = (177±0,02) nm. X-rays diffraction results showed the presence of titanium hydride on the samples with AE and the anatase and rutile phases on the anodic films after heat treatment at 600°C/1h. Bioactivity tests in vitro using SBF at 37°C showed that small aggregates containing Ca and P were observed on surfaces with AE after 30 days soaked in SBF and the surfaces oxidized were fully coated with an apatite layer, identified by SEM. <![CDATA[Desenvolvimento de formadores de filmes poliméricos orgânico-inorgânico para liberação controlada de fármacos e tratamento de feridas]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762014000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Sistemas poliméricos formadores de filmes representam uma nova e pouco explorada tecnologia em sistemas capazes de proteger a pele ou feridas e ainda liberar fármacos de forma controlada. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o uso de materiais poliméricos híbridos ureasil-poliéter sintetizados pelo processo sol-gel como sistema formador de filmes contendo o fármaco modelo sulfadiazina de prata. O tempo de formação do filme pode ser controlado através da modificação da razão precursor/catalisador utilizada durante as etapas de hidrólise e condensação. Os resultados mostraram que a proporção precursor/catalisador influencia as características visuais do filme e o seu tempo de formação. A proporção precursor/catalisador igual a 20,8 m/v foi considerada ideal por proporcionar a formação de filmes homogêneos e transparentes em um tempo menor que cinco minutos. O perfil de liberação da sulfadiazina de prata é dependente das características das matrizes: matrizes mais hidrofóbicas como ureasil-POP levam a uma liberação lenta, devido principalmente ao baixo intumescimento da matriz. A matriz mais hidrofílica ureasil-POE possui grande capacidade de intumescer o quefavorece uma liberação mais rápida do fármaco. O conjunto de resultados apresentado revela a possibilidade de utilização futura destes sistemas no tratamento de feridas causadas por queimaduras.<hr/>Film forming polymeric systems represents a new and unexplored technology of systems forskin or wounds protection and for controlled drug release. The aim of this work was to study the use of polymeric organic-inorganic ureasil-polyether hybrids synthesized by the sol-gel process as film forming system containing silver sulfadiazine as model drug. The film formationtime can be controlled by changing the precursor/catalyst ratio used during the step of hydrolysis and condensations. The results showed that the precursor/catalyst proportion influences both the visual characteristics and time required to form the film. The precursor/catalyst ratio equal to 20.8 m/v was considered ideal due to promote the homogeneous and transparent film formation in less than 5 minutes. The release profile of sulfadiazine is dependent on the characteristics of the matrixes: matrix more hydrophobic as ureasil-POP provided a slowed released mainly due to the low swelling of the matrix. The more hydrophilic ureasil-POE matrix presents a large capacity to swell and favors the faster release of the drug. The set of results showed the possibility of future use of these systems for treating wounds caused by burns. <![CDATA[Elastic modulus evaluation of Titania nanotubes obtained by anodic oxidation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762014000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The use of titania (TiO2) nanotubes is becoming one of the most attractive techniques as surface treatment for implants due its combination of morphology (that accelerates osteoblast adhesion and proliferation), bioactivity and possibility of being use as a drug vehicle. Anodic oxidation is one of the cheapest and simplest approaches to obtain highly ordered nanotubes. Parameters such as applied potential, reaction time and fluoride containing in the electrolyte define the nanotubes morphology. However, the mechanical properties of the nanotubes layer do not have been completely elucidated and they play a crucial role in the implant long term stability. The objective of this research was to obtain TiO2 nanotubes using anodic oxidation and to determine their elastic modulus and hardness. The TiO2 nanotubes layer was obtained in a fluoride containing electrolyte for 1 hour, one group at 15 V and another one at 25 V. The TiO2 nanotubes morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The elastic modulus and hardness were evaluated by nanoindentation experiments using a spherical tip. SEM images showed highly ordered nanotubes on all titanium surfaces and it was observed that the nanotubes diameters are directly related with the applied potential. Nanotubes diameters are 66 ± 9 nm and 131 ± 22 nm for nanotubes obtained at 15 V and 25 V, respectively. Nanoindentation test results showed a decrease in the elastic modulus comparing with titanium reference and these values approach to cortical bone elastic modulus. These results demonstrate that it was possible to obtain a homogeneous TiO2 nanotubes layer that has mechanical properties adequate to improve implant long-term stability. <![CDATA[Superparamagnetic maghemite loaded poly (?- caprolactone) nanocapsules : characterization and synthesis optimization]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762014000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) have been studied for essential applications, like detection of biological constituents (virus, bacterials, cell, nucleic acids, protein, enzyme, etc.), magnetic bioseparation and clinic therapy and diagnosis (such as MRI magnetic fluid and hyperthermia). In this work, γ-Fe2O3 has been synthetized by a adapted sol-gel method and entraped in poly ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanocapsules. The superparamagnetic nanocapsules have been formulated by double emulsion evaporation method. Some variables affecting the polydispersity index, zeta potential surface and size of nanocapsules were studied aiming optimize the formulation process of maghemite-loaded PCL nanocapsules. The following parameters were selected: sonication time, PCL concentration in organic phase, PVA concentration in external aqueous phase and maghemite/PCL weight ratio. Under these experimental conditions, the resulting nanocapsules displayed a mean size of about 346 nm and a maghemite content of about 7.5 µg/mg of nanocapsules and superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. <![CDATA[Growth and electrochemical stability of self-organized TiO<sub>2</sub> nanotubes on Ti-2 grade and orthopedic Ti6Al4V alloy for biomedical application]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762014000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Titanium and its alloys are biomaterials used in endosseous implants, due to desirable mechanical properties, high corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Using electrochemical anodization technique these materials can be recovered with self-organized TiO2 nanotubes layer resulting in increased specific surface area and probable bioactivity improvement. This research aimed determine potentiostatic anodization parameters to obtain self-organized TiO2 nanotubes layer with reproducibility and ideal diameters for probable bioactive response on Ti - 2 grade (ASTM F67) and Ti6Al4V (ASTM F136) orthopedic alloy and evaluation the electrochemical stability behavior in simulated body fluid media. The self-organized nanotubes layer were obtained by potentiostatic electrochemical method in electrolyte containing fluoride ions, H3PO4/HF for Ti 2 grade and H3PO4/NH4F for Ti6Al4V alloy, the applied potentials were 15 V, 20 V and 25 V for 30, 60 and 90 minutes, for both materials. For morphologic characterization were employed scanning electron microscopy SEM and the Image J software for nanodiameter measurements. The nanoestructure electrochemical stability was evaluated by open circuit potential after immersion for 15, 30 and 60 days in artificial blood plasma, into an electrochemical cell, using SCE (saturated calomel electrode) as reference electrode, in PBS ((phosphate buffered saline) solution electrolyte for 90 minutes. The ideal anodization parameters were 15 V and 20 V for 1 hour and a reproducible, uniform and homogeneous self-organized nanotubes layer were obtained with ideal diameters that probably improve the implant superficial bioactivity with 80 and 120 nm respectively, according to the literature. Open-circuit potentials from metal/oxide system obtained on both materials are stable with potentials in range of -0.031 V to -0,183 V indicating good stability of nanoestructures in simulated body fluid. Nanotubes layer as a superficial treatment is viable with high reproducibility, low cost and electrochemical stability in simulated body fluid media. <![CDATA[Direct-write assembly of 3D scaffolds using colloidal calcium phosphates inks]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-70762014000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Additive manufacture techniques using concentrated colloidal inks are a promising approach for creating three-dimensional (3D) calcium phosphates scaffolds for bone repair and regeneration. Among those, the direct-write assembly allows building scaffolds with precise size and geometry. In the present work, commercial β-TCP and HA were used to produce two types of colloidal ink. According to the ink composition used to build the scaffolds, two different groups were obtained. Group I: scaffolds produced with β-TCP-based ink; and Group II: scaffolds produced with biphasic CaP-based ink (BCP). The 3D scaffolds were assembled in a cylindrical shape (Φ = 8mm x H= 16 mm) with interconnected pore channels of approximately 500μm by robotic deposition of 64 layers using a robocasting machine. The mechanical compression property of the scaffolds was determined using universal testing machine. To assure the controlled geometry of the scaffolds, digital images were obtained by reconstructing each individual scan obtained with a micro-computed tomography. An optical contact angle measurement system was used to evaluate the wettability of the materials. After analyzing the results it was concluded that: the robocasting system is suitable for building 3D periodic calcium phosphates scaffolds; the direct-write assembly didn't change the hydrophilic characteristic of CaPs; and presented mean compressive strength around 11 MPa (β-TCP group) and 15 MPa (BCP group), which is compatible with trabecular bone.