Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Microbiology]]> vol. 49 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Genome sequence of <em>Streptomyces gilvigriseus</em> MUSC 26<sup>T</sup> isolated from mangrove forest]]> Abstract Streptomycetes remain as one of the important sources for bioactive products. Isolated from the mangrove forest, Streptomyces gilvigriseus MUSC 26T was previously characterised as a novel streptomycete. The high quality draft genome of MUSC 26T contained 5,213,277 bp with G + C content of 73.0%. Through genome mining, several gene clusters associated with secondary metabolites production were revealed in the genome of MUSC 26T. These findings call for further investigations into the potential exploitation of the strain for production of pharmaceutically important compounds. <![CDATA[Draft genome sequence of <em>Paraburkholderia tropica</em> Ppe8 strain, a sugarcane endophytic diazotrophic bacterium]]> Abstract Paraburkholderia tropica (syn Burkholderia tropica) are nitrogen-fixing bacteria commonly found in sugarcane. The Paraburkholderia tropica strain Ppe8 is part of the sugarcane inoculant consortium that has a beneficial effect on yield. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of this strain elucidating the mechanisms involved in its interaction mainly with Poaceae. A genome size of approximately 8.75 Mb containing 7844 protein coding genes distributed in 526 subsystems was de novo assembled with ABySS and annotated by RAST. Genes related to the nitrogen fixation process, the secretion systems (I, II, III, IV, and VI), and related to a variety of metabolic traits, such as metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, vitamins, and proteins, were detected, suggesting a broad metabolic capacity and possible adaptation to plant association. <![CDATA[Lactoferrin, chitosan and <em>Melaleuca alternifolia</em>-natural products that show promise in candidiasis treatment]]> Abstract The evolution of microorganisms resistant to many medicines has become a major challenge for the scientific community around the world. Motivated by the gravity of such a situation, the World Health Organization released a report in 2014 with the aim of providing updated information on this critical scenario. Among the most worrying microorganisms, species from the genus Candida have exhibited a high rate of resistance to antifungal drugs. Therefore, the objective of this review is to show that the use of natural products (extracts or isolated biomolecules), along with conventional antifungal therapy, can be a very promising strategy to overcome microbial multiresistance. Some promising alternatives are essential oils of Melaleuca alternifolia (mainly composed of terpinen-4-ol, a type of monoterpene), lactoferrin (a peptide isolated from milk) and chitosan (a copolymer from chitin). Such products have great potential to increase antifungal therapy efficacy, mitigate side effects and provide a wide range of action in antifungal therapy. <![CDATA[Long-term cryopreservation of basidiomycetes]]> Abstract Basidiomycetes have several biotechnological and industrial applications such as enzyme production, bioremediation, pharmaceutical and functional food production. Due to climatic features, the preservation of several basidiomycetes is threatened, and to guarantee the preservation of this genetic resource, the development of long-term preservation techniques is necessary once there is no universal protocol for the cryopreservation of basidiomycetes. Cryopreservation is a technique in which microorganisms are submitted to ultralow temperatures. Therefore, this study aimed to collect information on the main conditions for long-term cryopreservation of basidiomycetes in the last 20 years. Scientific articles on cryopreservation of basidiomycetes published from 1997 to 2016, were researched, and only the studies on two intervals of cryopreservation were considered: from 1 to 2 years and for longer than 2 years. The analyzed conditions of basidiomycete cryopreservation were: most studied genera, cryopreservation temperature, substrate, cryoprotectant (and preservation substrate), cryopreservation period, thawing temperature and cultivation medium after thawing, physiological and genetic stability of basidiomycetes after thawing in cryopreservation. In this review, the viability of the main cryopreservation conditions of basidiomycetes studied in the last 20 years are presented and discussed. <![CDATA[Evaluation of root-knot nematode disease control and plant growth promotion potential of biofertilizer Ning shield on <em>Trichosanthes kirilowii</em> in the field]]> Abstract Biofertilizer Ning shield was composed of different strains of plant growth promotion bacteria. In this study, the plant growth promotion and root-knot nematode disease control potential on Trichosanthes kirilowii in the field were evaluated. The application of Ning shield significantly reduced the diseases severity caused by Meloidogyne incognita, the biocontrol efficacy could reached up to 51.08%. Ning shield could also promote the growth of T. kirilowii in the field by increasing seedling emergence, height and the root weight. The results showed that the Ning shield could enhance the production yield up to 36.26%. Ning shield could also promote the plant growth by increasing the contents of available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matter, and increasing the contents of leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment. Moreover, Ning shield could efficiently enhance the medicinal compositions of Trichosanthes, referring to the polysaccharides and trichosanthin. Therefore, Ning shield is a promising biofertilizer, which can offer beneficial effects to T. kirilowii growers, including the plant growth promotion, the biological control of root-knot disease and enhancement of the yield and the medicinal quality. <![CDATA[Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in the rhizosphere of a continuous cropping soybean system at the seedling stage]]> Abstract Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) fungi play a crucial role in the growth of soybean; however, the planting system employed is thought to have an effect on AM fungal communities in the rhizosphere. This study was performed to explore the influence of continuous soybean cropping on the diversity of Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and to identify the dominant AM fungus during the seedling stage. Three soybean cultivars were planted under two and three years continuous cropping, respectively. The diversity of AM fungi in the rhizosphere soil at the seedling stage was subsequently analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that an increase in cropping years improved the colonization rate of AM in all three soybean cultivars. Moreover, the dominant species were found to be Funneliformis mosseae and Glomus species. The results of cluster analysis further confirmed that the number of years of continuous cropping significantly affected the composition of rhizospheric AM fungal communities in different soybean cultivars. <![CDATA[Analysis of bacterial communities and characterization of antimicrobial strains from cave microbiota]]> Abstract In this study for the first-time microbial communities in the caves located in the mountain range of Hindu Kush were evaluated. The samples were analyzed using culture-independent (16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing) and culture-dependent methods. The amplicon sequencing results revealed a broad taxonomic diversity, including 21 phyla and 20 candidate phyla. Proteobacteria were dominant in both caves, followed by Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, and the archaeal phylum Euryarchaeota. Representative operational taxonomic units from Koat Maqbari Ghaar and Smasse-Rawo Ghaar were grouped into 235 and 445 different genera, respectively. Comparative analysis of the cultured bacterial isolates revealed distinct bacterial taxonomic profiles in the studied caves dominated by Proteobacteria in Koat Maqbari Ghaar and Firmicutes in Smasse-Rawo Ghaar. Majority of those isolates were associated with the genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus. Thirty strains among the identified isolates from both caves showed antimicrobial activity. Overall, the present study gave insight into the great bacterial taxonomic diversity and antimicrobial potential of the isolates from the previously uncharacterized caves located in the world's highest mountains range in the Indian sub-continent. <![CDATA[Anaerobic biodegradation of benzo(a)pyrene by a novel <em>Cellulosimicrobium cellulans</em> CWS2 isolated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil]]> Abstract Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CWS2, a novel strain capable of utilizing benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as the sole carbon and energy source under nitrate-reducing conditions, was isolated from PAH-contaminated soil. Temperature and pH significantly affected BaP biodegradation, and the strain exhibited enhanced biodegradation ability at temperatures above 30 °C and between pH 7 and 10. The highest BaP removal rate (78.8%) was observed in 13 days when the initial BaP concentration was 10 mg/L, and the strain degraded BaP at constant rate even at a higher concentration (50 mg/L). Metal exposure experimental results illustrated that Cd(II) was the only metal ion that significantly inhibited biodegradation of BaP. The addition of 0.5 and 1.0 g/L glucose enhanced BaP biodegradation, while the addition of low-molecular-weight organic acids with stronger acidity reduced BaP removal rates during co-metabolic biodegradation. The addition of phenanthrene and pyrene, which were degraded to some extent by the strain, showed no distinct effect on BaP biodegradation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the five rings of BaP opened, producing compounds with one to four rings which were more bioavailable. Thus, the strain exhibited strong BaP degradation capability and has great potential in the remediation of BaP-/PAH-contaminated environments. <![CDATA[Antagonistic endophytic bacteria associated with nodules of soybean (<em>Glycine max</em> L.) and plant growth-promoting properties]]> Abstract A total of 276 endophytic bacteria were isolated from the root nodules of soybean (Glycine max L.) grown in 14 sites in Henan Province, China. The inhibitory activity of these bacteria against pathogenic fungus Phytophthora sojae 01 was screened in vitro. Six strains with more than 63% inhibitory activities were further characterized through optical epifluorescence microscopic observation, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene, potential plant growth-promoting properties analysis, and plant inoculation assay. On the basis of the phylogeny of 16S rRNA genes, the six endophytic antagonists were identified as belonging to five genera: Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Ochrobactrum, and Bacillus. The strain Acinetobacter calcoaceticus DD161 had the strongest inhibitory activity (71.14%) against the P. sojae 01, which caused morphological abnormal changes of fungal mycelia; such changes include fracture, lysis, formation of a protoplast ball at the end of hyphae, and split ends. Except for Ochrobactrum haematophilum DD234, other antagonistic strains showed the capacity to produce siderophore, indole acetic acid, and nitrogen fixation activity. Regression analysis suggested a significant positive correlation between siderophore production and inhibition ratio against P. sojae 01. This study demonstrated that nodule endophytic bacteria are important resources for searching for inhibitors specific to the fungi and for promoting effects for soybean seedlings. <![CDATA[Molecular screening of blue mussels indicated high mid-summer prevalence of human genogroup II Noroviruses, including the pandemic "GII.4 2012" variants in UK coastal waters during 2013]]> Abstract This molecular study is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, on identification of norovirus, NoV GII.4 Sydney 2012 variants, from blue mussels collected from UK coastal waters. Blue mussels (three pooled samples from twelve mussels) collected during the 2013 summer months from UK coastal sites were screened by RT-PCR assays. PCR products of RdRP gene for noroviruses were purified, sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. All the samples tested positive for NoVs. Sequencing revealed that the NoV partial RdRP gene sequences from two pooled samples clustered with the pandemic "GII.4 Sydney variants" whilst the other pooled sample clustered with the NoV GII.2 variants. This molecular study indicated mussel contamination with pathogenic NoVs even during mid-summer in UK coastal waters which posed potential risk of NoV outbreaks irrespective of season. As the detection of Sydney 2012 NoV from our preliminary study of natural coastal mussels interestingly corroborated with NoV outbreaks in nearby areas during the same period, it emphasizes the importance of environmental surveillance work for forecast of high risk zones of NoV outbreaks. <![CDATA[Efficiency of decolorization of different dyes using fungal biomass immobilized on different solid supports]]> Abstract Different technologies may be used for decolorization of wastewater containing dyes. Among them, biological processes are the most promising because they seem to be environmentally safe. The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of decolorization of two dyes belonging to different classes (azo and triphenylmethane dyes) by immobilized biomass of strains of fungi (Pleurotus ostreatus - BWPH, Gleophyllum odoratum - DCa and Polyporus picipes - RWP17). Different solid supports were tested for biomass immobilization. The best growth of fungal strains was observed on the washer, brush, grid and sawdust supports. Based on the results of dye adsorption, the brush and the washer were selected for further study. These solid supports adsorbed dyes at a negligible level, while the sawdust adsorbed 82.5% of brilliant green and 19.1% of Evans blue. Immobilization of biomass improved dye removal. Almost complete decolorization of diazo dye Evans blue was reached after 24 h in samples of all strains immobilized on the washer. The process was slower when the brush was used for biomass immobilization. Comparable results were reached for brilliant green in samples with biomass of strains BWPH and RWP17. High decolorization effectiveness was reached in samples with dead fungal biomass. Intensive removal of the dyes by biomass immobilized on the washer corresponded to a significant decrease in phytotoxicity and a slight decrease in zootoxicity of the dye solutions. The best decolorization results as well as reduction in toxicity were observed for the strain P. picipes (RWP17). <![CDATA[<em>In vitro</em> antimicrobial and antimycobacterial activity and HPLC-DAD screening of phenolics from <em>Chenopodium ambrosioides</em> L.]]> Abstract The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the antimicrobial potential of the crude extract and fractions of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., popularly known as Santa-Maria herb, against microorganisms of clinical interest by the microdilution technique, and also to show the chromatographic profile of the phenolic compounds in the species. The Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of cardiotonic, anthraquinone, alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids. The analysis by HPLC-DAD revealed the presence of rutin in the crude extract (12.5 ± 0.20 mg/g), ethyl acetate (16.5 ± 0.37 mg/g) and n-butanol (8.85 ± 0.11 mg/g), whereas quercetin and chrysin were quantified in chloroform fraction (1.95 ± 0.04 and 1.04 ± 0.01 mg/g), respectively. The most promising results were obtained with the ethyl acetate fraction, which inhibited a greater number of microorganisms and presented the lowest values of MIC against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 0.42 mg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC = 34.37 mg/mL), Paenibacillus apiarus (MIC = 4.29 mg/mL) and Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus (MIC = 4.29 mg/mL). Considering mycobacterial inhibition, the best results were obtained by chloroform fraction against M. tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, and M. avium (MIC ranging from 156.25 to 625 µg/mL). This study proves, in part, that the popular use of C. ambrosioides L. can be an effective and sustainable alternative for the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by various infectious agents. <![CDATA[Development and characterization of an innovative synbiotic fermented beverage based on vegetable soybean]]> Abstract Soymilk was produced from vegetable soybean and fermented by probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12) in co-culture with Streptococcus thermophilus. The composition of the fermented beverage and oligosaccharides content were determined. The effect of fructooligosaccharides and inulin on the fermentation time and viability of probiotic microorganisms throughout 28 days of storage at 5 °C were evaluated. The soymilk from vegetable soybeans was fermented in just 3.2 h, when pH reached 4.8. Fermentation reduced the contents of stachyose and raffinose in soymilk. Prebiotics had no effect on acidification rate and on viability of B. animalis and S. thermophilus in the fermented beverage. The viable counts of B. animalis Bb-12 remained above 108 CFU mL-1 in the fermented soymilk during 28 days of storage at 5 °C while L. acidophilus La-5 was decreased by 1 log CFU mL-1. The fermented soymilk from vegetable soybeans showed to be a good food matrix to deliver probiotic bacteria, as well as a soy product with a lower content of non-digestible oligosaccharides. <![CDATA[Biofilm formation by <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Salmonella</em> spp. under mono and dual-species conditions and their sensitivity to cetrimonium bromide, peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite]]> Abstract The aim of this study was evaluated the biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus 4E and Salmonella spp. under mono and dual-species biofilms, onto stainless steel 316 (SS) and polypropylene B (PP), and their sensitivity to cetrimonium bromide, peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite. The biofilms were developed by immersion of the surfaces in TSB by 10 d at 37 °C. The results showed that in monospecies biofilms the type of surface not affected the cellular density (p &gt; 0.05). However, in dual-species biofilms on PP the adhesion of Salmonella spp. was favored, 7.61 ± 0.13 Log10 CFU/cm2, compared with monospecies biofilms onto the same surface, 5.91 ± 0.44 Log10 CFU/cm2 (p &lt; 0.05). The mono and dual-species biofilms were subjected to disinfection treatments; and the most effective disinfectant was peracetic acid (3500 ppm), reducing by more than 5 Log10 CFU/cm2, while the least effective was cetrimonium bromide. In addition, S. aureus 4E and Salmonella spp. were more resistant to the disinfectants in mono than in dual-species biofilms (p &lt; 0.05). Therefore, the interspecies interactions between S. aureus 4E and Salmonella spp. had a negative effect on the antimicrobial resistance of each microorganism, compared with the monospecies biofilms. <![CDATA[Rapid detection of food-borne <em>Salmonella</em> contamination using IMBs-qPCR method based on <em>pagC</em> gene]]> Abstract Detection of Salmonella is very important to minimize the food safety risk. In this study, the recombinant PagC protein and PagC antibody were prepared and coupled with immunomagnetic beads (IMBs) to capture Salmonella cells from pork and milk samples. And then the SYBR Green qualitative PCR was developed to detect the pathogenic Salmonella. The results showed that the PagC polyclonal antiserum is of good specificity and the capture rate of 0.1 mg IMBs for Salmonella tended to be stable at the range of 70-74% corresponding to the concentrations between 101 and 104 CFU/mL. The method developed demonstrated high specificity for the positive Salmonella samples when compared to non-specific DNA samples, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The limit of detection of this assay was 18 CFU/mL. Detection and quantitative enumeration of Salmonella in samples of pork or milk shows good recoveries of 54.34% and 52.07%. In conclusion, the polyclonal antibody of recombinant PagC protein is effective to capture Salmonella from detected samples. The developed pagC antibody IMBs-qPCR method showed efficiency, sensitivity and specificity for 30 Salmonella detection, enabling detection within 10 h, which is a promising rapid method to detect Salmonella in emergency. <![CDATA[Diagnostics of tuberculosis and differentiation of nonspecific tuberculin reactions in animals]]> Abstract Tuberculosis is a serious disease of humans and animals, caused by bacteria of the Mycobacterium genus. This leads to complications in the life of the sick person, and subsequently to death. The cattle, who have been diagnosed with this bacterium, are usually sent to the slaughter, with the result that their livestock is reduced. Mycobacteriosis is also a disease, after determining which cattle are most often sent to slaughter. Such a reduction in livestock numbers has a negative effect on the economy. Of the 300 samples from the animals, 25 cultures of atypical bacteria responding to tuberculin were isolated. A series of tests - intravenous tuberculin test, ophthalmic test, palpebral test, "ZhAT" test, showed that most of the tuberculosis changes in cattle were found in regional lymph nodes more often than in internal organs. In healthy for tuberculosis cows, at the age of 4-9 years, seasonal nonspecific sensitivity to tuberculin is observed. Implementation of the developed express method of glutaraldehyde test on farms in healthy tuberculosis will speed up the diagnosis of tuberculosis and mycobacteriosis in animals that reacted to tuberculin and will exclude short-term nonspecific sensitization of their organism to tuberculin. The introduction of this methodology can be used to diagnose and clearly differentiate the diagnoses of "tuberculosis" and "mycobacteriosis" in cattle. This will cure part of the livestock and reduce the amount of slaughter. <![CDATA[Evolution of equine influenza viruses (H3N8) during a Brazilian outbreak, 2015]]> Abstract Equine influenza is one of the major respiratory infectious diseases in horses. An equine influenza virus outbreak was identified in vaccinated and unvaccinated horses in a veterinary school hospital in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, in September 2015. The twelve equine influenza viruses isolated belonged to Florida Clade 1. The hemagglutinin and neuraminidase amino acid sequences were compared with the recent isolates from North and South America and the World Organisation for Animal Health recommended Florida Clade 1 vaccine strain. The hemagglutinin amino acid sequences had nine substitutions, compared with the vaccine strain. Two of them were in antigenic site A (A138S and G142R), one in antigenic site E (R62K) and another not in antigenic site (K304E). The four substitutions changed the hydrophobicity of hemagglutinin. Three distinct genetic variants were identified during the outbreak. Eleven variants were found in four quasispecies, which suggests the equine influenza virus evolved during the outbreak. The use of an out of date vaccine strain or updated vaccines without the production of protective antibody titers might be the major contributing factors on virus dissemination during this outbreak. <![CDATA[Efficacy of leptospiral commercial vaccines on the protection against an autochtonous strain recovered in Brazil]]> Abstract In swine and bovines, leptospirosis prevention and control is carried out via vaccination of susceptible animals using bacterins. However, the efficiency of leptospirosis vaccines has been questioned. This work aimed to investigate the potency of five leptospirosis vaccines sold commercially in Brazil, challenging the animals with one autochthonous strain of Leptospira, Canicola serovar, denoted LO4, isolated from swine. The standard protocol was followed, and renal carriers of Leptospira were identified among the surviving animals by culture and PCR. Of the five vaccines tested, only two proved effective. None of the surviving animals was positive by culture; however, one animal was positive by PCR. Three of the five vaccines sold commercially in Brazil for the immunization of swine or bovines failed the test of the efficacy to protect the vaccinated animals following challenge with an autochthonous Leptospira strain, Canicola serovar. The two vaccines provided protection against the renal carrier state in the surviving animals. The criteria used to produce leptospirosis bacterins sold commercially in Brazil must be reviewed. The industry should support researches on leptospiral vaccinology to improve the quality of the present vaccines and discover new immunogenic strains, because it is known that vaccination is one of the most important tools to increase the reproduction rates in livestock. <![CDATA[Structure analysis of capsid protein of <em>Porcine circovirus type 2</em> from pigs with systemic disease]]> Abstract Economic losses with high mortality rate associated with Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is reported worldwide. PCV2 commercial vaccine was introduced in 2006 in U.S. and in 2008 in Brazil. Although PCV2 vaccines have been widely used, cases of PCV2 systemic disease have been reported in the last years. Eleven nursery or fattening pigs suffering from PCV2 systemic disease were selected from eight PCV2-vaccinated farms with historical records of PCV2 systemic disease in Southern Brazil. PCV2 genomes were amplified and sequenced from lymph node samples of selected pigs. The comparison among the ORF2 amino acid sequences of PCV2 isolates revealed three amino acid substitutions in the positions F57I, N178S and A190T, respectively. Using molecular modeling, a structural model for the capsid protein of PCV2 was built. Afterwards, the mutated residues positions were identified in the model. The structural analysis of the mutated residues showed that the external residue 190 is close to an important predicted region for antibodies recognition. Therefore, changes in the viral protein conformation might lead to an inefficient antibody binding and this could be a relevant mechanism underlying the recent vaccine failures observed in swine farms in Brazil. <![CDATA[First molecular typing of <em>Mycobacterium avium</em> subspecies <em>paratuberculosis</em> identified in animal and human drinking water from dairy goat farms in Brazil]]> Abstract Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, the etiologic agent of Johne's disease or paratuberculosis, was identified by culture and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 50% and 30% of water samples for animal and human consumption, respectively, from ten dairy goat farms in Brazil. IS1311 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis identified the isolates as cattle type C. <![CDATA[The improvement of bioactive secondary metabolites accumulation in <em>Rumex gmelini</em> Turcz through co-culture with endophytic fungi]]> Abstract Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., and Ramularia sp. were endophytic fungi isolated from Rumex gmelini Turcz (RGT), all of these three strains could produce some similar bioactive secondary metabolites of their host. However the ability to produce active components degraded significantly after cultured these fungi alone for a long time, and were difficult to recover. In order to obtain more bioactive secondary metabolites, the co-culture of tissue culture seedlings of RGT and its endophytic fungi were established respectively, and RGT seedling was selected as producer. Among these fungi, Aspergillus sp. showed the most significant enhancement on bioactive components accumulation in RGT seedlings. When inoculated Aspergillus sp. spores into media of RGT seedlings that had taken root for 20 d, and made spore concentration in co-culture medium was 1 × 104 mL-1, after co-cultured for 12 d, the yield of chrysophaein, resveratrol, chrysophanol, emodin and physcion were 3.52-, 3.70-, 3.60-, 4.25-, 3.85-fold of the control group. The extreme value of musizin yield was 0.289 mg, which was not detected in the control groups. The results indicated that co-culture with endophytic fungi could significantly enhance bioactive secondary metabolites production of RGT seedlings. <![CDATA[Cryopreservation at -75 °C of <em>Agaricus subrufescens</em> on wheat grains with sucrose]]> Abstract Agaricus subrufescens is a basidiomycete which is studied because of its medicinal and gastronomic importance; however, less attention has been paid to its preservation. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sucrose addition to substrate and cryotube on the viability of Agaricus subrufescens cryopreserved at -20 °C and at -75 °C for one and two years. Zero, 10% or 20% sucrose was added to potato dextrose agar or wheat grain. The mycelia were cryopreserved in the absence of cryoprotectant or with sucrose solutions at 15%, 30% or 45%. After one or two years at -75 °C or at -20 °C, mycelia were thawed and evaluated about viability, initial time of growth, colony diameter and genomic stability. Cryopreservation at -20 °C is not effective to keep mycelial viability of this fungus. Cryopreservation at -75 °C is effective when sucrose is used in substrates and/or cryotubes. Without sucrose, cryopreservation at -75 °C is effective only when wheat grains are used. Physiological characteristic as mycelial colony diameter is negatively affected when potato dextrose agar is used and unaffected when wheat grain is used after two-year cryopreservation at -75 °C. The fungus genome does not show alteration after two-year cryopreservation at -75 °C. <![CDATA[The potential of the newly isolated thermotolerant yeast <em>Pichia kudriavzevii</em> RZ8-1 for high-temperature ethanol production]]> Abstract High potential, thermotolerant, ethanol-producing yeasts were successfully isolated in this study. Based on molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis, the isolated thermotolerant yeasts were clustered in the genera of Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida tropicalis, Candida orthopsilosis, Candida glabrata and Kodamea ohmeri. A comparative study of ethanol production using 160 g/L glucose as a substrate revealed several yeast strains that could produce high ethanol concentrations at high temperatures. When sugarcane bagasse (SCB) hydrolysate containing 85 g/L glucose was used as a substrate, the yeast strain designated P. kudriavzevii RZ8-1 exhibited the highest ethanol concentrations of 35.51 g/L and 33.84 g/L at 37 °C and 40 °C, respectively. It also exhibited multi-stress tolerance, such as heat, ethanol and acetic acid tolerance. During ethanol fermentation at high temperature (42 °C), genes encoding heat shock proteins (ssq1 and hsp90), alcohol dehydrogenases (adh1, adh2, adh3 and adh4) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (tdh2) were up-regulated, suggesting that these genes might play a crucial role in the thermotolerance ability of P. kudriavzevii RZ8-1 under heat stress. These findings suggest that the growth and ethanol fermentation activities of this organism under heat stress were restricted to the expression of genes involved not only in heat shock response but also in the ethanol production pathway. <![CDATA[Evaluation of sample extracting methods of FCSM by <em>Lactobacillus acidophilus</em> based on a UPLC-Q-TOF-MS global metabolomics analysis]]> Abstract The study of metabolomics requires extracting as many metabolites as possible from a biological sample. This study aimed to determine the optimal method for the extraction of metabolites from solid-state fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM). The UPLC-Q-TOF-MS global metabolomics technology was used to detect the metabolites in FCSM, and the extraction quantity and extraction efficiency of seven different extraction methods, specifically the WA, 50MeOH, 50MeOHB, 50MeCNB, 80MeOHB, 80MeOH and AMF methods were evaluated. The results showed that the number of VIP metabolites extracted by AMF method are 196 and 184 in ESI+ and ESI- mode respectively, it is the largest number of all exacted methods; and the AMF methods also provided a higher extraction efficiency compared with the other methods, especially in indoleacrylic acid, dl-tryptophan and epicatechin (p &lt; 0.01). As a result, AMF/-4 °C method was identified as the best method for the extraction of metabolites from FCSM by Lactobacillus acidophilus. Our study establishes a technical basis for future metabolomics research of fermented feed. <![CDATA[Epidemiology of diabetic foot infections in a reference tertiary hospital in India]]> Abstract Introduction The present study attempts to examine the microbial profile and antibiotic susceptibility of diabetic foot infections in the intensive care unit of a tertiary referral centre for diabetic foot. As part of the study, we also attempted to find the prevalence of blaNDM-like gene among carbapenem-resistant gram negative infections. Methodology A prospective study of 261 patients with diabetic foot infections was performed during the period between January 2014 and June 2014. Results A total of 289 isolates were obtained from 178 tissue samples from 261 patients, 156 (59.7%) males and 105 (40.2%) females, with a mean age of 58 years (-15 years), having diabetic foot infection. No growth was seen in thirty eight (17.6%) tissue samples. Out of the total samples, 44.3% were monomicrobial and 55.7% were polymicrobial. Gram negative pathogens were predominant (58.5%). Seven of the total isolates were fungal; 0.7% showed pure fungal growth and 1.7% were mixed, grown along with some bacteria. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (26.9%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.9%). Of the 58.5% gram negative pathogens, 16.5% were Enterobacteriaceae resistant to carbapenems. Among these isolates, 4 (25%) were positive for blaNDM-like gene. Among the rest, 18.6% were carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas, among which 4 (36.3%) were blaNDM. Among the Staphylococci, 23.7% were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions Our results support the recent view that gram negative organisms, depending on the geographical location, may be predominant in DFIs. There is an increase in multidrug-resistant pathogens, especially carbapenem resistance and this is creeping rapidly. We need to be more judicious while using empiric antibiotics. <![CDATA[A new coumarin derivative, 4-acetatecoumarin, with antifungal activity and association study against <em>Aspergillus</em> spp.]]> Abstract Fungal infections have become a concern for health professionals, and the emergence of resistant strains has been reported for all known classes of antifungal drugs. Among the fungi causing disease, we highlight those that belong to the genus Aspergillus. For these reasons, the search for new antifungals is important. This study examines the effects of a coumarin derivative, 4-acetatecoumarin (Cou-UMB16) both alone and together with antifungal drugs, and its mode of action against Aspergillus spp. Cou-UMB16 was tested to evaluate its effects on mycelia growth, and germination of Aspergillus spp. fungal conidia. We investigated its possible action on cell walls, on the cell membrane, and also the capacity of this coumarin derivative to enhance the activity of antifungal drugs. Our results suggest that Cou-UMB16 inhibits Aspergillus spp. virulence factors (mycelia growth and germination of conidia) and affects the structure of the fungal cell wall. When applying Cou-UMB16 in combination with azoles, both synergistic and additive effects were observed. This study concludes that Cou-UMB16 inhibits mycelial growth and spore germination, and that the activity is due to its action on the fungal cell wall, and that Cou-UMB16 could act as an antifungal modifier. <![CDATA[Improved antifungal activity of barley derived chitinase I gene that overexpress a 32 kDa recombinant chitinase in <em>Escherichia coli</em> host]]> Abstract Agricultural crops suffer many diseases, including fungal and bacterial infections, causing significant yield losses. The identification and characterisation of pathogenesis-related protein genes, such as chitinases, can lead to reduction in pathogen growth, thereby increasing tolerance against fungal pathogens. In the present study, the chitinase I gene was isolated from the genomic DNA of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar, Haider-93. The isolated DNA was used as template for the amplification of the ∼935 bp full-length chitinase I gene. Based on the sequence of the amplified gene fragment, class I barley chitinase shares 93% amino acid sequence homology with class II wheat chitinase. Interestingly, barley class I chitinase and class II chitinase do not share sequence homology. Furthermore, the amplified fragment was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta strain under the control of T7 promoter in pET 30a vector. Recombinant chitinase protein of 35 kDa exhibited highest expression at 0.5 mM concentration of IPTG. Expressed recombinant protein of 35 kDa was purified to homogeneity with affinity chromatography. Following purification, a Western blot assay for recombinant chitinase protein measuring 35 kDa was developed with His-tag specific antibodies. The purified recombinant chitinase protein was demonstrated to inhibit significantly the important phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria solani, Fusarium spp, Rhizoctonia solani and Verticillium dahliae compared to the control at concentrations of 80 µg and 200 µg. <![CDATA[A practical molecular identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacteria from cystic fibrosis]]> Abstract Identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacteria (NFGNB) of cystic fibrosis patients is hard and misidentification could affect clinical outcome. This study aimed to propose a scheme using polymerase chain reaction to identify NFGNB. This scheme leads to reliable identification within 3 days in an economically viable manner when compared to other methods. <![CDATA[Inducible cellulase production from an organic solvent tolerant <em>Bacillus</em> sp. SV1 and evolutionary divergence of endoglucanase in different species of the genus <em>Bacillus</em>]]> Abstract Bacteria are important sources of cellulases with various industrial and biotechnological applications. In view of this, a non-hemolytic bacterial strain, tolerant to various environmental pollutants (heavy metals and organic solvents), showing high cellulolytic index (7.89) was isolated from cattle shed soil and identified as Bacillus sp. SV1 (99.27% pairwise similarity with Bacillus korlensis). Extracellular cellulases showed the presence of endoglucanase, total cellulase and β-glucosidase activities. Cellulase production was induced in presence of cellulose (3.3 times CMCase, 2.9 times FPase and 2.1 times β-glucosidase), and enhanced (115.1% CMCase) by low-cost corn steep solids. An in silico investigation of endoglucanase (EC protein sequences of three Bacillus spp. as query, revealed their similarities with members of nine bacterial phyla and to Eukaryota (represented by Arthropoda and Nematoda), and also highlighted of a convergent and divergent evolution from other enzymes of different substrate [(1,3)-linked beta-d-glucans, xylan and chitosan] specificities. Characteristic conserved signature indels were observed among members of Actinobacteria (7 aa insert) and Firmicutes (9 aa insert) that served as a potential tool in support of their relatedness in phylogenetic trees.