Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Microbiology]]> vol. 45 num. 3 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Composition, anti-quorum sensing and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from <i>Lippia alba</i></b>]]> Many Gram-negative pathogens have the ability to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as signal molecules for quorum sensing (QS). This cell-cell communication system allows them to coordinate gene expression and regulate virulence. Strategies to inhibit QS are promising for the control of infectious diseases or antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) and antibacterial potential of five essential oils isolated from Lippia alba on the Tn-5 mutant of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, and on the growth of the gram-positive bacteria S. aureus ATCC 25923. The anti-QS activity was detected through the inhibition of the QS-controlled violacein pigment production by the sensor bacteria. Results showed that two essential oils from L. alba, one containing the greatest geranial:neral and the other the highest limonene:carvone concentrations, were the most effective QS inhibitors. Both oils also had small effects on cell growth. Moreover, the geranial/neral chemotype oil also produced the maximum zone of growth inhibition against S. aureus ATCC 25923. These data suggest essential oils from L. alba have promising properties as QS modulators, and present antibacterial activity on S. aureus. <![CDATA[<b><i>In vitro</i> activity of Amazon plant extracts against <i>Enterococcus faecalis</i></b>]]> Previous studies analyzing 2,200 plant extracts indicated anti-enterococcal activity in 25 extracts obtained from Brazilian forests' plants. In the present study, these extracts were subjected to microdilution broth assay (MDBA) and disk diffusion assay (DDA) using planktonic Enterococcus faecalis ATCC® 29212TM and were submitted to phytochemical analysis in TLC and HPLC. Three extracts obtained from Ipomoea alba (MIC < 40 µg/mL), Diclinanona calycina (MIC < 40 µg/mL) and Moronobea coccinea (40 < MIC < 80 µg/mL; MBC = 80 µg/mL) showed significant bactericidal activity in the MDBA and four extracts obtained from I. alba (14.04 ± 0.55 mm diameter) S. globulifera (14.43 ± 0.33 mm and 12.18 ± 0.28 mm diameter) and Connarus ruber var. ruber (13.13 ± 0.18 mm diameter) were active in DDA. Residues H2O obtained from Psidium densicomum (mean of 16.78 mm diameter) and from Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum (mean of 15.97 mm diameter) have shown an improved antibacterial activity after fractionation if compared to that obtained from the respective crude extracts. Antioxidant activity was observed in some residues of the active extracts. TLC analysis showed that phenolic compounds are likely to be found in active extracts. Three molecules were isolated from S. globulifera and were identified by 13C NMR lupeol, α-amyrin and 3β-hydroxyglutin-5-ene. The present chemical and biological findings suggest that these extracts are a potential source of new anti-Enterococcus compounds to be introduced in endodontic therapy. <![CDATA[<b>Interdigital foot infections</b>: <b><i>Corynebacterium minutissimum</i> and agents of superficial mycoses</b>]]> Interdigital foot infections are mostly caused initially by dermatophytes, yeasts and less frequently by bacteria. Erythrasma caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum can be confused with superficial mycoses. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the etiologic agents of superficial mycoses and the frequency of Corynebacterium minutissimum in interdigital foot infections. All the samples obtained from the 121 patients with interdigital foot infections were examined directly with the use of 20% potassium hydroxide mounts and Gram stain under the microscope and cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar plates. In identification of superficial mycoses, the rate was found to be 14% with the cultural method and 14% with direct microscopic examination. Using a combination of direct microscopic examination and culture, a 33.8% ratio was achieved. In the culture of these samples, the most isolated factor was Trichophyton rubrum (33.7%). In 24 of the patients (19.8%) Corynebacterium minutissimum was detected by Gram staining, in 6 of these patients Trichophyton rubrum was found, Trichophyton mentagrophytes was found in 2 and Trichosporon spp. was found in 1. The examination of interdigital foot lesions in the laboratory, the coexistence of erythrasma with dermatophytes and yeast should be considered. <![CDATA[<b>Conjugative transfer of resistance determinants among human and bovine <i>Streptococcus agalactiae</i></b>]]> Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a major source of human perinatal diseases and bovine mastitis. Erythromycin (Ery) and tetracycline (Tet) are usually employed for preventing human and bovine infections although resistance to such agents has become common among GBS strains. Ery and Tet resistance genes are usually carried by conjugative transposons (CTns) belonging to the Tn916 family, but their presence and transferability among GBS strains have not been totally explored. Here we evaluated the presence of Tet resistance genes (tetM and tetO) and CTns among Ery-resistant (Ery-R) and Ery-susceptible (Ery-S) GBS strains isolated from human and bovine sources; and analyzed the ability for transferring resistance determinants between strains from both origins. Tet resistance and int-Tn genes were more common among Ery-R when compared to Ery-S isolates. Conjugative transfer of all resistance genes detected among the GBS strains included in this study (ermA, ermB, mef, tetM and tetO), in frequencies between 1.10-7 and 9.10-7, was possible from bovine donor strains to human recipient strain, but not the other way around. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of in vitro conjugation of Ery and Tet resistance genes among GBS strains recovered from different hosts. <![CDATA[<b>Detection of multi drug resistant bacteria in major hospitals in Kano, North-West, Nigeria</b>]]> Two major hospitals in Kano, North West Nigeria have recorded increasing resistance of clinical pathogens to broad spectrum β lactams, mediated by extended spectrum β- lactamase (ESβL) and non ESBLs. A study was therefore undertaken to determine the occurrence and prevalence of plasmid and chromosomal mediated AmpC βL and carbapenemase in addition to already known ESBL due to increasing resistance of pathogens from the two hospitals to carbapenems, cephamycins and flouroquinolones. Antibiogram tests and ESBL, AmpC and carbapenemase production tests were performed on all the isolates. AmpC and carbapenemase producers were further screened for AmpC inducibility and metallo beta lactamase production respectively. Majority of the isolates (> 80%) were resistant to both β-lactam and non β-lactam antibiotics. Reduced susceptibility to levofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin among the isolates were observed with the exception of P. aeruginosa which is totally resistant to imipenem and levofloxacin. An overall prevalence of 14.4%, 11.9% and 11.9.3% for ESβL, AmpC and carbapenemase was observed respectively. About 7.9% of the AmpC producers can over expressed the chromosomally mediated AmpC and 85.8% of the carbapenemase producers require metal for their action. Co-production of either of two and/or all of the enzymes was observed in E. coli, P. mirabilis and P. aeruginosa. Antibiotic resistance among isolates from the two hospitals is increasing and the major cause of this resistance in the pathogens studied are production of AmpC, carbapenemase (especially Metallo β- lactamase) in addition to already known ESBL enzymes by the pathogens. Some of the isolates also possess the capacity to elaborate two or more of the enzymes concurrently, which would renders them resistant to a multitude of antibiotics. <![CDATA[<b>Methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus</i> sp. colonizing health care workers of a cancer hospital</b>]]> The aim of the study was to analyze epidemiological and microbiological aspects of oral colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus of health care workers in a cancer hospital. Interview and saliva sampling were performed with 149 health care workers. Antimicrobial resistance was determined by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration. Polymerase Chain Reaction, Internal Transcribed Spacer-Polymerase Chain Reaction and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis were performed for genotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus. Risk factors were determined by logistic regression. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus colonization prevalence was 19.5%, denture wearing (p = 0.03), habit of nail biting (p = 0.04) and preparation and administration of antimicrobial (p = 0.04) were risk factors identified. All methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus were S. epidermidis, 94.4% of them had mecA gene. Closely related and indistinguishable methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis were detected. These results highlight that HCWs which have contact with patient at high risk for developing infections were identified as colonized by MRSE in the oral cavity, reinforcing this cavity as a reservoir of these bacteria and the risk to themselves and patients safety, because these microorganisms may be spread by coughing and talking. <![CDATA[<b>Antimicrobial activity of allylic thiocyanates derived from the Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction</b>]]> Bacterial resistance to commonly used antibiotics has been recognized as a significant global health issue. In this study, we carried out the screening of a family of allylic thiocyanates for their action against a diversity of bacteria and fungi with a view to developing new antimicrobial agents. Allylic thiocyanates bearing halogenated aryl groups, which were readily obtained in two steps from the Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts, showed moderate-to-high activity against selective pathogens, including a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain. In particular cases, methyl (Z)-3-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(thiocyanomethyl)-2-propenoate exhibited antimicrobial activity comparable to the reference antibiotic Imipenem. <![CDATA[<b>Identification of genes expressed by <i>Cryptococcus gattii</i> during iron deprivation</b>]]> Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii are pathogenic yeasts that cause life-threatening diseases in humans and animals. Iron is an essential nutrient for virtually every organism as it functions as a cofactor in numerous essential enzymatic reactions. In the literature, the competition for iron between microbes and mammalian hosts during infection is well documented. In this study, we used representational difference analysis (RDA) in order to gain a better understanding of how C. gattii responds to iron starvation. A total of 15 and 29 genes were identified as having altered expression levels due to iron depletion after 3 h and 12 h, respectively. Of these, eight genes were identified in both libraries. The transcripts were related to many biological processes, such as cell cycle, ergosterol metabolism, cell wall organization, transportation, translation, cell respiration and the stress response. These data suggest a remodeling of C. gattii metabolism during conditions of iron deprivation. <![CDATA[<b>Chemical composition of essential oil from ripe fruit of <i>Schinus terebinthifolius</i> Raddi and evaluation of its activity against wild strains of hospital origin</b>]]> The essential oil (EO) composition of ripe fruit of S. terebinthifolius Raddi was analyzed by GC-MS. The oil extraction yielded 6.54 ± 1.06% (w/w). Seventeen compounds were identified, accounting for 91.15% of the total oil, where monoterpenes constituted the main chemical class (85.81%), followed by sesquiterpenes (5.34%). The major monoterpene identified was δ-3-carene (30.37%), followed by limonene (17.44%), α-phellandrene (12.60%) and α-pinene (12.59%). Trans-caryophyllene (1.77%) was the major sesquiterpene identified. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was evaluated against wild strains of hospital origin (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Klebsiella oxytoca, Corynebacterium sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter sp., Enterobacter agglomerans, Bacillus sp., Nocardia sp. and Streptococcus group D). The essential oil of the ripe fruit of S. terebinthifolius Raddi has shown to be active against all tested wild strains, with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 3.55 μg/mL to 56.86 μg/mL. However, it has revealed some differences in susceptibility: the general, Gram-positive species showed greater sensitivity to the action of EO, which is probably due to the lower structural complexity of their cell walls. <![CDATA[<b>In vitro susceptibility to methicillin, vancomycin and linezolid of staphylococci isolated from bloodstream infections in eastern Turkey</b>]]> Staphylococcus species are one of the major causes of bacterial bloodstream infections. Multi-resistant staphylococci infections are major therapeutic problems. This study was aimed to detect methicillin, linezolid and vancomycin susceptibilities of Staphylococcus isolates. A total of 870 Staphylococcus strains isolated from blood cultures of hospitalized patients with BSI. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of methicillin, linezolid and vancomycin were detected according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). A total of 771 (88.6%) isolates were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). 700 (80.5%) isolates were methicillin-resistant (MR) and 170 (19.5%) were methicillin-susceptible (MS). All the MS isolates were also susceptible to linezolid. However 15 (1.7%) of MR strains were resistant to linezolid. The minimum inhibitory concentration range for the linezolid-resistant isolates by Etest was 6-32 µg/mL. The difference between linezolid susceptibilities for MS and MR staphylococci was not quite statistically significant (p = 0.052). There was no statistically significant difference between S. aureus and CoNS isolates for linezolid susceptibility. All of the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. In conclusion, linezolid is currently an efficient option for the treatment of methicillin-resistant staphylococci infections. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of tests to predict metallo-β</b><b>-lactamase in cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-(CF) <i>Pseudomonas</i></b>]]> Double disks synergy test (DDST) and combined disks test (CD) were evaluated to predict the presence of metallo-β-lactamase in 70 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis patients. DDST CAZ-EDTA 1 cm and CD IMP-EDTA tests showed the best accuracy (94.3%). Furthermore, for other combinations, accuracy unsatisfactory was obtained. <![CDATA[<b>Multiplex-PCR for differentiation of <i>Mycobacterium bovis</i> from <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> complex</b>]]> We evaluated a multiplex-PCR to differentiate Mycobacterium bovis from M. tuberculosis Complex (MTC) by one step amplification based on simultaneous detection of pncA 169C > G change in M. bovis and the IS6110 present in MTC species. Our findings showed the proposed multiplex-PCR is a very useful tool for complementation in differentiating M. bovis from other cultured MTC species. <![CDATA[<b>Drug resistance profiles and clonality of sporadic <i>Shigella sonnei</i> isolates in Ankara, Turkey</b>]]> The aims of this study were to investigate drug resistance rates, types of extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs), and molecular epidemiological characteristics of 43 Shigella sonnei isolates. Ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin were the most active antibiotics. Five isolates harbored blaSHV-12, blaTEM-1 and blaCTX-M-15. More than 90% of the isolates had an indistinguishable pulsotype. <![CDATA[<b>Distribution of non-LEE-encoded type 3 secretion system dependent effectors in enteropathogenic <i>Escherichia coli</i></b>]]> Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are important human gastroenteritis agents. The prevalence of six non-LEE genes encoding type 3 translocated effectors was investigated. The nleC, cif and nleB genes were more prevalent in typical than in atypical EPEC, although a higher diversity of genes combinations was observed in atypical EPEC. <![CDATA[<b>Prior oropharyngeal colonization and ventilator-associated pneumonia</b>]]> This study evaluated the relationship between previous colonization of the oropharynx and development of ventilator-associated pneumonia through the classification of genomic fingerprint pattern by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of both oxacillin-resistant and oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from hospitalized patients in an intensive care unit. <![CDATA[<b>Morphology and mycelial growth rate of <i>Pleurotus</i> spp. strains from the Mexican mixtec region</b>]]> Two native Pleurotus spp. strains (white LB-050 and pale pink LB-051) were isolated from rotten tree trunks of cazahuate (Ipomoea murucoides) from the Mexican Mixtec Region. Both strains were chemically dedikaryotized to obtain their symmetrical monokaryotic components (neohaplonts). This was achieved employing homogenization time periods from 60 to 65 s, and 3 day incubation at 28 °C in a peptone-glucose solution (PGS). Pairing of compatible neohaplonts resulted in 56 hybrid strains which were classified into the four following hybrid types: (R1-n xB1-n, R1-n xB2-1, R2-n xB1-n and R2-n xB2-1). The mycelial growth of Pleurotus spp. monokaryotic and dikaryotic strains showed differences in texture (cottony or floccose), growth (scarce, regular or abundant), density (high, regular or low), and pigmentation (off-white, white or pale pink). To determine the rate and the amount of mycelium growth in malt extract agar at 28 °C, the diameter of the colony was measured every 24 h until the Petri dish was completely colonized. A linear model had the best fit to the mycelial growth kinetics. A direct relationship between mycelial morphology and growth rate was observed. Cottony mycelium presented significantly higher growth rates (p < 0.01) in comparison with floccose mycelium. Thus, mycelial morphology can be used as criterion to select which pairs must be used for optimizing compatible-mating studies. Hybrids resulting from cottony neohaplonts maintained the characteristically high growth rates of their parental strains with the hybrid R1-n xB1-n being faster than the latter. <![CDATA[<b>Yeast HXK2 gene reverts glucose regulation mutation of penicillin biosynthesis in <i>P. chrysogenum</i></b>]]> The mutant Penicillium chrysogenum strain dogR5, derived from strain AS-P-78, does not respond to glucose regulation of penicillin biosynthesis and β-galactosidase, and is partially deficient in D-glucose phosphorilating activity. We have transformed strain dogR5 with the (hexokinase) hxk2 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Transformants recovered glucose control of penicillin biosynthesis in different degrees, and acquired a hexokinase (fructose phosphorylating) activity absent in strains AS- P-78 and dogR5. Interestingly, they also recovered glucose regulation of β-galactosidase. On the other hand, glucokinase activity was affected in different ways in the transformants; one of which showed a lower activity than the parental dogR5, but normal glucose regulation of penicillin biosynthesis. Our results show that Penicillium chrysogenum AS-P-78 and dogR5 strains lack hexokinase, and suggest that an enzyme with glucokinase activity is involved in glucose regulation of penicillin biosynthesis and β-galactosidase, thus signaling glucose in both primary and secondary metabolism; however, catalytic and signaling activities seem to be independent. <![CDATA[<b>Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste</b>: <b>banana pseudo stem</b>]]> India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata) producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g%) gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L) with yield (84%) and productivity (0.024 g%/h) after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production. <![CDATA[<b>Biotechnological potential of <i>Clostridium butyricum</i> bacteria</b>]]> In response to demand from industry for microorganisms with auspicious biotechnological potential, a worldwide interest has developed in bacteria and fungi isolation. Microorganisms of interesting metabolic properties include non-pathogenic bacteria of the genus Clostridium, particularly C. acetobutylicum, C. butyricum and C. pasteurianum. A well-known property of C. butyricum is their ability to produce butyric acid, as well as effectively convert glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (38.2 g/L). A conversion rate of 0.66 mol 1,3-propanediol/mol of glycerol has been obtained. Results of the studies described in the present paper broaden our knowledge of characteristic features of C. butyricum specific isolates in terms of their phylogenetic affiliation, fermentation capacity and antibacterial properties. <![CDATA[<b>Concomitant production of detergent compatible enzymes by <i>Bacillus flexus</i> XJU-1</b>]]> A soil screened Bacillus flexus XJU-1 was induced to simultaneously produce alkaline amylase, alkaline lipase and alkaline protease at their optimum levels on a common medium under submerged fermentation. The basal cultivation medium consisted of 0.5% casein, 0.5% starch and 0.5% cottonseedoil as an inducer forprotease, amylase, and lipase, respectively. The casein also served as nitrogen source for all 3 enzymes. The starch was also found to act as carbon source additive for both lipase and protease. Maximum enzyme production occurred on fermentation medium with 1.5% casein, 1.5% soluble starch, 2% cottonseed oil, 2% inoculum size, initial pH of 11.0, incubation temperature of 37 °C and 1% soybean meal as a nitrogen source supplement. The analysis of time course study showed that 24 h was optimum incubation time for amylase whereas 48 h was the best time for both lipase and protease. After optimization, a 3.36-, 18.64-, and 27.33-fold increase in protease, amylase and lipase, respectively was recorded. The lipase was produced in higher amounts (37.72 U/mL) than amylase and protease about 1.27 and 5.85 times, respectively. As the 3 enzymes are used in detergent formulations, the bacterium can be commercially exploited to secrete the alkaline enzymes for use in detergent industry. This is the first report for concomitant production of 3 alkaline enzymes by a bacterium. <![CDATA[<b>Production of humic substances through coal-solubilizing bacteria</b>]]> In this paper, the production of humic substances (HS) through the bacterial solubilization of low rank coal (LRC) was evaluated. The evaluation was carried out by 19 bacterial strains isolated in microenvironments with high contents of coal wastes. The biotransformed LRC and the HS produced were quantified in vitro in a liquid growth medium. The humic acids (HA) obtained from the most active bacterial strain were characterized via elemental composition (C, H, N, O), IR analyses, and the E4/E6 ratio; they were then compared with the HA extracted chemically using NaOH. There was LRC biotransformation ranged from 25 to 37%, and HS production ranged from 127 to 3100 mg.L-1. More activity was detected in the isolated strains of Bacillus mycoides, Microbacterium sp, Acinetobacter sp, and Enterobacter aerogenes. The HA produced by B. mycoides had an IR spectrum and an E4/E6 ratio similar to those of the HA extracted with NAOH, but their elemental composition and their degree of aromatic condensation was different. Results suggest that these bacteria can be used to exploit the LRC resulting from coal mining activities and thus produce HS in order to improve the content of humified organic matter in soils. <![CDATA[<b>Screening of wild type <i>Streptomyces</i> isolates able to overproduce clavulanic acid</b>]]> The selection of new microorganisms able to produce antimicrobial compounds is hoped for to reduce their production costs and the side effects caused by synthetic drugs. Clavulanic acid is a β-lactam antibiotic produced by submerged culture, which is widely used in medicine as a powerful inhibitor of β-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistant to antibiotics such penicillin and cephalosporin. The purpose of this work was to select the best clavulanic acid producer among strains of Streptomyces belonging to the Microorganism Collection of the Department of Antibiotics of the Federal University of Pernambuco (DAUFPE). Initially, the strains were studied for their capacity to inhibit the action of β-lactamases produced by Klebsiella aerogenes ATCC 15380. From these results, five strains were selected to investigate the batch kinetics of growth and clavulanic acid production in submerged culture carried out in flasks. The results were compared with the ones obtained by Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064 selected as a control strain. The best clavulanic acid producer was Streptomyces DAUFPE 3060, molecularly identified as Streptomyces variabilis, which increased the clavulanic acid production by 28% compared to the control strain. This work contributes to the enlargement of knowledge on new Streptomyces wild strains able to produce clavulanic acid by submerged culture. <![CDATA[<b>Whole cells in enantioselective reduction of <i>benzyl</i> acetoacetate</b>]]> The β-ketoester benzyl acetoacetate was enantioselectively reduced to benzyl (S)-3-hydroxybutanoate by seven microorganism species. The best result using free cells was obtained with the yeast Hansenula sp., which furnished 97% ee and 85% of conversion within 24 h. After immobilization in calcium alginate spheres, K.marxianus showed to be more stable after 2 cycles of reaction. <![CDATA[<b>A method to estimate the biomass of <i>Spirulina platensis</i> cultivated on a solid medium</b>]]> This paper presents a method to estimate the biomass of Spirulina cultivated on solid medium with sugarcane bagasse as a support, in view of the difficulty in determining biomass concentrations in bioprocesses, particularly those conducted in semi-solid or solid media. The genus Spirulina of the family Oscillatoriaceae comprises the group of multicellular filamentous cyanobacteria (blue-green microalgae). Spirulina is used as fish feed in aquaculture, as a food supplement, a source of vitamins, pigments, antioxidants and fatty acids. Therefore, its growth parameters are extremely important in studies of the development and optimization of bioprocesses. For studies of biomass growth, Spirulina platensis was cultured on solid medium using sugarcane bagasse as a support. The biomass thus produced was estimated by determining the protein content of the material grown during the process, based on the ratio of dry weight to protein content obtained in the surface growth experiments. The protein content of the biomass grown in Erlenmeyer flasks on surface medium was examined daily to check the influence of culture time on the protein content of the biomass. The biomass showed an average protein content of 42.2%. This methodology enabled the concentration of biomass adhering to the sugarcane bagasse to be estimated from the indirect measurement of the protein content associated with cell growth. <![CDATA[<b>Dissolving mechanism of strain P17 on insoluble phosphorus of yellow-brown soil</b>]]> Strain P17 was a bacterial strain identified as Bacillus megaterium isolated from ground accumulating phosphate rock powder. The fermentation broth of strain P17 and the yellow-brown soil from Nanjing Agricultural University garden were collected to conduct this study. The simulation of fixed insoluble phosphorous forms after applying calcium superphosphate into yellow-brown soil was performed in pots, while available P and total P of soil were extremely positive correlative with those of groundwater. Then the dissolving effect of strain P17 on insoluble P of yellow-brown soil was studied. Results showed that Bacillus megaterium strain P17 had notable solubilizing effect on insoluble phosphates formed when too much water-soluble phosphorous fertilizer used. During 100 days after inoculation, strain P17 was dominant. Until the 120th day, compared with water addition, available P of strain P17 inoculation treated soil increased by 3 times with calcium superphosphate addition. Besides available P, pH, activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase and population of P-solubilizing microbes were detected respectively. P-solubilizing mechanism of P-solubilizing bacteria strain P17 seems to be a synergetic effect of pH decrease, organic acids, phosphatase, etc. <![CDATA[<b>Enterobacteria identification and detection of diarrheagenic <i>Escherichia coli</i> in a Port Complex</b>]]> The Port Complex of Maranhão (PCM) is the second largest port complex in Brazil, receiving ships with large volumes of ballast water. To evaluate the microbiological quality of its waters, physicochemical parameters (pH and salinity), the number of coliforms (thermotolerants and totals), and the presence of enterobacterias and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains were analyzed. In order to identify the presence of E. coli virulence genes target regions of the stx, elt, est, aggR, CVD432, ipaH and eae nucleotide sequences were studied. The presence of totals and thermotolerants coliforms were positive. Analyzing the salinity parameter, a significant increase in total coliforms was observed during the rainy season. We identified the species Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella ozaenae, Morganella morganii, Enterobacter cloacae and Edwardsiella tarda. Out of the 51 E. coli isolated, two were positive for the elt gene and one was positive for the CVD432 sequence, features of enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative strains, respectively. This study reveals that the PCM is contaminated by enterobacteria and diarrheagenic E.coli thus providing evidence regarding the risk of these bacteria being carried by ships to other countries, and draws attention to the input of fecal bacteria brought by ships in the port waters of Maranhão. <![CDATA[<b>Bioavailability of pollutants in bacterial communities of Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil</b>]]> Processes involving heavy metals and other contaminants continue to present unsolved environmental questions. To advance the understanding of geochemical processes that involve the bioavailability of contaminants, cores where collected in the Rodrigo de Freitas lagoon, and analyzed for bacterial activity and metal concentrations. Results would suggest an extremely reducing environment where organic substances seem to be the predominant agents responsible for this geochemical process. Analytical data showed sulphate reduction to be the main agent driving this process, since this kind of bacteria was found to be active in all of the samples analyzed. Esterase enzyme production did not signal the influence of heavy metals and hydrocarbon concentrations and heavy metals were found to be unavailable for biota. However, correlation between results for bacterial biomass and the potentially mobile percentage of the total Ni concentrations would suggest a negative impact. <![CDATA[<b>Humic fractions of forest, pasture and maize crop soils resulting from microbial activity</b>]]> Humic substances result from the degradation of biopolymers of organic residues in the soil due to microbial activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of three different ecosystems: forest, pasture and maize crop on the formation of soil humic substances relating to their biological and chemical attributes. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial respiratory activity, nitrification potential, total organic carbon, soluble carbon, humic and fulvic acid fractions and the rate and degree of humification were determined. Organic carbon and soluble carbon contents decreased in the order: forest > pasture > maize; humic and fulvic acids decreased in the order forest > pasture=maize. The MBC and respiratory activity were not influenced by the ecosystems; however, the nitrification potential was higher in the forest than in other soils. The rate and degree of humification were higher in maize soil indicating greater humification of organic matter in this system. All attributes studied decreased significantly with increasing soil depth, with the exception of the rate and degree of humification. Significant and positive correlations were found between humic and fulvic acids contents with MBC, microbial respiration and nitrification potential, suggesting the microbial influence on the differential formation of humic substances of the different ecosystems. <![CDATA[<b>Influence of glyphosate in planktonic and biofilm growth of <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i></b>]]> This study evaluated the impact of different concentrations of glyphosate (Rondup®) on planktonic and biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa. Aerobic and anaerobic cultures of P. aeruginosa ATCC®15442 inoculated in MHB + glyphosate (0.845 ppm, 1.690 ppm, 8.45 ppm, 16.90 ppm, 84.50 ppm, 169 ppm, 845 ppm, and 1690 ppm) and cultured in normoxia and anoxia, following their OD560nm every hour for 24 h. Biofilms of adapted cells were formed in the presence of glyphosate (0.845 to 1690 ppm) in normoxia and anoxia for 36 h. Glyphosate at concentrations higher than 84.5 ppm reduces the cell density of planktonic aerobic cultures (p < 0.05). However, these same concentrations favor the planktonic anaerobic growth (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the herbicide favors a slight growth of biofilms in a concentration-dependent manner up to 84.5 ppm (p &gt; 0.05), and more pronounced over 169 ppm. Anaerobic biofilms have their growth more readily favored (p < 0.05), regardless of concentration. In a concentration-dependent manner, glyphosate interferes with the growth ability of P. aeruginosa ATCC®15442. <![CDATA[<b>A procedure to evaluate the efficiency of surface sterilization methods in culture-independent fungal endophyte studies</b>]]> Extraneous DNA interferes with PCR studies of endophytic fungi. A procedure was developed with which to evaluate the removal of extraneous DNA. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves were sprayed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and then subjected to physical and chemical surface treatments. The fungal ITS1 products were amplified from whole tissue DNA extractions. ANOVA was performed on the DNA bands representing S. cerevisiae on the agarose gel. Band profile comparisons using permutational multivariate ANOVA (PERMANOVA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were performed on DGGE gel data, and band numbers were compared between treatments. Leaf surfaces were viewed under variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM). Yeast band analysis of the agarose gel showed that there was no significant difference in the mean band DNA quantity after physical and chemical treatments, but they both differed significantly (p < 0.05) from the untreated control. PERMANOVA revealed a significant difference between all treatments (p < 0.05). The mean similarity matrix showed that the physical treatment results were more reproducible than those from the chemical treatment results. The NMDS showed that the physical treatment was the most consistent. VPSEM indicated that the physical treatment was the most effective treatment to remove surface microbes and debris. The use of molecular and microscopy methods for the post-treatment detection of yeast inoculated onto wheat leaf surfaces demonstrated the effectiveness of the surface treatment employed, and this can assist researchers in optimizing their surface sterilization techniques in DNA-based fungal endophyte studies. <![CDATA[<b>Identification and characterization of rhizospheric microbial diversity by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing</b>]]> In the present study, samples of rhizosphere and root nodules were collected from different areas of Pakistan to isolate plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Identification of bacterial isolates was made by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and taxonomical confirmation on EzTaxon Server. The identified bacterial strains were belonged to 5 genera i.e. Ensifer, Bacillus, Pseudomona, Leclercia and Rhizobium. Phylogenetic analysis inferred from 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the evolutionary relationship of bacterial strains with the respective genera. Based on phylogenetic analysis, some candidate novel species were also identified. The bacterial strains were also characterized for morphological, physiological, biochemical tests and glucose dehydrogenase (gdh) gene that involved in the phosphate solublization using cofactor pyrroloquinolone quinone (PQQ). Seven rhizoshperic and 3 root nodulating stains are positive for gdh gene. Furthermore, this study confirms a novel association between microbes and their hosts like field grown crops, leguminous and non-leguminous plants. It was concluded that a diverse group of bacterial population exist in the rhizosphere and root nodules that might be useful in evaluating the mechanisms behind plant microbial interactions and strains QAU-63 and QAU-68 have sequence similarity of 97 and 95% which might be declared as novel after further taxonomic characterization. <![CDATA[<b>Early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development in sugarcane under two harvest management systems</b>]]> Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is grown on over 8 million ha in Brazil and is used to produce ethanol and sugar. Some sugarcane fields are burned to facilitate harvesting, which can affect the soil microbial community. However, whether sugarcane pre-harvest burning affects the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and symbioses development is not known. In this study, we investigated the early impacts of harvest management on AMF spore communities and root colonization in three sugarcane varieties, under two harvest management systems (no-burning and pre-harvest burning). Soil and root samples were collected in the field after the first harvest of sugarcane varieties SP813250, SP801842, and RB72454, and AMF species were identified based on spore morphology. Diversity indices were determined based on spore populations and root colonization determined as an indicator of symbioses development. Based on the diversity indices, spore number and species occurrence in soil, no significant differences were observed among the AMF communities, regardless of harvest management type, sugarcane variety or interactions between harvest management type and sugarcane variety. However, mycorrhiza development was stimulated in sugarcane under the no-burning management system. Our data suggest that the sugarcane harvest management system may cause early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development. <![CDATA[<b>Characterization of Bacteriocin like inhibitory substance produced by a new Strain <i>Brevibacillus borstelensis</i> AG1 Isolated from 'Marcha'</b>]]> In the present study, a bacterium isolated from Marcha- a herbal cake used as traditional starter culture to ferment local wine in North East India, was evaluated for bacteriocin like inhibitory substance production and was tested against six food borne/spoilage causing pathogens viz. Listeria monocytogenes MTCC 839, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121, Clostridium perfringens MTCC 450, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 107 by using bit/disc method followed by well diffusion method. The bacterial isolate was identified as Brevibacillus borstelensis on the basis of phenotypic, biochemical and molecular characteristics using 16Sr RNA gene technique. Bacteriocin like inhibitory substance produced by Brevibacillus borstelensis AG1 was purified by gel exclusion chromatography. The molecular mass of the Brevibacillus borstelensis AG1 was found to be 12 kDa. Purified bacteriocin like inhibitory substance of Brevibacillus borstelensis was further characterized by studying the effect of temperature, pH, proteolytic enzyme and stability. Bacteriocin like inhibitory substance was found to be thermostable upto 100 °C, active at neutral pH, sensitive to trypsin, and partially stable till third week of storage thus showing a bright prospective to be used as a potential food biopreservative. <![CDATA[<b>Depuration Times of <i>Donax trunculus</i> and <i>Tapes decussatus</i></b>]]> The present study was performed to determine the depuration time and ability of Donax trunculus (Wedge Clam) and Tapes decussatus (Carpet Shell) contaminated with Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Clams were contaminated with each bacterium at the level of 7.0 - 8.0 Log10 cfu/g. After contamination, clams were analyzed every 3 h in the first 24 h time period and every 6 h until the 72nd hour. During the depuration process of both clams, the level of bacteria decreased quickly to 40% of initial load in the first 12 h. The results of this study indicate that the depuration time of carpet shells for all bacteria is 66 h. The depuration process of the wedge clam was different from the carpet shell; S. typhimurium and E. coli can be depurated in 66 and 78 h, respectively, while V. parahaemolyticus was present after 72 h at the level of 1.7 Log10 cfu/g. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of culture media for selective enumeration of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria</b>]]> The purpose of this study was to test the suitability of Transgalactosylated oligosaccharides-mupirocin lithium salt (TOS-MUP) and MRS-clindamycin-ciprofloxacin (MRS-CC) agars, along with several other culture media, for selectively enumerating bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species commonly used to make fermented milks. Pure culture suspensions of a total of 13 dairy bacteria strains, belonging to eight species and five genera, were tested for growth capability under various incubation conditions. TOS-MUP agar was successfully used for the selective enumeration of both Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and B. breve M-16 V. MRS-CC agar showed relatively good selectivity for Lactobacillus acidophilus, however, it also promoted the growth of Lb. casei strains. For this reason, MRS-CC agar can only be used as a selective medium for the enumeration of Lb. acidophilus if Lb. casei is not present in a product at levels similar to or exceeding those of Lb. acidophilus. Unlike bifidobacteria and coccus-shaped LAB, all the lactobacilli strains involved in this work were found to grow well in MRS pH 5.4 agar incubated under anaerobiosis at 37 °C for 72 h. Therefore, this method proved to be particularly suitable for the selective enumeration of Lactobacillus spp. <![CDATA[<b>Sanitary quality, occurrence and identification of <i>Staphylococcus</i> sp</b>: <b>in food services</b>]]> Sanitary conditions are essential for the production of meals and control of the presence of pathogensis important to guarantee the health of customers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sanitary quality of food services by checking the presence of thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus sp. and evaluate the toxigenic potential from the latter. The analysis was performed on water, surfaces, equipment, ready-to-eat foods, hands and nasal cavity of handlers in seven food services. The water used in food services proved to be suitable for the production of meals. Most food, equipment and surfaces showed poor sanitary conditions due to the presence of thermotolerant coliforms (60.6%). Twenty-six Staphylococcus species were identified from the 121 Staphylococcus isolates tested. Staphylococci coagulase-negative species were predominant in the foods, equipment and surfaces. In food handlers and foods, the predominant species was Staphylococcus epidermidis. Twelve different genotypes were found after PCR for the classical enterotoxin genes. The seb gene (19.8%) was the most prevalent among all Staphylococcus sp. Both coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococci showed some of the genes of the enterotoxins tested. We conclude that there are hygienic and sanitary deficiencies in the food services analyzed. Although coagulase-positive Staphylococci have not been present in foods there is a wide dispersion of enterotoxigenic coagulase-negative Staphylococci in the environment and in the foods analyzed, indicating a risk to consumer health. <![CDATA[<b>Lack of AHL-based quorum sensing in <i>Pseudomonas fluorescens</i> isolated from milk</b>]]> Numerous bacteria coordinate gene expression in response to small signalling molecules in many cases known as acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs), which accumulate as a function of cell density in a process known as quorum sensing. This work aimed to determine if phenotypes that are important to define microbial activity in foods such as biofilm formation, swarming motility and proteolytic activity of two Pseudomonas fluorescens strains, isolated from refrigerated raw milk, are influenced by AHL molecules. The tested P. fluorescens strains did not produce AHL molecules in none of the evaluated media. We found that biofilm formation was dependent on the culture media, but it was not influenced by AHLs. Our results indicate that biofilm formation, swarming motility and proteolytic activity of the tested P. fluorescens strains are not regulated by acyl-homoserine lactones. It is likely that AHL-dependent quorum sensing system is absent from these strains. <![CDATA[<b>Bacteriocinogenic <i>Lactococcus lactis</i> subsp</b>: <b><i>lactis</i> DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: Evaluation of the probiotic potential</b>]]> Lactic acid bacteria capable of producing bacteriocins and presenting probiotic potential open innovative technological applications in the dairy industry. In this study, a bacteriocinogenic strain (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi) was isolated from goat milk, and studied for its probiotic potential. Lc. lactis DF4Mi was resistant to acidic pH and oxbile, presented co-aggregation with Listeria monocytogenes, and was not affected by several drugs from different generic groups, being sensitive to most tested antibiotics. These properties indicate that this Lc. lactis strain can be used for enhancement of dairy foods safety and quality, in combination with potential probiotic properties. <![CDATA[<b>Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability</b>]]> Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%). The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination. <![CDATA[<b>Identification and adhesion profile of <i>Lactobacillus spp.</i> strains isolated from poultry</b>]]> In the aviculture industry, the use of Lactobacillus spp. as a probiotic has been shown to be frequent and satisfactory, both in improving bird production indexes and in protecting intestine against colonization by pathogenic bacteria. Adhesion is an important characteristic in selecting Lactobacillus probiotic strains since it impedes its immediate elimination to enable its beneficial action in the host. This study aimed to isolate, identify and characterize the in vitro and in vivo adhesion of Lactobacillus strains isolated from birds. The Lactobacillus spp. was identified by PCR and sequencing and the strains and its adhesion evaluated in vitro via BMM cell matrix and in vivo by inoculation in one-day-old birds. Duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum were collected one, four, 12 and 24 h after inoculation. The findings demonstrate greater adhesion of strains in the cecum and an important correlation between in vitro and in vivo results. It was concluded that BMM utilization represents an important technique for triage of Lactobacillus for subsequent in vivo evaluation, which was shown to be efficient in identifying bacterial adhesion to the enteric tract. <![CDATA[<b><b>Impairments of <i>mec</i>A gene detection in bovine <i>Staphylococcus</i> spp.</b></b>]]> Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance, especially to beta-lactams, favors treatment failures and its persistence in herd environment. This work aimed to develop a more specific primer for mecA gene detection based on the comparison of the conserved regions from distinct host origins and also investigated the presence of homologue mecA LGA251 in bovine strains. A total of 43 Staphylococcus spp. were included in this study, comprising 38 bovine S. aureus, two human and three equine coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). Phenotypical methicillin-resistance detection was performed through oxacillin agar-screening and cefoxitin disk-diffusion test. None isolate tested positive for mecA LGA251 gene. For mecA gene PCR, new primers were designed based on the sequences of human S. aureus (HE681097) and bovine S. sciuri (AY820253) mecA. The new primers based on the S. aureus mecA sequence amplified fragments of human and equine CNS and the ones based on S. sciuri mecA sequence only yielded fragments for S. aureus bovine strains. Multiples alignments of mecA gene sequences from bovine, human and equine revealed punctual but significant differences in bovine strains that can lead to the mecA gene detection impairment. The observed divergences of mecA gene sequences are not a matter of animal or human origin, it is a specificity of bovine samples. <![CDATA[<b>Cross-protection between experimental anti-leptospirosis bacterins</b>]]> We investigated the existence of cross-protection between two anti-leptospirosis monovalent experimental bacterins produced with two strains of Leptospira serogroup Pomona: Fromm strain of serovar Kennewicky, isolated from pigs in the United States, and strain GR6 of serovar Pomona isolated from pigs in Brazil. Both were added of aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant. Experimental bacterins were tested with the hamster potency test in order to assess protection provided against the disease and against the establishment of kidney infection. Controls were polyvalent commercial vaccine produced with Leptospira strains isolated outside Brazil, which included a representative of Pomona serovar, or Sorensen solution added of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. The challenge was performed with cross-strains of serogroup Pomona tested in accordance with international standards established for the potency test. After 21 days of the challenge, survivors were killed to evaluate the condition of Leptospira renal carrier. Experimental bacterins protected hamsters against homologous and heterologous strains, demonstrating the existence of cross-protection. The commercial vaccine protected the hamsters challenged with both strains, but there was a high proportion of animals diagnosed as renal carriers when the challenge was performed with strain GR6, isolated from pigs in Brazil. <![CDATA[<b>Antiviral activity of a <i>Bacillus</i> sp</b>: <b>P34 peptide against pathogenic viruses of domestic animals</b>]]> P34 is an antimicrobial peptide produced by a Bacillus sp. strain isolated from the intestinal contents of a fish in the Brazilian Amazon basin with reported antibacterial activity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the peptide P34 for its in vitro antiviral properties against canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine coronavirus (CCoV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), equine arteritis virus (EAV), equine influenza virus (EIV), feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1). The results showed that the peptide P34 exhibited antiviral activity against EAV and FHV-1. The peptide P34 inhibited the replication of EAV by 99.9% and FHV-1 by 94.4%. Virucidal activity was detected only against EAV. When P34 and EAV were incubated for 6 h at 37 °C the viral titer reduced from 10(4.5) TCID50 to 10(2.75) TCID50, showing a percent of inhibition of 98.6%. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that P34 inhibited EAV and FHV-1 replication in infected cell cultures and it showed virucidal activity against EAV. Since there is documented resistance to the current drugs used against herpesviruses and there is no treatment for equine viral arteritis, it is advisable to search for new antiviral compounds to overcome these infections. <![CDATA[<b>Adhesive and invasive capacities of <i>Edwarsiella tarda</i> isolated from South American sea lion</b>]]> Edwarsiella tarda is a zoonotic bacterium that can be isolated from humans, animals and the environment. Although E. tarda is primarily considered a fish pathogen, it is the only species of its genus considered to be pathogenic for humans as well. A survey of zoonotic intestinal bacteria in fresh feces from South American sea lions (SASL) Otaria flavescens, reported E. tarda as the most frequently isolated species. In this study, we used HEp-2 cells to establish in vitro the adherence and invasive ability of 17 E. tarda strains isolated from SASL fecal material. All the strains were able to adhere and invade HEp-2 cells with adhesion and invasion percentages ranging from 56 to 100% and 21 to 74%, respectively. Despite the expression of these pathogenic factors, further investigation is needed to determine whether this bacterium could play a role as primary pathogen for this and other species of pinnipeds. <![CDATA[<b>First isolation of the <i>Stephanoascus ciferrii</i> in feline otitis in Brazil</b>]]> Ear infections in cats are uncommon, especially involving yeasts. This report describes the first isolation of the Stephanoascus ciferrii, teleomorph of the Candida genus, in a case of feline otitis in Brazil. The identification and characterization of Stephanoascus ciferrii were confirmed by the Vitek2 System (BioMerieux ®). <![CDATA[<b>Impact of water potential on growth and germination of <i>Fusarium solani</i> soilborne pathogen of peanut</b>]]> Studies were conducted to determine the effect of osmotic and matric stress on germination and growth of two Fusarium solani strains, the etiological agent responsible of peanut brown root rot. Both strains had similar osmotic and matric potential ranges that allowed growth, being the latter one narrower. F. solani showed the ability to grow down to -14 MPa at 25 °C in non-ionic modified osmotic medium, while under matric stress this was limited to -8.4 MPa at 25 °C. However, both strains were seen to respond differently to decreasing osmotic and matric potentials, during early stages of germination. One strain (RC 338) showed to be more sensitive to matric than osmotic (non ionic) and the other one (RC 386) showed to be more sensitive to osmotic than matric imposed water stress. After 24 h of incubation, both isolates behaved similarly. The minimum water potential for germination was -8.4 MPa on glycerol amended media and -5.6 MPa for NaCl and PEG amended media, respectively. The knowledge of the water potential range which allow mycelia growth and spore germination of F. solani provides an inside to the likely behaviour of this devastating soilborne plant pathogen in nature and has important practical implications. <![CDATA[<b>Influenza virus surveillance among young children in São Paulo, Brazil</b>: <b>the impact of vaccination</b>]]> This study assessed the presence of influenza virus among young children and the coverage of vaccination from 2010 to 2012 in São Paulo, Brazil. Our results demonstrated a lower rate of influenza detection and a predominance of influenza B. A decrease of coverage vaccination through the surveillance periods was observed.