Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Microbiology]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1517-838220120002&lang=en vol. 43 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[<b>Comparative analysis of the intracerebral mouse protection test and serological method for potency assays of pertussis component in DTP vaccine</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this study was to compare the PSPT standardized in-house as an alternative to MPT for potency assays of pertussis component. Statistical analyses have showed similar pertussis potency values when PSPT was compared to MPT. Significant correlation between the potency results obtained by in vivo and in vitro assays was also been observed. Results by PSPT have demonstrated reproducibility and accuracy for potency pertussis control and this approach has been considered promising for use at least during the steps of production. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of the composition of culture medium for yeast biomass production using raw glycerol from biodiesel synthesis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The work herewith investigated the production of yeast biomass as a source of protein, using Yarrowia lipolytica NRRL YB-423 and raw glycerol from biodiesel synthesis as the main carbon source. A significant influence of glycerol concentration, initial pH and yeast extract concentration on biomass and protein content was observed according to the 2v5-1 fractional design. These factors were further evaluated using a central composite design and response surface methodology, and an empirical model for protein content was established and validated. The biomass of Yarrowia lipolytica NRRL YB-423 reached 19.5 ± 1.0 g/L in shaken flasks cultivation, with a protein content of 20.1 ± 0.6% (w/w). <![CDATA[<b>Isolation and characterization of an <i>Ashbya gossypii</i> mutant for improved riboflavin production</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The use of the filamentous fungus, Ashbya gossypii, to improve riboflavin production at an industrial scale is described in this paper. A riboflavin overproducing strain was isolated by ultraviolet irradiation. Ten minutes after spore suspensions of A. gossypii were irradiated by ultraviolet light, a survival rate of 5.5% spores was observed, with 10% of the surviving spores giving rise to riboflavin-overproducing mutants. At this time point, a stable mutant of the wild strain was isolated. Riboflavin production of the mutant was two fold higher than that of the wild strain in flask culture. When the mutant was growing on the optimized medium, maximum riboflavin production could reach 6.38 g/l. It has even greater promise to increase its riboflavin production through dynamic analysis of its growth phase parameters, and riboflavin production could reach 8.12 g/l with pH was adjusted to the range of 6.0-7.0 using KH2PO4 in the later growth phase. This mutant has the potential to be used for industrial scale riboflavin production. <![CDATA[<b>Characterizations of a new <i>Cordyceps cicadae</i> isolate and production of adenosine and cordycepin</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Cordyceps is a fastidious pathogenic fungus infecting insects, and recent years have witnessed rapid progress in its medical properties. In this study, a wild isolate, C. cicadae MP12, was characterized through in vitro cultivation and its nuclear small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) data. In vitro culture of C. cicadae MP12 was established by growing its fruiting bodies in a solid matrix. C. cicadae MP12 was inoculated into Cryptotympana atrata cicada pupae for in vivo culture, where the fungi developed its fruiting body as well. The contents of adenosine and cordycepin in dried fruiting bodies after culture were 1421.45µg/g and 1398.12 µg/g, respectively. Therefore, the established cultures from this study could be used for the production of various medically important metabolic substances. <![CDATA[<b>Hydrolysis of various thai agricultural biomasses using the crude enzyme from <i>Aspergillus aculeatus</i> iizuka FR60 isolated from soil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this study, forty-two fungi from soil were isolated and tested for their carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) and xylanase activities. From all isolates, the fungal isolate FR60, which was identified as Aspergillus aculeatus Iizuka, showed high activities in both CMCase and xylanase with 517 mU/mg protein and 550 mU/mg protein, respectively. The crude enzyme from A. aculeatus Iizuka FR60 could hydrolyze several agricultural residues such as corncob, and sweet sorghum leaf and stalk at comparable rates with respect to the tested commercial enzymes and with a maximum rate in rice hull hydrolysis (29 μg sugar g-1 dry weight substrate mg-1 enzyme hr-1). The highest amount of glucose was obtained from corncob by using the crude enzyme from A. aculeatus Iizuka FR60 (10.1 g/100 g dry substrate). From overall enzymatic treatment results, the lowest sugar yield was from rice hulls treatment (1.6 g/100 g dry weight) and the highest amount of reducing sugar was obtained from rice straw treatment (15.3 g/100 g dry weight). Among tested agricultural wastes, rice hull could not be effectively hydrolyzed by enzymes, whereas sugarcane leaf and stalk, and peanut shell could be effectively hydrolyzed (30-31% total sugar comparing with total sugar yield from acid treatment). <![CDATA[<b>A biodegradation study of forest biomass by <i>Aspergillus niger</i> F<sub>7</sub></b>: <b>correlation between enzymatic activity, hydrolytic percentage and biodegradation index</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Aspergillus niger F7 isolated from soil was found to be the potent producer of cellulase and xylanase. The residue of forest species Toona ciliata, Celtris australis, Cedrus deodara and Pinus roxburghii was selected as substrate for biodegradation study due to its easy availability and wide use in industry. It was subjected to alkali (sodium hydroxide) treatment for enhancing its degradation. Biodegradation of forest waste by hydrolytic enzymes (cellulase and xylanase) secreted by A. niger under solid state fermentation (SSF) was explored. SSF of pretreated forest biomass was found to be superior over untreated forest biomass. Highest extracellular enzyme activity of 2201±23.91 U/g by A. niger was shown in pretreated C. australis wood resulting in 6.72±0.20 percent hydrolysis and 6.99±0.23 biodegradation index (BI). The lowest BI of 1.40±0.08 was observed in untreated saw dust of C. deodara having the least enzyme activity of 238±1.36 U/g of dry matter. Biodegradation of forest biomass under SSF was increased many folds when moistening agent i.e. tap water had been replaced with modified basal salt media (BSM). In BSM mediated degradation of forest waste with A. niger, extracellular enzyme activity was increased up to 4089±67.11 U/g of dry matter in turn resulting in higher BI of 15.4±0.41 and percent hydrolysis of 19.38±0.81 in pretreated C. australis wood. A. niger exhibited higher enzyme activity on pretreated biomass when moistened with modified BSM in this study. Statistically a positive correlation has been drawn between these three factors i.e. enzyme activity, BI and percent hydrolysis of forest biomass thus proving their direct relationship with each other. <![CDATA[<b>Penicillin production by wild isolates of <i>Penicillium chrysogenum</i> in Pakistan</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The present study was aimed at exploring the native wild isolates of Penicillium chrysogenum series in terms of their penicillin production potential. Apart from the standard medium, the efforts were made to utilize suitable agro-industrial wastes for the maximum yield of penicillin. Two series of P. chrysogenum were isolated from local sources and named as P. chrysogenum series UAF R1 and P. chrysogenum series UAF R2. The native series were found to possess better penicillin production potential than the already reported series of P. chrysogenum. However, P. chrysogenum series UAF R1 was found to be the best candidate for high yield of penicillin starting at 100 hour as compared to P. chrysogenum series UAF R2 which produced the highest yield of penicillin at 150 hours for a shorter period of time. Addition of Corn Steep Liquor (CSL) to the fermentation medium resulted in the production of 1.20g/L penicillin by P. chrysogenum series UAF R1 and P. chrysogenum series UAF R2. The fermentation medium in which Sugar Cane Bagasse (SCB) was replaced with CSL resulted in the highest yield of penicillin (1.92g/L) by both native series of P. chrysogenum. The penicillin production was increased by 62.5% in medium with SCB as compared to that with CSL. The penicillin yield of medium containing lactose and phenyl acetate was higher than that of control medium. Overall results revealed that P. chrysogenum series UAF R1 and P. chrysogenum series UAF R2 may be recommended for better yield of natural penicillin and this efficiency may be further enhanced by utilizing SCB as substrate in the growth medium. <![CDATA[<b>Development and characterization of hybrids from native wine yeasts</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en For commercial purposes, the winemaking industry is constantly searching for new yeast strains. Historically, this has been achieved by collecting wild strains and selecting the best for industrial use through an enological evaluation. Furthermore, the increasing consumer demands have forced the industry to incorporate new strategies such as genetic engineering to obtain improved strains. In response to the lack of public acceptance of this methodology, alternative strategies based on breeding have gained acceptance in recent years. Through the use of conjugation of individual spores without the support of genetic engineering methods we generated intraspecific hybrids from wild strains with outstanding enological characteristics and interdelta fingerprinting was used to confirm the hybrid condition. A detailed enological characterization of the hybrids in synthetic and natural must indicates that physiological parameters such as sporulation, residual sugar, ethanol yield and total nitrogen uptake are within the levels determined for the parental strains, however, other parameters such as growth rate, lag phase and ethanol production show statistical differences with some parental or commercial strains. These findings allow us to propose these hybrids as new wine-making strains. <![CDATA[<b>Optimization of exopolysaccharides production from a novel strain of <i>Ganoderma lucidum</i> CAU5501 in submerged culture</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study aimed at optimizing the medium of a new Ganoderma lucidum strain CAU5501 to enhance the yield of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and mycelial growth. Firstly, the suitable level of glucose, magnesium, phosphate and C/N ratio was determined by single factor experiment. Subsequently, the optimum concentrations of these medium components were investigated using the orthogonal matrix method. The results indicated that the higher levels of EPS were correlated with the level of cell growth when glucose concentration was studied (data no show). The optimum medium for EPS yield was found to be 70 g/l glucose, 5 C/N ratio, 2.5 g/l KH2PO4, 0.75 g/l MgSO4·7H2O, and for mycelial growth was 50 g/l glucose, 5 C/N ratio, 1.5 g/l KH2PO4, 0.5 g/l MgSO4·7H2O. When cultivated in the obtained optimal media in 3 L shake flask, compared to the basal medium, the EPS yield increased markedly from 1.003 to 1.723 g/l, and the mycelium formation was also markedly improved from 2.028 to 7.235 g/l. Results obtained in this study are beneficial to further study for enhancing the production of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides in large scale commercialized production. <![CDATA[<b>The hydrolysis of agro-industrial residues by holocellulose-degrading enzymes</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Holocellulose structures from agro-industrial residues rely on main and side chain attacking enzymes with different specificities for complete hydrolysis. Combinations of crude enzymatic extracts from different fungal species, including Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma longibrachiatum, were applied to sugar cane bagasse, banana stem and dirty cotton residue to investigate the hydrolysis of holocellulose structures. A. terreus and A. oryzae were the best producers of FPase and xylanase activities. A combination of A. terreus and A. oryzae extracts in a 50% proportion provided optimal hydrolysis of dirty cotton residue and banana stem. For the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse, the best results were obtained with samples only containing A. terreus crude extract. <![CDATA[<b>Bioconversion of glycerol for bioethanol production using isolated <i>Escherichia coli</i> SS1</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Bioconverting glycerol into various valuable products is one of glycerol's promising applications due to its high availability at low cost and the existence of many glycerol-utilizing microorganisms. Bioethanol and biohydrogen, which are types of renewable fuels, are two examples of bioconverted products. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ethanol production from different media by local microorganism isolates and compare the ethanol fermentation profile of the selected strains to use of glucose or glycerol as sole carbon sources. The ethanol fermentations by six isolates were evaluated after a preliminary screening process. Strain named SS1 produced the highest ethanol yield of 1.0 mol: 1.0 mol glycerol and was identified as Escherichia coli SS1 Also, this isolated strain showed a higher affinity to glycerol than glucose for bioethanol production. <![CDATA[<b>Comparison of different protocols for the extraction of microbial DNA from reef corals</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study aimed to test different protocols for the extraction of microbial DNA from the coral Mussismilia harttii. Four different commercial kits were tested, three of them based on methods for DNA extraction from soil (FastDNA SPIN Kit for soil, MP Bio, PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit, MoBio, and ZR Soil Microbe DNA Kit, Zymo Research) and one kit for DNA extraction from plants (UltraClean Plant DNA Isolation Kit, MoBio). Five polyps of the same colony of M. harttii were macerated and aliquots were submitted to DNA extraction by the different kits. After extraction, the DNA was quantified and PCR-DGGE was used to study the molecular fingerprint of Bacteria and Eukarya. Among the four kits tested, the ZR Soil Microbe DNA Kit was the most efficient with respect to the amount of DNA extracted, yielding about three times more DNA than the other kits. Also, we observed a higher number and intensities of DGGE bands for both Bacteria and Eukarya with the same kit. Considering these results, we suggested that the ZR Soil Microbe DNA Kit is the best adapted for the study of the microbial communities of corals. <![CDATA[<b>Occurrence and characteristics of virulence genes of <i>Escherichia coli</i> strains isolated from healthy dairy cows in Inner Mongolia, China</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Virulence genes of Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates from healthy dairy cows were identified and characterized by a multiplex PCR assay and serogrouping test. The results showed that among the target genes, eaeA was most frequently detected, accounting for 22.11% (67/303) in all strains from 101 cows. For categorization of E. coli, aEPEC was the category with widest distribution detected in 55 (18.15%) strains from 22 cattle. All of 84 PCR-positive strains belonged to 14 O serogroups, and O149 (25.00%) was most common identified, followed by O2 (17.86%), O8 (11.90%) and O103 (9.52%) with relatively high prevalence. <![CDATA[<b>Transmission of <i>Campylobacter coli</i> in chicken embryos</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Campylobacter coli is an important species involved in human cases of enteritis, and chickens are carriers of the pathogen mainly in developing country. The current study aimed to evaluate the transmission of C. coli and its pathogenic effects in chicken embryos. Breeder hens were inoculated intra-esophageally with C. coli isolated from chickens, and their eggs and embryos were analyzed for the presence of bacteria using real-time PCR and plate culture. The viability of embryos was verified. In parallel, SPF eggs were inoculated with C. coli in the air sac; after incubation, the embryos were submitted to the same analysis as the embryos from breeder hens. In embryos and fertile eggs from breeder hens, the bacterium was only identified by molecular methods; in the SPF eggs, however, the bacterium was detected by both techniques. The results showed no relationship between embryo mortality and positivity for C. coli in the embryos from breeder hens. However, the presence of bacteria is a cause of precocious mortality for SPF embryos. This study revealed that although the vertical transmission is a possible event, the bacteria can not grow in embryonic field samples. <![CDATA[<b>Growth inhibition of <i>Staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli</i> strains by neutralizing IgY antibodies from ostrich egg yolk</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Ostrich raising around the world have some key factors and farming profit depend largely on information and ability of farmers to rear these animals. Non fertilized eggs from ostriches are discharged in the reproduction season. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are microorganisms involved in animal and human diseases. In order to optimize the use of sub products of ostrich raising, non fertilized eggs of four selected birds were utilized for development of polyclonal IgY antibodies. The birds were immunized (200ug/animal) with purified recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin C (recSEC) and synthetic recRAP, both derived from S. aureus, and recBFPA and recEspB involved in E. coli pathogenicity, diluted in FCA injected in the braquial muscle. Two subsequent immunization steps with 21 days intervals were repeated in 0,85% saline in FIA. Blood and eggs samples were collected before and after immunization steps. Egg yolk immunoglobulins were purified by precipitation with 19% sodium sulfate and 20% ammonium sulphate methodologies. Purified IgY 50µL aliquots were incubated in 850µL BHI broth containing 50µL inoculums of five strains of S. aureus and five strains of E.coli during four hours at 37ºC. Growth inhibition was evaluated followed by photometry reading (DO550nm). Egg yolk IgY preparation from hiperimmunized birds contained antibodies that inhibited significantly (p<0,05) growth of strains tested. Potential use of ostrich IgY polyclonal antibodies as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool is proposed for diseased animals. <![CDATA[<b>Synergistic haemolytic activity and its correlation to phospholipase D productivity by <i>Corynebacteruim pseudotuberculosis</i> Egyptian isolates from sheep and buffaloes</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Fourteen isolates of Corynebacteruim pseudotuberculosis of them 7 were isolated from sheep with Caseous Lymphadenitis "biotype 1" and 7 isolated from buffaloes with Oedematous Skin Disease "biotype 2". All isolates were identified by standard microbiological techniques and by polymerase chain reaction targeting, 16S rRNA and phospholipase D genes. Synergistic haemolytic titers of all isolates were assayed by plate technique. The presences of phospholipase D gene in supernatants of all isolates were performed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis immunoblot technique by using hyperimmune serum raised in rabbit immunized with recombinant phospholipase D gene antigen. The concentration of phospholipase D gene was assayed by scanning the bound phospholipase D gene with specific antibodies that appeared at 31.5 kDa. Results presented that there is no correlation between titer of Synergistic haemolytic activity and the actual phospholipase D genes concentration in culture supernatants. Also results presented that Synergistic haemolytic activity and phospholipase D genes produced by biotype 2 (buffalo isolates) was generally higher than those by biotype 1(sheep isolates). <![CDATA[<b>Isolation and identification of feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus in Southern Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) are the two primary causes of upper respiratory tract disease in cats. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the distribution of FCV and FHV-1 among the feline population of several counties in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. To this end, conjunctival and nasal swabs were collected from 302 cats from different locations, including households, breeding catteries, veterinary clinics, animal hospitals and experimental research facilities. The samples were collected between July 2006 to June 2009. The virus isolation was performed in CRFK cells and, subsequently, the identification was confirmed by PCR. FCV, FHV-1, or both were isolated from 55 cats from 28 different locations. FCV alone was isolated from 52.7% (29/55) of the animals that tested positively, FHV-1 alone was isolated from 38.2% (21/55) of the animals that tested positively, and co-infection were detected in 9.1% (5/55) of the animals that tested positively. Virus detection was more prevalent in cats that were less than 1 year old, among animals that shared a living space with other cats, and females. FCV and FHV-1 were isolated from vaccinated cats. In addition, both viruses were isolated from cats that showed no signs of disease. The results suggest that a carrier state is common for both viruses in the evaluated population. A search for other causes of respiratory disease in that population is necessary; and further studies relating to the molecular characterization of viruses and vaccine efficacy are also necessary. <![CDATA[<b>Molecular detection of hemoplasma infection among cats from São Luís island, Maranhão, Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hemoplasmas are bacteria that infect erythrocytes, attaching to the red blood cell. There is a need for more reports of hemoplasma infection prevalence and molecular characterization among cats in Brazil since there are only few published reports. The present work aimed to detect and molecularly characterize the presence of hemotrophic mycoplasmas in domestic cats with outdoor access from São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. Twenty cats (10%) were positive for Candidatus M. haemominutum, five (2.5%) for M. haemofelis, and four (2.%) for M. turicensis based on 16S rRNA gene PCRs. Five cats (2.5%) were co-positive for Candidatus M. haemominutum and M. haemofelis. PCR diagnosis was confirmed by sequencing; and phylogenetic analysis was based on 16S rRNA and rnpb genes. <![CDATA[<b><i>Streptococcus iniae</i> outbreaks in Brazilian Nile tilapia (<i>Oreochromis niloticus</i> L</b>: <b>) farms</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This is the first report of outbreaks of Streptococcus iniae in Nile tilapia farms in South America. Seven isolates were identified by biochemical, serological and molecular tests. Their 16S rRNA gene sequences showed 100% similarity with S. iniae ATCC 29178 and two distinct PFGE patterns were observed for Brazilian isolates. <![CDATA[<b>Diagnosis of paratuberculosis in cattle</b>: <b>microbiological culture, serology and PCR</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this study was to confirm clinical diagnosis of paratuberculosis in two cows showing suggestive clinical signs of the disease. Based on clinical signs, in culture and in IS900 PCR results from the individual milk samples it was possible to diagnose paratuberculosis in the cows studied. <![CDATA[<b>Analysis of isotype-specific antibody responses to bovine herpesviruses 1.1 and 1.2a allows to estimate the stage of infection</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Specific IgM, IgA, IgG1, IgG2, as well as neutralizing antibody responses were evaluated in sera of calves experimentally infected with two isolates of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV1) of distinct subtypes (subtype 1, BoHV1.1; subtype 2a, BoHV-1.2a). No significant differences were observed in the antibody responses induced by each BoHV-1 subtype. The antibody responses following primary acute infection were characterized by an increase in specific IgM and IgA levels between days 2 and 14 post inoculation (pi). IgG1 was detected from days 11 to 30 pi. IgG2 was detected on the sample taken on day 30 pi. Reactivation of infection following dexamethasone administration induced a significant rise in IgA levels, whereas IgG1 and IgG2 levels, which were at high levels from the beginning of the reactivation process, showed a slight alteration after corticosteroid treatment. These results suggest that it is possible to estimate the dynamics of BoHV-1 infections with basis on the analysis of class- and subclass-specific antibody responses. Such information may be particularly useful for the study of the kinetics of the infection in a herd and to aid in the adoption of appropriate control measures.. <![CDATA[<b>Excretion of <i>Brucella abortus</i> vaccine B19 strain during a reproductive cycle in dairy cows</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200022&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This paper aimed to determine the excretion period of B19 vaccine strain during a complete reproductive cycle (from estrus synchronization, artificial insemination, pregnancy and until 30 days after parturition) of dairy cows from 3 to 9 years old that were previously vaccinated from 3 to 8 months. Three groups were monitored with monthly milk and urine collection during 12 months: G1 with seven cows from 3 to 4 years old; G2 with three cows from 5 to 6 years old; and G3 with four cows from 7 to 9 years old. Urine and milk samples were submitted to bacteriological culture and urine and PCR reactions for detection of Brucella spp. and PCR-multiplex for B19 strain identification. Ring test (RT) was also performed in the milk samples, and serum samples were tested by buffered acidified plate antigen test (BAPA). All animals were serologically negative at BAPA and Brucella spp. was not isolated from both urine and milk samples. RT revealed 13/210 (6.2%) positive milk samples. PCR reactions detected DNA of Brucella spp. in 86/420 (20.5%) samples. In urine it was found a significantly higher frequency (35.2%; 74/210) than in milk (5.7%; 12/210), more frequently from the estrus to 150 days of pregnancy and after parturition (6.7%; 10/150), and from 150 days of pregnancy to parturition (3.4%; 2/60), and they were all identified as B19 strain. In three groups, intermittent excretion of B19 strain was detected mainly in urine samples, which confirmed its multiplication and persistence in cows for until 9 years. <![CDATA[<b>Diagnosis of canine leptospirosis using an immunomagnetic separation-PCR method</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Diagnosis of leptospirosis by PCR is hampered due to the presence of substances on biological fluids. Here, we report an immunomagnetic separation step prior to PCR which improved the detection of Leptospira spp. in blood and urine samples from dogs. It resulted in a significant improvement on sensitivity for diagnosis of canine leptospirosis. <![CDATA[<b>Characterization of pyrene utilizing <i>Bacillus</i> spp. from crude oil contaminated soil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200024&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Pyrene, a high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is a priority pollutant present in soil contaminated with crude oil, coal-tar and complex PAHs. Bacterial consortium CON-3 developed from crude oil contaminated soil of Patiala, Punjab (India) cometabolized 50 µg ml-1 pyrene in the presence of glucose (0.5 %; w/v) at 30 °C, as determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bacillus sp. PK-12, Bacillus sp. PK-13 and Bacillus sp. PK-14 from CON-3, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, were able to cometabolize 64 %, 55 % and 53 % of pyrene in 35 days, respectively. With the increase in glucose concentration to 1.0 % (w/v) in growth medium isolates PK-12, PK-13 and PK-14 showed 19 - 46 % uptake of 50 µg ml-1 pyrene in 4 days, respectively. Uptake of pyrene was correlated with growth and biosurfactant activity, which is suggestive of the potential role of members of Bacillus genera in pyrene mobilization and its uptake. <![CDATA[<b><i>Bacillus thuringiensis</i> monogenic strains</b>: <b>screening and interactions with insecticides used against rice pests</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The screening of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry proteins with high potential to control insect pests has been the goal of numerous research groups. In this study, we evaluated six monogenic Bt strains (Bt dendrolimus HD-37, Bt kurstaki HD-1, Bt kurstaki HD-73, Bt thuringiensis 4412, Bt kurstaki NRD-12 and Bt entomocidus 60.5, which codify the cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1Ba, cry1C, cry2A genes respectively) as potential insecticides for the most important insect pests of irrigated rice: Spodoptera frugiperda, Diatraea saccharalis, Oryzophagus oryzae, Oebalus poecilus and Tibraca limbativentris. We also analyzed their compatibility with chemical insecticides (thiamethoxam, labdacyhalothrin, malathion and fipronil), which are extensively used in rice crops. The bioassay results showed that Bt thuringiensis 4412 and Bt entomocidus 60.5 were the most toxic for the lepidopterans, with a 93% and 82% mortality rate for S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis, respectively. For O. oryzae, the Bt kurstaki NRD-12 (64%) and Bt dendrolimus HD-37 (62%) strains were the most toxic. The Bt dendrolimus HD-37 strain also caused high mortality (82%) to O. poecilus, however the strains assessed to T. limbativentris caused a maximum rate of 5%. The assays for the Bt strains interaction with insecticides revealed the compatibility of the six strains with the four insecticides tested. The results from this study showed the high potential of cry1Aa and cry1Ba genes for genetic engineering of rice plants or the strains to biopesticide formulations. <![CDATA[<b>Biodiversity of the oleaginous microorganisms in Tibetan Plateau</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200026&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Microbial lipids, which are also known as single cell oils (SCO), are produced by oleaginous microorganisms including oleaginous bacteria, yeast, fungus and algae through converting carbohydrates into lipids under certain conditions. Due to its unique environment having extremely low temperature and anoxia, the Tibetan Plateau is amongst the regions with numerous rare ecotypes such as arid desert, salt marsh, alpine permafrost, hot spring, and lawn. By using a rapid, convenient screening method, we identified 31 strains of oleaginous microorganisms from different habitats in the Tibetan Plateau, which include wetlands, lawn, hot spring, alpine permafrost, and saline-alkali soil. Molecular identity analysis showed that they belong to 15 different species, 7 of which are reported for the first time as lipid-producing microorganisms, that is, Cladosporium sp., Gibberella fujikuro, Ochrobactrum sp., Plectosphaerella sp., Tilletiopsis albescens, Backusella ctenidia, and Davidiella tassiana. The distribution of the oleaginous microorganisms varies with habitats. 11 strains were found in hot spring (35.5%), 10 in farmland (32.3%), 6 in lawn (19.4%), 2 in sand (6.4%), 1 in wetland (3.2%), and 1 in permafrost (3.2%). Carbon utilization analysis indicated that most of these filamentous fungi can use xylose and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as carbon source, where Backusella ctenidia, Fusarium sp. and Gibberella fujikuroi have the strongest capability. <![CDATA[<b><i>Vibrio cholerae</i> O1 from superficial water of the Tucunduba Stream, Brazilian Amazon</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200027&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Isolation and genetic characterization of an environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 from the Amazon is reported. This strain lacks two major virulence factors - CTX and TCP - but carries other genes related to virulence. Genetic similarity with epidemic strains is evaluated and the importance of V. cholerae surveillance in the Amazon is emphasized. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation and biochemical characterization of a distinctive pyoverdin from a pseudomonas isolated from chickpea rhizosphere</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200028&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Microbial siderophores confiscate the available ferric ions around the roots and trigger a reaction resulting in plant growth promotion. In our study, a high level of siderophore production was observed from a newly isolated Pseudomonas sp. from the rhizosphere of Chickpea plants. Under an iron depleted condition in Standard Succinic acid medium a 1000 µgmL-1 of siderophore production was achieved. Increasing the concentration of iron showed an inverse relationship between growth and siderophore production. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the purified crystals, its UV spectral analysis and High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) revealed the identity of the siderophore as similar to that of pyoverdin with distinctive characters. Electron spray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESIMS) shows presence of abundance of A1 ions (419 m/z) and branching of amino acids from B1-B5. This pyoverdin contains a cyclic tetra peptide but Serine and Arginine are missing. Based on our analysis and deviations from the reported structure of pyoverdin it is suggested that this pseudomonas produces distinctly characterized pyoverdin siderophore. <![CDATA[<b>A comparison of silver staining protocols for detecting DNA in polyester-backed polyacrylamide gel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200029&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Eight silver-staining protocols were applied to detect DNA in polyester-backed gels to select the optimal. Results showed important differences in staining quality and that four methods were well-suited for TGGE gels due to high sensitivity and low background, including the Bassam et al. methods, the manufacturer method and our improved method. <![CDATA[<b>Interspecific variation of the bacterial community structure in the phyllosphere of the three major plant components of mangrove forests</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200030&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Mangrove forests encompass a group of trees species that inhabit the intertidal zones, where soil is characterized by the high salinity and low availability of oxygen. The phyllosphere of these trees represent the habitat provided on the aboveground parts of plants, supporting in a global scale, a large and complex microbial community. The structure of phyllosphere communities reflects immigration, survival and growth of microbial colonizers, which is influenced by numerous environmental factors in addition to leaf physical and chemical properties. Here, a combination of culture-base methods with PCR-DGGE was applied to test whether local or plant specific factors shape the bacterial community of the phyllosphere from three plant species (Avicenia shaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle), found in two mangroves. The number of bacteria in the phyllosphere of these plants varied between 3.62 x 10(4) in A. schaeriana and 6.26 x 10³ in R. mangle. The results obtained by PCR-DGGE and isolation approaches were congruent and demonstrated that each plant species harbor specific bacterial communities in their leaves surfaces. Moreover, the ordination of environmental factors (mangrove and plant species), by redundancy analysis (RDA), also indicated that the selection exerted by plant species is higher than mangrove location on bacterial communities at phyllosphere. <![CDATA[<b>Prokaryotic communities of acidic peatlands from the southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200031&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The acidic peatlands of southern Brazil are ecosystems essential for the maintenance of the Atlantic Forest, one of the 25 hot-spots of biodiversity in the world. In this work, we investigated the composition of prokaryotic communities in four histosols of three acidic peatland regions by constructing small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene libraries and sequencing. SSU rRNA gene sequence analysis showed the prevalence of Acidobacteria (38.8%) and Proteobacteria (27.4%) of the Bacteria domain and Miscellaneous (58%) and Terrestrial (24%) groups of Crenarchaeota of the Archaea domain. As observed in other ecosystems, archaeal communities showed lower richness than bacterial communities. We also found a limited number of Euryarchaeota and of known methanotrophic bacteria in the clone libraries. <![CDATA[<b>Comparison of thermotolerant coliforms and <i>Escherichia coli</i> densities in freshwater bodies</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200032&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Fecal bacterial indicator analyses have been widely used for monitoring the water quality. This study was designed to determine the ratio between the density of Escherichia coli and other Thermotolerant Coliforms (TtC) bacteria from freshwater samples collected for a two-year period of monitoring. TtC were enumerated by membrane filtration on mFC agar. E. coli enumeration was done by two methods: TtC colonies identified in mFC were inoculated in EC-MUG or water samples were filtered and inoculated in modified mTEC agar media, and both methods were compared for quantitative recovery of E. coli. The results pointed out a mean percentage of E. coli among other thermotolerant coliforms (E. coli/TtC ratio) of 84.3% in mFC media. Taking these results into account, a mandatory standard of 1000 thermotolerant coliforms would correspond to 800 E. coli and the adoption of these E. coli based standards will represent a major improvement for the monitoring of freshwater quality. <![CDATA[<b>Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (<i>Vigna unguiculata</i>) as trap plant</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200033&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis) and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium. <![CDATA[<b>Association of TLR4 polymorphisms with subclinical mastitis in Brazilian holsteins</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200034&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The identification of dairy cows with greater or lower potential to develop mastits has been pursued for many years among different segments of the milk industry, including governmental organizations. Genomic studies have suggested that Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) within the pattern recognition receptors (PRR) could lead to different responses to pathogens, and consequently result in mastitis resistance or susceptibility. To investigate whether toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene is associated with subclinical mastitis in Holstein cows from a property in the state of Goiás, Brazil, TaqMan allelic discrimination and somatic cell count were performed. One hundred and fifty milk samples were analyzed for SCC and centesimal composition. Twenty percent of those samples with SCC above 200,000 (n=13) were screened for real-time PCR identification of microorganisms and blood samples were genotyped for TLR4 SNPs. There was a higher prevalence of Gram-positive bacteria in the analyzed samples (88.9%) and animals that had the combined genotypes AACCCC, GGTCGG and GACCGC presented the lowest somatic cell scores, and consequently those genotypes have the potential to be applied as molecular markers for assisted animal selection to improve milk quality. <![CDATA[<b>Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of <i>Bradyrhizobium</i> strains</b>: <b>revealing high diversity of tropical diazotrophic symbiotic bacteria</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200035&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Symbiotic association of several genera of bacteria collectively called as rhizobia and plants belonging to the family Leguminosae (=Fabaceae) results in the process of biological nitrogen fixation, playing a key role in global N cycling, and also bringing relevant contributions to the agriculture. Bradyrhizobium is considered as the ancestral of all nitrogen-fixing rhizobial species, probably originated in the tropics. The genus encompasses a variety of diverse bacteria, but the diversity captured in the analysis of the 16S rRNA is often low. In this study, we analyzed twelve Bradyrhizobium strains selected from previous studies performed by our group for showing high genetic diversity in relation to the described species. In addition to the 16S rRNA, five housekeeping genes (recA, atpD, glnII, gyrB and rpoB) were analyzed in the MLSA (multilocus sequence analysis) approach. Analysis of each gene and of the concatenated housekeeping genes captured a considerably higher level of genetic diversity, with indication of putative new species. The results highlight the high genetic variability associated with Bradyrhizobium microsymbionts of a variety of legumes. In addition, the MLSA approach has proved to represent a rapid and reliable method to be employed in phylogenetic and taxonomic studies, speeding the identification of the still poorly known diversity of nitrogen-fixing rhizobia in the tropics. <![CDATA[<b>Detection of <i>Wolbachia</i> (Alphaproteobacteria</b>: <b>rickettsiales) in three species of terrestrial isopods (crustacea: isopoda: oniscidea) in Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200036&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Terrestrial isopods are widely infected with Wolbachia. However, little is known about the presence of bacteria in the Neotropical species. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis of presence of Wolbachia infection in the native species of terrestrial isopods, Atlantoscia floridana and Circoniscus bezzii, and in the introduced species Burmoniscus meeusei. <![CDATA[<b>Expression of phenazine biosynthetic genes during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis of <i>Glomus intraradices</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200037&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en To explore the molecular mechanisms that prevail during the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis involving the genus Glomus, we transcriptionally analysed spores of Glomus intraradices BE3 during early hyphal growth. Among 458 transcripts initially identified as being expressed at presymbiotic stages, 20% of sequences had homology to previously characterized eukaryotic genes, 30% were homologous to fungal coding sequences, and 9% showed homology to previously characterized bacterial genes. Among them, GintPbr1a encodes a homolog to Phenazine Biosynthesis Regulator (Pbr) of Burkholderia cenocepacia, an pleiotropic regulatory protein that activates phenazine production through transcriptional activation of the protein D isochorismatase biosynthetic enzyme phzD (Ramos et al., 2010). Whereas GintPbr1a is expressed during the presymbiotic phase, the G. intraradices BE3 homolog of phzD (BGintphzD) is transcriptionally active at the time of the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. DNA from isolated bacterial cultures found in spores of G. intraradices BE3 confirmed that both BGintPbr1a and BGintphzD are present in the genome of its potential endosymbionts. Taken together, our results indicate that spores of G. intraradices BE3 express bacterial phenazine biosynthetic genes at the onset of the fungal-plant symbiotic interaction. <![CDATA[<b>Rhinovirus detection using different PCR-based strategies</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200038&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the major cause of the common cold. HRVs were recently reclassified into the Enterovirus genus (HEV) in the Picornaviridae family. HRVs and other members of the HEV genus share many common features, including sense RNA genomes and partial nucleotide sequence identity. The aim of this study was to evaluate different HRV detection strategies. Samples from adults with acute respiratory infection (n = 291) who were treated in Sao Paulo Hospital (2001-2003) were tested using three assays. The first assay detected picornaviruses by RT-PCR and hybridization, the second detected rhinoviruses using RT-PCR/sequencing, and the third differentiated HRV from HEV using duplex semi-nested-RT-PCR. Analysis of the results obtained from the first two strategies revealed 83% concordance. Discordant samples were then evaluated by the third protocol, and 82% were negative. The picornavirus detection protocol was more sensitive but less specific than the rhinovirus detection protocols. The semi-nested protocol utilized in the present study was less sensitive and was not useful in differentiating HRV from HEV. Sequencing assays examining different genes would address the best strategy of confirming rhinovirus and enterovirus infections. <![CDATA[<b>Correlation between ebv co-infection and HPV16 genome integrity in Tunisian cervical cancer patients</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200039&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Infection with high risk Human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is necessary but not sufficient to cause cervical carcinoma. This study explored whether multiple HR-HPV or coinfection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) influence the integration status of HPV16 genome. The presence and typing of HPV in a series of 125 cervical specimens were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the specific primers for the HPV L1 region. As for EBV infection, the viral EBNA1 gene was used for its detection through PCR amplification. Disruption of the HPV E2 gene was assessed by amplification of the entire E2 gene with single set of primers, while E2 transcripts were evaluated by a reverse transcription PCR method (RT-PCR). The overall prevalence of HPVDNA was of 81.8% in cervical cancers versus 26.9% in benign lesions. In HPV positive cases, HPV16 and HPV18 were the most prevalent types, followed by HPV types 33, 31. EBV EBNA1 prevalence was statistically more frequent in cervical carcinomas than in benign lesions (29.5%, vs 9.6%; P=0.01). No viral infection was detected in healthy control women. The uninterrupted E2 gene was correlated with the presence of E2 transcripts originating from the HPV episomal forms. It was observed that integration was more common in HPV18 and EBV coinfection. The presence of EBV caused a five-fold [OR= 5; CI= 1.15-21.8; P = 0.04] increase in the risk of HPV16 genome integration in the host genome. This study indicates that EBV infection is acting as a cofactor for induction of cervical cancer by favoring HPVDNA integration. <![CDATA[<b>Virulence potential and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of motile aeromonads associated with freshwater ornamental fish culture systems</b>: <b>a possible threat to public health</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200040&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous aquatic organisms, associated with multitude of diseases in several species of animals, including fishes and humans. In the present study, water samples from two ornamental fish culture systems were analyzed for the presence of Aeromonas. Nutrient agar was used for Aeromonas isolation, and colonies (60 No) were identified through biochemical characterization. Seven clusters could be generated based on phenotypic characters, analyzed by the programme NTSYSpc, Version 2.02i, and identified as: Aeromonas caviae (33.3%), A. jandaei (38.3%) and A. veronii biovar sobria (28.3%). The strains isolated produced highly active hydrolytic enzymes, haemolytic activity and slime formation in varying proportions. The isolates were also tested for the enterotoxin genes (act, alt and ast), haemolytic toxins (hlyA and aerA), involved in type 3 secretion system (TTSS: ascV, aexT, aopP, aopO, ascF-ascG, and aopH), and glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat). All isolates were found to be associated with at least one virulent gene. Moreover, they were resistant to frequently used antibiotics for human infections. The study demonstrates the pathogenic potential of Aeromonas, associated with ornamental fish culture systems suggesting the emerging threat to public health. <![CDATA[<b>Increase resistant rates and ESBL production between <i>E. coli</i> isolates causing urinary tract infection in young patients from Iran</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200041&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Emerging antimicrobial resistance rates and Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli recovered from urinary tract infections (UTI) is an increasing problem in specific regions, limiting therapeutic options. One hundred E. coli isolates causing UTI in patients with age from 2 months to 12 years admitted at CMC in the period of April 2009 to March 2010 were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using the disk diffusion method. Surprisingly high resistance rates were recorded for E. coli against TMP/SMX (84%), cefalotin (66%), cefuroxime (50%), cefixime (50%) and ceftriaxone (45%). Antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates was followed by meropenem (98%), amikacin (95%), nitrofurantoin (91%) and gentamicin (68%). Extended spectrum beta-lactamase production, was observed in 32% of community and 42% of nosocomial isolates. The results of this study and numerous observations regarding the increasing resistance to these antibiotics, in several countries, emphasize the need for local population-specific surveillance for guiding empirical therapy for UTI in children. <![CDATA[<b>Antifungal activity of lectins against yeast of vaginal secretion</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200042&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-imune origin. This group of proteins is distributed widely in nature and they have been found in viruses, microorganisms, plants and animals. Lectins of plants have been isolated and characterized according to their chemical, physical-chemical, structural and biological properties. Among their biological activities, we can stress its fungicidal action. It has been previously described the effect of the lectins Dviol, DRL, ConBr and LSL obtained from the seeds of leguminous plants on the growth of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretions. In the present work the experiments were carried out in microtiter plates and the results interpreted by both methods: visual observations and a microplate reader at 530nm. The lectin concentrations varied from 0.5 to 256µg/mL, and the inoculum was established between 65-70% of trammitance. All yeast samples isolated from vaginal secretion were evaluated taxonomically, where were observed macroscopic and microscopic characteristics to each species. The LSL lectin did not demonstrate any antifungal activity to any isolate studied. The other lectins DRL, ConBr and DvioL, showed antifungal potential against yeast isolated from vaginal secretion. These findings offering offer a promising field of investigation to develop new therapeutic strategies against vaginal yeast infections, collaborating to improve women's health. <![CDATA[<b>Occurrence of methicillin resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> (MRSA) among clinical samples in tehran-iran and its correlation with polymorphism of specific accessory gene regulator <i>(AGR)</i> groups</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200043&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for an increasing number of serious hospital and community acquired infections. Virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus is orchestrated by regulators such as the accessory gene regulator (agr). Staphylococcal strains are divided into four major agr groups (agrI-IV) on the basis of agrD and agrC polymorphisms. The purpose of this study was to define the prevalence of MRSA strains in appointed Tehran's hospitals and then to define and compare the proportion of agr I, II, III, IV polymorphisms between MRSA and Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains. A total of 235 isolates were evaluated by conventional antibiotic susceptibility tests and PCR for agr and mecA genes. 112 strains were MRSA (47.5%) and the most prevalent agr specific group was agr I followed by agr III, agr II and agr IV, respectively. The prevalence of agr groups amongst MRSA and MSSA strains was not statistically significant (P>0.05). This study suggests that agr I is not only the most prevalent agr type in MRSAs but also the most common one in Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains in Iran. <![CDATA[<b>Antimicrobial effects of allicin and ketoconazole on trichophyton rubrum under in vitro condition</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200044&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Dermatophytosis is caused by a group of pathogenic fungi namely, dermatophytes, is among the most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide. Azole drugs are widely used in the treatment of dermatomycosis, but can cause various side effects and drug resistance to the patients. Hence, for solving this problem can be used from the plant extract as alternative for chemical drugs. Allicin is a pure bioactive compound isolated from garlic was tested for its potential as a treatment of dermatomycosis in this study. This study evaluated the in vitro efficacy of pure allicin against ten isolates of Trichophyton rubrum and the MIC50 and MIC90 ranged from 0.78-12.5 µg/ml for allicin. The results revealed that the order of efficacy based on the MICs values, all isolates showed almost comparable response to allicin and ketoconazole except for some isolates, at 28 ºC for both 7 and 10 days incubation. Mann-Whitney test indicate that MICs at 7 days incubation was not observed a significant difference between the effects of allicin and ketoconazole (p &gt; 0.05), but MICs at 10 days incubation, a significant difference was observed (p < 0.05). On the other side, time kill studies revealed that allicin used its fungicidal activity within 12-24 h of management in vitro as well as ketoconazole. In conclusion, allicin showed very good potential as an antifungal compound against mycoses-causing dermatophytes, almost the same as the synthetic drug ketoconazole. Therefore, this antifungal agent appears to be effective, safe and suitable alternative for the treatment of dermatomycosis. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of extracts of <i>Tibouchina candolleana</i> (melastomataceae), isolated compounds and semi-synthetic derivatives against endodontic bacteria</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200045&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This work describes the phytochemical study of the extracts from aerial parts of Tibouchina candolleana as well as the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of extracts, isolated compounds, and semi-synthetic derivatives of ursolic acid against endodontic bacteria. HRGC analysis of the n-hexane extract of T. candolleana allowed identification of b-amyrin, a-amyrin, and b-sitosterol as major constituents. The triterpenes ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were isolated from the methylene chloride extract and identified. In addition, the flavonoids luteolin and genistein were isolated from the ethanol extract and identified. The antimicrobial activity was investigated via determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the broth microdilution method. Amongst the isolated compounds, ursolic acid was the most effective against the selected endodontic bacteria. As for the semi-synthetic ursolic acid derivatives, only the methyl ester derivative potentiated the activity against Bacteroides fragilis. <![CDATA[<b>Growth rate inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi by characterized chitosans</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200046&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The inhibitory effects of fifteen chitosans with different degrees of polymerization (DP) and different degrees of acetylation (F A) on the growth rates (GR) of four phytopathogenic fungi (Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, and Rhizopus stolonifer) were examined using a 96-well microtiter plate and a microplate reader. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the chitosans ranged from 100 µg × mL-1 to 1,000 µg × mL-1 depending on the fungus tested and the DP and F A of the chitosan. The antifungal activity of the chitosans increased with decreasing F A. Chitosans with low F A and high DP showed the highest inhibitory activity against all four fungi. P. expansum and B. cinerea were relatively less susceptible while A. alternata and R. stolonifer were relatively more sensitive to the chitosan polymers. Scanning electron microscopy of fungi grown on culture media amended with chitosan revealed morphological changes. <![CDATA[<b>Chlorhexidine</b>: <b>beta-cyclodextrin inhibits yeast growth by extraction of ergosterol</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200047&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Chlorhexidine (Cx) augmented with beta-cyclodextrin (β-cd) inclusion compounds, termed Cx:β-cd complexes, have been developed for use as antiseptic agents. The aim of this study was to examine the interactions of Cx:β-cd complexes, prepared at different molecular ratios, with sterol and yeast membranes. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) against the yeast Candida albicans (C.a.) was determined for each complex; the MICs were found to range from 0.5 to 2 µg/mL. To confirm the MIC data, quantitative analysis of viable cells was performed using trypan blue staining. Mechanistic characterization of the interactions that the Cx:β-cd complexes have with the yeast membrane and assessment of membrane morphology following exposure to Cx:β-cd complexes were performed using Sterol Quantification Method analysis (SQM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SQM revealed that sterol extraction increased with increasing β-cd concentrations (1.71 × 10³; 1.4 × 10³; 3.45 × 10³, and 3.74 × 10³ CFU for 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4, respectively), likely as a consequence of membrane ergosterol solubilization. SEM images demonstrated that cell membrane damage is a visible and significant mechanism that contributes to the antimicrobial effects of Cx:β-cd complexes. Cell disorganization increased significantly as the proportion of β-cyclodextrin present in the complex increased. Morphology of cells exposed to complexes with 1:3 and 1:4 molar ratios of Cx:β-cd were observed to have large aggregates mixed with yeast remains, representing more membrane disruption than that observed in cells treated with Cx alone. In conclusion, nanoaggregates of Cx:β-cd complexes block yeast growth via ergosterol extraction, permeabilizing the membrane by creating cluster-like structures within the cell membrane, possibly due to high amounts of hydrogen bonding. <![CDATA[<b>Applicability of the use of waste from different banana cultivars for the cultivation of the oyster mushroom</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200048&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this research was to evaluate the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus- (Jacq.: Fr.) Kumm. cultivation in substrates based on different combinations of wastes (leaf, pseudo-stem and pseudo-stem + leaf) and banana cultivars - Musa spp. (Thap Maeo, Prata Anã, Pelipita and Caipira) during 49 days. Organic matter loss in the substrate by action of the fungus was also evaluated during that period. It was verified that the pseudo-stem waste provided the best averages of biological efficiency among all cultivars tested and best rates were obtained by Thap Maeo (61.5%). The highest organic matter loss (OML) was obtained from pseudo-stem + leaf wastes (Prata Anã - 78.6%; Thap Maeo - 67.6%; Pelipita - 64.8%; Caipira - 60.6%). Therefore, the use of those wastes showed itself viable for P. ostreatus cultivation due to its availability and low cost, besides decreasing discards to environment. <![CDATA[<b>Variability in the production of extracellular enzymes by entomopathogenic fungi grown on different substrates</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200049&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Entomopathogenic fungi are important controllers of pest-insects populations in agricultural production systems and in natural environment. These fungi have enzymatic machinery which involve since the recognition and adherence of spores in their hosts culminating with infection and death of these insects. The main objective of this study was to analyzed extracellular enzyme production of the fungi strains Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces sp when cultured on substrates. These fungi were grown in minimal media containing specific substrates for the analysis of different enzymes such as amylases, cellulases, esterases, lipases, proteases (gelatin and caseinase), pectinases and cuticles of Musca domestica larvae and adults. All the assays were performed with and without the presence of dextrose in the culture media. The quantification of enzyme activity was performed by the ratio of halo / colony (H/C) and the results subjected to variance analysis level of 5% (ANOVA) followed by post-Tukey test. All strains were positive for lipase and also they showed a high significant enzyme production for gelatin at concentrations of 4 and 1%. B. bassiana and Paecilomyces sp. were positive for amylase, pectinase and caseinase, and only Paecilomyces sp. showed cellulase activity. <![CDATA[<b>Expression of virulence genes by <i>Listeria monocytogenes</i> J0161 in natural environment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000200050&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Majority of studies concerning the gene expression of Listeria monocytogenes have been done on pure culture states. Our objective was to study L.monocytogenes in a co-cultured state and to understand if microbes in their natural state of existence are different in their expression than that of the purely cultured lab grown forms. For a long period discussions have been on the expression of prfA, (which is a virulence gene regulator) in a mammalian host and its role in causing the switch from a saprophytic to pathogenic form of L.monocytogenes. We, in this paper for the first time report the expression of prfA and other virulence genes by L.monocytogenes under different extracellular conditions, and also as a pure culture biofilms, that is different from the previous reports. We also report that the expression of prfA seems to vary considerably when co-cultured with Bacillus subtilis.