Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte]]> vol. 9 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Chamada</b><b> de revisores <i>ad-hoc</i></b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Nutritional and anthropometric profile of adolescent volleyball athletes</b>]]> Women's participation in volleyball began in 1928. In 1944, the first Brazilian volleyball championship happened. Flexibility, strength, power, agility and aerobic fitness are all necessary to be a master in this sport. Women's participation in sport activity has increased. However, there are only a few studies in Brazil about nutrition assessment, especially amongst female volleyball players. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the dietetic and anthropometric profiles of 25 female adolescent volleyball players of Rio de Janeiro (15-20 years old). Anthropometric assessment was obtained by body mass, stature, skinfold and circumference measurements. Prospective 3-day records, that include two weekdays and one weekend day were analyzed by a Brazilian nutrition software (CIS/EPM, 1993) to obtain the nutrient intake and the results were compared to the American recommendations. The results of anthropometric evaluation showed that athletes had body mass of 64.35 ± 6.12 kg, stature of 1.74 ± 0.06 m and fat mass of 20.51 ± 2.43%. Diets consisted of high energy and protein intake, and low carbohydrate intake. The consumption of calcium, folate and vitamin E was below the recommendations. Since these athletes are going through a period of intense growth and development associated with rigorous training, it becomes, therefore, necessary for them to receive individualized nutritional orientation to improve their performance and quality of life. <![CDATA[<b>Assessment of psychological pain management techniques</b>: <b>a comparative study between athletes and non-athletes</b>]]> Athletes usually deal with injuries and pain. They seem to have similar pain threshold when compared to non-athletes, although they have higher pain tolerance and the exact cause for that is unknown. High levels for pain tolerance and control can improve performance and time for injury recovery. The literature shows that use of coping strategies can increase pain control; possible differences on coping with pain between athletes and non-athletes are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate frequency of coping strategies used by athletes and non-athletes of both genders and look for possible association between preferred coping style and pain intensity. The sample included 160 subjects with actual pain experience, 80 athletes (52 male, 28 female) and 80 non-athletes (50 male and 30 female). All subjects were evaluated for pain intensity, frequency and duration and for coping strategies using a questionnaire (SBS-V). The results show that athletes and non-athletes, despite of gender, use with the same frequency coping strategies. The less common coping strategies for all groups were those poor-adaptative (p < 0.001); the most commonly strategy used was self-statement and regulation of body tension (p < 0.001). Female athletes use more frequently poor-adaptative strategies when pain intensity increases (p < 0.05). <![CDATA[<b>Indexes of power and aerobic capacity obtained in cycle ergometry and treadmill running</b>: <b>comparisons between sedentary, runners, cyclists and triathletes</b>]]> The objectives of this study were: a) to determine, in a cross-sectional manner, the effect of aerobic training on the peak oxygen uptake (<img border=0 id="_x0000_i1026" src="../../img/revistas/rbme/v9n4/a04img01.gif" align=absmiddle>O2peak), the intensity at <img border=0 id="_x0000_i1027" src="../../img/revistas/rbme/v9n4/a04img01.gif" align=absmiddle>O2peak (I<img border=0 id="_x0000_i1028" src="../../img/revistas/rbme/v9n4/a04img01.gif" align=absmiddle>O2peak) and the anaerobic threshold (AnT) during running and cycling; and b) to verify if the transference of the training effects are dependent on the analized type of exercise or physiological index. Eleven untrained males (UN), nine endurance cyclists (EC), seven endurance runners (ER), and nine triathletes (TR) were submitted, on separate days, to incremental tests until voluntary exhaustion on a mechanical braked cycle ergometer and on a treadmill. The values of <img border=0 id="_x0000_i1029" src="../../img/revistas/rbme/v9n4/a04img01.gif" align=absmiddle>O2peak ( obtained in running and cycle ergometer (ER = 68.8 ± 6.3 and 62.0 ± 5.0; EC = 60.5 ± 8.0 and 67.6 ± 7.6; TR = 64.5 ± 4.8 and 61.0 ± 4.1; UN = 43.5 ± 7.0 and 36.7 ± 5.6; respectively) were higher in the group that presented specific training in the modality. The UN group presented the lower values of <img border=0 id="_x0000_i1030" src="../../img/revistas/rbme/v9n4/a04img01.gif" align=absmiddle>O2peak, regardless of the type of exercise. This same behavior was observed for the AnT ( determined in running and cycle ergometer (ER = 56.8 ± 6.9 and 44.8 ± 5.7; EC = 51.2 ± 5.2 and 57.6 ± 7.1; TR = 56.5 ± 5.1 and 49.0 ± 4.8; UN = 33.2 ± 4.2 and 22.6 ± 3.7; respectively). It can be concluded that the transference of the training effects seems to be only partial, independently of the index (<img border=0 id="_x0000_i1031" src="../../img/revistas/rbme/v9n4/a04img01.gif" align=absmiddle>O2peak, I<img border=0 id="_x0000_i1032" src="../../img/revistas/rbme/v9n4/a04img01.gif" align=absmiddle>O2peak or AnT) or exercise type (running or cycling). In relation to the indices, the specificity of training seems to be less present in the <img border=0 id="_x0000_i1033" src="../../img/revistas/rbme/v9n4/a04img01.gif" align=absmiddle>O2peak than in the I<img border=0 id="_x0000_i1034" src="../../img/revistas/rbme/v9n4/a04img01.gif" align=absmiddle>O2peak and the AnT. <![CDATA[<b>Hydration in soccer</b>: <b>a review</b>]]> Hydration should be considered before, during and after the exercise. This review intends to approach the main points of hydration process in soccer. The replacement of fluids during exercise is proportional to some factors, such as: exercise intensity; climatic conditions; the athlete's acclimatization; the athlete's physical conditioning; physiologic individual characteristics and the player's biomechanics. Performance is improved when players ingest not only water but also carbohydrate. The rates that carbohydrate and water are absorbed by the organism are limited by the rates of gastric emptying and intestinal absorption. The composition of drinks offered to the players should be influenced by the relative importance of the need of supplying carbohydrates or water; it should be remembered that the depletion of carbohydrate can result in fatigue and decrease of performance, but it is not usually a life-threatening condition. The addition of carbohydrate in these drinks increases the concentrations of blood glucose, increases the use of external fuel through the increase of the glucose oxidation in the muscles and it spares muscle glycogen. So, the ingestion of carbohydrate before and during the exercise can delay the emergence of fatigue and increase the players' performance. Several tactics can be used to avoid dehydration, like hyperhydration before exercise and player's acclimatization. The ideal situation to restore the player's fluid losses is between the sessions of exercises. Since soccer is a sport with quite peculiar characteristics related to hydration, the players should be concerned and educated about the importance of fluid ingestion before, during and after the exercise. <![CDATA[<b>Importance of heart rate analysis in exercise tolerance test</b>]]> After many years away from the limelights, at the beginning of this century, exercise tolerance testing has earned back an important position in international medical journals. The different sorts of information derived from a variety of studies based on it have shown us that this propedeutic method has a highly valuable prognostic impact. Because of its low cost and easy applicability, the exercise testing reinforces its position in the clinical practice of the cardiologist. In the early 70's, research relating the influence of the autonomic nervous system in heart rate behavior in all phases of an exercise tolerance testing began. Ever since, a number of hypotheses tried to clarify which would be the mechanisms related to the chronotropic response during effort and its performance in the recovery period. In this updating article the authors deal with an important data referring to the chronotropic deficit and the abnormal heart rate recovery, commenting on the prognostic implication of keeping the focus on the potential of its clinical impact. In other words, approaches that can be used whenever there is someone performing a monitored exercise tolerance testing.