Scielo RSS <![CDATA[International braz j urol]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1677-553820140006&lang=en vol. 40 num. 6 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Sexual stereotypes in Medicine]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000600719&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[The importance of the gubernaculum in testicular migration during the human fetal period]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000600722&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objectives The objective of this review is to study the role of the gubernaculum in the testicular migration process during the human fetal period. Materials and Methods We performed a descriptive review of the literature about the role of the gubernaculum in testicular migration during the human fetal period. Results In the first phase of testicular migration, the gubernaculum enlarges to hold the testis near the groin and in the second phase the gubernaculum migrates across the pubic region to reach the scrotum. The proximal portion of the gubernaculum is attached to the testis and epididymis and the presence of multiple insertions in the distal gubernaculum is extremely rare. The presence of muscle and nerves in the human gubernaculum is very poor. The gubernaculum of patients with cryptorchidism has more fibrous tissue and less collagen and when the patients are submitted to hormonal treatment, the gubernaculum components alter significantly. Conclusions The gubernaculum presents significant structural modifications during testicular migration in human fetuses. <![CDATA[Brazilian Abstracts Presented at the American Urological Association Annual Meetings: Contribution, Publication Rates, and Comparison with Oncology Abstracts]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000600730&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Purpose Scientific research originating from Brazil appears to be rising in several medical fields. Research results are often presented at scientific meetings before publication in peer-reviewed journals. We investigated the publication rate of Brazilian studies presented in American Urological Association (AUA) meetings and compared with the rate of publication of Brazilian oncological studies presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) meetings. Materials and Methods a hand search of 12,454 abstracts presented at aua meetings 2001-2007 was conducted. abstracts for which at least two-thirds of institutions were from brazil were considered as brazilian. final publication was searched in pubmed and lilacs databases. oncological abstracts were also hand searched in the asco meetings proceedings in the same years. Results There was no significant temporal trend in the proportion of AUA studies originating from Brazil along those 7 years. A total of 195 abstracts (1.57%) were from Brazil. One hundred (51.3%) abstracts were published in full, and the estimated 5-year publication rate was 48.2%. There was a progressive increase in publication rates for studies categorized as video, poster, and podium presentations. Considering abstracts presented in years 2001-2005, urologic publication rate was significantly higher than for abstracts presented at the ASCO meeting. Conclusions Our results suggest that the Brazilian contribution to AUA meetings is at a plateau and that the Brazilian literature contribution is greater in urology than in oncology. Efforts must be invested towards raising this plateau and understanding qualitative aspects of the urology scientific output from Brazil. <![CDATA[Epidemiological study of penile cancer in Pernambuco: experience of two reference centers]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000600738&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objectives To investigate and analyze the epidemiological profile of penile cancer in the state of Pernambuco and compare this information with other studies related to the issue. Material and Methods We conducted a retrospective, observational and descriptive study of all patients with penile cancer in two reference centers in Pernambuco - Brazil, from 2007 to 2012. The variables studied were: age, region from the state, socio-economic situation, previous postectomy, smoking, time from the beginning of injury to diagnosis, staging of the primary lesion, tumor differentiation, treatment performed and death due to cancer. Results The total number of patients was 88. The highest prevalence was seen in those aged between 66 and 75 years. About the socio-economic situation, 67% worked informally and 64.8% received up to two minimum wages. Of all patients, 57% were married and 50% illiterate. The Metropolitan Region of Recife was the one with the highest number of cases, 41%. Tobacco smoking was reported in 48.9% of cases and prior postectomy in 3.4%. Most often it was observed an average period of six months from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis. And when the lesion was diagnosed, it usually had 2 to 5 cm (64.7%), stage T2 in 50% and well differentiated in 79.6%. Partial penectomy was performed in 76.1% and total in 17%. Death was observed in 27.3%. Conclusion The clinical profile and epidemiological characteristics found in this study are similar to other national and international studies related to the issue, i.e., typical of underdeveloped or developing countries. <![CDATA[Prostate-Specific Antigen testing in men between 40 and 70 years in Brazil: database from a check-up program]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000600745&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objectives To evaluate the PSA in a large population of Brazilian men undergone to check up, and correlate the PSA cutoffs with prostate size and urinary symptoms. Materials and Methods This is a cross sectional study performed with men between 40 and 70 years undergone to check-up. All men were undergone to urological evaluation, digital rectal examination, prostate-specific antigen, and ultrasonography The exclusion criteria were men who used testosterone in the last six months, or who were using 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. Results A total of 5015 men with an average age of 49.0 years completed the study. Most men were white and asymptomatic. The PSA in the three different aging groups were 0.9 ± 0.7ng/dL for men between 40 and 50; 1.2 ± 0.5ng/dL for men between 50 and 60; and 1.7 ± 1.5ng/dL for men greater than 60 years (p=0.001). A total of 192 men had PSA between 2.5 and 4ng/ml. From these men 130 were undergone to prostate biopsy. The predictive positive value of biopsy was 25% (32/130). In the same way, 100 patients had PSA &gt;4ng/mL. From these men, 80 were undergone to prostate biopsy. In this group, the predictive positive value of biopsy was 40% (32/100). The Gleason score was 6 in 19 men (60%), 7 in 10 men (31%) and 8 in 3 men (9%). Conclusions The PSA level of Brazilian men undergone to check up was low. There was a positive correlation with aging, IPSS and prostate size. <![CDATA[Preoperative serum albumin as a prognostic factor in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000600753&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Purpose The study evaluated whether preoperative measures of the C-reactive protein-based systemic inflammatory response may predict cancer survival independent of tumor stage in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Materials and Methods Between September 1999 and October 2010, 181 patients submitted to radical nephroureterectomy were available for evaluation. Multivariate survival analyses were performed using Cox’s proportional hazards model and the coefficient for each factor was divided by the highest coefficient, multiplied by 4, and rounded to the nearest integer. Results Multivariate analyses showed that tumor location, pathologic T stage, lymphovascular invasion, margin status, and albumin level were independent contributors. The bootstrap-corrected C statistics of the model were 0.813 for disease-specific survival and 0.755 for overall survival, respectively. For time to disease-specific and overall mortality for patients, integrated area under the curve values were 0.792 and 0.739, respectively. When patients were clustered into three groups according to their model-predicted survival, the 5-year disease-specific survival in the low-, intermediate- and high-risk group was 95.4%, 76.2%, and 36.9%, respectively (p&lt;0.001), and were 87.8%, 54.4%, and 31.8%, respectively, for overall survival (p&lt;0.001). Decision curve analysis revealed that the use of model was associated with net benefit gains relative to the treat-all strategy. Conclusions   Pretreatment albumin is a simple biomarker based on routinely available well-standardized measures, and is not an expensive and time-consuming process. Hypoalbuminemia is an independent marker of poor prognosis in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. <![CDATA[Urine leak in minimally invasive partial nephrectomy: analysis of risk factors and role of intraoperative ureteral catheterization]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000600763&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Purpose To investigate risk factors for urine leak in patients undergoing minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (MIPN) and to determine the role of intraoperative ureteral catheterization in preventing this postoperative complication. Materials and Methods MIPN procedures done from September 1999 to July 2012 at our Center were reviewed from our IRB-approved database. Patient and tumor characteristics, operative techniques and outcomes were analyzed. Patients with evidence of urine leak were identified. Outcomes were compared between patients with preoperative ureteral catheterization (C-group) and those without (NC-group). Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify factors predicting postoperative urine leak. Results A total of 1,019 cases were included (452 robotic partial nephrectomy cases and 567 laparoscopic partial nephrectomy cases). Five hundred twenty eight patients (51.8%) were in the C-group, whereas 491 of them (48.2%) in the NC-group. Urine leak occurred in 31(3%) cases, 4.6% in the C-group and 1.4% in the NC-group (p&lt;0.001). Tumors in NC-group had significantly higher RENAL score, shorter operative and warm ischemic times. On multivariable analysis, tumor proximity to collecting system (OR=9.2; p&lt;0.01), surgeon’s early operative experience (OR=7.8; p&lt;0.01) and preoperative moderate to severe CKD (OR=3.1; p&lt;0.01) significantly increased the odds of the occurrence of a postoperative urine leak. Conclusion Clinically significant urine leak after MIPN in a high volume institution setting is uncommon. This event is more likely to occur in cases of renal masses that are close to the collecting system, in patients with preoperative CKD and when operating surgeon is still in the learning curve for the procedure. Our findings suggest that routine intraoperative ureteral catheterization during MIPN does not reduce the probability of postoperative urine leak. In addition, it adds to the overall operative time. <![CDATA[What is the Incidence of Kidney Stones after Chemotherapy in Patients with Lymphoproliferative or Myeloproliferative Disorders?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000600772&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction This study describes the incidence and risk factors of de novo nephrolithiasis among patients with lymphoproliferative or myeloproliferative diseases who have undergone chemotherapy. Materials and Methods From 2001 to 2011, patients with lymphoproliferative or myeloproliferative disorders treated with chemotherapy were retrospectively identified. The incidence of image proven nephrolithiasis after chemotherapy was determined. Demographic and clinical variables were recorded. Patients with a history of nephrolithiasis prior to chemotherapy were excluded. The primary outcome was incidence of nephrolithiasis, and secondary outcomes were risk factors predictive of de novo stone. Comparative statistics were used to compare demographic and disease specific variables for patients who developed de novo stones versus those who did not. Results A total of 1,316 patients were identified and the incidence of de novo nephrolithiasis was 5.5% (72/1316; symptomatic stones 1.8% 24/1316). Among patients with nephrolithiasis, 72.2% had lymphoproliferative disorders, 27.8% had myeloproliferative disorders, and 25% utilized allopurinol. The median urinary pH was 5.5, and the mean serum uric acid, calcium, potassium and phosphorus levels were 7.5, 9.6, 4.3, and 3.8 mg/dL, respectively. In univariate analysis, mean uric acid (p=0.013), calcium (p&lt;0.001)), and potassium (p=0.039) levels were higher in stone formers. Diabetes mellitus (p&lt;0.001), hypertension (p=0.003), and hyperlipidemia (p&lt;0.001) were more common in stone formers. In multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus, hyperuricemia, and hypercalcemia predicted stone. Conclusions We report the incidence of de novo nephrolithiasis in patients who have undergone chemotherapy. Diabetes mellitus, hyperuricemia, and hypercalcemia are patient-specific risk factors that increase the odds of developing an upper tract stone following chemotherapy. <![CDATA[A transobturator adjustable system for male incontinence: 30-month follow-up of a multicenter study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000600781&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Purpose To report long-term results of the Argus T adjustable system for treatment of post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence (PPI). Materials and Methods From October 2007 to August 2008, 37 patients with PPI were included in a prospective, single-arm, multicenter trial of treatment with the Argus T adjustable system (Promedon, Argentina). Preoperative evaluation included urine culture, urethrocystoscopy, urodynamic testing, 24-h pad weight test (PWT) and quality of life questionnaires. Patients were stratified according to baseline degree of incontinence (mild–moderate or severe). Postoperative evaluation included immediate PWT, quality of life questionnaires and daily use of pads at 1, 12 and 30 months. Results and Conclusions One patient was lost to follow-up. At the 30-month follow-up, 24/31 patients (77%) were dry, 3/31 (10%) improved and 4/31 (13%) were failures. In particular, in the mild-moderate group, 8/8 (100%) patients were dry. In the severe group, 20/28 patients (71%) were dry, 3/28 (11%) improved and 5/28 (18%) were failures. Median visual analogue scale (VAS) scores dropped from 9 (4-10) to 0.5 (0-10) and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form scores from (ICIQ-SF) 19 (12–21) to 1 (0–10). Retrograde leak point pressure increased from 18 (5–29) to 35 (22–45) cm H2O after intraoperative adjustment. Complications included immediate postoperative infection in 2/36 patients (6%) and transient inguinal and/or perineal pain in 22/36 patients (61%). Argus T has a long-term high success rate (86% cure + improvement at the 30-month follow-up). Good outcomes were achieved even in severe incontinence cases and maintained for over 30 months. <![CDATA[One hundred cases of sui treatment that failed: a prospective observational study on the behavior of patients after surgical failure]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000600790&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objectives Determine what happens to patients after unsuccessful SUI operations and to explore the reasons why these patients change doctors. Materials and Methods One hundred consecutive failed patients treated for SUI were interviewed about the exams requested after persistence of the incontinence as well as the reasons they abandoned their primary doctors through a structured questionnaire. Results Among the patients with cases of anterior colporrhaphy, bladder suspensions or slings, 34.3%, 13.7% and 8.3%, respectively, were not offered any further type of investigative procedures to clarify the failure. Urodynamic evaluations were recommended in 75% of failed slings, and 66.6% of the patients proceeded with these tests. In contrast, only 31% of patients with bladder suspensions and 40% of patients with anterior colporrhaphy were recommended for urodynamic investigations, and only 44.4% and 28.5% of them, respectively, proceeded with the option. Patients´ delusions were reinforced by the doctors’ attitude toward the investigations. Vacuous justifications and the lack of intention to seek improvement were the driving forces causing the patients to change doctors. Conclusion Unsuccessful patients are evaluated in a non-protocol form. Difficulty in clarifying the reasons for surgical failure and the disruption of the doctor-patient relationship are the main reasons why patients abandon them. <![CDATA[Patients lost to follow-up after midurethral sling surgery: How are they?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000600802&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Purpose To assess the ratio of patients lost to follow-up (FU) after midurethral sling surgery, to evaluate their success rate and current status, and to identify the reasons for FU loss. Materials and Methods Two-hundred thirty-eight patients who received trans-obturator tape (TOT) surgery were reviewed. For patients lost to FU within 3 months, Stamey’s outcome questionnaire and questions regarding the reasons for FU loss were submitted via phone interview. Results One hundred forty-three (60.1%) patients (FU loss group) were lost to FU within 3 months postoperatively. In the FU loss group, phone interviews were conducted with 117 (81.8%) patients. Aside from the urgency rate (59.3% vs. 72.3%, p=0.049), there were no significant statistical differences in preoperative profiles between two group. The success rate of the FU loss group (80.3%, 94 of 117 patients) was lower than that of the FU group (95.8%, 91 of 95 patients) (p=0.001). The success rates in the FU loss group with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) were significantly lower than in the FU group with MUI. As for the reason for FU loss, 74 patients (62.7%) were lost due to incontinence improvement, 19 patients (16.1%) cited personal problems, and 5 patients forgot the next follow-up date. Only 10 patients gave up further treatment despite their persisting incontinence. Conclusions In our study, more than half of patients were lost to follow-up after midurethral sling surgery. The FU loss group showed a lower surgical success rate, particularly with MUI. Close FU is recommended for better consultation of patients’ incontinence. <![CDATA[Robotic repair of vesicovaginal fistulae with the transperitoneal-transvaginal approach: A case series]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000600810&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objective To describe a novel technique of repairing the VVF using the transperitoneal-transvaginal approach. Materials and Methods From June 2011 to October 2013, four patients with symptoms of urine leakage in the vagina underwent robotic repair of VVF with the transperitoneal-transvaginal approach. Cystoscopy revealed the fistula opening on the bladder. A ureteral stent was placed through the fistulous tract. After trocar placement, the omental flap was prepared and mobilized robotically. The vagina was identified and incised. The fistulous tract was excised. Cystorrhaphy was performed in two layers in an interrupted fashion. The vaginal opening was closed with running stitches. The omentum was interposed and anchored between the bladder and vagina. Finally, the ureteral catheters were removed in case they have been placed, and an 18 Fr urethral catheter was removed on the 14th postoperative day. Results The mean age was 46 years (range: 41 to 52 years). The mean fistula diameter was 1.5 cm (range 0.3 to 2 cm). The mean operative time was 117.5 min (range: 100 to 150 min). The estimated blood loss was 100 mL (range: 50 to 150 mL). The mean hospital stay was 1.75 days (range: 1 to 3 days). The mean Foley catheter duration was 15.75 days (range: 10 to 25 days). There was no evidence of recurrence in any of the cases. Conclusions The robot-assisted laparoscopic transperitoneal transvaginal approach for VVF is a feasible procedure when the fistula tract is identified by first intentionally opening the vagina, thereby minimizing the bladder incision and with low morbidity. <![CDATA[Relationship between kidney volume and body indexes in the Turkish population determined using ultrasonography]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000600816&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objective To estimate the kidney volume of the healthy Turkish population using ultrasound and to evaluate the relationship between kidney volume and body indexes. Materials and methods Kidney ultrasound evaluation was performed on 152 patients (mean age: 42±13.7 years). Kidney length, width and thickness were measured using ultrasound. Mean total and parenchymal volume were also calculated. Patients’ age, sex, weight, height and body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) were recorded. Results According to ultrasound, kidney lengths were 10.3±7.8 cm for the right and 10.4±9 cm for the left. Volumes were 158±39 cm3 for the right and 168±40 cm3 for the left. Volumes in women were 151.8±39 cm3 for the right and 159.8±37 cm3 for the left, and 164.3±38 cm3 for the right and 175.8±41 cm3 for the left in men. Kidney measurements correlated with body height and weight. A strong correlation with total kidney volume and kidney measurements was determined for body weight for both kidneys (p&lt;0.001). A significant correlation with kidney volume and width was determined for both kidneys (p&lt;0.001). A positive correlation was also found between parenchymal and total kidney volume for both kidneys (p&lt;0.001). Conclusion The most significant factors associated with kidney volume for both kidneys in the Turkish population are kidney width and body weight. Measuring kidney volume with ultrasound is a feasible modality and is widely available for daily clinical practice. <![CDATA[Difference between actual vs. pathology prostate weight in TURP and radical robotic-assisted prostatectomy specimen]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000600823&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction To investigate and highlight the effect of formaldehyde induced weight reduction in transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) and radical robotically-assisted prostatectomy (RALP) specimen as a result of standard chemical fixation. Materials and Methods 51 patients were recruited from January 2013 to June 2013 who either underwent a TURP (n=26) or RALP (n=25). Data was collected prospectively by the operating surgeon who measured the native, unfixed histology specimen directly after operation. The specimens were fixed in 10% Formaldehyde Solution BP and sent to the pathology laboratory where after sufficient fixation period was re-weighed. Results Overall mean age 64.78 years, TURP mean age 68.31 years RALP mean age 61.12years. We found that the overall prostatic specimen (n=51) weight loss after fixation was a mean of 11.20% (3.78 grams) (p≤0.0001). Subgroup analysis of the native TURP chips mean weight was 16.15 grams and formalin treated mean weight was 14.00 grams (p≤0.0001). Therefore, TURP chips had a mean of 13.32 % (2.15 grams) weight loss during chemical fixation. RALP subgroup unfixed specimen mean weight was 52.08 grams and formalin treated mean weight was 42.60 grams (p≤0.0001), a 19.32 % (9.48grams) mean weight reduction. Conclusion It has not been known that prostatic chips and whole human radical prostatectomy specimen undergo a significant weight reduction. The practical significance of the accurate prostate weight in patient management may be limited, however, it is agreed that this should be recorded correctly, as data is potential interest for research purposes and vital for precise documentation. <![CDATA[Efficacy of Pelvisoft<sup>®</sup> Biomesh for cystocele repair: assessment of long-term results]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000600828&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction and Hypothesis To our knowledge a study regarding the efficacy of Pelvisoft® Biomesh for cystocele repair has not previously been reported in the literature. The aim of our study was to assess the long-term efficacy, subjective outcomes and complications in the use of a non-synthetic porcine skin mesh graft (Pelvisoft® Biomesh) associated with transvaginal anterior colporrhaphy in the treatment of cystocele prolapse. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was performed at a single centre. Thirty-three women aged 35-77 years underwent cystocele repair using Pelvisoft® graft between December 2005 and June 2009. Twenty-nine women who underwent transvaginal cystocele repair with Pelvisoft® Biomesh for over a 2 years period were assessed. Four patients were lost to follow-up. Cystocele repair was performed via the vaginal route using Pelvisoft®Biomesh implant by inserting it in the anterior vaginal wall. The median follow-up time was 54.0 months. The rate of recurrence was 17.3%. A total of 6.9% of patients presented early mesh exposure treated by conservative treatment. The mean PFDI-20 score was 72.2. Among sexually active women, the mean PISQ 12 was 33.9 but 56.2% had dyspareunia. After surgery, 6 patients had de novo intercourse. Our results show that the use of Pelvisoft® biomaterial associated with anterior colporrhaphy for cystocele repair appears to be safe with acceptable failure and complication rates at long term. Nevertheless, an adverse impact on sexual function was reported by the majority of patients. <![CDATA[Activity and safety of sunitinib in poor risk metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000600835&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Purpose To assess the activity, safety and treatment patterns of sunitinib in patients with poor-risk metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the charts of poor risk patients treated with sunitinib from October 2006 to July 2013 who met the eligibility criteria. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Tumor radiological response was measured according to RECIST 1.1 and adverse events (AEs) were assessed through standard criteria. Results Median OS was 8.16 months (95% CI, 5.73-10.59). Of the 53 patients included in this analysis, 9 (17.0%) achieved partial response, 12 (22.6%) had stable disease. Median treatment duration was 3.30 months (95% CI: 1.96-4.63) and 26.4% of patients discontinued treatment due to toxicity. Grade 3 or higher AEs occurred in 39.6% of patients, the most common being fatigue (15.1%), neutropenia (9.5%), nausea, vomiting and diarrhea (7.5% each). Discussion Sunitinib may benefit some unselected poor-risk patients, although the rates of AEs and drug discontinuation suggest a need for careful patient monitoring. <![CDATA[New head-mounted display system applied to endoscopic management of upper urinary tract carcinomas]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000600842&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Purpose We tested a new head-mounted display (HMD) system for surgery on the upper urinary tract. Surgical Technique Four women and one man with abnormal findings in the renal pelvis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging underwent surgery using this new system. A high definition HMD (Sony, Tokyo, Japan) is connected to a flexible ureteroscope (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) and the images from the ureteroscope are delivered simultaneously to various participants wearing HMDs. Furthermore, various information in addition to that available through the endoscope, such as the narrow band image, the fluoroscope, input from a video camera mounted on the lead surgeon’s HMD and the vital monitors can be viewed on each HMD. Results Median operative duration and anesthesia time were 53 and 111 minutes, respectively. The ureteroscopic procedures were successfully performed in all cases. There were no notable negative outcomes or incidents (Clavien-Dindo grade ≥1). Conclusion The HMD system offers simultaneous, high-quality magnified imagery in front of the eyes, regardless of head position, to those participating in the endoscopic procedures. This affordable display system also provides various forms of information related to examinations and operations while allowing direct vision and navigated vision. <![CDATA[Continuous renal replacement therapy in children with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome: A case series]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000600846&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en There is a lack of definitive information regarding the precise indications, implementation, and outcomes of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for the treatment of critically ill children. Six children (three boys, three girls) aged from 3 days to 8 years, all of whom had multiple organ failure, were submitted to bedside CRRT using M60 filter membranes. Modified Port carbonate formula was used and clotting time was maintained between 20 and 30 minutes. Activated partial thromboplastin time was 1.5- to 2-fold normal. One patient discontinued treatment due to family decision. Marked improvements were seen in the remaining five patients, including normalization of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, stabilization of electrolytes, and improvements in markers of organ function. Of note, one patient (a six-year-old male) underwent the treatment for 241 hours. All five patients were subsequently discharged and recovered uneventfully. CRRT is effective for the management of children who are critically ill due to multiple organ failure. <![CDATA[Extra corporeal shockwave lithotripsy resulting in skin burns – a report of two cases]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000600853&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Severe skin injury after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is rare. We describe two patients who suffered full thickness skin burns following ESWL for renal calculi. One patient was treated conservatively and the other underwent debridement with skin grafting. We speculate that failure of the thermostatic mechanism of the lithotripter, leading to overheating of the water-filled cushion, resulted in this very rare adverse event. Proper preoperative patient counseling regarding the risk of serious burn injuries will help to avoid potential litigation. <![CDATA[Pure Laparoscopic Augmentation Ileocystoplasty]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000600858&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction Guillain-Barre syndrome is an acute neuropathy that rarely compromises bladder function. Conservative management including clean intermittent catheterization and pharmacotherapy is the primary approach for hypocompliant contracted bladder. Surgical treatment may be used in refractory cases to improve bladder compliance and capacity in order to protect the upper urinary tract. We describe a case of pure laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty in a patient affected by Guillain-Barre syndrome. Presentation A 15-year-old female, complaining of voiding dysfunction, recurrent urinary tract infection and worsening renal function for three months. A previous history of Guillain-Barre syndrome on childhood was related. A voiding cystourethrography showed a pine-cone bladder with moderate post-void residual urine. The urodynamic demonstrated a hypocompliant bladder and small bladder capacity (190mL) with high detrusor pressure (54 cmH2O). Nonsurgical treatments were attempted, however unsuccessfully. The patient was placed in the exaggerated Trendelenburg position. A four-port transperitoneal technique was used. A segment of ileum approximately 15-20cm was selected and divided with its pedicle. The ileal anastomosis and creation of ileal U-shaped plate were performed laparoscopically, without staplers. Bladder mobilization and longidutinal cystotomy were performed. Enterovesical anastomosis was done with continuous running suture. A suprapubic cystostomy was placed through a 5mm trocar. Results The total operative time was 335 min. The blood loss was minimal. The patient developed ileus in the early days, diet acceptance after the fourth day and was discharged on the seventh postoperative day. The urethral catheter was removed after 2 weeks. At 6-month follow-up, a cystogram showed a significant improvement in bladder capacity. The patient adhered well to clean intermittent self-catheterization and there was no report for febrile infections or worsening of renal function. We did not experience any complication related to the intestinal anastomosis fully prepared intracorporeally. Conclusions Albeit technically challenging, pure laparoscopic enterocystoplasty was feasible and safe. Preparing the enteral anastomosis and the pouch intracoporeally may prolong surgical time and contribute to postoperative ileus. Surgical staplers can assist in the procedure, however they are not essential.