Scielo RSS <![CDATA[International braz j urol]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1677-553820190001&lang=en vol. 45 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Int Braz J Urol Annual Report – 2019 and new Editor]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Best videos and reviewer of the year selection 2018]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Are we ready to use hypofractionated instead of conventional radiotherapy for prostate cancer? Not yet]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Comparison of retrograde flexible ureteroscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy in treating intermediate-size renal stones (2-3cm): a meta-analysis and systematic review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Purpose: To systematically assess the effectiveness and safety of retrograde flexible ureteroscopy (FURS) versus percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in treating intermediate-size renal stones (2-3cm). Materials and Methods: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and EMBASE were researched to identify relevant studies up to May 2018. Article selection was performed through the search strategy based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses criteria. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was applied to assess the methodological quality of case-control studies. Results: Six retrospective case-controlled trials were included for meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that PCNL was associated with a higher initial stone-free rate (SFR). After more complementary treatments, FURS provided a final SFR (OR: 1.69; 95% CI, 0.93-3.05; P = 0.08) comparable to that achieved by PCNL. PCNL was associated with a higher rate of overall intraoperative complications (OR: 1.48; 95% CI, 1.01-2.17; P = 0.04) and longer hospital stay (MD: 2.21 days; 95% CI, 1.11 to 3.30; P &lt; 0.001). Subgroup analysis by Clavien-graded complication showed PCNL had significantly higher rates of minor complications (OR: 1.58; 95% CI, 1.04-2.41; P = 0.03). No significant difference was noted in major complications (OR: 1.14; 95% CI, 0.53-2.45; P = 0.73) or operative times (MD: −9.71 min; 95% CI, −22.02 to 2.60; P = 0.12). Conclusions: Multisession FURS is an effective and safe alternative to PCNL for the management of intermediate-size renal stones (2-3cm). It is advisable to balance the benefits and risks according to the individual characteristics of patients and to decide with patients by discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each procedure. <![CDATA[Dramatic polarization in genitourinary expert opinions regarding the clinical utility of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in prostate cancer]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Objectives: To ascertain the opinions of North American genitourinary (GU) experts regarding inclusion of technologies such as prostate - specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and C – 11 choline positron emission tomography (PET) into routine practice. Materials and Methods: A survey was distributed to North American GU experts. Questions pertained to the role of PSMA and C – 11 PET in PCa management. Participants were categorized as “supporters” or “opponents” of incorporation of novel imaging techniques. Opinions were correlated with practice patterns. Results: Response rate was 54% and we analyzed 42 radiation oncologist respondents. 17 participants (40%) have been in practice for &gt; 20 years and 38 (90%) practice at an academic center. 24 (57%) were supporters of PSMA and 29 (69%) were supporters of C – 11. Supporters were more likely to treat pelvic nodes (88% vs. 56%, p &lt; 01) and trended to be more likely to treat patients with moderate or extreme hypofractionation (58% vs. 28%, p = 065). Supporters trended to be more likely to offer brachytherapy boost (55% vs. 23%, p = 09), favor initial observation and early salvage over adjuvant radiation (77% vs. 55%, p = 09), and to consider themselves expert brachytherapists (69% vs. 39%, p = 09). Conclusions: There is a polarization among GU radiation oncology experts regarding novel imaging techniques. A correlation emerged between support of novel imaging and adoption of treatment approaches that are clinically superior or less expensive. Pre - existing biases among GU experts on national treatment - decision panels and leaders of cooperative group studies may affect the design of future studies and influence the adoption of these technologies in clinical practice. <![CDATA[The importance of histopathologic review of biopsies in patients with prostate cancer referred to a tertiary uro - oncology center]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100032&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Introduction: In view of the detailed histologic evaluation of prostate cancer (PC), it is usually advisable to provide a “second opinion” to confirm diagnosis. This study aimed to compare the Gleason score (GS) of initial diagnosis versus that of histopathologic review of patients with PC. The secondary objective was to compare initial GS versus histopathologic review versus post - surgical histopathology. Material and methods: Retrospective study based on chart review of patients with PC that attended the Uro - oncology Department of Hospital das Clínicas - UNICAMP - Campinas, Brazil, from April, 2002, to April, 2012. Data were divided in groups: patients with biopsies performed elsewhere, biopsies after pathological review and histopathological results following retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP). These were evaluated in relation to GS difference using Fleis's Kappa concordance coefficient. Results: 402 PC patients, with a median age of 66 years, were evaluated. Reviewed GS showed worsening, with accuracy of 61.2%, and Kappa concordance value = 0.466. Among 143 patients submitted to surgery, GS varied widely, regarding initial evaluation, review and post - surgical RRP. Joint concordance of evaluations was weak (Kappa = 0.216), mainly due to almost no existence concordance between initial evaluation and following RRP (Kappa = 0.041). Conclusion: There is a great histopathological variation of initial GS versus reviewed GS. There is also a better correlation of reviewed GS and post - surgical GS than with initial GS. The second opinion by an uropathologist improves diagnosis and should be advised for better therapeutic decision. <![CDATA[Supposed pituitary-production of human chorionic Gonadotropin induced by androgen deprivation therapy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100038&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Introduction: The main cause of slightly elevated human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) after successful treatment of male germ cell tumors is considered to be pituitary-derived HCG. It is well known that pituitary-derived HCG is frequently detected in postmenopausal women. We evaluated the status of serum HCG in men with elevated gonadotropins, which were induced by androgen deprivation therapy, using commercially available assays. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 44 patients with prostate cancer, who underwent luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone agonist treatment. We measured serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), serum luteinizing hormone (LH), serum total HCG, serum free HCG-β subunit, and urine total HCG 3 times per patient, on the day of treatment initiation, the next day, and 3 months after. Results: On the day after treatment initiation, serum and urine HCG was detected in 61% and 73% of patients, respectively. Markedly strong correlations were observed between serum/urine HCG and FSH/LH. In particular, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated excellent area under the curve (0.977, 95% confidence interval 0.951–1.003)) for serum HCG-detectable LH. At the cutoff value of 21.07 mIU/mL for serum HCG-detectable LH, the sensitivity and specificity were 96.7% and 95.3%, respectively. Serum HCG-β was not detectable at any times in any patients. Conclusions: Suggested pituitary-derived HCG can be frequently detected in patients with elevated gonadotropins, and there is a firm association between HCG detection and gonadotropin levels. <![CDATA[The impact of single positive surgical margin features on biochemical recurrence after robotic radical prostatectomy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100045&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Objective: Parameters predictive of biochemical or clinical recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy (RP) were determined as pre-treatment PSA value, pathologic tumor stage, tumor grade and presence of Positive Surgical Margin (PSM), extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion and the status of pelvic lymph nodes. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of additional features in patients undergoing RP in our clinic. Materials and Methods: We studied 556 RP operations performed between 2009 and 2016 for prostate cancer at this clinic. Preoperative and postoperative data of the patients were retrospectively reviewed. RP specimens were examined by two pathologists specialized in this subject. Of these patients, 78 (14.02%) patients with PSM were included in the study. The pathology slides of these patients were reassessed. The length of PSM (mm), localization (apex, basis and posterolateral) and Gleason pattern at this margin was determined and statistical correlations with BCR were calculated. Results: The mean follow-up after the RP of 41 patients included in the study was 37.4 ± 13.2 months. During the follow-up period of the patients, BCR was observed in 16 patients (39.02%). No statistically significant difference was observed in age and prostate volume between the groups with and without BCR development (p &gt; 0.05). Preoperative PSA level was found to be statistically significantly higher in the group with BCR development compared to the group without recurrence (p = 0.004). In-group comparisons in each aforementioned Gleason score groups were performed in terms of BCR development and the preoperative Gleason score in the group with development of recurrence was found to be statistically significantly higher compared to the group without recurrence (p = 0.007). The length of the surgical margin was measured as 7.4 ± 4.4 mm in the BCR-developing group and 4.7 ± 3.8 mm in the no-BCR- developing group; it was statistically significantly higher in the group with development of recurrence (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Length and location of the PSM and the Gleason score detected in the PSM region could not predict biochemical recurrence according to the results of this present study. However high preoperative PSA value is an independent prognostic factor for biochemical recurrence. <![CDATA[Does the experience of the bedside assistant effect the results of robotic surgeons in the learning curve of robot assisted radical prostatectomy?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100054&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Introduction: The success of the robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) procedures depend on a successful team, however the literature focuses on the performance of a console surgeon. The aim of this study was to evaluate surgical outcomes of the surgeons during the learning curve in relation to the bedside assistant's experience level during RARP. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed two non - laparoscopic, beginner robotic surgeon's cases, and we divided the patients into two groups. The first surgeon completed the operations on 20 patients with a beginner bedside assistant in February - May 2009 (Group-1). The second surgeon completed operations on 16 patients with an experienced (at least 150 cases) bedside assistant in February 2015 - December 2015 (Group-2). The collected data included age, prostate volume, prostate specific antigen (PSA), estimated blood loss, complications and percent of positive surgical margins. In addition, the elapsed time for trocar insertion, robot docking, console surgery, specimen extraction and total anesthesia time were measured separately. Results: There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of age, comorbidity, prostate volume, PSA value, preoperative Gleason score, number of positive cores, postoperative Gleason score, pathological grade, protection rate of neurovascular bundles, surgical margin positivity, postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, or estimated blood loss. The robot docking, trocar placement, console surgery, anesthesia and specimen extraction times were significantly shorter in group 2 than they were in group 1 (17.75 ± 3.53 min vs. 30.20 ± 7.54 min, p ≤ 0.001; 9.63 ± 2.71 min vs. 14.40 ± 4.52 min, p = 0.001; 189.06 ± 27.70 min vs. 244.95 ± 80.58 min, p = 0.01; 230.94 ± 30.83 min vs. 306.75 ± 87.96 min, p = 0.002; 10.19 ± 2.54 min vs. 17.55 ± 8.79 min, p = 0.002; respectively). Conclusion: Although the bedside assistant's experience in RARP does not appear to influence the robotic surgeon's oncological outcomes during the learning curve, it may reduce the potential complications by shortening the total operation time. <![CDATA[Prognosis of patients with prostate cancer and middle range prostate - specific antigen levels of 20 – 100 ng / mL]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100061&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Introduction: Prostate - specific antigen (PSA) is a useful biomarker for detection of prostate cancer (PCa) and for risk classification in addition to TNM classification and Gleason score (GS). We reported the role of PSA in patients with low (&lt; 20 ng / mL) and extremely high (≥ 100 ng / mL) PSA levels. However, it is unclear whether a correlation exists between middle range PSA levels (20 – 100 ng / mL) at diagnosis and prognosis. Materials and Methods: Between January 2000 and December 2014, 1873 patients underwent prostate biopsy at Kanazawa University Hospital. Of 802 patients who were diagnosed with PCa, 148 patients with middle range PSA levels (20 – 100 ng / mL) were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The percentage of patients with T3 – 4 consistently increased as PSA levels increased from 20 to 100 ng / mL. Although the percentage of patients with GS ≥ 8 or metastases increased as PSA levels increased up to approximately 70 ng / mL, there was no significant increase between 70 and 100 ng / mL. PCa - specific and castration - resistant PCa - free survivals were adversely associated with PSA levels up to 70 ng / mL, but not between 70 and 100 ng / mL. Conclusion: PSA is a useful biomarker for predicting prognosis at levels between 20 and 70 ng / mL. However, PSA cannot be used as a prognostic factor in patients with PCa and PSA levels ≥ 70 ng / mL. When the PSA level reaches approximately 70 ng / mL, prognosis might bottom and reach a plateau. <![CDATA[Evaluation of incidence and histolopathological findings of soft tissue sarcomas in genitourinary tract: Uludag university experience]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100068&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Purpose: In this study we aimed to review urological soft tissue sarcomas of genitourinary tract that were diagnosed in our institution and their prognostic factors for survival. Materials and Methods: The clinical and pathological records of 31 patients who had diagnosis of soft tissue sarcomas primarily originating from the genitourinary tract between 2005-2011 were reviewed. Results: The most common site was kidney (17 cases, 54.8%), and most common diagnosis was leiomyosarcoma (11 cases, 35.4%). A total of 24 patients (77.4%) had surgical excision. The surgical margins were positive in 7 patients who presented with local recurrence after primary resection. Twelve patients developed metastatic disease. During follow-up (range 9-70 month), 26 of the 31 patients (88.9%) were alive. Significant survival differences were found according to histological type (p: 0.001), with lower survival rates for malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The tumor size, the presence of metastasis at the time of diagnosis and tumor localization were not statistically significant for overall survival. Conclusions: In our series, prostate sarcomas, paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma had poor prognosis, especially in patients presenting with metastatic disease. <![CDATA[First - line, non - cryopreserved autologous stem cell transplant for poor - risk germ - cell tumors: Experience in a developing country]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100074&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Purpose: The current first - line treatment for non - seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) consists of four cycles of cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin (BEP), which results in 5 - year overall survival &lt; 60% in patients with poor - risk features. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto - HSCT) as a method for overcoming high toxicity after high dose chemotherapy (HDC) has been explored in different solid tumors, but has remained standard practice only for NSGCT. Our objective was to describe outcomes of patients with poor - risk NSGCT who underwent first - line autologous HSCT in a tertiary center in Mexico. Patients and Methods: Twenty nine consecutive patients with NSGCT who received first - line, non - cryopreserved autologous HSCT at the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, Mexico, from November 1998 to June 2016, were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The median age at transplantation was 23 (15 – 39) years. Most patients (n = 18, 62%) had testicular primary tumor, and 23 had metastases (79%). Complete response after auto - HSCT was observed in 45%. Non - relapse mortality was 0. Five - year relapse / progression free and overall survival were 67% and 69%, respectively. Conclusions: This small single limited - resource institution study demonstrated that patients with poor - risk NSGCT are curable by first - line HDC plus autologous HSCT and that this procedure is feasible and affordable to perform using non - cryopreserved hematopoietic stem cells. <![CDATA[Comparison of renal function after robot - assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy versus retropubic radical prostatectomy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100083&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the effect of robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) and open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) on early renal function in this study. Materials and Methods: Preoperative and postoperative urea, creatinine, Hb, eGFR values of patients who had undergone RALP and RRP with prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis were recorded in our clinic. The percentages of change in these values are calculated. Preoperative and postoperative urea, creatinine, Hb and eGFR changes were compared with each other. Student-t test was used for intergroup comparison, and paired sample t test was used to compare changes between preoperative and postoperative values of the same group. Results: There were 160 and 93 patients in the RALP and RRP group, respectively. In the RALP group, postoperative urea and creatinine increased significantly compared to preoperative baseline values while eGFR was decreased (p = 0.0001, p = 0.001, p = 0.0001, respectively). Except for Hb in the RRP group, the changes in these values were statistically insignificant (p = 0.50, p = 0.75, p = 0.30, respectively). Conclusions: We should be more careful when we perform RALP in patients at risk of impaired renal function despite being a minimally invasive surgical method with superior visual characteristics. <![CDATA[Prognostic significance of the dynamic changes of systemic inflammatory response in metastatic renal cell carcinoma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100089&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Purpose: To elucidate the prognostic value of systemic inflammatory response in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who are treated with sunitinib, we evaluated the prognostic role of C-reactive protein (CRP) kinetics. This study also compared prognostic models containing CRP kinetics and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) kinetics. Materials and Methods: A consecutive cohort of 94 patients with mRCC who were treated with sunitinib was retrospectively included from Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. According to dynamic changes in CRP and the NLR, patients were divided into three groups for analysis of CRP and NLR kinetics. The associations between survival and potential prognostic factors were assessed. The incremental value of prognostication was evaluated. Results: A significant difference (P&lt;0.001) in overall survival (OS) was observed among the three groups of CRP kinetics. The median OS of the non-elevated group was nearly 1.3-fold longer than that of the normalized group (33.0 vs. 26.3 months), and two times longer than that of the non-normalized group (33.0 vs. 14.0 months). Multivariate analysis showed that CRP and NLR kinetics were independent prognostic indicators. The model containing CRP kinetics had a better predictive accuracy than that with NLR kinetics, which was supported by the C-index (0.731 vs. 0.684) and the likelihood ratio χ2 test (79.9% vs. 44.9%). Conclusion: Our study suggests that dynamic changes in CRP can better predict survival in patients with mRCC who are treated with sunitinib. Routine assessment of CRP before and after targeted therapy would help identify patients at risk of a poor outcome. <![CDATA[Predictors of surgical complications of nephrectomy for urolithiasis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100100&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Objectives: Nephrectomy due to stone disease may be a challenging procedure owing to the presence of significant inflammation and infection, involving high complication rate. The objective of our study was to identify predictors for complications of nephrectomy for urolithiasis. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of 149 consecutive patients &gt; 18y submitted to simple nephrectomy for urolithiasis from January 2006 to July 2012 was performed. Clinical data, computed tomography findings and pathology report were analyzed. Postoperative complications were categorized based on Clavien - Dindo classification. Logistic multivariate regression models assessed the predictors for surgical complications of nephrectomy for urolithiasis. Results: Eighty-three (55.7%) patients were submitted to laparoscopic nephrectomy and 66 (44.2%) to open procedure. Conversion to open surgery was necessary in 19.2% (16 / 83). On univariable analysis, higher preoperative chronic kidney stage (p = 0.02), Charlson comorbidity index ≥ 2 (p = 0.04), higher ASA score (p = 0.001), urgency due to sepsis (p = 0.01), kidney size ≥ 12 cm (p = 0.006), renal and perirenal abscess (p = 0.004 and 0.002 respectively) and visceral adhesion (p = 0.04) were associated with Clavien - Dindo score &gt; 1. On multivariate analysis, higher ASA score (p = 0.01), urgency due to sepsis (p = 0.03), kidney size ≥ 12 cm (p = 0.04) and preoperative abscess (p = 0.04) remained significantly associated with complications. End - stage renal disease with dialysis was needed post - operatively in 3.4% (5 / 144) of patients. Conclusions: We identified that higher ASA score, urgency due to sepsis, kidney size ≥ 12 cm and preoperative abscess were associated with Clavien - Dindo score &gt; 1. <![CDATA[Comparative study of percutaneous nephrolithotomy performed in the traditional prone position and in three different supine positions]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100108&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) performed in the prone position (PRON) and in three variations of the supine position. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients that underwent PCNL at our institution from June 2011 to October 2016 in PRON and in three variations of the supine position: complete supine (COMPSUP), original Valdivia (VALD), and Galdakao - modified Valdivia (GALD). All patients had a complete pre - operative evaluation, including computed tomography (CT). Success was defined as the absence of residual fragments larger than 4 mm on the first post - operative day CT. Results: We analyzed 393 PCNLs: 100 in COMPSUP, 94 in VALD, 100 in GALD, and 99 in PRON. The overall success rate was 50.9% and was similar among groups (p = 0.428). There were no differences between groups in the number of punctures, stone - free rate, frequency of blood transfusions, drop in hemoglobin level, length of hospital stay, and severe complications (Clavien ≥ 3). COMPSUP had a significantly lower operative time than the other positions. COMPSUP had lower fluoroscopy time than VALD. Conclusion: Patient positioning in PCNL does not seem to impact the rates of success or severe complications. However, COMPSUP is associated with a shorter surgical time than the other positions. <![CDATA[The effect of urethroplasty surgery on erectile and orgasmic functions: a prospective study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100118&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Objectives: to examine the effects of urethroplasty surgery on sexual functions by taking into account age, location of stenosis, length of stenosis and surgical technique parameters. Materials and Methods: The prospective study was conducted between January 2015 and August 2017 with 60 cases. Patients were categorized according to age groups (19-65 / 65-75 years), surgery technique and stricture localization and length. Before the urethroplasty operation and postoperative 6th month follow-up, the international index of erectile function (IIEF) form (15 questions), was filled, the relevant domains of sexual function; erectile function (Q1,2,3,4,5,15), orgasmic function (Q9,10) and overall satisfaction (Q13,14) were assessed. Results: The mean age of the cases is 54 ± 13. However, preoperative IIEF, sexual satisfaction and orgasmic function averages of patients with a stenosis segment length of 1-3 cm was found to be significantly higher than that of patients with a stenosis segment length of 4-7 cm. Between stenosis segment length groups, there was no statistical difference in terms of preoperative and postoperative sexual functions. And also, there was no statistically significant change in patients’ preoperative and postoperative sexual function scores in terms of localization of stricture and surgery techniques. However, there were statistically significant change in the postoperative IIEF and sexual satisfaction averages according to preoperative averages. Conclusion: Our study suggests that urethroplasty surgery itself does not significantly affect erectile function, orgasmic function, and general sexual satisfaction regardless of the type of surgery, localization and length of stenosis. Besides, there was a significant decrease in erectile function in senior adults. <![CDATA[Implant of ATOMS<sup>®</sup> system for the treatment of postoperative male stress urinary incontinence: results of a single centre]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100127&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of our study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ATOMS® system for the treatment of postoperative male stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated all patients treated at our institution for postoperative male SUI with ATOMS® implant. We excluded patients with low bladder compliance (&lt; 20 mL / cmH2O), uncontrolled detrusor overactivity, detrusor underactivity (BCI &lt; 100), urethral or bladder neck stricture and low cystometric capacity (&lt; 200 mL). Results: From October 2014 to July 2017 we treated 52 patients, mean age 73.6 years. Most of them (92.3%) had undergone radical prostatectomy, 3.85% simple open prostatectomy, 3.85% TURP; 28.8% of patients had undergone urethral surgery, 11.5% adjuvant radiotherapy; 57.7% had already undergone surgical treatment for urinary incontinence. The average24 hours pad test was 411.6 g (180 – 1100). The mean follow-up was 20.1 months (8.1 – 41.5) 30.8% of patients were dry, 59.6% improved ≥ 50%, 7.7% improved &lt; 50% and 1.9% unchanged. In total 73.1% reached social continence. There was a significant reduction of the 24 hours pad test and ICIQ - UI SF scores (p &lt; 0.01). In the postoperative follow-up we detected complications in 8 patients (19%): 5 cases of displacement of the scrotal port, in 2 cases catheterization difficulties, one case of epididimitis and concomitant superficial wound infection; no prosthesis infection, nor explants. Radiotherapy, previous urethral surgery,previous incontinence surgery were not statistically related to social continence rates (p 0.65;p 0.11;p 0.11). Conclusions: The ATOMS® system is an effective and safe surgical treatment of mild and moderate male postoperative SUI with durable results in the short term. <![CDATA[Prospective comparison of the novel visual prostate symptom score (VPSS) versus the international prostate symptom score (IPSS), and assessment of patient pain perception with regard to transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100137&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and novel Visual Prostate Symptom Score (VPSS) in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), to correlate scores with uroflowmetry and prostate volume and assess patient perceptions regarding pain prior to, and after prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods: Patients with LUTS who had an indication for transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsy were included. Patients completed the IPSS-, VPSS- and prostate biopsy pain assessment questionnaires. Assessment included uroflowmetry, post- void residual volume and prostate volume (measured with TRUS). Results: One hundred men were included. There were statistically significant correlations between the VPSS score and IPSS score (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.802); VPSS and Qmax (r = −0.311); VPSS and. Qave (r = −0.344); prostate volume with VPSS (r = 0.194) and Qmax (r = −0.260). The VPSS was quicker to complete than the IPSS (mean 100 vs. 165 seconds). The mean anticipated pain score before biopsy was 2.8 (range 0-6), and after biopsy (experienced pain) it was 1.8 (range 0-5). The pain during biopsy was less than expected in 67% of patients. Conclusion: In men with LUTS scheduled to undergo prostate biopsy, the VPSS score correlated positively with the IPSS score. Men with limited education take less time to complete the VPSS. Patient's perception of expected pain or discomfort during TRUS-guided prostate biopsy was significantly higher than the pain actually experienced during biopsy. Men with lower education level had significantly higher expectation of pain prior to biopsy, but similar pain during biopsy. <![CDATA[Inpatient interventions that may preclude outpatient open pyeloplasty in infants]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100145&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Objective: In the majority of published series, children undergoing open pyeloplasty are admitted for at least one night. We hypothesized that it would be possible in the majority of infants to perform open pyeloplasty as an outpatient procedure. Materials and Methods: All patients who underwent open pyeloplasty by a single surgeon between 2008 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data (age at surgery, gender, pre- and postoperative imaging studies, laterality, type of local anesthesia), operative time, duration of hospital stay, need for narcotic analgesics, complications, readmission within 1-month after surgery and need for additional procedures were abstracted. Results: A total of 18 infants underwent open pyeloplasty by single surgeon. Mean age at time of surgery was 19 months (range 3-23 months). There were 8 girls and 10 boys. In addition to general anesthesia, all of the patients received regional anesthesia (caudal block 8, epidural block 8, subcutaneous nerve block 2). Median operative time was 135 minutes (range 81-166). Median hospital stay was 1 day (range 1 to 2). Two patients required iv narcotics for pain management. None of the patients required parenteral administration of other medications during the short hospitalization. No patients required any additional procedures or hospital readmissions within 1 month from surgery. Conclusions: In appropriately selected patients, outpatient pyeloplasty appears to be feasible with an oral postoperative analgesia plan to be administered at home. <![CDATA[Study of the renal parenchymal volume during the human fetal period]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100150&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the renal parenchymal area in human fetuses, providing a descriptive analysis on the renal area development by demographic factors during the second gestational trimester. Material and Methods: We analyzed 84 fetuses (44 males and 40 females), for a total of 168 renal units evaluated in terms of longitudinal length, superior pole width, inferior pole width and thickness. Renal volume was calculated by ellipsoid formula. After renal pelvis dissection, length and width were evaluated; as pelvis is free of urine, we considered thickness as 1mm. Renal pelvis volume was also calculated by ellipsoid formula. Renal parenchymal area was assessed by excluding the volume of the renal pelvis from the total renal volume. We performed the statistical analysis by simple linear regression assessing the association between the variables analyzed with the fetal age. Results: Gestational age ranged from 12 to 23 weeks post conception. Mean renal parenchymal area of the right kidney was 666.22mm3 (45.86 to 2375.35mm3) and for the left kidney was 606.76mm3 (68.63 to 2402.57mm3). No statistical difference was observed between the sides (p-value = 0.3456) or genders (p-value = 0.07429). Linear regression between renal parenchymal volume and gestational age was positive for right kidney (y = 133.74x-1479.94 / r2 = 0.4009) and left kidney (y = 149.53x-1761.59 / r2 = 0.4591). Conclusions: The linear regression analysis indicated that renal parenchymal area correlated significantly and positively with fetal age, weight and crown-rump length with no statistical differences between gender or laterality. These growth curves provide a reference for functional volume of the kidney during fetal period. <![CDATA[Effect of a high-fat diet on the rat bladder wall and bioactive action of Brazil nut oil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100161&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT High-fat diet-induced obesity is associated with metabolic disorders. The Brazil nut has bioactive substances and has been used to control the damage caused by obesity in several organs. The work intended to show the damage caused by high-fat diet in the bladder wall and if the Brazil nut oil added to the diet could ameliorate or reverse this effect. Sixty-day-old rats were divided into two groups: C (control, n = 30) and HF (high-fat, n = 30) diets. At 90 days, 10 animals of each group were sacrificed. The others were divided into 4 groups: C and HF (animals that maintained their previous diet, n = 10 for each group) and C / Bno and HF / Bno (animals whose control or high-fat diet was supplemented by Brazil nut oil, n = 10 for each group). Sacrifice occurred at 120 days, and the bladders were removed and analyzed. Epithelial height was increased in the HF compared to the C group. In contrast, the C / Bno had a lower epithelial height compared to the others. The percentage of collagen between the detrusor muscle fibers was significantly greater in C / Bno, HF and HF / Bno than in control group. The HF had a larger muscle fiber diameter than the C group, while the C / Bno presented lower values than the HF and HF / Bno groups. HF diets induced bladder wall damage. These changes in the rat's bladder wall were partially reversed by the Bno. <![CDATA[Immunohistochemical expressionof sodium-dependent glucose transporter - 2 (SGLT-2) in clear cell renal carcinoma: possible prognostic implications]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100169&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Purpose: Glucose is a major energy resource for tumor cell survival and growth, and its influx into cells is mainly carried out by facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs). Sodium - dependent glucose transporters (SGLTs) have been highlighted as playing important roles in diabetic treatment. However, their potential roles in cancer remain unclear. We examined expression patterns of SGLTs in tumor tissues together with conventional pathological variables to determine prognostic significance in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Materials and Methods: Nephrectomy specimens were obtained from 68 patients. GLUT - 1, - 2 and SGLT - 1, - 2 expression in tumor and adjacent normal tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining, and intensity was quantified using an image analyzer. Results: The four glucose transporters evaluated were broadly distributed in tumor tissues as well as throughout the normal parenchyma. There was no significant correlation between transporter expression and conventional pathological variables. However, increased SGLT - 2 expression was significantly associated with shorter overall survival (p &lt; 0.01), regardless of metastatic status. Conclusions: We propose possible prognostic significance of SGLT - 2 expression in human RCC. Given that glucose is a major energy resource for tumor cells and that glucose transport is largely mediated by SGLT, SGLT - 2 may serve as a possible therapeutic target in RCC. <![CDATA[A very easy technique of stenting for laparoscopic pyeloplasty: penbegul intravenous cannula (PICA) technique]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100179&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Introduction: Double-J stent insertion during laparoscopic pyeloplasty is a difficult and time-consuming process and several techniques were defined to perform a double-J stent with an antegrade approach. In this study we present the technique (PICA) of antegrade double-J placement during laparoscopic pyeloplasty by using 14 gauge intravenous cannula. Surgıcal technıque: After we complete the suturing of the posterior wall of the anastomosis during laparoscopic pyeloplasty, we first puncture the abdominal wall with a 14-gauge “intravenous cannula” from a location that provides most suitable angle for inserting the double-J stent into the ureter. We remove the metal needle of the cannula, and the sheath which has an inner diameter of 5.2F remains over the abdominal wall. The double J stent is then advanced from inside the cannula sheath to the intraperitoneal area; under laparoscopic imaging the stent is gently grasped at its distal end using an atraumatic laparoscopic forceps to insert it into the ureter. The stent is then pulled down to its proximal end, and after the guidewire is removed, the proximal end of the double-J stent is placed inside the renal pelvis with an atraumatic forceps. With this technique we can apply the double-J stent in just one step. Additionaly we can use a 14-gauge IV cannula sheath as a trocar when needed during laparoscopic pyeloplasty to retract an organ or reveal an anastomosis line. Comments: Our new technique of antegrade double-J placement during laparoscopic pyeloplasty by 14 gauge intravenous cannula sheath, is very easy and quick to perform. <![CDATA[CT-guided minimally-invasive penile fracture repair]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100183&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT We present the case of a 28 year old patient with an incomplete tear of the tunica albuginea occurred after having sexual intercourse in the female superior position. The diagnostic assessment was performed first clinically, then with CT, owing to its high resolution, allowed to exactly detect the tear location leading to precise preoperative planning. After adequate diagnosis through imaging and proper planning, the patient was performed a selective minimally invasive surgical approach to repair the lesion. The patient had good erection with no angular deformity or plaque formation after a 3-month follow-up. <![CDATA[A severely encrusted forgotten double - J ureteral catheter with giant stone formation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100187&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT We present the case of a 28 year old patient with an incomplete tear of the tunica albuginea occurred after having sexual intercourse in the female superior position. The diagnostic assessment was performed first clinically, then with CT, owing to its high resolution, allowed to exactly detect the tear location leading to precise preoperative planning. After adequate diagnosis through imaging and proper planning, the patient was performed a selective minimally invasive surgical approach to repair the lesion. The patient had good erection with no angular deformity or plaque formation after a 3-month follow-up. <![CDATA[Easy, reproducible extraperitoneal pelvic access for robot - assisted radical prostatectomy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100189&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Robot - assisted radical prostatectomy is commonly performed transperitoneally (tRARP), although the extraperitoneal (eRARP) approach is a safe and effective alternative that may be preferred in certain situations. We developed a novel method of direct access into the space of Retzius with a visual obturator port (Visiport™) for laparoscopic or robotic prostatectomy. We present an instructional video of extraperitoneal pelvic access for eRARP with both internal and external camera views. The patient is first placed in lithotomy and 15° Trendelenburg position. The camera is inserted infraumbilically and angled caudally. The pre-peritoneal space is accessed through the anterior rectus fascia using a Visiport™ (Covidien, $ 60 www.esutures.com), and the working space is developed with a kidney - shaped balloon OMSPDBS2™ (Covidien, $ 49 www.esutures.com). After the space is insufflated, subsequent trocars are angled in extraperitoneally under direct vision. The average time from incision to final port placement after a learning curve of about 50 cases is 8 minutes (IQR 7-10). We have performed over 1.000 cases using this technique and eRARP has become our procedure of choice. Our last 500 + cases were performed robotically. Approximately 10% of the time peritoneotomies were noted, but rarely did these require conversion to tRARP. There have been no bowel or other abdominal organ injuries, major vascular or other complications in any of these cases. <![CDATA[A novel “six stitches” procedures for pediatric and adult buried penis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100190&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Introduction: The buried penis, if not treated before adolescence, will lead to psychological and physical disorders in adulthood. Therefore, early surgical intervention is necessary. At present, the common surgical methods include the penile corpus fixation, the Johnson's operation, the Devine's method, the modified Devine's method, Shiraki's method, etc. However, we found that these traditional surgeries showed various postoperative complications, such as long-term prepuce edema, avascular necrosis of skin flaps, stenotic prepuce, scarring, and poor appearance. This video shows the main technical steps of our innovative surgical procedure “Six Stitch” (SS) method for the buried penis. Materials and Methods: The designation of the so-called SS method was based on the total knots made (six knots were made for the SS procedure). After the crura penis was fully exposed via a longitudinal incision at the penoscrotal junction, at the 2 o'clock position (around the penis), the superficial layer of albuginea of the crura penis was sutured to the prepubic ligament with 2-0 non-absorbable sutures to prevent the retraction of the penis (the 1st knot). The same procedure was used for the 10 o'clock position (the 2nd knot); At the 2 o'clock position, the skin and subcutaneous tissue at the pubic mound were sutured to the prepubic ligament to reconstruct the appearance of dorsum penis (the 3rd knot). The same procedures were used for the 10 o'clock position (the 4th knot). At the 5 o'clock position, the ventral albuginea was sutured to the tunica dartos and subcutaneous tissue at the penoscrotal junction to reconstruct the penoscrotal angle (the 5th knot). The same procedures were used for the 4 o'clock position (the 6th knot). Finally, the gloved prepuce was reset and circumcision was conducted if the redundant prepuce existed. Results: We have done a total of 64 cases of SS procedures for concealed penis; mean length improvement was 3.8 ± 0.5 cm, with a satisfying 95 percent (61 / 64), which was much longer than the outcome of the above-mentioned methods. Mean operative time was 62.3 ± 12.1 minutes, and there was no serious intraoperative or postoperative complication (only 2 presented scar hyperplasia at the incision site). Conclusions: In conclusion, after the SS procedure, patients with buried penis can acquire an almost 4 cm improvement of penile length and covert incision at the midline of the scrotum, with an acceptable and low incidence of adverse events. This safe and effective procedure may be a viable option for the surgical management of pediatric and adult buried penis. <![CDATA[Robot - assisted laparoscopic local recurrence resection after radical prostatectomy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100192&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Introduction and objective: Local prostate cancer recurrence is usually treated with salvage radiation (sRDT) with or without adjuvant therapy. However, surgical resection could be an option. We aim to present the surgical technique for robot - assisted laparoscopic resection prostate cancer local recurrence after radical prostatectomy (RP) and sRDT in 2 cases. Patients and method: First case depicts a 70 year - old man who underwent RP in 2001 and sRDT in 2004. Following adjuvant therapy, patient had biochemical recurrence. MRI showed a solid mass in the prostatic fossa close to vesicourethral anastomosis, measuring 2.1 cm and PET / CT revealed hyper caption significant uptake in the prostatic fossa. Second case is a 59 year - old man who underwent RP in 2010 and sRDT in 2011. Again, patient presented with biochemical recurrence. PET / CT showed hyper caption in the prostatic fossa. Biopsy conformed a prostate adenocarcinoma. Both patients underwent robot - assisted extended pelvic lymph nodes dissection and local recurrence resection. A standard 4 robotic arms port placement was utilized. Results: Both procedures were uneventfully performed in less than 3 hours and there were no complications. Pathological examination showed a prostate adenocarcinoma Gleason 7 and 8 in the first and second case, respectively; surgical margins and lymph nodes were negative. After 6 months of follow-up, continence was not affected and both patients presented with PSA &lt; 0.15 ng / mL. Conclusion: Robot - assisted laparoscopic resection of prostate cancer local recurrence after RP and sRDT detected by PSMA PET / CT seems to be safe in experienced hands. It may postpone adjuvant therapy in selected cases. <![CDATA[Vascular injuries during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy and proposed risk reduction strategies]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100193&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Introduction: Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) has become the standard of care and popular among most of the transplant centres across the globe. Objective of this video is to report different vascular injuries, their management during LDNs and propose risk reduction strategies. Patient and methods: This was a retrospective analysis of all the LDNs performed between January 2011 and March 2016. All donor nephrectomies were performed laparoscopically by transperitoneal route, under ideal operative conditions by expert laparoscopic surgeons and by novice surgeons. Results: 858 LDNs (left, n = 797; right, n = 61) were performed during the study period with 5 cases of vascular injuries. Mean (SD) donor age was 45.5 (± 10.76) years and the operative time was 165 (± 44.4) min. Of these five cases, two had renal vein injury, while the three others had renal artery, inferior vena cava and aortic injury (one each). Four injuries occurred during left LDN and only one during a right LDN. Vascular injuries were managed using the Rescue stitch or metallic clips as indicated. Risk reduction strategy was developed to avoid vascular injuries during LDN, which include - meticulous attention to port placement, addition of fourth port, complete dissection of upper pole and pedicle before clipping, and judicious use of ultrasonic diathermy. Conclusions: Careful evaluation of computed tomography angiography just before surgery will act like a global positioning system (GPS) for the operating surgeon. Rescue stitch is a saviour. Not to panic and being well versed with the risk reduction strategies of laparoscopy and rescue measures is of paramount importance. <![CDATA[The iranian model as a potential solution for the current kidney shortage crisis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100194&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Introduction: Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) has become the standard of care and popular among most of the transplant centres across the globe. Objective of this video is to report different vascular injuries, their management during LDNs and propose risk reduction strategies. Patient and methods: This was a retrospective analysis of all the LDNs performed between January 2011 and March 2016. All donor nephrectomies were performed laparoscopically by transperitoneal route, under ideal operative conditions by expert laparoscopic surgeons and by novice surgeons. Results: 858 LDNs (left, n = 797; right, n = 61) were performed during the study period with 5 cases of vascular injuries. Mean (SD) donor age was 45.5 (± 10.76) years and the operative time was 165 (± 44.4) min. Of these five cases, two had renal vein injury, while the three others had renal artery, inferior vena cava and aortic injury (one each). Four injuries occurred during left LDN and only one during a right LDN. Vascular injuries were managed using the Rescue stitch or metallic clips as indicated. Risk reduction strategy was developed to avoid vascular injuries during LDN, which include - meticulous attention to port placement, addition of fourth port, complete dissection of upper pole and pedicle before clipping, and judicious use of ultrasonic diathermy. Conclusions: Careful evaluation of computed tomography angiography just before surgery will act like a global positioning system (GPS) for the operating surgeon. Rescue stitch is a saviour. Not to panic and being well versed with the risk reduction strategies of laparoscopy and rescue measures is of paramount importance. <![CDATA[Re: Incidence and treatment of malignant tumors of the genitourinary tract in renal transplant recipients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100197&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Introduction: Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) has become the standard of care and popular among most of the transplant centres across the globe. Objective of this video is to report different vascular injuries, their management during LDNs and propose risk reduction strategies. Patient and methods: This was a retrospective analysis of all the LDNs performed between January 2011 and March 2016. All donor nephrectomies were performed laparoscopically by transperitoneal route, under ideal operative conditions by expert laparoscopic surgeons and by novice surgeons. Results: 858 LDNs (left, n = 797; right, n = 61) were performed during the study period with 5 cases of vascular injuries. Mean (SD) donor age was 45.5 (± 10.76) years and the operative time was 165 (± 44.4) min. Of these five cases, two had renal vein injury, while the three others had renal artery, inferior vena cava and aortic injury (one each). Four injuries occurred during left LDN and only one during a right LDN. Vascular injuries were managed using the Rescue stitch or metallic clips as indicated. Risk reduction strategy was developed to avoid vascular injuries during LDN, which include - meticulous attention to port placement, addition of fourth port, complete dissection of upper pole and pedicle before clipping, and judicious use of ultrasonic diathermy. Conclusions: Careful evaluation of computed tomography angiography just before surgery will act like a global positioning system (GPS) for the operating surgeon. Rescue stitch is a saviour. Not to panic and being well versed with the risk reduction strategies of laparoscopy and rescue measures is of paramount importance. <![CDATA[Re: HPV vaccination for penile cancer eradication: cost effectiveness view]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100199&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Introduction: Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) has become the standard of care and popular among most of the transplant centres across the globe. Objective of this video is to report different vascular injuries, their management during LDNs and propose risk reduction strategies. Patient and methods: This was a retrospective analysis of all the LDNs performed between January 2011 and March 2016. All donor nephrectomies were performed laparoscopically by transperitoneal route, under ideal operative conditions by expert laparoscopic surgeons and by novice surgeons. Results: 858 LDNs (left, n = 797; right, n = 61) were performed during the study period with 5 cases of vascular injuries. Mean (SD) donor age was 45.5 (± 10.76) years and the operative time was 165 (± 44.4) min. Of these five cases, two had renal vein injury, while the three others had renal artery, inferior vena cava and aortic injury (one each). Four injuries occurred during left LDN and only one during a right LDN. Vascular injuries were managed using the Rescue stitch or metallic clips as indicated. Risk reduction strategy was developed to avoid vascular injuries during LDN, which include - meticulous attention to port placement, addition of fourth port, complete dissection of upper pole and pedicle before clipping, and judicious use of ultrasonic diathermy. Conclusions: Careful evaluation of computed tomography angiography just before surgery will act like a global positioning system (GPS) for the operating surgeon. Rescue stitch is a saviour. Not to panic and being well versed with the risk reduction strategies of laparoscopy and rescue measures is of paramount importance. <![CDATA[REPLY TO THE AUTHORS: Re: Simplified Fournier's gangrene severe index score (SFGSI)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382019000100201&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Introduction: Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) has become the standard of care and popular among most of the transplant centres across the globe. Objective of this video is to report different vascular injuries, their management during LDNs and propose risk reduction strategies. Patient and methods: This was a retrospective analysis of all the LDNs performed between January 2011 and March 2016. All donor nephrectomies were performed laparoscopically by transperitoneal route, under ideal operative conditions by expert laparoscopic surgeons and by novice surgeons. Results: 858 LDNs (left, n = 797; right, n = 61) were performed during the study period with 5 cases of vascular injuries. Mean (SD) donor age was 45.5 (± 10.76) years and the operative time was 165 (± 44.4) min. Of these five cases, two had renal vein injury, while the three others had renal artery, inferior vena cava and aortic injury (one each). Four injuries occurred during left LDN and only one during a right LDN. Vascular injuries were managed using the Rescue stitch or metallic clips as indicated. Risk reduction strategy was developed to avoid vascular injuries during LDN, which include - meticulous attention to port placement, addition of fourth port, complete dissection of upper pole and pedicle before clipping, and judicious use of ultrasonic diathermy. Conclusions: Careful evaluation of computed tomography angiography just before surgery will act like a global positioning system (GPS) for the operating surgeon. Rescue stitch is a saviour. Not to panic and being well versed with the risk reduction strategies of laparoscopy and rescue measures is of paramount importance.