Scielo RSS <![CDATA[International braz j urol]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1677-553820140004&lang=pt vol. 40 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Clinical relevance of routine semen analysis and controversies surrounding the 2010 World Health Organization criteria for semen examination]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000400433&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Semen analysis is the corner stone of infertility evaluation as it provides information on the functional status of the seminiferous tubules, epididymis and accessory sex glands. The methods on how the human semen should be evaluated are provided by the World Health Organization, which periodically releases manuals that include specific protocols and reference standards. In 2010, the WHO published new criteria for human semen characteristics that were markedly lower than those previously reported. In this review initially it is discussed the limitations of semen analysis as a surrogate measure of a man’s ability to father a pregnancy. Secondly, it is analyzed methodology issues that could explain why the newly released reference values were different from those earlier reported. Thirdly, it is speculated on the likely effects of the 2010 WHO criteria in the management of male infertility. Due to the several inherent limitations of semen analysis as a surrogate marker of male infertility, physicians should exercise caution when interpreting results. A template for semen analysis reports that incorporates the distribution of the semen characteristics of recent fathers in centiles rather than solely the minimum thresholds could aid clinicians to better understand how a given patient results compare with the reference population. Importantly, a male infertility evaluation must go far beyond a simple semen analysis, as it has to be complemented with a proper physical examination, a comprehensive history taking, and relevant endocrine, genetic, and other investigations. <![CDATA[40<sup>th</sup> Edition]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000400442&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Semen analysis is the corner stone of infertility evaluation as it provides information on the functional status of the seminiferous tubules, epididymis and accessory sex glands. The methods on how the human semen should be evaluated are provided by the World Health Organization, which periodically releases manuals that include specific protocols and reference standards. In 2010, the WHO published new criteria for human semen characteristics that were markedly lower than those previously reported. In this review initially it is discussed the limitations of semen analysis as a surrogate measure of a man’s ability to father a pregnancy. Secondly, it is analyzed methodology issues that could explain why the newly released reference values were different from those earlier reported. Thirdly, it is speculated on the likely effects of the 2010 WHO criteria in the management of male infertility. Due to the several inherent limitations of semen analysis as a surrogate marker of male infertility, physicians should exercise caution when interpreting results. A template for semen analysis reports that incorporates the distribution of the semen characteristics of recent fathers in centiles rather than solely the minimum thresholds could aid clinicians to better understand how a given patient results compare with the reference population. Importantly, a male infertility evaluation must go far beyond a simple semen analysis, as it has to be complemented with a proper physical examination, a comprehensive history taking, and relevant endocrine, genetic, and other investigations. <![CDATA[Change in the risk stratification of prostate cancer after Slide Review by a uropathologist: the experience of a reference center for the treatment of prostate cancer]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000400454&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Introduction Brachytherapy is an option for treating low-risk prostate cancer (PC). Biochemical control of low-risk disease can reach 95%. The practice advocated is that a review of prostate biopsies should be mandatory before choosing the best treatment for patients with PC. Our objective was to evaluate the change in PC risk after review of a prostate biopsy by an experienced uropathologist at a reference hospital. Materials and Methods Between December 2003 and August 2012, 182 men were referred to our institution for brachytherapy to treat PC. Their slides were reviewed by the same uropathologist. Results and Discussion Classification risk disagreement occurred in 71 (39%) cases, including one in which no tumor was observed. The main cause of risk change was related to the Gleason score (GS), with 57 (81.4%) cases upgraded to GS 7 or 8. Tumor volume was also compared, although only the number of fragments was reported in most original reports. The concordance of the number of cores affected by tumor was 43.9%, and in 49% of the cases, the number was decreased by the uropathologist. Perineural invasion (PNI) was reported in one quarter of original reports, and the agreement was 58%. Conclusion Slide review by an uropathologist remains essential at reference radiotherapy centers for the treatment of PC. The change in PC risk evaluation is mainly due to the GS, but tumor volume and PNI, which are important for the characterization of tumor aggressiveness, are also misinterpreted and could drive a change in the therapy choice. <![CDATA[Human glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms associated with prostate cancer in the Brazilian population]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000400463&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective To evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 in the risk of developing Prostate Cancer (PCa) in a population of Rio de Janeiro and compare the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies of the polymorphisms analyzed in the present study population with other regions in the country and different ethnic groups. Materials and Methods We analyzed a sample of the Brazilian population, comprising 196 patients with PCa treated by the urology services of the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA) and Mario Kroeff Hospital (HMK), and 208 male blood donors from the Clementino Fraga Filho Hospital, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). The polymorphisms were determined in DNA, extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes using the Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results Our results showed that the distribution of polymorphisms can vary significantly according to the Brazilian region and ethnic groups. The distribution of allele and genotype frequencies of the polymorphism GSTA1 was statistically different between cases and controls. Genotypes (A / B + B / B) were associated with protection (OR = 0.61, 95 % CI = 0.40-0.92) for PCa in comparison to genotype A / A. Conclusion The distribution of genotype frequencies of the polymorphism GSTA1 was statistically different between the case and control groups (p = 0.023), and the presence of genotypes A / B and B / B suggests a protective role against the risk of PCa compared to genotype A / A. This is the first study that reports the genotypic frequency of this polymorphism and its association with PCa in a Brazilian population sample. <![CDATA[External beam radiation therapy and a low-dose-rate brachytherapy boost without or with androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000400474&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Purpose To assess outcomes with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and a low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy boost without or with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods From January 2001 through August 2011, 120 intermediate-risk or high-risk prostate cancer patients were treated with EBRT to a total dose of 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions and a palladium-103 LDR brachytherapy boost of 10,000 cGy (n = 90) or an iodine-125 LDR brachytherapy boost of 11,000 cGy (n = 30). ADT, consisting of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist ± an anti-androgen, was administered to 29/92 (32%) intermediate-risk patients for a median duration of 4 months and 26/28 (93%) high-risk patients for a median duration of 28 months. Results Median follow-up was 5.2 years (range, 1.1-12.8 years). There was no statistically-significant difference in biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), or overall survival (OS) without or with ADT. Also, there was no statistically-significant difference in bDFS, DMFS, or OS with a palladium-103 vs. an iodine-125 LDR brachytherapy boost. Conclusions There was no statistically-significant difference in outcomes with the addition of ADT, though the power of the current study was limited. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0815 and 0924 phase III trials, which have accrual targets of more than 1,500 men, will help to clarify the role ADT in locally-advanced prostate cancer patients treated with EBRT and a brachytherapy boost. Palladium-103 and iodine-125 provide similar bDFS, DMFS, and OS. <![CDATA[Clinical utility of prostate-specific antigen mass ratio for prediction of prostate cancer detection on a repeated prostate biopsy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000400484&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Purpose To assess the clinical utility of the prostate-specific antigen mass ratio (PSA-MR), a newly developed PSA derivative, simply defined as the (i) PSA density (PSA-D) multiplied by the plasma volume or (ii) total PSA amount in circulation per prostate volume, for predicting prostate cancer (PCa) among men undergoing repeated prostate biopsy (PBx). Materials and Methods Patients (n = 286), who underwent a repeated PBx, were analyzed. The various parameters associated with PCa detection were noted in each patient. PSA-MR was also calculated. Results PCa was detected in 63 (22.0%) of 286 patients. PSA-MR was the independent predictor in the univariate- and multivariate logistic regression analyses (OR = 3.448, p = 0.001 and OR = 13.430, p = 0.033, respectively). A nomogram that incorporated PSA-MR was considered a useful tool (predictive accuracy: 79.2%, 95% CI: 0.726-0.858, p &lt; 0.001). Furthermore, a nomogram that incorporated PSA-MR would have avoided 59.6% of unnecessary repeated PBx. The predictive accuracy of PSA-MR was also superior to that of PSA or PSA-D (p = 0.013 and 0.009, respectively). Conclusions PSA-MR was an independent predictor, and its consideration would have avoided 59.6% of unnecessary repeated PBx for PCa detection. PSA-MR was also superior than PSA or PSA-D. Our results support the use of PSA-MR to facilitate counseling with patients after a negative initial PBx, and use of PSA-MR might reduce further unnecessary biopsies. <![CDATA[The merits of cytology in the workup for upper tract urothelial carcinoma - a contemporary review of a perplexing issue]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000400493&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Introduction The importance of upper tract cytology for evaluating tumors is unclear. We correlated upper tract cytology with histologic findings in patients who underwent nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) at a single tertiary care referral center. Materials and Methods 137 patients underwent nephroureterectomy between 2004 and 2012. 18 patients were excluded (benign tumors, atrophic kidneys with the remaining 119 patients serving as our study population). Upper tract cytology from the renal pelvis and/or ureter were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed with final pathology data in the remaining patients with UTUC. Results 57% (68/119) had preoperative upper tract cytology collected. 73% (50/68) patients had abnormal cytology (positive, suspicious) with a sensitivity of 74% (which increased to 90% if atypical included), specificity of 50% and a positive predictive value of 98%. High grade tumors were more common than expected (77% high grade vs. 20% low grade). Abnormal cytology did not predict T stage or tumor grade. Interestingly, positive upper tract cytology was found in all of the UTUC CIS specimen. Conclusions Upper tract cytology has been utilized to support the diagnosis of upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Our data demonstrates that abnormal cytology correlates well with the presence of disease but does not predict staging or grading in these respective patients. <![CDATA[Increased Tissue Factor Expression is an Independent Predictor of Mortality in Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000400499&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Purpose Increased expression of tissue factor (TF), a primary initiator of the extrinsic coagulation pathway, has been associated with a worse prognosis in a variety of solid tumors. We report for the first time the correlation of the immunohistochemical expression of tissue factor with clinical and pathological outcomes in clear cell carcinomas of the kidney. Materials and Methods immunohistochemical expression of tissue factor was evaluated in 58 paraffin-embedded samples of clear cell carcinomas of the kidney treated at the same university hospital, that was correlated with clinical and pathological variables and with overall survival. Results high intensity tissue factor expression (TF area &gt; 10µm2) was observed in 22.4% of the tumors (13 patients), and was an important predictor of overall mortality, both in univariate and multivariate analysis (p &lt; 0.05). Median overall survival for both groups was 66 months; 78.2 months for patients in the group of lower TF expression and 27.5 months for patients in the group of higher TF expression (log rank p &lt; 0.001). The hazard ratio for mortality was 9.7 (CI 3.7-25.6) for tumors with increased TF expression. Conclusions Increased immunohistochemical expression of TF was an important independent predictor of mortality in a contemporary cohort of patients with clear cell carcinoma of the kidney. Further studies are necessary to define the role of TF in clinical practice. <![CDATA[Use of the probability of stone formation (PSF) score to assess stone forming risk and treatment response in a cohort of Brazilian stone formers]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000400507&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Introduction The aim was to confirm that PSF (probability of stone formation) changed appropriately following medical therapy on recurrent stone formers. Materials and Methods Data were collected on 26 Brazilian stone-formers. A baseline 24-hour urine collection was performed prior to treatment. Details of the medical treatment initiated for stone-disease were recorded. A PSF calculation was performed on the 24 hour urine sample using the 7 urinary parameters required: voided volume, oxalate, calcium, urate, pH, citrate and magnesium. A repeat 24-hour urine sample was performed for PSF calculation after treatment. Comparison was made between the PSF scores before and during treatment. Results At baseline, 20 of the 26 patients (77%) had a high PSF score (&gt; 0.5). Of the 26 patients, 17 (65%) showed an overall reduction in their PSF profiles with a medical treatment regimen. Eleven patients (42%) changed from a high risk (PSF &gt; 0.5) to a low risk (PSF &lt; 0.5) and 6 patients reduced their risk score but did not change risk category. Six (23%) patients remained in a high risk category (&gt; 0.5) during both assessments. Conclusions The PSF score reduced following medical treatment in the majority of patients in this cohort. <![CDATA[Value of color doppler ultrasound, kub and urinalysis in diagnosis of renal colic due to ureteral stones]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000400513&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Purpose Despite the routine use of helical CT in diagnosis of renal colic, there are recent concerns regarding the radiation exposure, overuse and costs. We attempted in this retrospective study to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound (gray-scale and color Doppler with twinkling), KUB and urinalysis in diagnosis of renal colic due to ureteral calculi presented in Emergency Room. Materials and Methods A total of 939 consecutive cases of renal colic presented to ER have been managed and evaluated by ureteral ultrasound, KUB and urinalysis for the presence of ureteral stones. Non-confirmatory cases were subjected to Helical CT examination. Results Renal and ureteral ultrasound (gray-scale) alone detected ureteral calculi in 615 cases (65.4%) and after utilizing Color Doppler Ultrasound with twinkling the diagnosis was made with confidence in 935 cases (99.6%) but 4 (0.4%). KUB showed radiopaque stones in 503 (53.6%) patients and no stones were detected in 436 (46.4%). Microhematuria presented in 835 (88.9%) cases while absent in 102 (10.9%). There were 190 (20.3%), 77 (8.2%) and 671 (71.5%) patients with upper, middle and lower ureteral stones respectively. The simultaneous positive findings in US and KUB with microhematuria were found only in 453 (48.2%) cases. Conclusions The use of Color Doppler ultrasound with twinkling increased the detection rate of ureteral stones in acute renal colic patients presented to ER with less radiation exposure. Ultrasound examination as a single modality is superior to KUB and urinalysis in initial diagnosis of renal colic. <![CDATA[A new problem in inflammatory bladder diseases: Use of mobile phones!]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000400520&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Purpose Technological developments provide a lot of conveniences to our lives. This issue is one of the risks that arise along with these conveniences. In our study we tried to understand the impact of electromagnetic waves from mobile phones on bladder tissue. Materials and Methods Twenty-one adult male albino rats were divided into three equal groups. Group 1 was exposed to electromagnetic wave for 8 hours per day for 20 days and then their bladders were taken off immediately. Group 2 was firstly exposed to electromagnetic wave for 8 hours per day for 20 days then secondly another for 20 days without exposition to electromagnetic wave and then their bladders were taken off. Group 3 was the control group and they were not exposed to electromagnetic wave. Results Under microscopic examination of bladder tissue, in the first group severe inflammatory cell infiltration was seen in lamina propria and muscle layer in contrast to intact urothelium. In the second group mild inflammatory cell infiltration was seen in lamina propria and muscle layer. The mean scores for the three groups were 5.5 ± 2.5, 0.8 ± 1.3 and 1.2 ± 1.5 respectively. Mean score of group 1 was statistically higher than others (p = 0.001). Conclusion Intensive use of mobile phones has negative impact on bladder tissue as well as the other organs. Keeping a minimum level of mobile phone use makes it easy to be kept under control of diseases in which inflammation is an etiologic factor. <![CDATA[Laparoscopic Sacral Uteropexy with Cravat Technique--Experience and Results]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000400526&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a “Cravat’’ technique for the management of uterine prolapse in patients who want to preserve uterus, involving suspension of the uterus from the sacral promontory by using polypropylene mesh. Materials and Methods A prospective observational study between January 2011 and September 2013 was conducted. Prior to surgery, prolapse assessment was undertaken with Baden-Walker halfway system to grade the degree of prolapse at all sites. Patients with severe uterine prolapse (stage II-IV) who want to preserve uterus, were operated with Cravat technique. All patients were evaluated at 2 weeks and 6 weeks after surgery and followed for 6 months. Outcomes were evaluated objectively by vaginal examination using Baden-Walker halfway classification, and subjectively classifying patients as ‘very satisfied’, ‘satisfied’ and ‘not satisfied’ at the 6th month postoperatively. Results Sacral uteropexy was successfully performed by laparoscopy in 32/33 patients (one needed to be converted to laparotomy). Nine patients also had a concurrent procedure as colporaphy anterior, colporaphy posterior or transobturator tape. Postoperative recovery has been uneventful with subjective and objective cure rates were 96.9% and 93.9%, respectively at six month. One recurrence of total prolapse needed to be reoperated and two patients with sacrouteropexy still remained at stage 2 prolapse. There have been no cases of graft exposure, rejection or infection with a median follow-up of 23.9 months. Conclusions Laparoscopic sacral uteropexy with “Cravat technique” was found to be safe and simple procedure. <![CDATA[Is Diagnostic Cystoscopy Painful? Analysis of 1,320 Consecutive Procedures]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000400533&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective To prospectively evaluate self-reported pain levels associated with diagnostic cystoscopy. Materials and Methods Patients who underwent diagnostic cystoscopy and subsequently graded their pain level during the procedure were enrolled. Pain was graded on a Likert visual analog scale (VAS) of 1-10 where 0 = no pain and 10 = excruciating unbearable pain. Local lidocaine gel 2% was used as intraurethral lubricant. Results Data from 1320 consecutive cystoscopies (929 males, 391 females, age range 15-93 years) between 6/2009-1/2010 were analyzed. This was the first cystoscopy for 814 patients. The overall mean VAS was 2.74 ± 1.51 (range 0-9) for rigid cystoscopy and 2.48 ± 1.53 (range 0-10) for flexible cystoscopy (P = 0.004). The reported mean pain level for first-time cystoscopy was significantly higher than that for repeat cystoscopy (2.8 ± 1.6 vs. 2.2 ± 1.4, P &lt; 0.001), regardless of gender or type of cystoscope. Men reported significantly higher pain levels than women 2.6 ± 1.5 vs. 2.4 ± 1.4 (P &lt; 0.04). The highest mean pain level was reported by men (3.4 ± 1.6) and women (2.5 ± 1.6) for rigid cystoscopy compared to flexible cystoscopy (2.5 ± 1.4 and 1.1 ± 1.9, respectively, P &lt; 0.001). Pain levels &gt; 5 were reported in 75 (5.7%) cystoscopies. Conclusions Cystoscopy was not associated with distressing levels of pain. Pain levels during first cystoscopies were higher than those for repeated ones. Using a flexible cystoscope is associated with a lower pain level in both men and women and it should be used for both genders. <![CDATA[Ureteroneocystostomy in primary vesicoureteral reflux: critical retrospective analysis of factors affecting the postoperative urinary tract infection rates]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000400539&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Introduction To determine the parameters affecting the outcome of ureteroneocystostomy (UNC) procedure for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Materials and Methods Data of 398 patients who underwent UNC procedure from 2001 to 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Different UNC techniques were used according to laterality of reflux and ureteral orifice configuration. Effects of several parameters on outcome were examined. Disappearance of reflux on control VCUG or absence of any kind of UTI/symptoms in patients without control VCUG was considered as clinical improvement. Results Mean age at operation was 59.2 ± 39.8 months and follow-up was 25.6 ± 23.3 months. Grade of VUR was 1-2, 3 and 4-5 in 17, 79, 302 patients, respectively. Male to female ratio was 163/235. UNC was performed bilaterally in 235 patients and intravesical approach was used in 373 patients. The frequency of voiding dysfunction, scar on preoperative DMSA, breakthrough infection and previous surgery was 28.4%, 70.7%, 49.3% and 22.4%, respectively. Twelve patients (8.9%) with postoperative contralateral reflux were excluded from the analysis. Overall clinical improvement rate for UNC was 92%. Gender, age at diagnosis and operation, laterality and grade of reflux, mode of presentation, breakthrough infections (BTI) under antibiotic prophylaxis, presence of voiding dysfunction and renal scar, and operation technique did not affect the surgical outcome. However, the clinical improvement rate was lower in patients with a history of previous endoscopic intervention (83.9% vs. 94%). Postoperative UTI rate was 27.2% and factors affecting the occurrence of postoperative UTI were previous failed endoscopic injection on univariate analysis and gender, preoperative BTI, postoperative VUR state, voiding dysfunction on multivariate analysis. Surgery related complication rate was 2% (8/398). These were all low grade complications (blood transfusion in 1, hematoma under incision in 3 and prolonged hospitalization secondary to UTI in 4 patients). In long term, 12 patients are under nephrologic follow-up because of hypertension in 5, increased serum creatinine in 5, proteinuria in 1 and hematuria in 1 patient and all these patients had preoperative scarred kidneys. Conclusions Despite its invasive nature, UNC has a very high success rate with a negligible percent of complications. In our cohort, the only factor that negatively affected the clinical improvement rate was the history of previous antireflux interventions where the predictive factors for postoperative UTI were previous failed endoscopic injection, female gender, preoperative BTI, persistent VUR and voiding dysfunction. <![CDATA[Effects of chronic administration of tamsulosin and tadalafil, alone or in combination, in rats with bladder outlet obstruction induced by chronic nitric oxide deficiency]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000400546&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Purpose The aim of this study was to define if tadalafil causes detrusor muscle impairment and to observe the effect of combination of tadalafil with tamsulosin on the lower urinary tract of rats with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) induced by chronic nitric oxide deficiency. Materials and Methods Thirty-one male rats were randomized to following groups: 1 - control; 2 - L-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME); 3 - Tamsulosin + L-NAME, 4 Tadalafil+L-NAME; and 5 - Tamsulosin + Tadalafil + L-NAME. At the end of the treatment period (30 days), all animals were submitted to urodynamic study. Results The administration of L-NAME increased the number of non-voiding contractions (NVC) (1.04 ± 0.22), volume threshold (VT) (1.86 ± 0.35), and micturition cycle (MC) (1.34 ± 0.11) compared with control (0.52 ± 0.06, 0.62 ± 0.06, and 0.67 ± 0.30), respectively. The administration of tamsulosin reduced the number of NVC (0.57 ± 0.42) and VT (0.76 ± 0.24 ) compared with L-NAME group. Co-treatment with tadalafil decreased the number of VT (0.85 ± 0.53) and MC (0.76 ± 0.22) compared with L-NAME group. The combination of tamsulosin with tadalafil improved the number of NVC (0.56 ± 0.18), VT (0.97 ± 0.52) and MC (0.68 ± 0.30) compared with L-NAME group. Conclusion In rats with BOO induced by chronic nitric oxide deficiency, tadalafil did not cause impairment in detrusor muscle and seems to have an addictive effect to tamsulosin because the combination decreased non voiding contractions as well the number of micturition cycles. <![CDATA[Effects of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Renal Ischaemia-reperfusion Injury in Rats]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000400553&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective This study aims to observe the function of umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) labelled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in the repair of renal ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, to determine the effects on inflammatory cascade in an established rat model and to explore possible pathogenesis. Materials and Methods Sixty rats were randomly divided into three groups: the sham-operated, I/R and UC-MSC treatment groups. All rats underwent right nephrectomy. Ischaemia was induced in the left kidney by occlusion of the renal artery and vein for 1hour, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours or 48 hours. Kidney samples were collected to observe morphological changes. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in the renal tissue sample, as well as the number of infiltrating polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNLs) and UC-MSCs with positive eGFP. Results Renal histopathological damages and the expression of ICAM-1 and PMNL increased significantly in the I/R group compared with those in the sham-operated group, whereas the damages were less conspicuous in the UC-MSC treatment group. Conclusions Renal ICAM-1, which mediated PMNL infiltration and contributed to renal damage, was significantly up-regulated in the I/R group. UC-MSCs were identified to inhibit these pathological processes and protect the kidney from I/R injury. <![CDATA[Garlic supplemented diet attenuates gentamicin nephrotoxicity ın rats]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000400562&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Purpose To demonstrate the effect of a 4% pulverized garlic supplemented diet on the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin in rats. Materials and Methods Twenty four healthy male Wistar rats, weighing between 220 - 260grams, were divided into three groups. The rats were randomly assigned to either the gentamicin injection without garlic supplementation group (Group I, n = 8), gentamicin injection with garlic supplementation group (Group II, n = 8), and control group (Group III, n = 8). Urine from the rats was collected and the volume (mL), microalbumin (mg/L), creatinine (mg/dL), Na (mmol/L), K (mmol/L), Cl (mmol/L), P (mg/dL), N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG) (U/L) and pH values were measured. Then urea (mg/dL), creatinine (mg/dL), total protein (g/dL) and cystatin (mg/L) values were measured for the blood samples obtained from tail veins. Results The median NAG value for the control group (52.050 U/L) was similar to value for Group II (56.400 U/L), which received gentamicin and the garlic diet. However, the median NAG value for Group I (77.030 U/L), which received gentamicin without garlic supplementation, was determined to be statistically significantly higher (p = 0.010) than the value for the control group. In addition, the mean cystatin value for Group II (1.360 U/L) was found to be statistically significantly lower than the value for the Group I (2.240 U/L) (p = 0.015). Conclusions In this study we showed the effect of 4% pulverized garlic supplemented diet for preventing nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin in rats by using as parameters NAG in urine samples and cystatin C in serum samples. <![CDATA[A novel endoscopic treatment for renal arteriopelvic fistula post-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000400568&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Main findings We describe the use of a novel endoscopic approach in the management of unremitting gross hematuria following post-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in a 65-years-old male. This approach proved successful and cost-effective in managing haemorrhage post-PCNL when renal angiography failed to localize the source of bleeding. Case hypothesis The recommended treatment modality for renal calculi ≥ 2cm is PCNL. It is essential that clinicians are aware of the various complications that can arise from PCNL, including arteriovenous fistula, which is typically managed with renal angio-embolization. The development of a renal arteriopelvic fistula (APF) is an extremely rare complication, and accounts of haemorrhage from renal APF and its treatment have not been well-described in the literature. We successfully hypothesized that the ureteroscopic localization, fulguration, and closure with a fibrin sealant at the site of the arterial bleed results in optimal treatment for this clinical presentation. We report this case in detail. Promising Future Implications The successful and cost-effective endoscopic approach described here for treatment of post-PCNL renal APF and unremitting gross hematuria ought to be considered as an adjunct to renal angiography and embolization when the source of bleeding cannot be accurately identified using traditional imaging modalities. <![CDATA[Incidental detection of retroperitoneal lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) - CT and MRI findings with relevance to the urologist]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000400574&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Main findings We describe the use of a novel endoscopic approach in the management of unremitting gross hematuria following post-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in a 65-years-old male. This approach proved successful and cost-effective in managing haemorrhage post-PCNL when renal angiography failed to localize the source of bleeding. Case hypothesis The recommended treatment modality for renal calculi ≥ 2cm is PCNL. It is essential that clinicians are aware of the various complications that can arise from PCNL, including arteriovenous fistula, which is typically managed with renal angio-embolization. The development of a renal arteriopelvic fistula (APF) is an extremely rare complication, and accounts of haemorrhage from renal APF and its treatment have not been well-described in the literature. We successfully hypothesized that the ureteroscopic localization, fulguration, and closure with a fibrin sealant at the site of the arterial bleed results in optimal treatment for this clinical presentation. We report this case in detail. Promising Future Implications The successful and cost-effective endoscopic approach described here for treatment of post-PCNL renal APF and unremitting gross hematuria ought to be considered as an adjunct to renal angiography and embolization when the source of bleeding cannot be accurately identified using traditional imaging modalities. <![CDATA[Transurethral resection of fibrotic scar tissue combined with temporary urethral stent placement for patients with in anterior urethral stricture]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000400576&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Introduction Fibrotic scar formation is a main cause of recurrent urethral stricture after initial management with direct vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU). In the present study, we devised a new technique of combined the transurethral resection of fibrotic scar tissue and temporary urethral stenting, using a thermo-expandable urethral stent (MemokathTM 044TW) in patients with anterior urethral stricture. Materials and Methods As a first step, multiple incisions were made around stricture site with cold-cutting knife and Collins knife electrode to release a stricture band. Fibrotic tissue was then resected with a 13Fr pediatric resectoscope before deployment of a MemokathTM 044TW stent (40 – 60mm) on a pre-mounted sheath using 0° cystoscopy. Stents were removed within 12 months after initial placement. Results We performed this technique on 11 consecutive patients with initial (n = 4) and recurrent (n = 7) anterior urethral stricture (April 2009 – February 2013). At 18.9 months of mean follow-up (12-34 months), mean Qmax (7.8±3.9ml/sec vs 16.8 ± 4.8ml/sec, p &lt; 0.001), IPSS (20.7 vs 12.5, p = 0.001 ), and QoL score (4.7 vs 2.2, p &lt; 0.001) were significantly improved. There were no significant procedure-related complications except two cases of tissue ingrowth at the edge of stent, which were amenable by transurethral resection. In 7 patients, an average 1.4 times (1-5 times) of palliative urethral dilatation was carried out and no patients underwent open surgical urethroplasty during the follow-up period. Conclusion Combined transurethral resection and temporary urethral stenting is a effective therapeutic option for anterior urethral stricture. Further investigations to determine the long-term effects, and safety profile of this new technique are warranted. <![CDATA[Step-by-Step robotic heminephrectomy for duplicated renal collecting system]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000400578&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Introduction A duplicated renal collecting system is a relatively common congenital anomaly rarely presenting in adults. Aim In this video we demonstrate our step-by-step technique of Robotic heminephrectomy in a patient with non-functioning upper pole moiety. Materials and Methods Following cystoscopy and ureteral catheter insertion the patient was placed in 600 modified flank position with the ipsilateral arm positioned at the side of the patient. A straight-line, three arm robotic port configuration was employed. The robot was docked at a 90-degree angle, perpendicular to the patient. Following mobilization the colon and identifying both ureters of the duplicated system, the ureters were followed cephalically toward, hilar vessels where the hilar anatomy was identified. The nonfunctioning pole vasculature was ligated using hem-o-lok clips. The ureter was sharply divided and the proximal ureteral stump was passed posterior the renal hilum. Ureteral stump was used as for retraction and heminephrectomy is completed along the line demarcating the upper and lower pole moieties. Renorrhaphy was performed using 0-Vicryl suture with a CT-1 needle. The nonfunctioning pole ureter was then dissected caudally toward the bladder hiatus, ligated using clips, and transected. Results The operating time was 240 minutes and blood loss was 100 cc. There was no complication post-operatively. Conclusions Wrist articulation and degree of freedom offered by robotic platform facilitates successful performance of minimally invasive heminephrectomy in the setting of an atrophic and symptomatic renal segment.