Scielo RSS <![CDATA[International braz j urol]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1677-553820160004&lang=pt vol. 42 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Open retropubic prostatectomy for large prostates (Millin Surgery): Why not? It is safe! It is rapid! Complications are few and the learning curve is short!]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400635&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[Are syntetic slings safe? Opinion: Yes]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400637&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[Are syntetic slings safe? Opinion: No]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400640&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[Semi-rigid ureteroscopic lithotripsy versus laparoscopic ureterolithotomy for large upper ureteral stones: a meta – analysis of randomized controlled trials]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400645&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Introduction: To provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing semi-rigid ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URS) with laparoscopic ureterolithotomy (LU) for the treatment of the large proximal ureteral stone. Materials and methods: A systematic literature review was performed in June 2015 using the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases to identify relevant studies. Article selection proceeded according to the search strategy based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis criteria. Results: Six RCT including 646 patients were analyzed, 325 URS cases (50.3%) and 321 LU cases (49.7%). URS provided a significantly shorter operative time (weighted mean difference [WMD] = −31.26 min; 95%CI −46.88 to −15.64; p&lt;0.0001) and length of hospital stay (WMD = −1.48 days; 95%CI −2.78 to −0.18; p=0.03) than LU. There were no significant differences in terms of overall complications (OR = 0.78; 95%CI 0.21-2.92; p=0.71) and major complications – Clavien ≥3 – (OR = 1.79; 95%CI 0.59-5.42; p=0.30). LU led to a significantly higher initial stone-free rate (OR = 8.65; 95%CI 4.18-17.91; p&lt;0.00001) and final stone-free rate (OR = 6.41; 95%CI 2.24-18.32; p=0.0005) than URS. There was a significantly higher need for auxiliary procedures in URS cases (OR = 6.58; 95%CI 3.42-12.68; p&lt;0.00001). Conclusions: Outcomes with LU for larger proximal ureteral calculi are favorable compared to semi-rigid URS and should be considered as a first-line alternative if flexible ureteroscopy is not available. Utilization of flexible ureteroscopy in conjunction with semi-rigid ureteroscopy may impact these outcomes, and deserves further systematic evaluation. <![CDATA[Extraperitoneal versus transperitoneal laparoscopic radical cystectomy for selected elderly bladder cancer patients: a single center experience]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400655&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Objective: This study reports the initial experience of extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical cystectomy (ELRC) and compared with transperitoneal laparoscopic radical cystectomy (TLRC) in the treatment of selected elderly bladder cancer patients. Patients and Methods: A total of forty male bladder cancer patients who underwent ELRC (n=19) or TLRC (n=21) with ureterocutaneostomy were investigated. Demographic parameters, perioperative variables, oncological outcomes and follow-up data were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A significantly shorter time to exsufflation (1.5±0.7 vs 2.1±1.1 d; p=0.026) and liquid intake (1.8±0.9 vs 2.8±1.9 d; p=0.035) were observed in the ELRC group compared with the TLRC group. The incidence of postoperative ileus in the ELRC group was lower than the TLRC group (0 vs 9.5%). However, the difference had no statistical significance (p&gt;0.05). The removed lymph node number in the ELRC group was significantly lower than the TLRC group (p&lt;0.001). No significant differences were observed between the two groups in the overall and cancer-free survival rates (p&gt;0.05). Conclusions: ELRC seems to be a safe and feasible surgical strategy for the selected elderly bladder cancer patients with ≤ T2 disease. The surgical and oncological efficacy of the ELRC is similar to that of the TLRC, but with faster intestinal function recovery. Further studies with a large series including different urinary diversions are needed to confirm our results and to better evaluate the benefit of ELRC in bladder cancer patients. <![CDATA[A comparison of preliminary oncologic outcome and postoperative complications between patients undergoing either open or robotic radical cystectomy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400663&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare complications and outcomes in patients undergoing either open radical cystectomy (ORC) or robotic-assisted radical cystectomy (RRC). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively identified patients that underwent ORC or RRC between 2003- 2013. We statistically compared preliminary oncologic outcomes of patients for each surgical modality. Results: 92 (43.2%) and 121 (56.8%) patients underwent ORC and RRC, respectively. While operative time was shorter for ORC patients (403 vs. 508 min; p&lt;0.001), surgical blood loss and transfusion rates were significantly lower in RRC patients (p&lt;0.001 and 0.006). Length of stay was not different between groups (p=0.221). There was no difference in the proportion of lymph node-positive patients between groups. However, RRC patients had a greater number of lymph nodes removed during surgery (18 vs. 11.5; p&lt;0.001). There was no significant difference in the incidence of pre-existing comorbidities or in the Clavien distribution of complications between groups. ORC and RRC patients were followed for a median of 1.38 (0.55-2.7) and 1.40 (0.582.59) years, respectively (p=0.850). During this period, a lower proportion (22.3%) of RRC patients experienced disease recurrence vs. ORC patients (34.8%). However, there was no significant difference in time to recurrence between groups. While ORC was associated with a higher all-cause mortality rate (p=0.049), there was no significant difference in disease-free survival time between groups. Conclusions: ORC and RRC patients experience postoperative complications of similar rates and severity. However, RRC may offer indirect benefits via reduced surgical blood loss and need for transfusion. <![CDATA[Presentation and surgery outcomes in elderly with pheocromocytoma: a comparative analysis with young patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400671&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the presentation and early surgical outcomes of elderly patients undergoing adrenalectomy for phaeochromocytoma. Patients and Methods: A retrospective search was performed of our adrenal disorders database for patients who underwent surgery for phaeochromocytoma or paraganglioma between 2009 and 2014. Patients &gt;60 years old were classified as elderly. The clinical manifestations, intraoperative course, and early postoperative outcomes of elderly patients were compared to those of younger individuals (&lt;60 years old). Results: The mean (±standard deviation) age in the older (n=10) and younger (n=36) groups was 69.6±5.3 years and 34.0±12.9 years. Germ-line mutations were more common in younger patients (50.0% versus 0%; p=0.004), whereas incidental lesions were more common in the elderly (40.0% versus 5.3%; p=0.003). In both groups, surgery was most commonly performed by videolaparoscopy (90% in the elderly and 82% in the younger group), with similar intraoperative anesthetic and surgical outcomes. Postoperatively, the older group more commonly received vasoactive drugs (60.0% versus 10.5%; p&lt;0.001) and had a longer intensive care unit stay (3.1±2.8 versus 1.4±1.0 days; p=0.014), more clinical complications (60% versus 18.9%; p=0.01), and longer hospital stay (10.2±8.4 versus 5.7±4.9 days; p=0.028). Conclusions: Although all patients received the same preoperative preparation, the elderly group exhibited a slower and more complicated recovery after adrenalectomy. Meticulous perioperative care should be used in the elderly when treating phaeochromocytoma; nevertheless, adrenalectomy is a relatively safe procedure in this patient population. <![CDATA[Clinical Significance of Preoperative Neutrophil – to - Lymphocyte Ratio in Renal Cell Carcinoma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400678&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Introduction: We investigated the prognostic significance of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio on tumor stage and Fuhrman nuclear grade in renal cell carcinoma. Methods: The records of 432 patients with RCC who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy between 2005 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified as group lower tumor stage(T1 + T2) and higher(T3 + T4). As like tumor stage, Fuhrman nuclear grade were classified lower (G1+G2) and higher(G3+G4) too. The best NLR cut off value was 3.01. Two sample t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test used for the continuous variables and a chi-square test or Fisher's exact test used for the categorical variables. Results: Among the 432 total patients analyzed in our study, there were 275 males (63.7%) and 157 females (36.3%). Mean laboratory values were CRP 2.73 ± 1.93 mg/dL (normal less than 0.3), neutrophil count 4,23 ± 1.46/μL, lymphocyte count 1,61 ± 0,61/μL and NLR 2.64 ± 1.24. According to our data, statistically pretreatment NLR significantly correlated with CRP (p&lt;0.0001). And tumor patologic stage (p=0.08), tumor histologic grade (p&lt;0.001) was significantly associated with NLR. Discussion: We compared the relationship of preoperative NLR and NC parameters with RCC tumor stage and grade. And NLR were found to have statistically significant higher T stage and grade at RCC. Further studies with more patients are needed to confirm our study. <![CDATA[Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, a biomarker in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: a single-institutional longitudinal study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400685&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Background: Bladder cancer represents one of the most important clinical challenges in urologic practice. In this context, inflammation has an important role in the development and progression of many malignancies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of pre-treatment Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) on the risk of recurrence and progression in patients with primary non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: Data obtained from 178 bladder cancer patients who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB) between July 2008 and December 2014 were evaluated prospectively. NLR was obtained from each patient before TURB and defined as the absolute neutrophil count divided by the absolute lymphocyte count. Cox proportional hazards regression model was performed to calculate disease recurrence and progression including NLR. Results: During the follow-up study (median: 53 months), 14 (23.3%) and 44 (37.9%) (p=0.04) patients respectively with NLR&lt;3 and ≥3experienced recurrence and 2 (3.3%) and 14 (11.9%) experienced progression (p=0.06), respectively. At the multivariate Cox regression analysis, NLR ≥3 was associated with worse disease recurrence (HR: 2.84; p&lt;0.01). No association was found regarding disease progression. The 5-year recurrence free survival was 49% and 62% in patients with NLR≥3 and &lt;3 (p&lt;0.01). The 5-year progression free survival was 77% and 93% in patients with NLR≥3 and &lt;3 (p=0.69). Conclusion: NLR predicts disease recurrence but not disease progression in NMIBC patients. NLR alterations may depend of tumor inflammatory microenvironment. <![CDATA[Sunitinib treatment in patients with advanced renal cell cancer: the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA) experience]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400694&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of sunitinib treatment in a non-screened group of patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) treated by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) at a single reference institution. Material and Methods: Retrospective cohort study, which evaluated patients with mRCC who received sunitinib between May 2010 and December 2013. Results: Fifty-eight patients were eligible. Most patients were male 41 (71%), with a median age of 58 years. Nephrectomy was performed in 41 (71%) patients with a median interval of 16 months between the surgery and initiation of sunitinib. The most prevalent histological subtype was clear cell carcinoma, present in 52 (91.2%) patients. In 50 patients (86%), sunitinib was the first line of systemic treatment. The main adverse effects were fatigue (57%), hypothyroidism (43%), mucositis (33%) and diarrhea (29%). Grade 3 and 4 adverse effects were infrequent: fatigue (12%), hypertension (12%), thrombocytopenia (7%), neutropenia (5%) and hand-foot syndrome (5%). Forty percent of patients achieved a partial response and 35% stable disease, with a disease control rate of 75%. Median progression free survival was 7.6 months and median overall survival was 14.1 months. Conclusion: Sunitinib treatment was active in the majority of patients, especially those with low and intermediate risk by MSKCC score, with manageable toxicity. Survival rates were inferior in this non-screened population with mRCC treated in the SUS. <![CDATA[Does an asymmetric lobe in digital rectal examination include any risk for prostate cancer? results of 1495 biopsies]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400704&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Introduction: Despite the well-known findings related to malignity in DRE such as nodule and induration, asymmetry of prostatic lobes, seen relatively, were investigated in a few studies as a predictor of prostate cancer so that there is no universally expected conclusion about asymmetry. We aimed to compare cancer detection rate of normal, asymmetric or suspicious findings in DRE by using biopsy results. Materials and Methods: Data of 1495 patients underwent prostate biopsy between 2006-2014 were searched retrospectively. Biopsy indications were abnormal DRE and or elevated PSA level(&gt;4ng/mL). DRE findings were recorded as Group 1: Benign DRE, Group 2: Asymmetry and Group 3: Nodule/induration. Age, prostatic volume, biopsy results and PSA levels were recorded. Results: Mean age, prostate volume and PSA level were 66.72, 55.98 cc and 18.61ng/ mL respectively. Overall cancer detection rate was 38.66 % (575 of 1495). PSA levels were similar in group 1 and 2 but significantly higher in group 3. Prostatic volume was similar in group 1 and 2 and significantly lower in Group 3. Malignity detection rate of group 1,2 and 3 were 28.93%, 34.89% and 55.99% respectively. Group 1 and 2 were similar (p=0.105) but 3 had more chance for cancer detection. Conclusion: Nodule is the most important finding in DRE for cancer detection. Only an asymmetric prostate itself does not mean malignity. <![CDATA[Complete supine PCNL: ultrasound vs. fluoroscopic guided: a randomized clinical trial]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400710&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Introduction and Hypothesis: To compare complications and outcomes of complete supine percutaneous nephrolithotomy (csPCNL) with ultrasound guided and fluoroscopically guided procedure. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study from January 2009 to September 2010, 26 of 51 patients with renal stones underwent csPCNL with ultrasonographic guidance in all steps of the procedure (group A), and the other 25 patients underwent standard fluoroscopically guided csPCNL (group B). All of the patients underwent PCNL in the complete supine position. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS16 software. Results: Mean BMI was 28.14 in group A and 26.31 in group B (p=0.30). The mean stone burden was 26.48 and 30.44 in groups A and B, respectively (p=0.20). The stone free rate was 88.5% in group A and 75.5% in group B, that was no significant (p=0.16). Overall 2 patients (7.7%) in group A and 6 patients (24%) in group B had complications (p=0.11). Mean operative time in group A was 88.46 minutes, and in group B it was 79.58 minutes (p=0.39). Mean hospital stay was 69.70 and 61.79 hours in group A and B, respectively (p=0.22). There was no visceral injury in groups. Conclusions: This randomized study showed that totally ultrasonic had the same outcomes of fluoroscopically csPCNL. Ultrasonography can be an alternative rather than fluoroscopy in PCNL. We believe that more randomized studies are needed to allow endourologists to use sonography rather than fluoroscopy in order to avoid exposition to radiation. <![CDATA[Using an abdominal phantom to teach urology residents ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle placement]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400717&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Introduction: To assess the effect of a hands-on ultrasound training session to teach urologic trainees ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle placement. Materials and methods: University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) urology residents completed a time trial, placing a needle into a phantom model target under ultrasound guidance. Participants were randomized into three educational exposure groups: Group 1's time trial occurred prior to any teaching intervention, group 2's after experiencing a hands-on training module, and group 3's after exposure to both the training module and one-on-one attending feedback. Needle placement speed and accuracy as well as trainees' perceived confidence in utilizing ultrasound were measured. Results: The study cohort consisted of 15 resident trainees. Seven were randomized to group 1, three to group 2, and five to group 3. All residents reported minimal prior ultrasound experience. Their confidence in using ultrasound improved significantly after completing the training module with the most significant improvement seen among junior residents. Time to needle placement was fastest after receiving attending feedback (46.6sec in group 3 vs. 82.7sec in groups 1 and 2, p&lt;0.01). Accuracy also improved with attending feedback, though the number of repositioning attempts did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions: A hands-on training module and use of an abdominal phantom trainer increased resident confidence and skill in their use of ultrasound to guide percutaneous needle positioning. Attending feedback is critical for improving accuracy in needle guidance toward a target. Ultrasound-guided needle positioning is a teachable skill and can be applicable to multiple urologic procedures. <![CDATA[Doxazosin oral intake therapy to relieve stent - related urinary symptoms and pain: a prospective, randomized, controlled study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400727&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the impact of Doxazosin Oral Intake Therapy on urinary symptoms and pain in patients with indwelling ureteral stents Patients and Methods: A total of 239 patients with ureteral stone-related hydronephrosis who underwent a double-J stent insertion after ureteroscopic lithotripsy were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive doxazosin cotrolled release 4 mg once daily for 4 weeks or matching placebo. Patients completed the brief-form Chinese version Ureteric Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ) and quality of life (QoL) score 2 weeks and 4 weeks after stent placement and 4 weeks after stent withdrawal. The analgesic use was also recorded during the stenting period. Results: Patients in Doxazosin Oral Intake Therapy group, in the first 2 weeks and second 2 weeks with the stent in situ, expressed significant lower daytime frequency (p=0.028 and p=0.038), nocturia (p=0.021 and p=0.008) and urgency (p=0.012 and p=0.014), respectively. Similarly, flank pain score, QoL score and analgesic use were also significant less in the stenting period. There was no significant difference in scores of urinary symptoms, pain and QoL during the post-stent period between two cohorts. Conclusions: Doxazosin Oral Intake Therapy reduced stent-related urinary symptoms, pain and the negative impact on QoL. <![CDATA[Predicting procedural pain after ureteroscopy: does hydrodistention play a role?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400734&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify perioperative predictors of immediate pain after ureteroscopy, specifically evaluating the impact of hydrodistention from irrigation on pain. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively identified patients who underwent ureteroscopy for the treatment of calculi. Data recorded for these patients included their maximum pain score in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU), average flow rate of irrigant used during the procedure, patient and stone characteristics, operative procedure, and details of patients' immediate, post-operative course. Spearman's rho was used to determine the relationship between non-parametric, continuous variables. Then, a linear regression was performed to assess which variables could predict the peak pain score. Results: A total of 131 patients were included in the study. A non-parametric correlation analysis revealed that maximum pain score was negatively correlated with being male (r = −0.18, p=0.04), age (r = −0.34, p&lt;0.001), and post-op foley placement (r = −0.20, p=0.02) but positively correlated with the preoperative pain score (r = 0.41, p&lt;0.001), time in the PACU (r = 0.19, p = 0.03), and the morphine equivalent dose (MED) of narcotics administered in the PACU (r = 0.67, p&lt;0.001). On linear regression, the significant variables were age, preoperative pain score, and stent placement. For every ten-year increase in age post-operative pain score decreased by 4/10 of a point (p = 0.03). For every 1 point increase in preoperative pain score there was a 3/10 of a point increase in the maximum pain score (p = 0.01), and leaving a stent in place post-operatively was associated with a 1.6 point increase in the maximum pain score. Conclusions: Hydrodistention does not play a role in post-ureteroscopy pain. Patients who are younger, have higher preoperative pain scores, or who are stented will experience more post-operative pain after ureteroscopy. <![CDATA[Predictive risk factors of postoperative urinary incontinence following holmium laser enucleation of the prostate during the initial learning period]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400740&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the predictive factors for postoperative urinary incontinence (UI) following holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) during the initial learning period. Patients and Methods: We evaluated 127 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia who underwent HoLEP between January 2011 and December 2013. We recorded clinical variables, including blood loss, serum prostate-specific antigen levels, and the presence or absence of UI. Blood loss was estimated as a decline in postoperative hemoglobin levels. The predictive factors for postoperative UI were determined using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results: Postoperative UI occurred in 31 patients (24.4%), but it cured in 29 patients (93.5%) after a mean duration of 12 weeks. Enucleation time &gt;100 min (p=0.043) and blood loss &gt;2.5g/dL (p=0.032) were identified as significant and independent risk factors for postoperative UI. Conclusions: Longer enucleation time and increased blood loss were independent predictors of postoperative UI in patients who underwent HoLEP during the initial learning period. Surgeons in training should take care to perform speedy enucleation maneuver with hemostasis. <![CDATA[Bipolar transurethral enucleation and resection of the prostate versus bipolar resection of the prostate for prostates larger than 60gr: A retrospective study at a single academic tertiary care center]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400747&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bipolar transurethral enucleation and resection of the prostate (B-TUERP) versus bipolar transurethral resection of the prostate (B-TURP) in the treatment of prostates larger than 60g. Material and Methods: Clinical data for 270 BPH patients who underwent B-TUERP and 204 patients who underwent B-TURP for BPH from May 2007 to May 2013 at our center were retrospectively analyzed. Outcome measures included operative time, decreased hemoglobin level, total prostate specific antigen (TPSA), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), maximal urinary flow rate (Qmax), quality of life (QoL) score, post void residual urine volume (RUV), bladder irrigation duration, hospital stay, and the weight of resected prostatic tissue. Other measures included perioperative complications including transurethral resection syndrome (TURS), hyponatremia, blood transfusion, bleeding requiring surgery, postoperative acute urinary retention, urine incontinence and urinary sepsis. Patients in both groups were followed for two years. Results: Compared with the B-TURP group, the B-TUERP group had shorter operative time, postoperative bladder irrigation duration and hospital stay, a greater amount of resected prostatic tissue, less postoperative hemoglobin decrease, better postoperative IPSS and Qmax, as well as lower incidences of hyponatremia, urinary sepsis, blood transfusion requirement, urine incontinence and reoperation (P&lt;0.05 for all). Conclusions: B-TUERP is superior to B-TURP in the management of large volume BPH in terms of efficacy and safety, but this finding needs to be validated in further prospective, randomized, controlled studies. <![CDATA[Outcomes following Thulium vapoenucleation of large prostates]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400757&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Introduction: Thulium laser VapoEnucleation of the prostate (ThuVEP) is an evolving surgical technique for BPH. Most studies have focused on outcomes in small to medium sized prostates and have originated from Europe and Asia. We sought to describe our experience with ThuVEP for very large prostates in a North American cohort. Materials and Methods: From December 2010 to October 2014, 25 men underwent ThuVEP using the CyberTM® (Quantastem, Italy) thulium laser, all with prostate volume &gt;75mL. Data collected included patient demographics, comorbidities, intraoperative parameters, complications, and post-operative outcomes including maximum flow rate (Qmax), post-void residual (PVR), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and quality of life score (QoL) in one year of follow-up. Statistical analysis was done using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: At baseline, mean age was 70±9 years and prostate size was 163±62g. Most patients (84%) were in retention and 10 (40%) patients were on anticoagulation. Seven (28%) patients went home the day of surgery (mean hospital stay: 1.2±1.2d). There were 2 intraoperative complications (8%), both cystotomies related to morcellation. Nine patients (36%) experienced a complication, all within 30 days. There were no Clavien ≥III complications. Significant improvements were seen in Qmax, PVR, IPSS, and QoL score at each time interval to 12-months following surgery (all p&lt;0.05). Of 21 patients initially in retention, all were voiding at last follow-up. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that ThuVEP is an effective treatment for BPH in patients with large prostates with sustained results for one year. <![CDATA[Optimal bladder diary duration for patients with suprapontine neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400766&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify the minimum bladder diary's length required to furnish reliable documentation of LUTS in a specific cohort of patients suffering from neurogenic urinary dysfunction secondary to suprapontine pathology. Materials and Methods: From January 2008 to January 2014, patients suffering from suprapontine pathology and LUTS were requested to prospectively complete a bladder diary form for 7 consecutive days. Micturitions per day, excreta per micturition, urgency and incontinence episodes and voided volume per day were evaluated from the completed diaries. We compared the averaged records of consecutive days (2-6 days) to the total 7 days records for each patient's diary, seeking the minimum diary's length that could provide records comparable to the 7 days average, the reference point in terms of reliability. Results: From 285 subjects, 94 male and 69 female patients enrolled in the study. The records of day 1 were significantly different from the average of the 7 days records in every parameter, showing relatively small correlation and providing insufficient documentation. Correlations gradually increased along the increase in diary's duration. According to our results a 3-day duration bladder diary is efficient and can provide results comparable to a 7 day length for four of our evaluated parameters. Regarding incontinence episodes, 3 days seems inadequate to furnish comparable results, showing a borderline difference. Conclusions: A 3-day diary can be used, as its reliability is efficient regarding number of micturition per day, excreta per micturition, episodes of urgency and voided volume per day. <![CDATA[Uterine preservation for advanced pelvic organ prolapse repair: Anatomical results and patient satisfaction]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400773&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Objective: The aims of the current study were to evaluate outcomes and patient satisfaction in cases of uterine prolapse treated with vaginal mesh, while preserving the uterus. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study that included all patients operated for prolapse repair with trocar-less vaginal mesh while preserving the uterus between October 2010 and March 2013. Data included: patients pre-and post-operative symptoms, POP-Q and operative complications. Success was defined as prolapse &lt; than stage 2. A telephone survey questionnaire was used to evaluate patient's satisfaction. Results: Sixty-six patients with pelvic organ prolapse stage 3, including uterine pro-lapse of at least stage 2 (mean point C at+1.4 (range+8-(-1)) were included. Mean follow-up was 22 months. Success rate of the vaginal mesh procedure aimed to repair uterine prolapse was 92% (61/66), with mean point C at −6.7 (range (-1) - (-9)). No major intra-or post-operative complication occurred. A telephone survey questionnaire was conducted post-operatively 28 months on average. Ninety-eight percent of women were satisfied with the decision to preserve their uterus. Eighteen patients (34%) received prior consultation elsewhere for hysterectomy due to their prolapse, and decided to have the operation at our center in order to preserve the uterus. Conclusions: Uterine preservation with vaginal mesh was found to be a safe and effective treatment, even in cases with advanced uterine prolapse. Most patients prefer to keep their uterus. Uterus preservation options should be discussed with every patient before surgery for pelvic organ prolapse. <![CDATA[Training through gametherapy promotes coactivation of the pelvic floor and abdominal muscles in young women, nulliparous and continents]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400779&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Introduction and objectives: Several studies have been investigated co-activation can enhance the effectveness of PFM training protocols allowing preventive and therapeutic goals in pelvic floor dysfunctions. The objective of the present study was to investigate if an abdominal-pelvic protocol of training (APT) using gametherapy would allow co-activation of PFM and transversus abdominis/oblique internal (TrA/OI) muscles. Patients and methods: Twenty-five nulliparous, continent, young females, with median age 24.76 (±3.76) years were evaluated using digital palpation (DP) of PFM and surface electromyography of PFM and TrA/OI simultaneously, during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), alternating PFM and TrA/OI contraction requests. All women participated on a supervised program of APT using gametherapy, that included exercises of pelvic mobilization associated to contraction of TrA/OI muscles oriented by virtual games, for 30 minutes, three times a week, in a total of 10 sessions. Electromyographic data were processed and analyzed by ANOVA - analysis of variance. Results: When MVC of TrA/OI was solicited, it was observed simultaneous increase of electromyographic activity of PFM (p=0.001) following ATP. However, EMG activity did not change significantly during MVC of PFM. Conclusion: Training using gametherapy allowed better co-activation of pelvic floor muscles in response to contraction of TrA, in young nulliparous and continent women. <![CDATA[Low serum Insulin Like Growth Factor - 1 in patients with Stress Urinary Incontinence]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400787&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Objective: SUI, involuntary loss of urine, occurs when intra abdominal pressure exceeds urethral pressure in women. Recent animal study has shown that there are therapeutic effects of Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1) on stress urinary incontinence in rats with simulated childbirth trauma. IGF-1 is an important mediator of cell growth, differentiation and transformation in various tissues and stimulates fibroblast proliferation and enhances collagen synthesis. The purpose of the current study was to determine the association between IGF-1 levels and SUI. Materials and Methods: All patients were evaluated for SUI and divided into two groups: 116 women with SUI and 76 women without SUI. Diagnosis of SUI was based on the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQSF). Levels of IGF-1 were measured in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relationship between IGF-1 levels and SUI in patients was evaluated statisticaly. Results: The mean age of patients wiyh SUI was 49.9±8.6 and 48.7±7.8 in control group. Plasma IGF-1 levels were significantly lower in SUI than in control group (106.5±26.4 and 133.3±37.1ng/mL, respectively, P &lt;0.001). Body mass indexes were higher in women with SUI than women without SUI. Conclusion: In this study lower serum IGF-1 levels were found to be associated with SUI. Serum IGF-1 level appears to be a specific predictor of SUI, and it may be used in early prediction of SUI in female population. <![CDATA[Craniofacial anomalies associated with hypospadias. Description of a hospital based population in South America]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400793&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Introduction: Hypospadias is a congenital abnormality of the penis, in which there is incomplete development of the distal urethra. There are numerous reports showing an increase of prevalence of hypospadias. Association of craniofacial malformations in patients diagnosed with hypospadias is rare. The aim of this study is to describe the association between hypospadias and craniofacial congenital anomalies. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the Latin-American collaborative study of congenital malformations (ECLAMC) data was performed between January 1982 and December 2011. We included children diagnosed with associated hypospadias and among them we selected those that were associated with any craniofacial congenital anomaly. Results: Global prevalence was 11.3 per 10.000 newborns. In this population a total of 809 patients with 1117 associated anomalies were identified. On average there were 1.7 anomalies per patient. Facial anomalies were present in 13.2%. The most commonly major facial anomaly associated to hypospadias was cleft lip/palate with 52 cases. We identified that 18% have an association with other anomalies, and found an association between craniofacial anomalies and hypospadias in 0.59 cases/10.000 newborns. Discussion: Hypospadias is the most common congenital anomaly affecting the genitals. Its association with other anomalies is rare. It has been reported that other malformations occur in 29.3% of the cases with hypospadias. The more proximal the meatus, the higher the risk for having another associated anomaly. Conclusion: Associated hypospadias are rare, and it is important to identify the concurrent occurrence of craniofacial anomalies to better treat patients that might need a multidisciplinary approach. <![CDATA[Enuresis and overactive bladder in children: what is the relationship between these two conditions?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400798&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluate clinical aspects associated with the presence of nocturnal enuresis (NE) in children with a diagnosis of overactive bladder (OAB). Material and Methods: A data base of 200 children who were evaluated by a structured questionnaire was analysed retrospectively . OAB was defined as the presence of urinary urgency (n=183 cases) and/or daytime urinary incontinence associated with holding maneuvers (n=168 cases). Inclusion criteria were a confirmed diagnosis of OAB, age 5-16 years, and no anatomical or neurological alterations of the urinary tract. Patients were divided into enuretics and non-enuretics. The two groups were compared with respect to sex, age, skin color, presence urinary infection, urgency, urge incontinence, non-urge incontinence, pollakiuria, urinary dysfunction, nocturia, holding maneuvers, number of episodes of enuresis and bowel alterations. In a univariate analysis, the chi-square test was used to compare proportions, with p-values &lt;0.05 being considered significant. A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify independent predictive factors. Results: Enuresis was diagnosed in 141/200 children. The two groups were similar with respect to sex, age and skin color. No difference was found in relation to urinary infection, non-urge incontinence, urinary dysfunction, nocturia, encopresis or constipation. The two groups were significantly different with regard to some symptoms related to OAB such as urgency (p=0.001), urge incontinency (p=0.001) and holding maneuvers (p=0.033). Following multivariate analysis, only holding maneuvers (p=0.022) remained as an independent predictive factor. Conclusion: The only independent predictive factor for resolution of enuresis in children with OAB, as detected in the multivariate analysis, was holding maneuvers. <![CDATA[Do retractile testes have anatomical anomalies?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400803&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the incidence of anatomical anomalies in patients with retractile testis. Materials and Methods: We studied prospectively 20 patients (28 testes) with truly retractile testis and compared them with 25 human fetuses (50 testes) with testis in scrotal position. We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and patency of the processus vaginalis (PV). To analyze the relations between the testis and epididymis, we used a previous classification according to epididymis attachment to the testis and the presence of epididymis atresia. To analyze the structure of the PV, we considered two situations: obliteration of the PV and patency of the PV. We used the Chi-square test for contingency analysis of the populations under study (p &lt;0.05). Results: The fetuses ranged in age from 26 to 35 weeks post-conception (WPC) and the 20 patients with retractile testis ranged in ages from 1 to 12 years (average of 5.8). Of the 50 fetal testes, we observed complete patency of the PV in 2 cases (4%) and epididymal anomalies (EAs) in 1 testis (2%). Of the 28 retractile testes, we observed patency of the PV in 6 cases (21.4%) and EA in 4 (14.28%). When we compared the incidence of EAs and PV patency we observed a significantly higher prevalence of these anomalies in retractile testes (p=0.0116). Conclusions: Retractile testis is not a normal variant with a significant risk of patent processus vaginalis and epididymal anomalies. <![CDATA[The combination of urinary IL - 6 and renal biometry as useful diagnostic tools to differentiate acute pyelonephritis from lower urinary tract infection]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400810&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the role of renal ultrasound (RUS) and urinary IL-6 in the differentiation between acute pyelonephritis (APN) and lower urinary tract infection (LUTI). Patients and methods: This prospective study was carried out at the Pediatric and urology outpatient and inpatient departments of Cairo University Children's Hospital as well as October 6 University Hospital and it included 155 children between one month and fourteen years old with positive culture UTI. Patients were categorized into APN and LUTI based on their clinical features and laboratory parameters. Thirty healthy children, age and sex matched constituted the control group. Children with positive urine cultures were treated with appropriate antibiotics. Before treatment, urinary IL-6 was measured by enzyme immunoassay technique (ELISA), and renal ultrasound (RUS) was done. CRP (C-reactive protein), IL-6 and RUS were repeated on the 14th day of antibiotic treatment to evaluate the changes in their levels in response to treatment. Results: UIL-6 levels were more significantly higher in patients with APN than in patients with LUTI (24.3±19.3pg/mL for APN vs. 7.3±2.7pg/mL in LUTI (95% CI: 2.6-27.4; p&lt;0.01). Similarly, serum CRP was more significantly higher in patients with APN than in children with LUTI (19.7±9.1μg/mL vs. 5.5±2.3μg/mL (p&lt;0.01). IL-6 levels &gt;20pg/mL and serum CRP &gt;20μg/mL were highly reliable markers of APN. Mean renal volume and mean volume difference between the two kidneys in the APN group were more than that of the LUTI and control groups (P&lt;0.001). Renal volume between 120-130% of normal was the best for differentiating APN from LUTI. Conclusions: RUS and urinary IL-6 levels have a highly dependable role in the differentiation between APN and LUTI especially in places where other investigations are not available and/ or affordable. <![CDATA[A modified method by differential adhesion for enrichment of bladder cancer stem cells]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400817&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Purpose: In a previous study the vaccine was effective against bladder cancer in a mouse model. However, a small portion of tumors regrew because the vaccine could not eliminate bladder cancer stem cells (CSCs). In this study, we showed a modified method for the isolation of bladder CSCs using a combination of differential adhesion method and serum-free culture medium (SFM) method. Materials and Methods: Trypsin-resistant cells and trypsin-sensitive cells were isolated from MB49, EJ and 5637 cells by a combination of differential adhesion method and SFM method. The CSCs characterizations of trypsin-resistant cells were verified by the flow cytometry, the western blotting, the quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the resistance to chemotherapy assay, the transwell assay, and the tumor xenograft formation assay. Results: Trypsin-resistant cells were isolated and identified in CSCs characters, with high expression of CSCs markers, higher resistance to chemotherapy, greater migration in vitro, and stronger tumorigenicity in vivo. Conclusion: Trypsin-resistant cells displayed specific CSCs properties. Our study showed trypsin-resistant cells were isolated successfully with a modified method using a combination of differential adhesion method and SFM method. <![CDATA[Improvement of erectile dysfunction by the active pepide from <em>Urechis unicinctus</em> by high temperature/pressure and ultra - wave assisted lysis in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400825&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Introduction: We investigate the effect of active peptide from Urechis unicinctus (UU) by high temperature/pressure and ultra-wave assisted lysis on erectile dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Forty 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Diabetes was induced by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50mg/kg). One week later, the diabetic rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, untreated diabetes control, and groups treated with 100 or 500mg/kg/d UU peptide. Rats were fed with UU peptide by intragastric administration for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, penile hemodynamic function was evaluated in all groups by measuring the intracavernosal pressure after electrostimulating the cavernous nerve. Nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) activities were measured and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS) protein expression was determined by Western blot. Results: Maximum intracavernosal pressure in diabetic control rats decreased significantly compared to normal control rats, and was increased significantly compared to untreated diabetic rats after UU peptide supplementation. Treatment with the higher dose of UU peptide significantly increased the NO and cGMP levels compared with the diabetic control group. Decreased activity and expression eNOS and nNOS were found in the diabetic rats compared with the normal control group. Decreased eNOS and nNOS in diabetic rats were improved by UU peptide administration. Conclusions: Active peptide from UU ameliorates erectile function in a streptozotocin induced diabetic rat model of erectile dysfunction. <![CDATA[Metaplastic Conditions in The Bladder in Patient With Epidermolysis Bullosa]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400838&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Epidermolysis bullosa is a rare inherited muco-cutaneous disorder that sometimes presents with genitourinary involvement. Herein we report the case of an 11-year-old girl with a history of junctional epidermolysis bullosa who was admitted with urological symptoms. On cystoscopy, suspected bullous bladder lesions were observed. Mesonephroid, intestinal and squamous metaplasia is reported here for the first time. <![CDATA[Retrocaval ureter and contra lateral renal agenesis – a case report and review of literature]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400842&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Associated congenital anomalies are seen in 21% of retrocaval ureter patients; among them, associated contralateral renal agenesis is a very rare entity. We report one such case of right circumcaval ureter with left renal agenesis, diagnosed after febrile UTI. Surgical correction with uretero-ureterostomy was successful. In literature very few such cases are reported and only one case with renal failure was reported. Unilateral renal agenesis cases complicated by associated such anomalies need definitive management and lifelong clinical monitoring to diagnose and prevent chronic kidney disease. <![CDATA[Rupture of ectopic renal arterial pseudoaneurysm after percutaneous nephrolithotomy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400845&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT A 35-year-old female patient presented with swelling pain at left waist for 1 month. Left renal pelvis stones were found and standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy was successfully performed. Two weeks later, the patient suddenly suffered massive bleeding presented with gross hematuria. Rupture of ectopic renal artery pseudoaneurysm was identified by computed tomography and angiography of the renal artery. Emergency selective angioembolization of one branch of the artery was performed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ruptured ectopic renal arterial pseudoaneurysm. <![CDATA[Hydronephrosis caused by a giant ovarian cyst]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400848&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT A 35-year-old female patient presented with swelling pain at left waist for 1 month. Left renal pelvis stones were found and standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy was successfully performed. Two weeks later, the patient suddenly suffered massive bleeding presented with gross hematuria. Rupture of ectopic renal artery pseudoaneurysm was identified by computed tomography and angiography of the renal artery. Emergency selective angioembolization of one branch of the artery was performed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ruptured ectopic renal arterial pseudoaneurysm. <![CDATA[Two-part silicone mold. A new tool for flexible ureteroscopy surgical training]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400850&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Introduction and objectives: Flexible ureteroscopy is a common procedure nowadays. Most of the training programs use virtual reality simulators. The aim of this study was to standardize the building of a three-dimensional silicone mold (cavity) of the collecting system, on the basis of polyester resin endocasts, which can be used in surgical training programs. Materials and Methods: A yellow polyester resin was injected into the ureter to fill the collecting system of 24 cadaveric fresh human kidneys. After setting off the resin, the kidneys were immersed in hydrochloric acid until total corrosion of the organic matter was achieved and the collecting system endocasts obtained. The endocasts were used to prepare white color two-part silicone molds, which after endocasts withdrawn, enabled a ureteroscope insertion into the collecting system molds (cavities). Also, the minor calices were painted with different colors in order to map the access to the different caliceal groups. The cost of the materials used in the molds is $30.00 and two days are needed to build them. Results: Flexible ureteroscope could be inserted into all molds and the entire collecting system could be examined. Since some anatomical features, as infundular length, acute angle, and perpendicular minor calices may difficult the access to some minor calices, especially in the lower caliceal group, surgical training in models leads to better surgical results. Conclusions: The two-part silicone mold is feasible, cheap and allows its use for flexible ureteroscopy surgical training. <![CDATA[EDITORIAL COMMENT: TWO-PART SILICONE MOLD. A NEW TOOL FOR FLEXIBLE URETEROSCOPY SURGICAL TRAINING]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400852&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Introduction and objectives: Flexible ureteroscopy is a common procedure nowadays. Most of the training programs use virtual reality simulators. The aim of this study was to standardize the building of a three-dimensional silicone mold (cavity) of the collecting system, on the basis of polyester resin endocasts, which can be used in surgical training programs. Materials and Methods: A yellow polyester resin was injected into the ureter to fill the collecting system of 24 cadaveric fresh human kidneys. After setting off the resin, the kidneys were immersed in hydrochloric acid until total corrosion of the organic matter was achieved and the collecting system endocasts obtained. The endocasts were used to prepare white color two-part silicone molds, which after endocasts withdrawn, enabled a ureteroscope insertion into the collecting system molds (cavities). Also, the minor calices were painted with different colors in order to map the access to the different caliceal groups. The cost of the materials used in the molds is $30.00 and two days are needed to build them. Results: Flexible ureteroscope could be inserted into all molds and the entire collecting system could be examined. Since some anatomical features, as infundular length, acute angle, and perpendicular minor calices may difficult the access to some minor calices, especially in the lower caliceal group, surgical training in models leads to better surgical results. Conclusions: The two-part silicone mold is feasible, cheap and allows its use for flexible ureteroscopy surgical training. <![CDATA[Laparoscopic - assisted transpyelic rigid nephroscopy - simple alternative when flexible ureteroscopy is not available]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400853&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Introduction: In special situations such as malrotated or ectopic kidneys and UPJ stenosis treatment of renal lithiasis can be challenging. In these rare cases laparoscopy can be indicated. Objective: Describe the Laparoscopic-assisted rigid nephroscopy performed via transpyelic approach and report the feasibility. Patients and methods: We present two cases of caliceal lithiasis. The first is a patient that ESWL and previous percutaneous lithotripsy have failed, with pelvic kidney where laparoscopic dissection of renal pelvis was carried out followed by nephroscopy utilizing the 30 Fr rigid nephroscope to remove the calculus. Ideal angle between the major axis of renal pelvis and the rigid nephroscope to allow success with this technique was 60-90 grades. In the second case, the kidney had a dilated infundibulum. Results: The operative time was 180 minutes for both procedures. No significant blood loss or perioperative complications occurred. The bladder catheter was removed in the postoperative day 1 and Penrose drain on day 2 when patients were discharged. The convalescence was completed after 3 weeks. Patients were stone free without symptons in one year of follow-up. Conclusions: Laparoscopic-assisted rigid nephroscopy performed via tranpyelic approach can be done safely with proper patient selection and adherence to standard laparoscopic surgical principles. This approach is an alternative in cases where flexible endoscope is not available and when standard procedure is unlikely to produce a stone-free status. <![CDATA[EDITORIAL COMMENT: LAPAROSCOPIC - ASSISTED TRANSPYELIC RIGID NEPHROSCOPY - SIMPLE ALTER-NATIVE WHEN FLEXIBLE URETEROSCOPY IS NOT AVAILABLE]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400855&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Introduction: In special situations such as malrotated or ectopic kidneys and UPJ stenosis treatment of renal lithiasis can be challenging. In these rare cases laparoscopy can be indicated. Objective: Describe the Laparoscopic-assisted rigid nephroscopy performed via transpyelic approach and report the feasibility. Patients and methods: We present two cases of caliceal lithiasis. The first is a patient that ESWL and previous percutaneous lithotripsy have failed, with pelvic kidney where laparoscopic dissection of renal pelvis was carried out followed by nephroscopy utilizing the 30 Fr rigid nephroscope to remove the calculus. Ideal angle between the major axis of renal pelvis and the rigid nephroscope to allow success with this technique was 60-90 grades. In the second case, the kidney had a dilated infundibulum. Results: The operative time was 180 minutes for both procedures. No significant blood loss or perioperative complications occurred. The bladder catheter was removed in the postoperative day 1 and Penrose drain on day 2 when patients were discharged. The convalescence was completed after 3 weeks. Patients were stone free without symptons in one year of follow-up. Conclusions: Laparoscopic-assisted rigid nephroscopy performed via tranpyelic approach can be done safely with proper patient selection and adherence to standard laparoscopic surgical principles. This approach is an alternative in cases where flexible endoscope is not available and when standard procedure is unlikely to produce a stone-free status. <![CDATA[Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy with inferior vena cava thrombectomy: highlight of key surgical steps]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400856&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Objective: Vascular involvement in the form of renal vein (RV) or inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombus can be seen in 4-10% of patients presented with RCC. In patients without presence of metastasis, surgical treatment in the form of radical nephrectomy remains the treatment of choice with 5-year survival rates of 45-70%. Open surgery is still the first treatment option of choice at the moment for RCC patients with IVC thrombus. Materials and Methods: In our study, we are reporting a case of patient with RCC and level I IVC thrombus treated with laparoscopy. Our patient is a 72 years old man with underlying co-morbidity of hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) presented with right-sided RCC. The CT scan done showed a large right renal upper pole tumor measuring 8.4x5.2cm with level I IVC thrombus (Figure-1). There were no regional lymphadenopathy and the staging scans were negative. Results: The operative time was 124 minutes and blood loss was minimal. The patient was progressed to diet on POD 1 with bowel movement on POD 2. There was no significant change in the pre and post-operative glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The surgical drain was removed on POD2. The patient was discharged well on POD 5. There were no perioperative complications. The pathology was pT3bN0M0 Fuhrman grade II clear cell RCC. Conclusions: As a conclusion, laparoscopic radical nephrectomy and IVC thrombectomy is a complex and technically demanding surgery. With advancement of surgical skills as well as technology, more cases of minimally invasive laparoscopic radical nephrectomy and IVC thrombectomy can performed to improve the perioperative outcomes of carefully selected patients in a high volume center. <![CDATA[EDITORIAL COMMENT: LAPAROSCOPIC RADICAL NEPHRECTOMY WITH INFERIOR VENA CAVA THROMBECTOMY: HIGHLIGHT OF KEY SURGICAL STEPS]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400858&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Objective: Vascular involvement in the form of renal vein (RV) or inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombus can be seen in 4-10% of patients presented with RCC. In patients without presence of metastasis, surgical treatment in the form of radical nephrectomy remains the treatment of choice with 5-year survival rates of 45-70%. Open surgery is still the first treatment option of choice at the moment for RCC patients with IVC thrombus. Materials and Methods: In our study, we are reporting a case of patient with RCC and level I IVC thrombus treated with laparoscopy. Our patient is a 72 years old man with underlying co-morbidity of hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) presented with right-sided RCC. The CT scan done showed a large right renal upper pole tumor measuring 8.4x5.2cm with level I IVC thrombus (Figure-1). There were no regional lymphadenopathy and the staging scans were negative. Results: The operative time was 124 minutes and blood loss was minimal. The patient was progressed to diet on POD 1 with bowel movement on POD 2. There was no significant change in the pre and post-operative glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The surgical drain was removed on POD2. The patient was discharged well on POD 5. There were no perioperative complications. The pathology was pT3bN0M0 Fuhrman grade II clear cell RCC. Conclusions: As a conclusion, laparoscopic radical nephrectomy and IVC thrombectomy is a complex and technically demanding surgery. With advancement of surgical skills as well as technology, more cases of minimally invasive laparoscopic radical nephrectomy and IVC thrombectomy can performed to improve the perioperative outcomes of carefully selected patients in a high volume center. <![CDATA[RE: Evaluation of sexual function in patients submitted to ureteroscopic procedures]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382016000400859&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Objective: Vascular involvement in the form of renal vein (RV) or inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombus can be seen in 4-10% of patients presented with RCC. In patients without presence of metastasis, surgical treatment in the form of radical nephrectomy remains the treatment of choice with 5-year survival rates of 45-70%. Open surgery is still the first treatment option of choice at the moment for RCC patients with IVC thrombus. Materials and Methods: In our study, we are reporting a case of patient with RCC and level I IVC thrombus treated with laparoscopy. Our patient is a 72 years old man with underlying co-morbidity of hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) presented with right-sided RCC. The CT scan done showed a large right renal upper pole tumor measuring 8.4x5.2cm with level I IVC thrombus (Figure-1). There were no regional lymphadenopathy and the staging scans were negative. Results: The operative time was 124 minutes and blood loss was minimal. The patient was progressed to diet on POD 1 with bowel movement on POD 2. There was no significant change in the pre and post-operative glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The surgical drain was removed on POD2. The patient was discharged well on POD 5. There were no perioperative complications. The pathology was pT3bN0M0 Fuhrman grade II clear cell RCC. Conclusions: As a conclusion, laparoscopic radical nephrectomy and IVC thrombectomy is a complex and technically demanding surgery. With advancement of surgical skills as well as technology, more cases of minimally invasive laparoscopic radical nephrectomy and IVC thrombectomy can performed to improve the perioperative outcomes of carefully selected patients in a high volume center.