Scielo RSS <![CDATA[International braz j urol]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1677-553820140003&lang=pt vol. 40 num. 3 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Models for investigation in Urology: Rats, Pigs and Dogs. Importance of basic research in penile reconstruction and bladder overactivity.]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300295&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[Is there a role for hyberbaric oxygen as primary treatment for grade IV radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis? a prospective pilot-feasibility study and review of literature]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300296&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Purpose To examine the safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen as the primary treatment for Grade IV radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis. Materials and Methods Hyperbaric oxygen was prospectively applied as a primary treatment option in 11 patients with Grade IV radiation cystitis. Primary endpoint was the incidence of complete and partial response to treatment. Secondary endpoints included the duration of response, the correlation of treatment success-rate to the interval between the onset of haematuria and initiation of therapy, blood transfusion need and total radiation dose, the number of sessions to success, the avoidance of surgery and the overall survival. Results All patients completed therapy without complications for a mean follow-up of 17.82 months (range 3 to 34). Mean number of sessions needed was 32.8 (range 27 to 44). Complete and partial response rate was 81.8% and 18.2%, respectively. However, in three patients the first treatment session was not either sufficient or durable giving a 72.7% rate of durable effect. Interestingly, all 9 patients with complete response received therapy within 6 months of the haematuria onset compared to the two patients with partial response who received therapy at 8 and 10 months from the haematuria onset, respectively (p = 0.018). The need for blood transfusion (p = 0.491) and the total radiation dose (p = 0.259) were not correlated to success-rate. One patient needed cystectomy, while all patients were alive at the end of follow-up. Conclusions Early primary use of hyperbaric oxygen to treat radiation-induced grade IV cystitis is an effective and safe treatment option. <![CDATA[Radical prostatectomy and positive surgical margins: relationship with prostate cancer outcome]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300306&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Introduction Positive surgical margins (PSMs) are an adverse factor that may predict a worse outcome in patients submitted to radical prostatectomy (RP). However, not all of these cases will evolve to biochemical (BCR) or clinical (CR) recurrence, therefore relationship between PSMs and these recurrent events has to be correlated with other clinical and pathologic findings to indicate complementary treatment for selected patients. Materials and Methods Of 1250 patients submitted to open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP), between March 1991 and June 2008, the outcome of 161 patients with PSMs and of 67 without PSMs as a control group, comprising a total of 228 cases were retrospectively reviewed. A minimum follow-up time of 2 years after surgery was considered. BCR was determined when PSA ≥ 0.2ng/mL. CR was determined whenever there was clinical evidence of tumor. Chi-square test was used to correlate clinical and pathologic variables with PSMs. Time interval to biochemical recurrence was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier product limit analysis using the log-rank test for comparison between groups. Univariate and multivariate Cox stepwise logistic regression models were used to identify significant predictors of risk of shorter intervals to BCR. Results Prostate circumference margin was the most common site with 78 cases (48.44%). Regarding the outcome of 228 cases from both groups, BCR occurred in 68 patients (29.82%), and CR in 10 (4.38%). Univariate analysis showed statistically significant associations (p &lt; 0.001) between presence of PSMs with BCR, but not with CR (p = 0.05). At follow-up of the 161 patients with PSMs, only 61(37.8%) presented BCR, while 100 (62.8%) did not. BCR correlated with pathologic stage; Gleason score; preoperative PSA; tumor volume in the specimen; capsular and perineural invasion; presence and number of PSMs. CR correlated only with angiolymphatic invasion and Gleason score. Considering univariate analysis of clinical and pathologic factors predicting progression-free survival at 5 years, prostate weight; preoperative PSA; Gleason score; pathologic stage; tumor volume; PSMs; capsular and perineural invasion were correlated with BCR. At multivariate analysis, only Gleason score and percentage of tumor volume correlated as significant independent predictors of BCR. Conclusion At univariate analysis, presence, number and location of PSMs have consistent correlation with BCR after RRP, but at follow-up BCR occurred only in 37.8% of patients with PSMs. However at multivariate analysis, the significant risk factors for BCR were percentage of tumor volume (p = 0.022) and Gleason score (p &lt; 0.005) in the surgical specimen. Angiolymphatic invasion and Gleason score were significantly correlated with CR. <![CDATA[A 10-year analysis of metastatic prostate cancer as an initial presentation in an underserved population]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300316&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective To analyze patients from an underserved area who presented initially with metastatic prostate cancer in order to identify patients in our population who would suffer greatly if PSA screening was eliminated. Materials and Methods A prospectively maintained androgen deprivation therapy database from an inner city municipal hospital was queried to identify patients who presented with metastatic prostate cancer. We identified 129 individuals from 1999 to 2009 eligible for study. Those who underwent previous treatment for prostate cancer were excluded. We examined metastatic distribution and analyzed survival using Kaplan Meier probability curves. Results The median age of presentation was 68 with a median Gleason sum of 8 per prostate biopsy. Thirty-two patients presented with hydronephrosis with a median creatinine of 1.79, two of whom required emergent dialysis. Of those patients who underwent radiographic imaging at presentation, 35.5% (33/93) had lymphadenopathy suspicious for metastasis, 16.1% (15/93) had masses suspicious for visceral metastases. Of the patients who underwent a bone scan 93% (118/127) had positive findings with 7.9% (10/127) exhibiting signs of cord compression. The 2 and 5- year cancer specific survival was 92.1% and 65.6%, respectively. Conclusions In this study we have highlighted a group of men in an underserved community who presented with aggressive and morbid PCa despite widespread acceptance of PSA screening. <![CDATA[Tailored treatment including radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy + androgen deprivation therapy versus exclusive radical prostatectomy in high-risk prostate cancer patients: results from a prospective study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300322&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Purpose To evaluate outcomes of patients with high risk prostate cancer (PCa) who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) in a context of a multidisciplinary approach including adjuvant radiation (RT) + androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Matherials and Methods 244 consecutive patients with high risk localized PCa underwent RP and bilateral extended pelvic lymph node dissection at our institution. Adjuvant RT + 24 months ADT was carried out in subjects with pathological stage ≥ T3N0 and/or positive surgical margins or in patients with local relapse. Results After a median follow-up was 54.17 months (range 5.4-117.16), 13 (5.3%) subjects had biochemical progression, 21 (8.6%) had clinical progression, 7 (2.9%) died due to prostate cancer and 15 (6.1%) died due to other causes. 136 (55.7%) patients did not receive any adjuvant treatment while 108 (44.3%) received respectively adjuvant or salvage RT+ADT. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that pre-operative PSA value at diagnosis is a significant predictive factor for BCR (HR: 1.04, p &lt; 0.05) and that Gleason Score 8-10 (HR: 2.4; p&lt;0.05) and PSMs (HR: 2.01; p &lt; 0.01) were significant predictors for clinical progression. Radical prostatectomy group was associated with BPFS, CPFS, CSS and OS at 5-years of 97%, 90%, 95% and 86% respectively, while adjuvant radiation + androgen deprivation therapy group was associated with a BPFS, CPFS and CSS at 5-years of 91%, 83%, 95% and 88%, without any statistical difference. Conclusions Multimodality tailored treatment based on RP and adjuvant therapy with RT+ADT achieve similar results in terms of OS after 5-years of follow-up. <![CDATA[The cumulative analgesic consumption score (CACS): evaluation of a new score to describe postsurgical analgesic consumption as a surrogate parameter for postoperative pain and invasiveness of surgical procedures]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300330&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective To validate and evaluate the applicability of a new score to describe postsurgical analgesic consumption in urological and surgical patients across different categories of pain medications and the invasiveness of medical interventions. Materials and Methods The cumulative analgesic consumption score (CACS) was determined for two cohorts of patients split into three groups with surgeries involving clinically distinct levels of invasiveness (n = 2 x 60). Nonparametric statistical analyses were performed to determine differences between the CACS among the different groups and to assess the correlation between CACS and numeric rating scale (NRS) values for pain intensity. Results The score was determined for postoperative days 1 and 2 and revealed median scores of 0 (0-11), 3 (0-22) and 10 (6-17) for UA (urological patients from group A), UB (group B) and UC (group C), respectively, and 4 (0-20), 8 (0-38) and 17 (7-68) for SA (surgical patients from group A, SB (group B) and SC (group C), respectively. CACS enabled reliable differentiation between groups involving different levels of invasiveness (p &lt; 0.001). CACS and peak NRS values showed variable degrees of correlation, as expressed by levels of significance ranging from p &lt; 0.001 to p = 0.34 (NS). Conclusions The CACS is a valid and easily applicable tool to describe postsurgical analgesic consumption in urological and surgical patients. It can be used as a surrogate parameter to assess postsurgical pain and the invasiveness of surgical procedures. These aspects may be measured to compare surgical procedures, in both clinical trials and clinical practice settings. <![CDATA[The efficacy of radiographic anatomical measurement methods in predicting success after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for lower pole kidney stones]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300337&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objectives To assess the impact of lower pole calyceal anatomy on clearace of lower pole stones after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) by means of a new and previously defined radiographic measurement method. Materials and Methods Sixty-four patients with solitary radiopaque lower pole kidney stones were enrolled in the study. Infundibulopelvic angle (IPA), infundibulotransverse angle (ITA), infundibular lenght(IL), and infundibular width (IW) were measured on the intravenous urographies which were taken before the procedure. Results 48 of 64 patients (75%) were stone-free after a follow-up period of 3 months. The IPA,ITA,IL and IW were determined as statistically significant factors, while age,gender and stone area were found to have no impact on clearance. Conclusion By the help of radiographic measurement methods related to lower pole kidney anatomy, appropriate patient selection and increment in success after ESWL may be achieved. <![CDATA[Bipolar transurethral vaporization: a superior procedure in benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective randomized comparison with bipolar TURP]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300346&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective To compare the outcomes of bipolar transurethral vaporization of the prostate (TUVP) with bipolar transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Materials and Methods In a prospective randomized trial, 88 patients with moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) underwent bipolar TUVP (N = 39) or bipolar TURP (N = 49) from October 2010 to November 2011. The inclusion criteria were age &gt; 50 years, prostate volume of 30-80mL, serum PSA &lt; 4ng/mL, IPSS ≥ 20, Qmax ≤ 10mL/s and failed medical therapy. The perioperative and postoperative outcomes were evaluated and the IPSS and Qmax were assessed preoperatively and 3 months after procedure in all cases. Results Both groups were similar in patient age, prostate volume, preoperative IPSS and Qmax. The TUVP group had significantly lower mean values of operative time, hospital stay, catheterization period, irrigation fluid volume and serum hemoglobin, creatinine, sodium and potassium changes compared with TURP group. No significant differences were seen between two groups regarding complications (TUVP = 10.3%; TURP = 12.2%) and modified Clavien classification of complications. No TUR syndrome, obturator reflex or epididymitis occurred in both groups. Re-hospitalization and transfusion due to clot retention (N = 2) and urethral stricture (N = 1) were reported only in the TURP group. Three patients experienced urinary retention after catheter removal in the TUVP group. Two patients were re-catheterized temporarily and one patient required repeat bipolar TUVP. Three months after surgery, two groups had significant improvement in IPSS and Qmax. But the TUVP group had significantly lower IPSS and higher Qmax than TURP group. Conclusions Bipolar TUVP is a safe, effective and low cost procedure among minimally invasive surgeries of BPH. Compared with bipolar TURP, the bipolar TUVP had similar complications, better perioperative and postoperative outcomes, superior hemostasis and higher efficacy. <![CDATA[Effects of prostatic inflammation on LUTS and alpha blocker treatment outcomes]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300356&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Purpose To evaluate the association between prostatic inflammation and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and to identify the effects of prostatic inflammation on the treatment with an alpha blocker. Materials and Methods 111 Participants who were aged ≥ 50 years, the presence of LUTS (maximal flow rate &lt; 20 m/s, IPSS ≥ 11), and an elevated PSA level (3-20ng/mL) were treated with tamsulosin 0.2mg once daily for 3 months after prostate biopsies. Prostatic inflammation was scored as none (0), mild (I), moderate (II), or marked (III). LUTS parameters including urine flow rates, IPSS, PSA, and prostate volume were evaluated. Results Inflammation grading resulted in 25, 60, and 26 patients that were grade 0, I, and II, respectively. Lower grade inflammation was related to higher urine flow rate at baseline. Patients with higher inflammation grades had larger prostate volumes, larger total and transitional zone volumes, and higher PSA levels. Overall, urine flow rates and residual urine volume were improved after 3 months of alpha blocker therapy. Eighty percent of patients with grade 0 inflammation, 73% of patients with grade I inflammation, and 92.3% of patients with grade II inflammation showed improvement of LUTS after treatment. Longer duration of treatment was related to a decreased chance of improvement of LUTS. Patients with increased IPSS voiding subscales could be predictive of improvement of LUTS. Conclusions Patients with high grade inflammation had lower flow rates and higher prostatic volumes than patients with low grade inflammation. Inflammation grade did not affect the outcomes of alpha blocker treatment. <![CDATA[A short-term arm-crank exercise program improved testosterone deficiency in adults with chronic spinal cord injury]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300367&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Purpose To determine the influence of arm-crank exercise in reproductive hormone levels in adults with chronic SCI. Further objectives were to assess the influence of arm-crank exercise on muscle strength and body composition. Materials and Methods Seventeen male adults with complete SCI at or below the 5th thoracic level (T5) volunteered for this study. Participants were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 9) or control group (n = 8) using a concealed method. The participants in the intervention group performed a 12-week arm-crank exercise program, 3 sessions/week, consisting of warming-up (10-15 min) followed by a main part in arm-crank (20-30 min [increasing 2 min and 30 seconds each three weeks]) at a moderate work intensity of 50-65% of heart rate reserve (HRR) (starting at 50% and increasing 5% each three weeks) and by a cooling-down period (5-10 min). Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone and estradiol were determined by ELISA. Muscle strength (handgrip) and body composition (waist circumference [WC]) were assessed. Results After the completion of the training program, testosterone level was significantly increased (p = 0.0166;d = 1.14). Furthermore, maximal handgrip and WC were significantly improved. Lastly, a significant inverse correlation was found between WC and testosterone (r =- 0.35; p = 0.0377). Conclusion The arm-crank exercise improved reproductive hormone profile by increasing testosterone levels in adults with chronic SCI. A secondary finding was that it also significantly improved muscle strength and body composition in this group. <![CDATA[Does sildenafil enhance the effect of tamsulosin in relieving acute urinary retention?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300373&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective To compare the safety and efficacy of combined therapy using sildenafil and tamsulosin for management of acute urinary retention (AUR) with tamsulosin alone in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods 101 patients were enrolled in a randomized placebo-controlled study from June 2009 to April 2012. Patients presenting with an initial episode of spontaneous AUR underwent urethral catheterization and then prospectively randomized to receive tamsulosin 0.4mg plus sildenafil 50mg in group A and tamsulosin 0.4mg plus placebo in group B for three days. Urethral catheter was removed three days after medical treatment and patient’s ability to void assessed at the day after catheter removal and seven days later. Patients who voided successfully were followed at least for three months. Results Mean age of patients was 59.64 ± 3.84 years in group A and 60.56 ± 4.12 years in group B (p value = 0.92). Mean prostate volume and mean residual urine were comparable between both groups (p value = 0.74 and 0.42, respectively). Fifteen patients in group A (success rate: 70%) and nineteen patients in group B (success rate: 62.7%) had failed trial without catheter (TWOC) at 7th day following AUR (p value = 0.3). No significant difference was noted between both groups regarding the rate of repeated AUR at one month and three month follow-up period (p = 0.07 and p = 0.45, respectively). Conclusion It seems that combination therapy by using 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitor and tamsulosin has no significant advantages to improve urinary retention versus tamsulosin alone. <![CDATA[Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux with polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer and dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in adults]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300379&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Purpose Aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer and polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer in endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux disease in adult patients with and without chronic renal failure. Materials and Methods Thirty two patients (12 female, 20 male) with a total of 50 renal units were treated for vesicoureteral reflux. There were 26 (81%) chronic renal failure patients. The success of treatment was evaluated by voiding cystouretrography at 3rd and 12th months after subureteric injection. The persistence of reflux was considered as failure. Patients were divided into two groups according to injected material. Age, sex, grade of reflux and treatment results were recorded and evaluated. Results Reflux was scored as grade 1 in seven (14%), grade 2 in 16 (32%), grade 3 in 21 (42%) and grade 4 in six (12%) renal units. There was not patient with grade 5 reflux. Fourteen renal units (28%) were treated with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (group 1) and 36 renal units (72%) were treated with polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer (group 2). The overall treatment success was achieved at 40 renal units (80%). The treatment was successful at 11 renal units (79%) in group 1 and 29 renal units (81%) in group 2 (p = 0.71). There was not statistically significant difference between two groups with patients with chronic renal failure in terms of treatment success (p = 1.00). Conclusions The effectiveness of two bulking agents was similar in treatment of vesicoureteral reflux disease in adult patients and patients with chronic renal failure. <![CDATA[Minimal Hydrocelectomy with the aid of scrotoscope: a ten-year experience]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300384&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background Since hydrocelectomy remains the choice of surgical treatment of hydrocele and standard surgical procedures may cause postoperative discomfort and complications, a new minimal surgery procedure is needed. The scrotoscope was used for the diagnosis and treatment of intrascrotal lesions. The aim of the study is to illustrate a new minimal hydrocelectomy with the aid of scrotoscope, in an effort to decrease complications. Materials and Methods: Between 2002 and 2012, 65 patients underwent hydrocelectomy with the aid of a scrotoscope. Before carrying out hydrocelectomy, the scrotoscopy was first used to examine the intrascrotal contents to exclude any pathological lesions. After determining the condition of testis, epididymis and spermatic cord and excluding any other secondary causes of hydrocele, a 2.0cm scrotal incision was performed. The parietal tunica vaginalis was then grasped out of scrotum, and the mobilized tunica was excised. The scrotoscopy was then performed again to inspect the intrascrotal contents. Results Mean operative time was 35.4 minutes. No major complications occurred during the post-operative follow-up period. Of these 65 patients, 61 underwent scrotoscopy and minimal hydrocelectomy, two patients underwent open hydrocelectomy because thickening of hydrocele wall was identified; two patients with acute inflammation only underwent scrotoscopy. Pathological changes were observed among eight patients. All patients were satisfied with the outcomes. Conclusions Minimal hydrocelectomy shows commendable results and fewer complications. The combination of minimal hydrocelectomy and scrotoscopy seems to be an encouraging technique. This novel surgical procedure proves to be a viable option for the diagnosis and treatment of hydrocele. <![CDATA[PDE5 Inhibitor Treatment Persistence and Adherence in Brazilian Men: Post-hoc Analyses from a 6-Month, Prospective, Observational Study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300390&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Purpose Characterize persistence and adherence to phosphodiesterase type - 5 inhibitor (PDE5I) on-demand therapy over 6 months among Brazilian men in an observational, non-interventional study of Latin American men naïve to PDE5Is with erectile dysfunction (ED). Materials and Methods Men were prescribed PDE5Is per routine clinical practice. Persistence was defined as using ≥ 1 dose during the previous 4 - weeks, and adherence as following dosing instructions for the most recent dose, assessed using the Persistence and Adherence Questionnaire. Other measures included the Self - Esteem and Relationship (SEAR) Questionnaire, and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with persistence/adherence. Results 104 Brazilian men were enrolled; mean age by treatment was 53 to 59 years, and most presented with moderate ED (61.7%). The prescribed PDE5I was sildenafil citrate for 50 (48.1%), tadalafil for 36 (34.6%), vardenafil for 15 (14.4%), and lodenafil for 3 patients (2.9%). Overall treatment persistence was 69.2% and adherence was 70.2%; both were numerically higher with tadalafil (75.0%) versus sildenafil or vardenafil (range 60.0% to 68.0%). Potential associations of persistence and/or adherence were observed with education level, ED etiology, employment status, and coronary artery disease. Improvements in all IIEF domain scores, and both SEAR domain scores were observed for all treatments. Study limitations included the observational design, brief duration, dependence on patient self - reporting, and limited sample size. Conclusion Approximately two-thirds of PDE5I-naive, Brazilian men with ED were treatment persistent and adherent after 6 months. Further study is warranted to improve long-term outcomes of ED treatment. <![CDATA[Application of Human Amniotic Membrane in Canine Penile Tunica Albuginea Defect: First Step toward an Innovating New Method for Treatment of Peyronie?s Disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300400&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Purposes To evaluate the efficacy of human amniotic membrane (AM) grafting in the canine penile tunica albuginea defect; we developed an animal model as the first step toward an innovating new method for the treatment of Peyronie’s disease, penile cancers, and congenital deformities of the penis. Material and Methods From August to September 2011, ten healthy male dogs were selected. A rhomboid incision about 3x2cm over the tunica albuginea and its overlying squamous epithelium was made and then excised. The amniotic membrane was folded twice on itself and grafted on the defect. After 8 weeks, artificial erection was made for 5 dogs and for the other 5 dogs after 12 weeks. After artificial erection, partial penectomy was done and histopathological evaluation was performed on the grafts. Results Artificial erection performed successfully in all of the dogs. No infection or any other complication was seen. Histopathological examination showed complete re-epithelialization with squamous epithelium and collagen fiber deposition. Also, no dysplasia was seen. Conclusions The amniotic membrane can be used as a suitable substitution for tunica albuginea. It is safe, inexpensive, biodegradable, and available and may be used for the treatment of Peyronie’s disease, penile cancers, congenital penile deformities, and penile reconstructive surgery. <![CDATA[The use of Hypochlorous Acid as a Model for Investigating Bladder Overactivity]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300408&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Involuntary detrusor contractions play an important role in the development of urge incontinence. Also in an in-vitro situation contractions which develop spontaneously can be seen; a parallel with the in vivo observations is likely. In order to study this muscle overactivity we investigated the possibility to induce this phenomenon with oxidative stress using hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Materials and Methods Urinary bladder muscle strips from pigs were mounted in a custom made organ bath and incubated for 20 minutes in Krebs solution. Next HOCl (10µM) was added to the organ bath and the onset of overactive contractions was closely followed. Overactivity was defined as a development of more than 5 phasic detrusor contractions per minute without any other provocation in the 30 minutes following addition of HOCl to the organ bath. Results Of the 50 strips which were used 36 (72%) became overactive after exposure to HOCl during 30 minutes recording. In 76% of the overactive strips overactivity occurred within 5 minutes, in 19% between 5 and 15 minutes, and in 5% it took longer than 15 minutes. The overactivity could be stopped by washing out HOCl for 10 minutes after which still a significant contraction after EFS and ACh stimulation was seen. Conclusions It can be concluded that an oxidative stressor, like HOCl, is capable of inducing smooth muscle overactivity. This model can be used for the development and testing of new treatment modalities for the overactive detrusor. Furthermore, this study provides evidence for a causal relationship between oxidative stress and detrusor overactivity. <![CDATA[Improved model for the establishment and evaluation of detrusor overactivity in female Wistar rats]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300414&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective To improve the model for establishment and evaluation of detrusor overactivity in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods We ligated the perineal urethra of female Wistar rats and then performed filling cystometry. The probability of detrusor overactivity, bladder capacity, peak voiding pressure and histological changes were investigated. Results Detrusor overactivity ratio of the obstruction group was 32.4%. Bladder capacity increased from 0.273 ± 0.036mL in control group to 0.89 ± 0.19mL in detrusor overactivity group (P &lt; 0.001), and peak voiding pressure increased from 45.9 ± 4.1 cm.H2O to 63.5 ± 17.4cm.H2O (P = 0.007). For obstruction group, compared to no detrusor overactivity rats, detrusor overactivity rats had higher bladder capacity (0.89 ± 0.19mL versus 0.43 ± 0.09mL, P &lt; 0.001) and higher peak voiding pressure (63.5 ± 17.4cm.H2O versus 44.8 ± 6.2cm.H2O, P = 0.005). Detrusor overactivity rats were classified according to peak voiding pressure (49.2 ± 4.2cm.H2O versus 80.8 ± 7.1cm.H2O, P &lt; 0.001). Moreover, bladder weight increased significantly in detrusor overactivity rats (P = 0.003, P = 0.028) and detrusor histological hypertrophy was observed. Conclusions Ligating perineal urethra and filling cystometry with intra-urethral cannula approach is a simple and easily reproducible method to establish and evaluate the model of detrusor overactivity in rats. <![CDATA[Fournier?s gangrene - delayed pedicle flap based upon the anterior abdominal wall]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300423&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Introduction Fournier’s gangrene is a poly-microbial necrotizing fasciitis that involves the perineum and/or external genitalia. Urgent surgical debridement is well recognized as essential acute treatment yet unique challenges arise for plastic surgical reconstruction to obtain a complete functional recovery. This case describes a successful delayed pedicle flap repair based upon the anterior abdominal wall. Case description A 24 year old man was admitted to ICU ten days after elective circumcision with Fournier’s gangrene. He underwent a number of surgical debridements, and was referred for plastic surgical management. He had penile reconstruction using a random pattern abdominal flap, which was performed as a three stage procedure including flap vascular delay technique. Discussion Perineal and penile skin loss can be significant and is difficult to repair. Various techniques have been used to reconstruct lost tissue: skin grafts, transposition of the testes and spermatic cords to the thigh, flaps, and other types of pediculated myocutaneous flaps. Muscle flap reconstruction provides an environment that allows for complete regeneration of the urethral epithelium but is bulky and unsightly. Skin grafts contract and may produce painful and dysfunctional reconstructions. This novel technique produces a functional, and aesthetic reconstruction. Conclusion Penile skin recovery following Fournier’s gangrene recovery is problematic. This case demonstrates the functionality of a delayed flap repair using the anterior abdominal wall. <![CDATA[Retrograde exchange of a double J stent via a cystostomy tract]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300427&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Introduction Fournier’s gangrene is a poly-microbial necrotizing fasciitis that involves the perineum and/or external genitalia. Urgent surgical debridement is well recognized as essential acute treatment yet unique challenges arise for plastic surgical reconstruction to obtain a complete functional recovery. This case describes a successful delayed pedicle flap repair based upon the anterior abdominal wall. Case description A 24 year old man was admitted to ICU ten days after elective circumcision with Fournier’s gangrene. He underwent a number of surgical debridements, and was referred for plastic surgical management. He had penile reconstruction using a random pattern abdominal flap, which was performed as a three stage procedure including flap vascular delay technique. Discussion Perineal and penile skin loss can be significant and is difficult to repair. Various techniques have been used to reconstruct lost tissue: skin grafts, transposition of the testes and spermatic cords to the thigh, flaps, and other types of pediculated myocutaneous flaps. Muscle flap reconstruction provides an environment that allows for complete regeneration of the urethral epithelium but is bulky and unsightly. Skin grafts contract and may produce painful and dysfunctional reconstructions. This novel technique produces a functional, and aesthetic reconstruction. Conclusion Penile skin recovery following Fournier’s gangrene recovery is problematic. This case demonstrates the functionality of a delayed flap repair using the anterior abdominal wall. <![CDATA[Postoperative renal cortical necrosis in a patient with contralateral remnant kidney]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300429&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Introduction Fournier’s gangrene is a poly-microbial necrotizing fasciitis that involves the perineum and/or external genitalia. Urgent surgical debridement is well recognized as essential acute treatment yet unique challenges arise for plastic surgical reconstruction to obtain a complete functional recovery. This case describes a successful delayed pedicle flap repair based upon the anterior abdominal wall. Case description A 24 year old man was admitted to ICU ten days after elective circumcision with Fournier’s gangrene. He underwent a number of surgical debridements, and was referred for plastic surgical management. He had penile reconstruction using a random pattern abdominal flap, which was performed as a three stage procedure including flap vascular delay technique. Discussion Perineal and penile skin loss can be significant and is difficult to repair. Various techniques have been used to reconstruct lost tissue: skin grafts, transposition of the testes and spermatic cords to the thigh, flaps, and other types of pediculated myocutaneous flaps. Muscle flap reconstruction provides an environment that allows for complete regeneration of the urethral epithelium but is bulky and unsightly. Skin grafts contract and may produce painful and dysfunctional reconstructions. This novel technique produces a functional, and aesthetic reconstruction. Conclusion Penile skin recovery following Fournier’s gangrene recovery is problematic. This case demonstrates the functionality of a delayed flap repair using the anterior abdominal wall. <![CDATA[Laparoscopic resection of tumor recurrence after radical nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300431&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Introduction Local recurrence of Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) after radical nephrectomy is a rare event. Some known risk factors are: clinical/pathological stage, locorregional disease and lyimph node positivity. Since up to 30-40% of patients can achieve a disease-free status, we show a case (video) in which we performed a laparoscopic excision of a local RCC, taking advantage of all the well-known benefits of laparoscopy.Case report A 56 years old female with a history of open radical nephrectomy two years before was diagnosed with a mass at the time of surveillance CT imaging during follow-up. The suspected local recurrence was 12cm, and vascularized predominantly by tributaries originating from the iliac vessels. There was no other site of disease (i.e. brain, lung, liver, bones) and laboratory tests were normal. Laparoscopic approach was approached, by inserting 4 trocars (2 of 10 and 2 of 5mm) with the patient in the lateral position.Result The procedure lasted 130 minutes, with 220mL of estimated bleeding; the larger vessels were ligated with polymer clips (Hem-o-lok) and the smaller handled by ultrasonic clamp. The specimen was removed by a small incision below the umbilicus in an appropriate bag. The patient was feed in the first postoperative day and discharged on the third day. Histopathology revealed sarcoma, with a high degree of mitosis, and negative surgical margins. She was referred to medical oncology for adjuvant therapy consideration.Conclusion The laparoscopic resection of recurrent tumor should be encouraged in highly selected cases. The minimally invasive method, with its known advantages, especially for more debilitated patients, can be advantageous when applied to suitable cases. <![CDATA[Athermal bladder neck dissection during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300433&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Introduction With improved understanding of the precise anatomy, surgical techniques during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) have been refined, with the aim of improving functional outcomes without compromising oncological adequacy and results. Nevertheless, postoperative urinary incontinence remains a frustrating side-effect. Anatomically, bladder neck (BN) serves as an internal sphincter. The longitudinal fibres of BN may be identified and isolated with a meticulous dissection at the prostato-vesical junction, contributing to earlier return of urinary continence. The purpose of this video is to show an anatomical athermal dissection of BN during RARP.Materials and Methods After incision of endopelvic fascia and anterior defatting, the morphology of prostate not only laterally, but also at the level of bladder-prostatic junction is well visualized. With an athermal dissection of the plane between prostate and bladder we can minimize the traumatic effects on the longitudinal fibres of BN. A cold section of the preserved BN permits the complete preservation of integrity of this sphincteric structure.Results With this technique we preserve the longitudinal fibres of BN, allowing the sparing of the sphincteric mechanism of BN. The finding of a difficult athermal dissection of these plans may make you suspect the presence of an infiltration, suggesting to sacrifice BN in order to avoid a positive surgical margin. In our series no increase of PSM has been recorded using this technique.Conclusions This surgical technique preserving the natural BN mechanism appears to improve urinary continence, allowing at the same time an easy identification of a neoplastic infiltration. <![CDATA[Laparoscopic Treatment of Vesicovaginal Fistula]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382014000300435&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Introduction Vesicovaginal fistula is a rare disease with great impact for the patients. Laparoscopic repair can be an interesting option in selected cases with goods results but few experience is reported.Objectives Detailed demonstration of our laparoscopic vesicovaginal fistula repair technique. Initial results for ten patients are provided Methods: We treated all cases by the same technique. The surgical steps were: Patient positioning in Lloyd-Davis; Cystoscopy and implant of guide wire on fistula and ureteral catheters (that was removed after procedure); Transperitoneal access and 4 or 5 ports in V or W shape; Opening the bladder wall; Dissection between bladder and vagina for tension free repair; Fistula resection; Vagina repair with Vicryl 3-0; Bladder repair with Vicryl 3-0; Peritoneum/omentum interposition; Positioning 20 Fr urethral catheter.Results Mean age was 50 years. Mean number of fistulas was 1,2. The most common etiology was gynecologic surgery (7). Mean operative time was 2,5 (1,8-3,2) hours. Mean blood loss was 150 (100-200)mL. Complication rate was 10% (one case of urinary infection treated conservatively). Mean hospital stay was 1,2 (1-2) days. Mean return to normal and activities was 20 (15-30) days. For nine patients mean sexual intercourse time was 3 (1-6) months. Success rate after 1 year was 90% (one case of recurrence in patient with previous radiotherapy). Mean follow-up was 36 (12-60) months.Conclusions Laparoscopic repair is feasible, reproducible and present all advantages of minimally invasive surgical procedure. Long term results are similar to conventional open approaches.