Scielo RSS <![CDATA[International braz j urol]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1677-553820120004&lang=en vol. 38 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[<b>Editor’s Comment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382012000400001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>The prevalence of prostate cancer in Brazil is higher in Black men than in White men</b>: <b>systematic review and meta-analysis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382012000400002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Black men have a higher incidence of prostate cancer compared with White men in several countries. In Brazil, most studies reported a similar prevalence of prostate cancer between Blacks and Whites as a result of the high race mixture of the population. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review with meta-analysis of the prevalence of prostate cancer in Black versus White, Brown versus White, and Black versus Brown Brazilian men. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This systematic review included cohort, cross sectional and case-control studies comparing the prevalence of prostate cancer between races in Brazil. It was performed using an electronic search of references in bibliographic databases, and dissertations and theses databases from several Brazilian hospitals, universities, and schools of medicine. Meta-analysis was conducted using the RevMan software from the Cochrane Collaboration. To control for potential confounding variables, sensitivity analyses excluding case-control and cross sectional studies were performed. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes of interest included the number of participants, prevalence of prostate cancer, and odds ratio of cancer between Black and White men, Brown and White men, and Black and Brown men. Results and Limitations: Twelve studies approaching the prevalence of prostate cancer in Black or Brown vs. White men in Brazil were identified, totalizing 41388 participants. The prevalence of prostate cancer was 9.6% in Black vs. 5.6% in White men (OR 1.58), 10.1% in Black vs. 6.7% in Brown men (OR 1.43), and 6.7% in Brown vs. 6.6% in White men (OR 1.14). Limitations of this review reflect the complexity and ambiguity in the definition of who is Black and who is not in such an heterogeneous population like the Brazilian people. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review with meta-analysis demonstrates a higher prevalence of prostate cancer in Black men compared to White or Brown Brazilian men. The prevalence of prostate cancer is similar in Brown versus White men. <![CDATA[<b>Antegrade pressure measurement of urinary tract in children with persistent hydronephrosis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382012000400003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: Dilation of urinary tract occurs without the presence of obstruction. Diagnostic methods that depend on renal function may elicit mistaken diagnosis. Whitaker (1973) proposed the evaluation of urinary tract pressure submitted to constant flow. Other investigators proposed perfusion of renal pelvis under controlled pressure, making the method more physiological and reproducible. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the results of the anterograde pressure measurement (APM) of the urinary tract of children with persistent hydronephrosis after surgery suspected to present persistent obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Along 12 years, 26 renal units with persistent hydronephrosis after surgery (12 PUJ and 14 VUJ) were submitted to evaluation of the renal tract pressure in order to decide the form of treatment. Previous radionuclide scans with DTPA, intravenous pyelographies and ultrasounds were considered undetermined in relation to obstruction in 10 occasions and obstructive in 16. APM was performed under radioscopy through renal pelvis puncture or previous stoma. Saline with methylene blue + iodine contrast was infused under constant pressure of 40 cm H2O to fill the urinary system. The ureteral opening pressure was measured following the opening of the system and stabilization of the water column. RESULTS: Among the 10 cases with undetermined previous diagnosis, APM was considered non-obstructive in two and those were treated clinically and eight were considered obstructive and were submitted to surgery. Among the 16 cases previously classified as obstructive, nine confirmed obstruction and were submitted to surgery. Seven cases were considered non-obstructive, and were treated clinically, with stable DMSA and hydronephrosis. CONCLUSIONS: APM avoided unnecessary surgery in one third of the cases and was important to treatment decision in 100%. We believe that this simple test is an excellent diagnostic tool when selectively applied mainly in the presence of functional deficit. <![CDATA[<b>Immunohistochemical expression of CD44s in renal cell carcinoma lacks independent prognostic significance</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382012000400004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en PURPOSE: To analyze the immunohistochemical expression of the standard isoform of CD44 (CD44s) adhesion molecule in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and its impact on clinical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-nine consecutive patients treated surgically for RCC between 1992 and 2009 were selected. A single pathologist reviewed all cases to effect a uniform reclassification and determine the most representative tumor areas for construction of a tissue microarray. The same pathologist, who was blinded to the outcome of the cases, semi-quantitatively scored the staining intensity of CD44s in all specimens. The counting was done using the H-Score algorithm. RESULTS: Of the 99 immunostained RCC specimens, 57(57.7%) showed low expression, and 42(42.4%) showed high expression levels of CD44s. The expression of CD44s was directly associated with tumor size (p = 0.03), clinical stage (p = 0.02) and Fuhrman grade (p = 0.02). Disease specific survival (DSS) rates for patients whose specimens expressed low and high levels of CD44s was 88.1% and 67.5%, respectively (p = 0.009). Progression free survival (PFS) rates in patients with low and high expression of CD44s were 78.8% and 61.7%, respectively (p = 0.05). Classical features such as the presence of metastasis and clinical stage remained isolated predictors of survival. CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical expression of CD44s was associated with important clinical variables such as stage and Fuhrman grade. However, it was not an independent predictor of survival. Therefore, we believe it has a limited role as a prognostic marker in patients with CCRCC. <![CDATA[<b>Immune expression of E-cadherin and </b><b>α</b><b>, </b><b>β</b><b> and </b><b>γ</b><b>-Catenin adhesion molecules and prognosis for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinomas</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382012000400005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: Cell adhesion molecules (CAM) are required for maintaining a normal epithelial phenotype, and abnormalities in CAM expression have been related to cancer progression, including bladder urothelial carcinomas. There is only one study that correlates E-cadherin and α-, β- and γ-catenin expression with prognosis of upper tract urothelial carcinomas. Our aim is to study the pattern of immune expression of these CAMs in urothelial carcinomas from the renal pelvis and ureter in patients who have been treated surgically. Our goal is to correlate these expression levels and characteristics with well-known prognostic parameters for disease-free survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated specimens from 20 patients with urothelial carcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter who were treated with nephroureterectomy or ureterectomy between June 1997 and January 2007. CAM expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray and correlated with histopathological characteristics and patient outcomes after a mean follow-up of 55 months. RESULTS: We observed a relationship between E-cadherin expression and disease recurrence. Disease recurrence occurred in 87.5% of patients with strong E-cadherin expression. Only 50.0% of patients with moderate expression and 0% of patients with weak or no expression of E-cadherin had disease recurrence (p = 0.014). There was also a difference in disease-free survival. Patients with strong E-cadherin expression had a mean disease-free survival rate of 49.1 months, compared to 83.9 months for patients with moderate expression (p = 0.011). Additionally, an absence of α-catenin expression was associated with tumors that were larger than 3 cm (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated for the first time that immune expression of E-cadherin is related to tumor recurrence and disease-free survival rates, and the absence of α-catenin expression is related to tumor size in upper tract urothelial carcinomas. <![CDATA[<b>The value of perioperative mitomycin C instillation in improving subsequent bacillus calmette-guerin instillation efficacy in intermediate and high-risk patients with non-muscle invasıve bladder cancer</b>: <b>a prospective randomized study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382012000400006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en PURPOSE: We evaluated the efficacy of perioperative mitomycin C (MMC) instillation to improve subsequent bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillation efficacy in intermediate and high risk patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From November 2004 to May 2006, 51 patients with intermediate or high risk NMIBC were enrolled in this prospective randomized trial. In group A, patients were treated with perioperative MMC (40 mg MMC in 40 mL saline was administered within 6 hours of surgery) followed by delayed (at least 15 days from surgery) BCG instillations (once a week for 6 weeks, 5 x 108 colony-forming units in 50 mL saline). Patients in group B were treated with delayed BCG instillations alone. The primary end points were recurrence-free interval and recurrence rate. RESULTS: There were 25 and 26 patients in groups A and B, respectively. Median follow-up was 41.3 months (range 8 to 64) in group A and 40.9 months (range 6 to 68) in group B. Recurrence rate was 36% (9 of 25) and 19.3% (5 of 26) in group A and B, respectively (p = 0.052). Median time to the first recurrence was 8 months in group A and 7 months in group B (p = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed no statistically significant difference in terms of recurrence rate and median time to first recurrence between intermediate or high-risk patients with NMIBC who were treated with early single dose instillation of MMC plus delayed BCG and those who were treated with only BCG. <![CDATA[<b>Clampless laparoscopic partial nephrectomy</b>: <b>a step towards a harmless nephron-sparing surgery?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382012000400007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en PURPOSE: To evaluate the results of our technique of clampless laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) and its impact as an emerging treatment for small renal masses (SMRs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed our prospectively maintained database: data of 117 patients who consecutively underwent LPN at our Institution from January 2009 to December 2011 were studied. Patients were divided into 2 Groups based on operative technique: Group A: clampless-LPN (cl-LPN); Group B: conventional LPN (clamping of renal artery). Demographic and peri-operative data, complications, pre- and post-operative serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were registered and compared by Student’s t- and Chi-square-tests (p-values < 0.05 considered statistically significant). RESULTS: 41 patients were in Group A and 76 in Group B. Groups were comparable in terms of preoperative data except for tumour’s size (2.35 ± 1.10 vs. 3.19 ± 1.57, Group A vs. B, respectively, p = 0.0029). Concerning perioperative data, warm ischemia time (WIT) was 0 min. in all Group A cases; mean WIT in Group B was 20.90 ± 9.27 min. One case (2.4%) in Group A (central tumour) was converted to conventional LPN. Mean eGFR postoperative decrease was higher in Group B (0.17 ± 9.30 vs. 4.38 ± 11.37 mL/min., A vs B, respectively, p = 0.0445). CONCLUSIONS: Notwithstanding the limits of the study, our results suggest that cl-LPN is a safe and effective technique, which allows surgeon to surgically treat SRMs even in case of complex location, without injuring kidney by ischemia. <![CDATA[<b>PCA3 score and prostate cancer diagnosis at repeated saturation biopsy.</b><b> Which cut-off</b>: <b>20 or 35?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382012000400008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en PURPOSE: To compare PCA3 score cut-off of 35 vs 20 in PCa diagnosis in patients undergoing repeated saturation prostate biopsy (SPBx). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2010 to May 2011, 118 patients (median 62.5 years) with primary negative extended biopsy underwent a transperineal SPBx (median 30 cores) for persistent suspicion of PCa. The indications for repeated biopsy were: persistently high or increasing PSA values; PSA &gt; 10 ng/mL, PSA values between 4.1-10 or 2.6-4 ng/mL with free/total PSA ≤ 25% and ≤ 20%, respectively; moreover, before performing SPBx urinary PCA3 score was evaluated. RESULTS: All patients had negative DRE and median PSA was 8.5 ng/mL (range: 3.7-24 ng/mL). A T1c PCa was found in 32 patients (27.1%): PCA3 score was 59 (median; range: 7-201) in the presence of PCa and 35 (median; range: 3-253) in the absence of cancer (p < 0.05). In the presence of ASAP and HGPIN median PCA3 score was 109 (range: 42-253) and 40 (range: 30-140), respectively. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of PCA3 score cut-off of 20 vs 35 in PCa diagnosis were 44.9 vs 50%, 90.6 vs 71.9%, 27.9 vs 41.8%, 31.9 vs 31.5% and 88.9 vs 80%, respectively. ROC analysis demonstrated an AUC for PCA3 ≥ 20 vs ≥ 35 of 0.678 and 0.634, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that PCA3 is more useful as an exclusion tool; moreover, setting a PCA3 cut-off at 20 vs 35, would have avoided 22.9 vs 38.1% of biopsies while missing 9.4% and 28% diagnosis of PCa. <![CDATA[<b>Early outcomes of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy with multiple renal arteries</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382012000400009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en PURPOSE: We evaluated our experience with laparoscopic donor nephrectomy in patients with multiple renal arteries, comparing operative outcomes and early graft function with patients with a single renal artery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2003 to February 2009, 130 patients underwent laparoscopic donor nephrectomy at our institution, 108 (83%) with a single renal artery and 22 (17%) with multiple arteries. Donor and recipient outcomes for single artery and multiple arteries allografts were compared. RESULTS: The LDN operative time was similar between the single artery and multiple arteries groups (162 vs 163 min, respectively, p = 0.87). Allografts with multiple arteries had significantly longer warm ischemia time (3.9 vs 4.9 min, p = 0.05) and cold ischemia time (72 vs 94 min, p < 0.001) than those with single artery. The conversion rate was similar between single and multiple arteries groups (6% vs 4.5%, respectively, p = 0.7). Multiple arteries grafts had a non statistically significant higher rate of poor graft function when compared to single artery grafts (23% vs 12%, respectively, p = 0.18). Five patients in the single artery group (4.6%) and one patient in the multiple arteries group (4.5%) needed dialysis during the first postoperative week. Overall, recipient complication rates were similar between single and multiple arteries groups (12.9% vs 18.1%, respectively, p = 0.51). CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy with multiple arteries was associated with a non statistically significant higher rate of poor early graft function. The procedure appears to be safe in patients with multiple arteries, with similar complications rates. Multiple arteries should not be a contraindication for laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. <![CDATA[<b>Efficacy and safety of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL)</b>: <b>a prospective and randomized study comparing regional epidural anesthesia with general anesthesia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382012000400010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of regional epidural anesthesia and general anesthesia in patients who underwent PCNL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty patients submitted to percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) were randomized into two groups: Group I (N = 26) received general anesthesia and Group II (N = 24) received regional epidural anesthesia. Demographic and operative data including age, BMI, stone position, stone size, postoperative pain, amount of postoperative analgesic usage, length of hospital stay, patient satisfaction, preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit, adverse effects and surgical complications were compared between both groups. RESULTS: Average pain score at 1 hour. was 6.88 in group I and 3.12 in group II (p < 0.001), at 4 hours. 5.07 in group I and 3.42 in group II (p = 0.025). Less morphine was required in the regional epidural anesthesia group compared to the general anesthesia group. Higher satisfaction was found in the regional epidural group. 6 (23.07%) patients in Group I and 1 patient (4.19%) in Group II had postoperative nausea and vomiting, respectively (p = 0.05). Pain score at 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit, length of hospital stay, and adverse effects were no different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Regional epidural anesthesia is an alternative technique for PCNL which achieves more patient satisfaction, less early postoperative pain and less adverse effects from medication with the same efficacy and safety compared to general anesthesia. <![CDATA[<b>Twenty-five milligrams of clomiphene citrate presents positive effect on treatment of male testosterone deficiency - a prospective study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382012000400011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: Male testosterone deficiency is associated with bad sexual function and quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to determine whether a daily dose of 25 mg clomiphene citrate (CC) is effective in stimulating the endogenous testosterone production pathway and to address the applicability of this medication as a therapeutic option for symptomatic hypogonadism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study. Men with low sexual desire and testosterone levels (T) below 400 ng/dL were selected to receive CC. Blood samples were obtained to determine baseline measurements of serum T, estradiol, LH, lipid profile and fasting plasma glucose. Each patient was treated with a daily dose of 25 mg CC for at least 3 months. Patients were asked if they experienced any side effects related to the use of CC and if they experienced any improvement in their sexual profile. Paired samples T-test was utilized to analyze responses to therapy. RESULTS: Our cohort consisted of 125 men with hypogonadism and low libido. Mean age was 62 years (± 11.1 years). Serum T levels ranged from 309 ng/dL (baseline, mean value) to 642 ng/dL (3 months after CC initiation, mean value) (p < 0.001). Serum cholesterol levels ranged from 197 to 186 mg/dL (p = 0.003). There were no statistically significant differences when comparing pre and post-treatment HDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose and prolactin. All men reported improvements in the post-treatment QoL scores. No serious adverse events were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: The CC was effective in stimulating the endogenous production of testosterone. A lower level of total cholesterol was verified after three months of treatment. This medication should be considered as a therapeutic option for some patients with symptomatic male testosterone deficiency. <![CDATA[<b>Influence of strict sperm morphology on the results of classic in vitro fertilization</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382012000400012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of the concentration of oval spermatozoa according to the strict morphology criterion in men with normal sperm concentration following the World Health Organization criteria on the results of classic IVF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on review of patient charts, this study included infertile couples presenting with female causes for infertility or unexplained infertility, in whom men presented with normal spermogram values for sperm concentration, sperm motility, volume of ejaculate and total sperm count after semen processing greater than 20 million. Based on the value obtained in strict sperm morphology, patients were divided into three groups: in Group A, patients with values between 0% and 4%; in group B, between 5% and 14%, and in group C, patients with sperm morphology greater than 14%. The outcomes analyzed were oocyte fertilization rate, biochemical pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate and rate of liveborns. RESULTS: A total of 244 cases met the inclusion criteria, 27 of them in group A, 165 in group B, and 52 in group C. The mean fertilization rate and the rate of liveborns were, respectively: 71.9% and 33.3% in group A; 80.9% and 24.2% in group B, and 78.8% and 28.8% in group C. There was no statistical difference among the groups in any of the outcomes analyzed. CONCLUSION: The values of strict sperm morphology, as proposed by Kruger and adopted by the World Health Organization, had no influence on the results of classic in vitro fertilization in the studied sample. <![CDATA[<b>Structural alterations of foreskin caused by chronic smoking may explain high levels of urethral reconstruction failure using foreskin flaps</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382012000400013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to perform a stereological and biochemical analysis of the foreskin of smoker subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Foreskin samples were obtained from 20 young adults (mean = 27.2 years old) submitted to circumcision. Of the patients analyzed, one group (n = 10) had previous history of chronic smoking (a half pack to 3 packs per day for 3 to 13 years (mean = 5.8 ± 3.2). The control group included 10 nonsmoking patients. Masson's trichrome stain was used to quantify the foreskin vascular density. Weigert’s resorcin-fucsin stain was used to assess the elastic system fibers and Picrosirius red stain was applied to study the collagen. Stereological analysis was performed using the Image J software to determine the volumetric densities. For biochemical analysis, the total collagen was determined as µg of hydroxyproline per mg of dry tissue. Means were compared using the unpaired t-test (p < 0.05). RESULTS: Elastic system fibers of smokers was 42.5% higher than in the control group (p = 0.002). In contrast, smooth muscle fibers (p = 0.42) and vascular density (p = 0.16) did not show any significant variation. Qualitative analysis using Picrosirius red stain with polarized light evidenced the presence of type I and III collagen in the foreskin tissue, without significant difference between the groups. Total collagen concentration also did not differ significantly between smokers and non-smokers (73.1µg/mg ± 8.0 vs. 69.2µg/mg ± 5.9, respectively, p = 0.23). CONCLUSIONS: The foreskin tissue of smoking patients had a significant increase of elastic system fibers. Elastic fibers play an important role in this tissue’s turnover and this high concentration in smokers possibly causes high extensibility of the foreskin. The structural alterations in smokers’ foreskins could possibly explain the poor results in smoking patients submitted to foreskin fasciocutaneous flaps in urethral reconstruction surgery. <![CDATA[<b>Expression of VEGF and collagen using a latex biomembrane as bladder replacement in rabbits</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382012000400014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To investigate the VEGF expression and collagen deposition using a latex biomembrane as bladder replacement in rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After partial cystectomy, a patch of a non-vulcanized latex biomembrane (2 x 2 cm) was sewn to the bladder of rabbits with 5/0 monofilament polydioxanone sulfate sutures in a watertight manner. Groups of 5 animals were killed at 15, 45 and 90 days after surgery and the bladder was removed. Sections of 5µm were cut and stained with picrosirius-red in order to estimate the amount of extracellular matrix in the graft. To confirm the presence of VEGF in tissues, protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: No death, urinary leakage or graft extrusion occurred in any group. All bladders showed a spherical shape. A progressive reduction in the amount of collagen occurred in the graft area and was negatively and linearly correlated with time (p < 0.001). VEGF expression was higher in grafted areas when compared to controls at 15 and 45 days after surgery and decreased with time (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The latex biomembrane as a matrix for partial bladder replacement in rabbits promotes temporary collagen deposition and stimulates the angiogenic process. <![CDATA[<b>Characterization of the deposition of collagen fibers and Lithogenic potential in bladder of rats submitted to a sugar cane biopolymer graft</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382012000400015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: Suture materials are widely used in urology. The interaction of these materials with the extracellular matrix in the inflammatory process can be estimated by stereology of collagen fibers and the present study was designed to determine the behavior of the bladder tissue of rats to grafts of the biopolymer of sugar cane (BPCA), and the inflammation and intravesical stone formation compared to the polyglactin 910. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 42 Wistar rats were divided in four groups: Group I (n = 10) rats submitted to bladder implantation of ~4-0 BPCA suture graft and euthanized at 4 weeks; Group II (n = 10) rats submitted to bladder implantation of 4-0 polyglactin 910 suture graft and euthanized at 4 weeks; Group III (n = 12) rats submitted to bladder implantation of ~4-0 BPCA suture graft and euthanized at 8 weeks; Group IV (n = 10) rats submitted to bladder implantation of 4-0 polyglactin 910 suture graft and euthanized at 8 weeks. Bladders collected at necropsy were analyzed for their weight and the presence of grafts and calculi. Sections were prepared for stereological analysis of collagen fibers. RESULTS: The bladder weight was higher in group I, particularly in the presence of bladder stones. The presence of the graft was observed in 100% (group I), 80% (group II), 91.6% (group III) and 30% (group IV); polyglactin 910 showed an absorption of 70% in this period. The stereological analysis showed a higher volume density of collagen fibers in group I versus other groups (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The BPCA was a material with good integration into the bladder of rats; its absorption was slower than that of the polyglactin 910. The presence of urinary stones was lower in bladders with implantation of BPCA, particularly after 8 weeks. There was a greater initial inflammatory response to BPCA graft that was directly related to the increase in bladder weight and the presence of urinary stones, but that equalized the results of polyglactin 910 after 8 weeks. <![CDATA[<b>Influence of oxidative stress on inducing micturition dysfunction following chronic infravesical obstruction and the protective role of an antioxidant diet - association of in vivo and in vitro studies in rats</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382012000400016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: This study was developed to determine whether the generation of free radicals, induced by ischemia followed by reperfusion in a model of chronic intravesical obstruction in rats, would lead to damage in the detrusor. It also investigates the possible protective action of the flavonoid galangin on the tissue lesion induced by lipid peroxidation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one male rats were divided into three groups of seven animals each. Group A was subjected to a sham procedure; group B to partial obstruction of the bladder neck; and group C to partial obstruction of the bladder neck, but also received a diet rich in the flavonoid galangin. All the animals were subjected to urodynamic evaluation and then sacrificed. The bladders were sent for enzymatic tests. RESULTS: The urodynamic showed that group B developed significantly greater numbers of involuntary contractions of the detrusor, greater post-micturition residue and lower compliance. The group A presented TEAC levels greater than to the group B. Comparative analysis of group A, B and C demonstrated significantly greater malondialdehyde levels in group B in relation to groups A and C. The group B presented smaller contraction amplitudes than did groups A and C, in electrically stimulated contractions. CONCLUSIONS: That oxidative stress is implicated in the damage to the detrusor musculature following a period of chronic intravesical obstruction. We show, for the first time, that administration of an antioxidant prior to and following the start of chronic obstruction makes it possible to avoid the cellular lesions that cause detrusor dysfunction. <![CDATA[<b>Microscopic hematuria and pelvic congestion syndrome in a patient with cirrhosis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382012000400017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: This study was developed to determine whether the generation of free radicals, induced by ischemia followed by reperfusion in a model of chronic intravesical obstruction in rats, would lead to damage in the detrusor. It also investigates the possible protective action of the flavonoid galangin on the tissue lesion induced by lipid peroxidation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one male rats were divided into three groups of seven animals each. Group A was subjected to a sham procedure; group B to partial obstruction of the bladder neck; and group C to partial obstruction of the bladder neck, but also received a diet rich in the flavonoid galangin. All the animals were subjected to urodynamic evaluation and then sacrificed. The bladders were sent for enzymatic tests. RESULTS: The urodynamic showed that group B developed significantly greater numbers of involuntary contractions of the detrusor, greater post-micturition residue and lower compliance. The group A presented TEAC levels greater than to the group B. Comparative analysis of group A, B and C demonstrated significantly greater malondialdehyde levels in group B in relation to groups A and C. The group B presented smaller contraction amplitudes than did groups A and C, in electrically stimulated contractions. CONCLUSIONS: That oxidative stress is implicated in the damage to the detrusor musculature following a period of chronic intravesical obstruction. We show, for the first time, that administration of an antioxidant prior to and following the start of chronic obstruction makes it possible to avoid the cellular lesions that cause detrusor dysfunction. <![CDATA[<b>CT diagnosis of foreign body in urinary bladder after surgical management of stress urinary incontinence</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382012000400018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: This study was developed to determine whether the generation of free radicals, induced by ischemia followed by reperfusion in a model of chronic intravesical obstruction in rats, would lead to damage in the detrusor. It also investigates the possible protective action of the flavonoid galangin on the tissue lesion induced by lipid peroxidation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one male rats were divided into three groups of seven animals each. Group A was subjected to a sham procedure; group B to partial obstruction of the bladder neck; and group C to partial obstruction of the bladder neck, but also received a diet rich in the flavonoid galangin. All the animals were subjected to urodynamic evaluation and then sacrificed. The bladders were sent for enzymatic tests. RESULTS: The urodynamic showed that group B developed significantly greater numbers of involuntary contractions of the detrusor, greater post-micturition residue and lower compliance. The group A presented TEAC levels greater than to the group B. Comparative analysis of group A, B and C demonstrated significantly greater malondialdehyde levels in group B in relation to groups A and C. The group B presented smaller contraction amplitudes than did groups A and C, in electrically stimulated contractions. CONCLUSIONS: That oxidative stress is implicated in the damage to the detrusor musculature following a period of chronic intravesical obstruction. We show, for the first time, that administration of an antioxidant prior to and following the start of chronic obstruction makes it possible to avoid the cellular lesions that cause detrusor dysfunction. <![CDATA[<b>Ventral phalloplasty</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382012000400019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: This study was developed to determine whether the generation of free radicals, induced by ischemia followed by reperfusion in a model of chronic intravesical obstruction in rats, would lead to damage in the detrusor. It also investigates the possible protective action of the flavonoid galangin on the tissue lesion induced by lipid peroxidation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one male rats were divided into three groups of seven animals each. Group A was subjected to a sham procedure; group B to partial obstruction of the bladder neck; and group C to partial obstruction of the bladder neck, but also received a diet rich in the flavonoid galangin. All the animals were subjected to urodynamic evaluation and then sacrificed. The bladders were sent for enzymatic tests. RESULTS: The urodynamic showed that group B developed significantly greater numbers of involuntary contractions of the detrusor, greater post-micturition residue and lower compliance. The group A presented TEAC levels greater than to the group B. Comparative analysis of group A, B and C demonstrated significantly greater malondialdehyde levels in group B in relation to groups A and C. The group B presented smaller contraction amplitudes than did groups A and C, in electrically stimulated contractions. CONCLUSIONS: That oxidative stress is implicated in the damage to the detrusor musculature following a period of chronic intravesical obstruction. We show, for the first time, that administration of an antioxidant prior to and following the start of chronic obstruction makes it possible to avoid the cellular lesions that cause detrusor dysfunction. <![CDATA[<b>Re</b>: <b>Video-assisted left inguinal lymphadenectomy for penile cancer</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-55382012000400020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: This study was developed to determine whether the generation of free radicals, induced by ischemia followed by reperfusion in a model of chronic intravesical obstruction in rats, would lead to damage in the detrusor. It also investigates the possible protective action of the flavonoid galangin on the tissue lesion induced by lipid peroxidation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one male rats were divided into three groups of seven animals each. Group A was subjected to a sham procedure; group B to partial obstruction of the bladder neck; and group C to partial obstruction of the bladder neck, but also received a diet rich in the flavonoid galangin. All the animals were subjected to urodynamic evaluation and then sacrificed. The bladders were sent for enzymatic tests. RESULTS: The urodynamic showed that group B developed significantly greater numbers of involuntary contractions of the detrusor, greater post-micturition residue and lower compliance. The group A presented TEAC levels greater than to the group B. Comparative analysis of group A, B and C demonstrated significantly greater malondialdehyde levels in group B in relation to groups A and C. The group B presented smaller contraction amplitudes than did groups A and C, in electrically stimulated contractions. CONCLUSIONS: That oxidative stress is implicated in the damage to the detrusor musculature following a period of chronic intravesical obstruction. We show, for the first time, that administration of an antioxidant prior to and following the start of chronic obstruction makes it possible to avoid the cellular lesions that cause detrusor dysfunction.