Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of Applied Oral Science]]> vol. 22 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[From Amazon rain forest flora to the state-of-the-art technology devices, the incessant search for 'magic bullets' against <em>Streptococcus mutans</em>]]> <![CDATA[The susceptibility of <em>Streptococcus mutans </em>to antibacterial photodynamic therapy: a comparison of two different photosensitizers and light sources]]> Streptococcus mutans is the main etiological agent for dental caries. Recently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been introduced as a new modality in bacterial decontamination. Objective: This in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to antibacterial PDT using two different photosensitizers and light sources. Material and Methods: Standard suspensions of S. mutans were exposed to laser light at 662 nm and Radachlorin® or LED 630 nm in combination with Toluidine blue O (TBO). Radiation-only groups, photosensitizer alone, and groups with no treatment were used as controls. Bacterial suspension from each treatment was subcultured onto the surface of Mueller-Hinton agar plates and bacterial growth was assessed. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey test (p&lt;0.05). Results: PDT with TBO and Radachlorin® significantly reduced S. mutans viability, whereas no difference was observed between two groups of PDT. In the groups treated just with the photosensitizer or irradiated alone, no significant reduction of S. mutans colonies was observed. Conclusion: S. mutans colonies were susceptible to either 662 nm laser or LED light in the presence of Radachlorin® and TBO respectively with no priority. <![CDATA[Micro-shear bond strength and surface micromorphology of a feldspathic ceramic treated with different cleaning methods after hydrofluoric acid etching]]> Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feldspathic ceramic surface cleaning on micro-shear bond strength and ceramic surface morphology. Material and Methods: Forty discs of feldspathic ceramic were prepared and etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 2 minutes. The discs were randomly distributed into five groups (n=8): C: no treatment, S: water spray + air drying for 1 minute, US: immersion in ultrasonic bath for 5 minutes, F: etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 1 minute, followed by 1-minute rinse, F+US: etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 1 minute, 1-minute rinse and ultrasonic bath for 5 minutes. Composite cylinders were bonded to the discs following application of silane and hydrophobic adhesive for micro-shear bond strength testing in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until failure. Stereomicroscopy was used to classify failure type. Surface micromorphology of each treatment type was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy at 500 and 2,500 times magnification. Results: One-way ANOVA test showed no significant difference between treatments (p=0.3197) and the most common failure types were cohesive resin cohesion followed by adhesive failure. Micro-shear bond strength of the feldspathic ceramic substrate to the adhesive system was not influenced by the different surface cleaning techniques. Absence of or less residue was observed after etching with hydrofluoric acid for the groups US and F+US. Conclusions: Combining ceramic cleaning techniques with hydrofluoric acid etching did not affect ceramic bond strength, whereas, when cleaning was associated with ultrasound, less residue was observed. <![CDATA[Anti-Streptococcal activity of Brazilian Amazon Rain Forest plant extracts presents potential for preventive strategies against dental caries]]> Caries is a global public health problem, whose control requires the introduction of low-cost treatments, such as strong prevention strategies, minimally invasive techniques and chemical prevention agents. Nature plays an important role as a source of new antibacterial substances that can be used in the prevention of caries, and Brazil is the richest country in terms of biodiversity. Objective: In this study, the disk diffusion method (DDM) was used to screen over 2,000 Brazilian Amazon plant extracts against Streptococcus mutans. Material and Methods: Seventeen active plant extracts were identified and fractionated. Extracts and their fractions, obtained by liquid-liquid partition, were tested in the DDM assay and in the microdilution broth assay (MBA) to determine their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). The extracts were also subjected to antioxidant analysis by thin layer chromatography. Results: EB271, obtained from Casearia spruceana, showed significant activity against the bacterium in the DDM assay (20.67±0.52 mm), as did EB1129, obtained from Psychotria sp. (Rubiaceae) (15.04±2.29 mm). EB1493, obtained from Ipomoea alba, was the only extract to show strong activity against Streptococcus mutans (0.08 mg/mL&lt;MIC&lt;0.16 mg/mL; MBC=0.16 mg/mL) in the MBA. Conclusions: The active extracts, discovered in the Amazon rain forest, show potential as sources of new antibacterial agents for use as chemical coadjuvants in prevention strategies to treat caries. <![CDATA[Apical transportation associated with ProTaper┬« Universal F1, F2 and F3 instruments in curved canals prepared by undergraduate students]]> Objective: This study evaluated apical transportation associated with ProTaper® Universal Fl, F2 and F3 rotary files in curved canais prepared by undergraduate students. Material and Methods: Twenty mesial roots of mandibular molars with curvatures ranging between 25° and 35° were selected. Mesiobuccal canals were instrumented by twenty students with the ProTaper® system (Dentsply-Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Pre-fiaring was performed with Sl and SX files. A #15 K-file was inserted into the root canal up to the working length (WL), and an initial digital radiograph was taken in a buccolingual direction (baseline). Afterwards, the S1, S2, F1, F2, and F3 files were employed up to the WL. Other radiographies were taken in the same orientation of the baseline after the use of the Fl, F2, and F3 files, with each file inserted into the root canal. The radiographic images were overlapped, and the Image J software was used to measure the distance between the rotary files' ends and the #15 K-file's end, characterizing the apical transportation. Data were analyzed by Repeated Measure ANOVA and by the SNK post hoc test (P&lt;0.05). Results: It was verified that file size affected apical transportation significantly (P&lt;0.001). The F3 file showed higher apical transportation than Fl and F2, while between these last files there was no difference. Conclusion: The undergraduate students produced lower apical transportation in curved canals when they did not use the F3 rotary file. <![CDATA[Serum leveis of inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetes patients with chronic periodontitis]]> Diabetes has been associated with periodontitis, but the mechanisms through which periodontal diseases affect the metabolic control remain unclear. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate serum leveis of inflammatory markers, IL-8, IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), in type 2 diabetic patients in the presence of chronic periodontitis. Material and Methods: Forty two individuals were enrolled in this study and assigned to one of five groups: diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control and periodontitis (DMI+P, n = 10), diabetes mellitus with adequate glycemic control and periodontitis (DMA+P, n = 10), diabetes mellitus without periodontitis (DM, n = 10), periodontitis without diabetes (P, n=6), and neither diabetes nor periodontitis (H, n = 6). Periodontal clinical examination included visible plaque index (PL), gingival bleeding index (GB), probing depth (PD), attachment level (AL) and bleeding on probing (BP). Glycemic control was evaluated by serum concentration of glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc). Inflammatory serum markers IL-8, IL-6 and (MCP-1) were measured by ELISA. Results: DMI+P and DMA+P groups presented higher PD (p=0.025) and AL (p=0.003) values when compared to the P group. There were no significant differences among groups for IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 serum levels. Conclusions: Although periodontitis was more severe in diabetic patients, the serum levels of the investigated inflammatory markers did not differ among the groups. <![CDATA[Transition temperature range of thermally activated nickel-titanium archwires]]> Objectives: The shape memory resulting from the superelasticity and thermoelastic effect is the main characteristic of thermally activated NiTi archwires and is closely related to the transition temperature range (TTR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the TTR of thermally activated NiTi archwires commercially available. Material and Methods: Seven different brands of 0.019"x0.025" thermally activated nickel-titanium archwires were tested as received by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) over the temperature range from -100°C to 150°C at 10°C/min. Results: All thermally activated NiTi archwires analyzed presented stage transformation during thermal scanning with final austenitic temperature (Af) ranging from 20.39°C to 45.42°C. Three brands of NiTi archwires presented Af close to the room temperature and, this way, do not present properties of shape memory and pseudoelasticity that are desirable in clinical applications. Conclusions: The thermally activated NiTi archwires present great variability in the TTR and the elastic parameters of each NiTi archwire should be provided by the manufacturers, to allow achievement of the best clinical performance possible. <![CDATA[Bacteriological analysis of necrotic pulp and fistulae in primary teeth]]> Objectives: Primary teeth work as guides for the eruption of permanent dentition, contribute for the development of the jaws, chewing process, preparing food for digestion, and nutrient assimilation. Treatment of pulp necrosis in primary teeth is complex due to anatomical and physiological characteristics and high number of bacterial species present in endodontic infections. The bacterial presence alone or in association in necrotic pulp and fistula samples from primary teeth of boys and girls was evaluated. Material and Methods: Necrotic pulp (103) and fistula (7) samples from deciduous teeth with deep caries of 110 children were evaluated. Bacterial morphotypes and species from all clinical samples were determined. Results: A predominance of gram-positive cocci (81.8%) and gram-negative coccobacilli (49.1%) was observed. In 88 out of 103 pulp samples, a high prevalence of Enterococcus spp. (50%), Porphyromonas gingivalis (49%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (25%) and Prevotella nigrescens (11.4%) was observed. Porphyromonas gingivalis was detected in three out of seven fistula samples, Enterococcus spp. in two out of seven samples, and F. nucleatum, P. nigrescens and D. pneumosintes in one out of seven samples. Conclusions: Our results show that Enterococcus spp. and P. gingivalis were prevalent in necrotic pulp from deciduous teeth in boys from 2 to 5 years old, and that care of the oral cavity of children up to five years of age is important. <![CDATA[The impact of the addition of iodoform on the physicochemical properties of an epoxy-based endodontic sealer]]> Due to the low radiopacity of Sealer 26, iodoform is frequently empirically added to this sealer. Thus, the interference of this procedure with the physicochemical properties of Sealer 26 must be evaluated. Objective: This study evaluated the influence of the addition of iodoform on setting time, flow, solubility, pH, and calcium release of an epoxy-based sealer. Material and Methods: The control group was pure Sealer 26, and the experimental groups were Sealer 26 added with 1.1 g, 0.55 g or 0.275 g of iodoform. Setting time evaluation was performed in accordance with the ASTM C266-03 speciflcation. The analysis of flow and solubility was in accordance with the ISO 6876-2001 speciflcation. For the evaluation of pH and calcium ion release, polyethylene tubes were filled with the materials and immersed in flasks with 10 ml of deionized water. After 24 h, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 45 days pH was measured. In 45 days, the calcium released was evaluated with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: The addition of iodoform increased setting time in comparison with pure sealer (P&lt;0.05). As for flow, solubility, and calcium release, the mixtures presented results similar to pure sealer (p&gt;0.05). In the 24 h period, the mixture with 1.1 g and 0.55 g of iodoform showed lower pH than pure sealer and than sealer added with 0.275 g of iodoform (P&lt;0.05). Conclusions: The iodoform added to Sealer 26 interferes with its setting time and solubility properties. Further studies are needed to address the clinical signiflcance of this interference. <![CDATA[FASN expression, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in central and peripheral giant cell lesions]]> Central giant cell lesion (CGCL) and peripheral giant cell lesion (PGCL) are non-neoplastic proliferative processes of the jaws. PGCL is a reactive process induced by irritant local factors and CGCL is an intra-osseous lesion of unknown etiology. Both lesions exhibit similar histologic features showing abundant mononuclear cells, admixed with a large number of multinucleated giant cells and a rich vascularized stroma with extravasated erythrocytes, hemosiderin deposition, and blood-filled pools. Recent studies have linked fatty acid synthase (FASN) with angiogenesis. Objective: To evaluate angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis and their relationship with FASN expression in CGCL and PGCL. Material and Methods: Thirteen CGCL and 14 PGCL of the jaws were selected for immunoexpression of FASN; CD34 and CD105 (to assess blood microvessel density [MVD] and microvessel area [MVA]); and D2-40 (to assess lymphatic MVD and MVA). Results: Within PGCL and CGCL, MVD-CD34 was signifcantly higher than MVD-CD10S, followed by MVD-D2-40. Moreover, a signifcantly higher number of FASN-positive multinucleated giant cells than mononuclear cells were observed. Between PGCL and CGCL, only MVD-CD34 and all MVA were signifcantly higher in PGCL. Positive correlation between MVA-CD10S with FASNpositive mononuclear cells in both lesions was observed. Conclusions: Our results show both lesions exhibiting similar levels of FASN expression and neoangiogenesis, suggesting constitutive processes that regulate tissue maintenance. <![CDATA[Evaluation of fluoride release from experimental TiF<sub>4</sub> and NaF varnishes <em>in vitro</em>]]> Fluoride varnishes play an important role in the prevention of dental caries, promoting the inhibition of demineralization and the increase of remineralization. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the amount of fluoride released into water and artificial saliva from experimental TiF4 and NaF varnishes, with different concentrations, for 12 h. Material and Methods: Fluoride varnishes were applied on acrylic blocks and then immersed in 10 ml of deionized water and artificial saliva in polystyrene bottles. The acrylic blocks were divided in seven groups (n=10): 1.55% TiF4 varnish (0.95% F, pH 1.0); 3.10% TiF4 varnish (1.90% F, pH 1.0); 3.10% and 4% TiF4 varnish (2.45% F, pH 1.0); 2.10% NaF varnish (0.95% F, pH 5.0); 4.20% NaF varnish (1.90% F, pH 5.0); 5.42% NaF varnish (2.45% F, pH 5.0) and control (no treatment, n=5). The fluoride release was analyzed after 1/2, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h of exposure. The analysis was performed using an ion-specific electrode coupled to a potentiometer. Two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's test were applied for the statistical analysis (p&lt;0.05). Results: TiF4 varnishes released larger amounts of fluoride than NaF varnishes during the first 1/2 h, regardless of their concentration; 4% TiF4 varnish released more fluoride than NaF varnishes for the first 6 h. The peak of fluoride release occurred at 3 h. There was a better dose-response relationship among the varnishes exposed to water than to artificial saliva. Conclusions: The 3.10% and 4% TiF4 -based varnishes have greater ability to release fluoride into water and artificial saliva compared to NaF varnish; however, more studies must be conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action of TiF4 varnish on tooth surface.