Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of Applied Oral Science]]> vol. 24 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[The effect of swimming on oral health status: competitive versus non-competitive athletes]]> ABSTRACT Young swimmers are particularly susceptible to the onset of oral diseases. Objective To evaluate the oral health status in young competitive and non-competitive swimmers, involving an assessment of salivary cariogenic bacteria and secretory IgA (S-IgA) concentration. Material and Methods Before training sessions (T1), 54 competitive and 69 non-competitive swimmers had the following parameters assessed: decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), Plaque Index (PlI), and Gingival Index (GI). At T1 and after training sessions (T2), stimulated saliva was collected and microbiological and immunological analyses were performed. Results Competitive swimmers trained 2.02±0.09 hours 5 times a week, while non-competitive swimmers trained 2.03±0.18 hours a week. A total of 14.7% of competitive swimmers suffered dental trauma related to sports. Only 11.76% of the competitive swimmers took a daily dose of fluoride, against 32.65% of non-competitive swimmers (p=0.029). Neither group followed an established diet or presented statistically significant differences in terms of nutritional supplement drink and chocolate intake. There were statistically significant differences in terms of oral hygiene. No significant difference in clinical indexes (DMFT, PlI, and GI) was present. S. mutans was harbored by 18.6% of competitive and the 32.2% of non-competitive swimmers. S. sobrinus was detected in 22.03% of competitive and 91.6% of non-competitive swimmers (p&lt;0.05). S. sanguinis was found only in the saliva of competitive swimmers. The average S-IgA of competitive swimmers decreased significantly at T2 (p&lt;0.05). The pool water had a daily average pH of 7.22. Conclusions Microbial markers, immune status and sporting characteristics are important for establishing guidelines for management of training load in order to minimize physical stress and the risk of oral infection. <![CDATA[Effect of cantilever length and alloy framework on the stress distribution in peri-implant area of cantilevered implant-supported fixed partial dentures]]> ABSTRACT Because many mechanical variables are present in the oral cavity, the proper load transfer between the prosthesis and the bone is important for treatment planning and for the longevity of the implant-supported fixed partial denture. Objectives To verify the stress generated on the peri-implant area of cantilevered implant-supported fixed partial dentures and the potential effects of such variable. Material and Methods A U-shaped polyurethane model simulating the mandibular bone containing two implants (Ø 3.75 mm) was used. Six groups were formed according to the alloy’s framework (CoCr or PdAg) and the point of load application (5 mm, 10 mm and 15 mm of cantilever arm). A 300 N load was applied in pre-determined reference points. The tension generated on the mesial, lingual, distal and buccal sides of the peri-implant regions was assessed using strain gauges. Results Two-way ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests were applied showing significant differences (p&lt;0.05) between the groups. Pearson correlation test (p&lt;0.05) was applied showing positive correlations between the increase of the cantilever arm and the deformation of the peri-implant area. Conclusions This report demonstrated the CoCr alloy shows larger compression values compared to the PdAg alloy for the same distances of cantilever. The point of load application influences the deformation on the peri-implant area, increasing in accordance with the increase of the lever arm. <![CDATA[Solubility and bacterial sealing ability of MTA and root-end filling materials]]> ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate solubility and sealing ability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and root-end filling materials. Material and Methods The materials evaluated were: MTA, Calcium Silicate Cement with zirconium oxide (CSC/ZrO2), and zinc oxide/eugenol (ZOE). Solubility test was performed according to ANSI/ADA. The difference between initial and final mass of the materials was analyzed after immersion in distilled water for 7 and 30 days. Retrograde cavities in human teeth with single straight root canal were performed by using ultrasonic tip CVD 9.5107-8. The cavities were filled with the evaluated materials to evaluate sealing ability using the bacterial leakage test with Enterococcus faecalis. Bacterial leakage was evaluated every 24 hours for six weeks observing the turbidity of Brain Heart infusion (BHI) medium in contact with root apex. Data were submitted to ANOVA followed by Tukey tests (solubility), and Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (sealing ability) at a 5% significance level. Results For the 7-day period, ZOE presented highest solubility when compared with the other groups (p&lt;0.05). For the 30-day period, no difference was observed among the materials. Lower bacterial leakage was observed for MTA and CSC/ZrO2, and both presented better results than ZOE (p&lt;0.05). Conclusion MTA and CSC/ZrO2 presented better bacterial sealing capacity, which may be related to lower initial solubility observed for these materials in relation to ZOE. <![CDATA[<em>In vivo</em> model for microbial invasion of tooth root dentinal tubules]]> ABSTRACT Objective Bacterial penetration of dentinal tubules via exposed dentine can lead to root caries and promote infections of the pulp and root canal system. The aim of this work was to develop a new experimental model for studying bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules within the human oral cavity. Material and Methods Sections of human root dentine were mounted into lower oral appliances that were worn by four human subjects for 15 d. Roots were then fixed, sectioned, stained and examined microscopically for evidence of bacterial invasion. Levels of invasion were expressed as Tubule Invasion Factor (TIF). DNA was extracted from root samples, subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rRNA genes, and invading bacteria were identified by comparison of sequences with GenBank database. Results All root dentine samples with patent tubules showed evidence of bacterial cell invasion (TIF value range from 5.7 to 9.0) to depths of 200 mm or more. A spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative cell morphotypes were visualized, and molecular typing identified species of Granulicatella, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas as dentinal tubule residents. Conclusion A novel in vivo model is described, which provides for human root dentine to be efficiently infected by oral microorganisms. A range of bacteria were able to initially invade dentinal tubules within exposed dentine. The model will be useful for testing the effectiveness of antiseptics, irrigants, and potential tubule occluding agents in preventing bacterial invasion of dentine. <![CDATA[Evaluation of temperature increase during in-office bleaching]]> ABSTRACT The use of light sources in the bleaching process reduces the time required and promotes satisfactory results. However, these light sources can cause an increase in the pulp temperature. Objective The purpose of the present study was to measure the increase in intrapulpal temperature induced by different light-activated bleaching procedures with and without the use of a bleaching gel. Material and Methods A human maxillary central incisor was sectioned 2 mm below the cementoenamel junction. A K-type thermocouple probe was introduced into the pulp chamber. A 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching gel was applied to the vestibular tooth surface. The light units used were a conventional halogen, a hybrid light (only LED and LED/Laser), a high intensity LED, and a green LED light. Temperature increase values were compared by two-way ANOVA and Tukey´s tests (p&lt;0.05). Results There were statistically significant differences in temperature increases between the different light sources used and between the same light sources with and without the use of a bleaching gel. The presence of a bleaching gel generated an increase in intra-pulpal temperature in groups activated with halogen light, hybrid light, and high intensity LED. Compared to the other light sources, the conventional halogen lamp applied over the bleaching gel induced a significant increase in temperature (3.83±0.41°C). The green LED unit with and without gel application did not produce any significant intrapulpal temperature variations. Conclusion In the present study, the conventional halogen lamp caused the highest increase in intrapulpal temperature, and the green LED caused the least. There was an increase in temperature with all lights tested and the maximum temperature remained below the critical level (5.5°C). The addition of a bleaching gel led to a higher increase in intrapulpal temperatures. <![CDATA[Detection of <em>cfxA2</em>, <em>cfxA3</em>, and <em>cfxA6</em> genes in beta-lactamase producing oral anaerobes]]> ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of this study was to identify β-lactamase-producing oral anaerobic bacteria and screen them for the presence of cfxA and BlaTEM genes that are responsible for β-lactamase production and resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Material and Methods Periodontal pocket debris samples were collected from 48 patients with chronic periodontitis and anaerobically cultured on blood agar plates with and without β-lactam antibiotics. Presumptive β-lactamase-producing isolates were evaluated for definite β-lactamase production using the nitrocefin slide method and identified using the API Rapid 32A system. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed using disc diffusion and microbroth dilution tests as described by CLSI Methods. Isolates were screened for the presence of the β-lactamase-TEM (BlaTEM) and β-lactamase-cfxA genes using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Amplified PCR products were sequenced and the cfxA gene was characterized using Genbank databases. Results Seventy five percent of patients carried two species of β-lactamase-producing anaerobic bacteria that comprised 9.4% of the total number of cultivable bacteria. Fifty one percent of β-lactamase-producing strains mainly Prevotella, Porphyromonas, and Bacteroides carried the cfxA gene, whereas none of them carried blaTEM. Further characterization of the cfxA gene showed that 76.7% of these strains carried the cfxA2 gene, 14% carried cfxA3, and 9.3% carried cfxA6. The cfxA6 gene was present in three Prevotella spp. and in one Porphyromonas spp. Strains containing cfxA genes (56%) were resistant to the β-lactam antibiotics. Conclusion This study indicates that there is a high prevalence of the cfxA gene in β-lactamase-producing anaerobic oral bacteria, which may lead to drug resistance and treatment failure. <![CDATA[Sealing ability of MTA, CPM, and MBPc as root-end filling materials: a bacterial leakage study]]> ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate the sealing ability of three root-end filling materials (white MTA, CPM, and MBPc) using an Enterococcus faecalis leakage model. Material and Methods Seventy single-root extracted human teeth were instrumented and root-ends were resected to prepare 3 mm depth cavities. Root-end preparations were filled with white MTA, CPM, and MBPc cements. Enterococcus faecalis was coronally introduced and the apical portion was immersed in BHI culture medium with phenol red indicator. The bacterial leakage was monitored every 24 h for 4 weeks. The statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon-Gehan test (p&lt;0.05). Results All cements showed bacterial leakage after 24 hours, except for the negative control group. The MBPc showed significantly less bacterial leakage compared with the MTA group (p&lt;0.05). No significant differences were found between the CPM and the other groups. Conclusions The epoxy resin-based cement MBPc had lower bacterial leakage compared with the calcium silicate-based cements MTA and CPM. <![CDATA[Combined effects of melatonin and FGF-2 on mouse preosteoblast behavior within interconnected porous hydroxyapatite ceramics - <em>in vitro</em> analysis]]> ABSTRACT Objective Biocompatible materials such as interconnected porous hydroxyapatite ceramics (IP-CHA) loaded with osteogenic cells and bioactive agents are part of an evolving concept for overcoming craniofacial defects by use of artificial bone tissue regeneration. Amongst the bioactive agents, melatonin (MEL) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) have been independently reported to induce osteoblastic activity. The present in vitro study was undertaken to examine the relationship between these two bioactive agents and their combinatory effects on osteoblastic activity and mineralization in vitro. Material and Methods Mouse preosteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) were seeded and cultured within cylindrical type of IP-CHA block (ø 4x7 mm) by vacuum-assisted method. The IP-CHA/MC3T3 composites were subjected to FGF-2 and/or MEL. The proliferation assay, alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity (ALP), mRNA expressions of late bone markers, namely Osteocalcin (OCN) and Osteopontin (OPN), and Alizarin Red staining were examined over a period of 7 days. Results FGF-2 mainly enhanced the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells within the IP-CHA constructs. MEL mainly induced the mRNA expression of late bone markers (OCN and OPN) and showed increased ALP activity of MC3T3 cells cultured within IP-CHA construct. Moreover, the combination of FGF-2 and MEL showed increased osteogenic activity within the IP-CHA construct in terms of cell proliferation, upregulated expressions of OCN and OPN, increased ALP activity and mineralization with Alizarin Red. The synergy of the proliferative potential of FGF-2 and the differentiation potential of MEL showed increased osteogenic activity in MC3T3-E1 cells cultured within IP-CHA constructs. Conclusion These findings indicate that the combination of FGF-2 and MEL may be utilized with biocompatible materials to attain augmented osteogenic activity and mineralization. <![CDATA[Effects of a buried magnetic field on cranial bone reconstruction in rats]]> ABSTRACT The understanding of bone repair phenomena is a fundamental part of dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of buried magnetic field stimulation on bone repair in rat calvaria after reconstruction with autogenous bone grafts, synthetic powdered hydroxyapatite, or allogeneic cartilage grafts, with or without exposure to magnetic stimulation. Material and Methods Ninety male Wistar rats were divided into 18 groups of five animals each. Critical bone defects were created in the rats’ calvaria and immediately reconstructed with autogenous bone, powdered synthetic hydroxyapatite or allogeneic cartilage. Magnetic implants were also placed in half the animals. Rats were euthanized for analysis at 15, 30, and 60 postoperative days. Histomorphometric analyses of the quantity of bone repair were performed at all times. Results These analyses showed significant group by postoperative time interactions (p=0.008). Among the rats subjected to autogenous bone reconstruction, those exposed to magnetic stimulation had higher bone fill percentages than those without magnetic implants. Results also showed that the quality of bone repair remained higher in the former group as compared to the latter at 60 postoperative days. Conclusions After 60 postoperative days, bone repair was greater in the group treated with autogenous bone grafts and exposed to a magnetic field, and bone repair was most pronounced in animals treated with autogenous bone grafts, followed by those treated with powdered synthetic hydroxyapatite and allogeneic cartilage grafts. <![CDATA[Evaluation of an experimental rat model for comparative studies of bleaching agents]]> ABSTRACT Dental materials in general are tested in different animal models prior to the clinical use in humans, except for bleaching agents. Objectives To evaluate an experimental rat model for comparative studies of bleaching agents, by investigating the influence of different concentrations and application times of H2O2 gel in the pulp tissue during in-office bleaching of rats’ vital teeth. Material and Methods The right and left maxillary molars of 50 Wistar rats were bleached with 20% and 35% H2O2 gels, respectively, for 5, 10, 15, 30, or 45 min (n=10 rats/group). Ten animals were untreated (control). The rats were killed after 2 or 30 days, and the maxillae were examined by light microscopy. Inflammation was evaluated through histomorphometric analysis with inflammatory cell count in the coronal and radicular thirds of the pulp. Fibroblasts were also counted. Scores were attributed to odontoblastic layer and vascular changes. Tertiary dentin area and pulp chamber central area were measured histomorphometrically. Data were compared by analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test (p&lt;0.05). Results After 2 days, the amount of inflammatory cells increased in the coronal pulp occlusal third up to the 15-min application groups of each bleaching gel. In the groups exposed to each concentration for 30 and 45 min, the number of inflammatory cells decreased along with the appearance of necrotic areas. After 30 days, reduction on the pulp chamber central area and enlargement of the tertiary dentin area were observed, without the detection of inflammation areas. Conclusion The rat model of extracoronal bleaching showed to be adequate for studies of bleaching protocols, as it was possible to observe alterations in the pulp tissues and tooth structure caused by different concentrations and application periods of bleaching agents. <![CDATA[Association of three putative periodontal pathogens with chronic periodontitis in Brazilian subjects]]> ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of Porphyromonas endodontalis, Filifactor alocis and Dialister pneumosintes with the occurrence of periodontitis. Material and Methods Thirty subjects with chronic periodontitis (ChP) and 10 with periodontal health (PH) were included in the study. Nine subgingival biofilm samples were collected as follows: i) PH group - from the mesial/buccal aspect of each tooth in two randomly chosen contralateral quadrants; ii) ChP group - from three sites in each of the following probing depth (PD) categories: shallow (≤3 mm), moderate (4-6 mm) and deep (≥7 mm). Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization was used to analyze the samples. Results We found the three species evaluated in a higher percentage of sites and at higher levels in the group with ChP than in the PH group (p&lt;0.05, Mann-Whitney test). We also observed these differences when the samples from sites with PD≤4 mm or ≥5 mm of subjects with ChP were compared with those from subjects with PH (p&lt;0.05, Mann-Whitney test). In addition, the prevalence and levels of D. pneumosintes, and especially of F. alocis were very low in healthy subjects (0.12x105 and 0.01x105, respectively). Conclusion F. alocis and D. pneumosintes might be associated with the etiology of ChP, and their role in the onset and progression of this infection should be further investigated. The role of P. endodontalis was less evident, since this species was found in relatively high levels and prevalence in the PH group.