Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of Applied Oral Science]]> vol. 25 num. 6 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[JAOS under a continuous publication workflow in 2018]]> <![CDATA[Effects of chlorhexidine preprocedural rinse on bacteremia in periodontal patients: a randomized clinical trial]]> Abstract Objective: Single dose of systemic antibiotics and short-term use of mouthwashes reduce bacteremia. However, the effects of a single dose of preprocedural rinse are still controversial. This study evaluated, in periodontally diseased patients, the effects of a pre-procedural mouth rinse on induced bacteremia. Material and Methods: Systemically healthy individuals with gingivitis (n=27) or periodontitis (n = 27) were randomly allocated through a sealed envelope system to: 0.12% chlorhexidine pre-procedural rinse (13 gingivitis and 13 periodontitis patients) or no rinse before dental scaling (14 gingivitis and 15 periodontitis patients). Periodontal probing depth, clinical attachment level, plaque, and gingival indices were measured and subgingival samples were collected. Blood samples were collected before dental scaling, 2 and 6 minutes after scaling. Total bacterial load and levels of P. gingivalis were determined in oral and blood samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction, while aerobic and anaerobic counts were determined by culture in blood samples. The primary outcome was the antimicrobial effect of the pre-procedural rinse. Data was compared by Mann-Whitney and Signal tests (p&lt;0.05). Results: In all sampling times, polymerase chain reaction revealed higher blood bacterial levels than culture (p&lt;0.0001), while gingivitis patients presented lower bacterial levels in blood than periodontitis patients (p&lt;0.0001). Individuals who experienced bacteremia showed worse mean clinical attachment level (3.4 mm vs. 1.1 mm) and more subgingival bacteria (p&lt;0.005). The pre-procedural rinse did not reduce induced bacteremia. Conclusions: Bacteremia was influenced by periodontal parameters. In periodontally diseased patients, pre-procedural rinsing showed a discrete effect on bacteremia control. <![CDATA[<em>In vitro</em> effect of amorphous calcium phosphate paste applied for extended periods of time on enamel remineralization]]> Abstract Dental applications based on the unique characteristics of amorphous calcium phosphate stabilized by casein phosphopeptides (CPP-ACP) have been proposed, as well as the improvement of its properties. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the ability of topically applied CPP-ACP from a commercial product to remineralize subsurface lesions when applied for extended periods of time (3 h and 8 h). Material and Methods: Artificially induced carious lesions were produced in 50 bovine enamel blocks previously selected by surface hardness. After treatments with gel without F and CPP-ACP applied for 1 minute (Placebo); 2% NaF neutral gel applied for 1 minute (Fluoride 1 min); CPP-ACP applied for 3 min (ACP 3 min); and CPP-ACP applied for 3 h (ACP 3 h) and for 8 h (ACP 8 h), the enamel blocks were submitted to the remineralization pH-cycling. Surface hardness and synchrotron micro-tomography were used to determine the percentage of surface hardness recovery (%SHR) and to calculate mineral concentration (−3), respectively. The data were submitted to ANOVA followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test (p&lt;0.05). Results: Fluoride gel presented higher %SHR followed by ACP 3 min (p&lt;0.001). No difference (p = 0.148) was found for Placebo, ACP 3 h and ACP 8 h groups for %SHR. Fluoride gel showed greater mineral concentration (p&lt;0.001) when compared with the other groups. ACP 3 min demonstrated a significant difference (p&lt;0.001) from ACP 3 h and ACP 8 h. The ACP 3 h and 8 h presented a subsurface lesion with development of laminations in all blocks. Conclusion: In this in vitro study the use of CPP-ACP for extended periods of time did not produce an additive effect in the remineralization process. <![CDATA[Effect of fluoride dentifrice and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate cream with and without fluoride in preventing enamel demineralization in a pH cyclic study]]> Abstract Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) complexes are anticariogenic and capable of remineralizing the early stages of enamel lesions. The use of fluoride prevents dental decay and the association of CPP-ACP with fluoride can increase remineralization. Objective: To evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF creams associated with a fluoride dentifrice to prevent enamel demineralization in a pH cyclic model. Material and Methods: Previously selected by surface microhardness (SH) analysis, human enamel blocks (n = 56) were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrice in a pH-cycling model. The enamel blocks were divided into four groups; G1: Crest™ Cavity Protection - Procter &amp; Gamble (1,100 ppmF of NaF); G2: Crest™ +MI Paste (MP) - Recaldent™ GC Corporation Tokyo, Japan); G3: Crest™ + MI Paste Plus (MPP) - Recaldent™ 900 ppm as NaF, GC Corporation Tokyo, Japan), and G4: control, saliva. Specimens were soaked alternatively in a demineralizing solution and in artificial saliva for 5 d. The fluoride dentifrice, with proportion of 1:3 (w/w), was applied three times for 60 s after the remineralization period. The undiluted MP and MPP creams were applied for 3 m/d. After cycling, SH was re-measured and cross section microhardness measurements were taken. Results: The SH values observed for the groups G3 (257±70), G1 (205±70), and G2 (208±84) differed from the G4 group (98±110) (one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test). There were no differences between the groups G1xG2, G2xG3, and G1xG3 for demineralization inhibition. The percentage of volume mineral showed that, when applied with fluoride dentifrice, MPP was the most effective in preventing enamel demineralization at 50 µ from the outer enamel surface (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney p&lt;0.05). Conclusion: Fluoride dentifrice associated with CPP-ACPF inhibited subsurface enamel demineralization. <![CDATA[Apical Negative Pressure irrigation presents tissue compatibility in immature teeth]]> Abstract Aim: To compare the apical negative pressure irrigation (ANP) with conventional irrigation in the teeth of immature dogs with apical periodontitis. Methods: Fifty-two immature pre-molar root canals were randomly assigned into 4 groups: ANP (n=15); conventional irrigation (n=17); healthy teeth (control) (n = 10); and teeth with untreated apical periodontitis (control) (n=10). After induction of apical periodontitis, teeth were instrumented using EndoVac® (apical negative pressure irrigation) or conventional irrigation. The animals were euthanized after 90 days. The sections were stained by HE and analyzed under conventional and fluorescence microscopy. TRAP histoenzymology was also performed. Statistical analyses were performed with the significance level set at 5%. Results: There was difference in the histopathological parameters between ANP and conventional groups (p&lt;0.05). The ANP group showed a predominance of low magnitude inflammatory infiltrate, a smaller periodontal ligament, and lower mineralized tissue resorption. There were no differences in the periapical lesion extensions between the ANP and conventional groups (p&gt;0.05). However, a lower number of osteoclasts was observed in the ANP group (p&lt;0.05). Conclusion: The EndoVac® irrigation system presented better biological results and more advanced repair process in immature teeth with apical periodontitis than the conventional irrigation system, confirming the hypothesis. <![CDATA[Systemic effect of mineral aggregate-based cements: histopathological analysis in rats]]> Abstract Objective: Several studies reported the local tissue reaction caused by mineral aggregate-based cements. However, few studies have investigated the systemic effects promoted by these cements on liver and kidney when directly applied to connective tissue. The purpose of this in vivo study was to investigate the systemic effect of mineral aggregate-based cements on the livers and kidneys of rats. Material and Methods: Samples of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and a calcium aluminate-based cement (EndoBinder) containing different radiopacifiers were implanted into the dorsum of 40 rats. After 7 and 30 d, samples of subcutaneous, liver and kidney tissues were submitted to histopathological analysis. A score (0-3) was used to grade the inflammatory reaction. Blood samples were collected to evaluate changes in hepatic and renal functions of animals. Results: The moderate inflammatory reaction (2) observed for 7 d in the subcutaneous tissue decreased with time for all cements. The thickness of inflammatory capsules also presented a significant decrease with time (P&lt;.05). Systemically, all cements caused adverse inflammatory reactions in the liver and kidney, being more evident for MTA, persisting until the end of the analysis. Liver functions increased significantly for MTA during 30 d (P&lt;.05). Conclusion: The different cements induced to a locally limited inflammatory reaction. However, from the systemic point of view, the cements promoted significant inflammatory reactions in the liver and kidney. For MTA, the reactions were more accentuated. <![CDATA[Effects of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) on the odontoclastic differentiation ability of human dental pulp cells]]> Abstract Objectives: The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) on odontoclastic differentiation in the dental pulp tissue. Material and Methods: The effects of different TEGDMA dosages on the odontoclastic differentiation capability of dental pulp cells were analyzed in vitro using the following methodologies: i) flow cytometry and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining; ii) apoptotic effects using Annexin V staining; iii) mRNA expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kB ligand (RANKL) genes by quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR); and iv) OPG and RANKL protein expression by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: TEGDMA caused relatively less odontoclastic differentiation in comparison with the control group; however, odontoclastic differentiation augmented with increasing doses of TEGDMA (p&lt;0.05). The mRNA and protein expression of OPG was lower in TEGDMA treated pulp cells than in the control group (p&lt;0.05). While the mRNA expression of RANKL remained unchanged compared to the control group (p&gt;0.05), its protein expression was higher than the control group (p&lt;0.05). In addition, TEGDMA increased the apoptosis of dental pulp cells dose dependently. Conclusions: TEGDMA reduced the odontoclastic differentiation ability of human dental pulp cells. However, odontoclastic differentiation ratios increased proportionally with the increasing dose of TEGDMA. <![CDATA[Intradentinal antimicrobial action and filling quality promoted by ultrasonic agitation of epoxy resin-based sealer in endodontic obturation]]> Abstract The aim of this study was evaluate the influence of ultrasonic activation (UA) of AH Plus to improve canal and isthmus filing, and analyse the antimicrobial effect against Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules. Material and Methods: Thirty mesial roots of mandibular first molars were selected and divided into 2 groups (n = 15): with and without UA of the sealer. Then the root canals were filled by using the single cone technique, and the specimens were sectioned at 2, 4 and 6 mm from the apex for stereomicroscope and confocal laser scanner microscopy (CLSM) analysis. In addition, 30 bovine incisors were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis and divided into 3 groups (n = 10). The specimens were obturated by using the single cone technique with (G1) and without (G2) UA of the sealer and G3 as the control group. All were sectioned into 6 mm-long cylinders and stained with LIVE/DEAD to assess bacterial viability by CLSM. Results: The UA of the sealer significantly reduced the presence of unfilled areas in the canal and isthmus area in all sections (p&lt;0.05), and there was a significant increase in sealer penetration in both canals and isthmuses (p&lt;0.05). As regards gaps, a significant reduction was found at 2 and 6 mm in the isthmus area of the UA group (p&lt;0.05). Moreover, UA of the sealer significantly reduced bacterial viability in the superficial dentine when compared with the other groups (p&lt;0.05). Conclusion: Ultrasonic activation of the AH Plus sealer promoted a better quality of root canal filling and increased the intratubular penetration of sealer, especially in the isthmus area. Additionally, ultrasonic activation of the sealer increased the intradentinal antimicrobial action against Enterococcus faecalis, mainly in the superficial dentine of the root canal. <![CDATA[Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in AXIN2, BMP4, and IRF6 with Non-Syndromic Cleft Lip with or without Cleft Palate in a sample of the southeast Iranian population]]> Abstract Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate (NSCL/P) is a common congenital malformation worldwide, with complex etiology. It has been proposed that interaction of genes and environmental factors play a role in the predisposition to this disease. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the association between AXIN2 (axis inhibition protein 2) rs7224837, BMP4 (bone morphogenetic protein 4) rs17563, and IRF6 (interferon regulatory factor 6) rs861019 and 2235371 polymorphisms and NSCL/P in an Iranian population. Material and Methods: This case-control study was carried out on 132 unrelated NSCL/P patients and 156 healthy subjects. The variants were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results: The findings suggest that BMP4 rs17563 polymorphism significantly decreased the risk of NSCL/P in codominant (OR=0.36, 95%CI=0.17-0.79, p=0.012, CT vs CC and OR=0.11, 95%CI=0.01-0.88, p = 0.019, TT vs CC), dominant (OR=0.30, 95%CI=0.15-0.62, p = 0.0007, CT+TT vs CC), recessive (OR=0.12, 95%CI=0.02-0.99, p = 0.023, TT vs CC+CT), overdominant (OR=0.39, 95%CI = 0.18-0.84, p=0.021, CT vs CC+TT), and allele (OR=0.28, 95%CI=0.15-0.55, p&lt;0.0001, T vs C) inheritance models. Our findings did not support an association between AXIN2 rs7224837 and IRF6 rs861019 polymorphism and risk/protection of NSCL/P. The IRF6 2235371 variant was not polymorphic in our population. Conclusion: The results indicate that the BMP4 rs17563 variant is likely to confer a protective effect against the occurrence of NSCL/P in a sample of the southeast Iranian population. <![CDATA[Comparative study between laser and conventional techniques for class V cavity preparation in gamma-irradiated teeth (<em>in vitro</em> study)]]> Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare laser with conventional techniques in class V cavity preparation in gamma-irradiated teeth. Methods: Forty extracted human teeth with no carious lesions were used for this study and were divided into two main groups: Group I (n = 20) was not subjected to gamma radiation (control) and Group II (n=20) was subjected to gamma radiation of 60 Gray. Standard class V preparation was performed in buccal and lingual sides of each tooth in both groups. Buccal surfaces were prepared by the Er,Cr:YSGG laser (Waterlase iPlus) 2780 nm, using the gold handpiece with MZ10 Tip in non-contact and the “H” mode, following parameters of cavity preparation – power 6 W, frequency 50 Hz, 90% water and 70% air, then shifting to surface treatment laser parameters – power 4.5 W, frequency 50 Hz, 80% water and 50% air. Lingual surfaces were prepared by the conventional high-speed turbine using round diamond bur. Teeth were then sectioned mesio-distally, resulting in 80 specimens: 40 of which were buccal laser-treated (20 control and 20 gamma-irradiated specimens) and 40 were lingual conventional high-speed bur specimens (20 control and 20 gamma-irradiated specimens). Results: Microleakage analysis revealed higher scores in both gamma groups compared with control groups. Chi-square test revealed no significant difference between both control groups and gamma groups (p=1, 0.819, respectively). A significant difference was revealed between all 4 groups (p=0.00018). Conclusion: Both laser and conventional high-speed turbine bur show good bond strength in control (non-gamma) group, while microleakage is evident in gamma group, indicating that gamma radiation had a dramatic negative effect on the bond strength in both laser and bur-treated teeth. <![CDATA[Pre-sintered Y-TZP sandblasting: effect on surface roughness, phase transformation, and Y-TZP/veneer bond strength]]> Abstract Sandblasting is a common method to try to improve the Y-TZP/veneer bond strength of dental prostheses, however, it may put stress on zirconia surfaces and could accelerate the t→m phase transformation. Y-TZP sandblasting before sintering could be an alternative to improve surface roughness and bonding strength of veneering ceramic. Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of Y-TZP pre-sintering sandblasting on surface roughness, phase transformation, and the Y-TZP/veneer shear bond strength. Material and Methods. The Y-TZP specimen surface underwent sandblasting with aluminum oxide (50 μm) pre-sintering (Z-PRE) and post-sintering (Z-POS). Z-CTR was not subjected to surface treatment. After ceramic veneer application, the specimens were subjected to shear bond testing. Surface roughness was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Y-TZP monoclinic and tetragonal phases were evaluated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Shear bond strength and surface roughness data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α=0.05). Differences in the wave numbers and the broadening bands of the Raman spectra were compared among groups. Results. Z-POS (9.73±5.36 MPa) and Z-PRE (7.94±2.52 MPa) showed the highest bond strength, significantly higher than that of Z-CTR (5.54±2.14 MPa). The Ra of Z-PRE (1.59±0.23 µm) was much greater and significantly different from that of Z-CTR (0.29±0.05 µm) and Z-POS (0.77±0.13 µm). All groups showed bands typical of the tetragonal (T) and monoclinic (M) phases. Y-TZP sandblasting before sintering resulted in rougher surfaces but did not increase the shear bond strength compared to post-sintering and increased surface defects. Conclusions. Surface treatment with Al3O2, regardless of the moment and application, improves the results of Y-TZP/veneer bonding and is not a specific cause of t→m transformation. <![CDATA[Comparison of automatic and visual methods used for image segmentation in Endodontics: a microCT study]]> Abstract To calculate root canal volume and surface area in microCT images, an image segmentation by selecting threshold values is required, which can be determined by visual or automatic methods. Visual determination is influenced by the operator's visual acuity, while the automatic method is done entirely by computer algorithms. Objective: To compare between visual and automatic segmentation, and to determine the influence of the operator's visual acuity on the reproducibility of root canal volume and area measurements. Material and methods: Images from 31 extracted human anterior teeth were scanned with a μCT scanner. Three experienced examiners performed visual image segmentation, and threshold values were recorded. Automatic segmentation was done using the “Automatic Threshold Tool” available in the dedicated software provided by the scanner's manufacturer. Volume and area measurements were performed using the threshold values determined both visually and automatically. Results: The paired Student's t-test showed no significant difference between visual and automatic segmentation methods regarding root canal volume measurements (p=0.93) and root canal surface (p=0.79). Conclusion: Although visual and automatic segmentation methods can be used to determine the threshold and calculate root canal volume and surface, the automatic method may be the most suitable for ensuring the reproducibility of threshold determination. <![CDATA[Physical properties and biological effects of mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with methylcellulose and calcium chloride]]> Abstract Objectives: Methylcellulose (MC) is a chemical compound derived from cellulose. MTA mixed with MC reduces setting time and increases plasticity. This study assessed the influence of MC as an anti-washout ingredient and CaCl2 as a setting time accelerator on the physical and biological properties of MTA. Material and Methods: Test materials were divided into 3 groups; Group 1(control): distilled water; Group 2: 1% MC/CaCl2; Group 3: 2% MC/CaCl2. Compressive strength, pH, flowability and cell viability were tested. The gene expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP) was detected by RT-PCR and real­ time PCR. The expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and mineralization behavior were evaluated using an ALP staining and an alizarin red staining. Results: Compressive strength, pH, and cell viability of MTA mixed with MC/CaCl2 were not significantly different compared to the control group. The flowability of MTA with MC/CaCI2 has decreased significantly when compared to the control (p&lt;.05). The mRNA level of BSP has increased significantly in MTA with MC/CaCl2 compared to the control (p&lt;.05). This study revealed higher expression of ALP and mineralization in cells exposed to MTA mixed with water and MTA mixed with MC/CaCl2 compared to the control (p&lt;.05). Conclusions: MC decreased the flowability of MTA and did not interrupt the physical and biological effect of MTA. It suggests that these cements may be useful as a root-end filling material. <![CDATA[Topical application of bFGF on acid-conditioned and non-conditioned dentin: effect on cell proliferation and gene expression in cells relevant for periodontal regeneration]]> Abstract Periodontal regeneration is still a challenge in terms of predictability and magnitude of effect. In this study we assess the biological effects of combining chemical root conditioning and biological mediators on three relevant cell types for periodontal regeneration. Material and Methods: Bovine dentin slices were conditioned with 25% citric acid followed by topical application of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, 10 and 50 ng). We used ELISA to assess the dynamics of bFGF release from the dentin surface and RT-qPCR to study the expression of Runx2, Col1a1, Bglap and fibronectin by periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts, cementoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) grown onto these dentin slices. We also assessed the effects of topical application of bFGF on cell proliferation by quantification of genomic DNA. Results: Acid conditioning significantly increased the release of bFGF from dentin slices. Overall, bFGF application significantly (p&lt;0.05) increased cell proliferation, except for BMSC grown on non-conditioned dentin slices. Dentin substrate discretely increased expression of Col1a1 in all cell types. Expression of Runx2, Col1a1 and Fn was either unaffected or inhibited by bFGF application in all cell types. We could not detect expression of the target genes on BMSC grown onto conditioned dentin. Conclusion: Acid conditioning of dentin improves the release of topically-applied bFGF. Topical application of bFGF had a stimulatory effect on proliferation of PDL fibroblasts, cementoblasts and BMSC, but did not affect expression of Runx2, Col1a1, Bglap and fibronectin by these cells. <![CDATA[Influence of curing protocol and ceramic composition on the degree of conversion of resin cement]]> Abstract Due to increasing of aesthetic demand, ceramic crowns are widely used in different situations. However, to obtain long-term prognosis of restorations, a good conversion of resin cement is necessary. Objective: To evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) of one light-cure and two dual-cure resin cements under a simulated clinical cementation of ceramic crowns. Material and Methods: Prepared teeth were randomly split according to the ceramic's material, resin cement and curing protocol. The crowns were cemented as per manufacturer's directions and photoactivated either from occlusal suface only for 60 s; or from the buccal, occlusal and lingual surfaces, with an exposure time of 20 s on each aspect. After cementation, the specimens were stored in deionized water at 37°C for 7 days. Specimens were transversally sectioned from occlusal to cervical surfaces and the DC was determined along the cement line with three measurements taken and averaged from the buccal, lingual and approximal aspects using micro-Raman spectroscopy (Alpha 300R/WITec®). Data were analyzed by 3-way ANOVA and Tukey test at =5%. Results: Statistical analysis showed significant differences among cements, curing protocols and ceramic type (p&lt;0.001). The curing protocol 3x20 resulted in higher DC for all tested conditions; lower DC was observed for Zr ceramic crowns; Duolink resin cement culminated in higher DC regardless ceramic composition and curing protocol. Conclusion: The DC of resin cement layers was dependent on the curing protocol and type of ceramic. <![CDATA[Oral cancer stem cells - properties and consequences]]> Abstract Research on cancer stem cells (CSCs) has greatly increased in the field of medicine and pathology; however, some conceptual misunderstandings are still present among the public as well as within the general scientific community that is not yet familiar with the subject. The very first problem is the misinterpretation of CSCs as a synonym of their normal counterparts, the well-known stem cells (SCs). Particularly in Dentistry, another common mistake is the misinterpretation of oral CSCs as normal tooth-derived SCs. The present review aims to clarify important concepts related to normal SCs and CSCs, as well as discuss the relevance of CSCs to the development, metastasis and therapy resistance of oral squamous cell carcinoma.