Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of Applied Oral Science]]> vol. 23 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Lipopolysaccharide and its threatening zombie-like nature: unlive, harmful and tough (but not impossible) to eliminate]]> <![CDATA[Correlation between clinical performance and degree of conversion of resin cements: a literature review]]> AbstractResin-based cements have been frequently employed in clinical practice to lute indirect restorations. However, there are numerous factors that may compromise the clinical performance of those cements. The aim of this literature review is to present and discuss some of the clinical factors that may affect the performance of current resin-based luting systems. Resin cements may have three different curing mechanisms: chemical curing, photo curing or a combination of both. Chemically cured systems are recommended to be used under opaque or thick restorations, due to the reduced access of the light. Photo-cured cements are mainly indicated for translucent veneers, due to the possibility of light transmission through the restoration. Dual-cured are more versatile systems and, theoretically, can be used in either situation, since the presence of both curing mechanisms might guarantee a high degree of conversion (DC) under every condition. However, it has been demonstrated that clinical procedures and characteristics of the materials may have many different implications in the DC of currently available resin cements, affecting their mechanical properties, bond strength to the substrate and the esthetic results of the restoration. Factors such as curing mechanism, choice of adhesive system, indirect restorative material and light-curing device may affect the degree of conversion of the cement and, therefore, have an effect on the clinical performance of resin-based cements. Specific measures are to be taken to ensure a higher DC of the luting system to be used. <![CDATA[Biological and mechanical properties of an experimental glass-ionomer cement modified by partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO]]> AbstractSome weaknesses of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) as dental materials, for instance the lack of bioactive potential and poor mechanical properties, remain unsolved.Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO on the mechanical and biological properties of the experimental glass ionomer cements.Material and Methods Calcium fluoro-alumino-silicate glass was prepared for an experimental glass ionomer cement by melt quenching technique. The glass composition was modified by partial replacement (10 mol%) of CaO with MgO or ZnO. Net setting time, compressive and flexural properties, and in vitrorat dental pulp stem cells (rDPSCs) viability were examined for the prepared GICs and compared to a commercial GIC.Results The experimental GICs set more slowly than the commercial product, but their extended setting times are still within the maximum limit (8 min) specified in ISO 9917-1. Compressive strength of the experimental GIC was not increased by the partial substitution of CaO with either MgO or ZnO, but was comparable to the commercial control. For flexural properties, although there was no significance between the base and the modified glass, all prepared GICs marked a statistically higher flexural strength (p&lt;0.05) and comparable modulus to control. The modified cements showed increased cell viability for rDPSCs.Conclusions The experimental GICs modified with MgO or ZnO can be considered bioactive dental materials. <![CDATA[Surface properties of multilayered, acrylic resin artificial teeth after immersion in staining beverages]]> AbstractObjective To evaluate the effect of staining beverages (coffee, orange juice, and red wine) on the Vickers hardness and surface roughness of the base (BL) and enamel (EL) layers of improved artificial teeth (Vivodent and Trilux).Material and Methods Specimens (n=8) were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and then submitted to the tests. Afterwards, specimens were immersed in one of the staining solutions or distilled water (control) at 37°C, and the tests were also performed after 15 and 30 days of immersion. Data were analyzed using 3-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=0.05).Results Vivodent teeth exhibited a continuous decrease (p&lt;0.0005) in hardness of both layers for up to 30 days of immersion in all solutions. For Trilux teeth, similar results were found for the EL (p&lt;0.004), and the BL showed a decrease in hardness after 15 days of immersion (p&lt;0.01). At the end of 30 days, this reduction was not observed for coffee and water (p&gt;0.15), but red wine and orange juice continuously reduced hardness values (p&lt;0.0004). Red wine caused the most significant hardness changes, followed by orange juice, coffee, and water (p&lt;0.006). No significant differences in roughness were observed for both layers of the teeth during the immersion period, despite the beverage (p&gt;0.06).Conclusions Hardness of the two brands of acrylic teeth was reduced by all staining beverages, mainly for red wine. Roughness of both layers of the teeth was not affected by long-term immersion in the beverages. <![CDATA[Analysis of radiopacity, pH and cytotoxicity of a new bioceramic material]]> AbstractObjective RetroMTA® is a new hydraulic bioceramic indicated for pulp capping, perforations or root resorption repair, apexification and apical surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the radiopacity, pH variation and cytotoxicity of this material to ProRoot® MTA.Material and Methods Mixed cements were exposed to a digital x-ray along with an aluminum stepwedge for the radiopacity assay. pH values were verified after incubation period of 3, 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours. The cytotoxicity of each cement was tested on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts using a multiparametric assay. Data analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey’spost hoc in GraphPad Prism.Results ProRoot® MTA had higher radiopacity than RetroMTA®(p&lt;0.001). No significant differences were observed for the pH of the materials throughout experimental periods (p&gt;0.05) although pH levels of both materials reduced over time. Both ProRoot® MTA and RetroMTA® allowed for significantly higher cell viability when compared with the positive control (p&lt;0.001). No statistical difference was observed between ProRoot® MTA and RetroMTA® cytotoxicity level in all test parameters, except for the ProRoot® MTA 48-hour extract media in the NR assay (p&lt;0.05).Conclusion The current study provides new data about the physicochemical and biological properties of Retro® MTA concerning radiopacity, pH and cytotoxic effects on human periodontal ligaments cells. Based on our findings, RetroMTA® meets the radiopacity requirements standardized by ANSI/ADA number 572, and similar pH values and biocompatibility to ProRoot® MTA. Further studies should be performed to evaluate additional properties of this new material. <![CDATA[The functional EGF+61 polymorphism and nonsyndromic oral clefts susceptibility in a Brazilian population]]> AbstractNonsyndromic oral clefts are considered a problem of public health in Brazil, presenting a multifactorial etiology that involves genetic and environmental components, such as maternal alcohol consumption. Several candidate genes have been investigated to identify some association with nonsyndromic clefts risk. The epidermal growth factor (EGF) gene is implicated in the normal craniofacial development and its functional +61 A&gt;G polymorphism has been related to cancer susceptibility. It has been suggested that cancer and oral clefts may share the same molecular pathways.Objective Our goal was to evaluate the association between the EGF+61 A&gt;G polymorphism and nonsyndromic oral clefts susceptibility.Material and Methods The case-control study included 218 cleft cases and 253 controls from Brazil. The control group was comprised of individuals without congenital malformations, dental anomalies and family history of clefts. The cleft phenotypes and subphenotypes were determined based on clinical examination. Genomic DNA was extracted from oral mucosa cells obtained by mouthwash. The EGF+61 A&gt;G polymorphism genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.Results We noticed the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cleft occurrence. The A allele and AA genotype were over-represented in cleft cases compared with control group when we considered the bilateral cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P) cases, cleft cases with tooth agenesis and cleft cases presenting family history of cleft, but the differences were not statistically significant. Contradictorily, the G allele was higher in cleft palate only (CP) cases than in control group, showing a borderline p value. Comparing the different cleft phenotypes, we observed statistical differences between CP and CL±P cases. Our data suggest the EGF+61 A&gt;G polymorphism was not related with nonsyndromic oral clefts susceptibility in a Brazilian population, but supported the different genetic background between CL±P and CP. Moreover, we confirmed the potential effect of maternal alcohol intake on cleft risk in our population. <![CDATA[Evaluation of opening pattern and bone neoformation at median palatal suture area in patients submitted to surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) through cone beam computed tomography]]> AbstractSurgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) is the treatment of choice to adult patients even with severe transversal maxillary discrepancies. However, the adequate retention period to achieve the bone remodeling, thus assuring treatment stability, is controversial.Objective To evaluate the opening pattern and bone neoformation process at the midpalatal suture in patients submitted to surgically assisted (SARME) through cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).Material and Methods Fourteen patients were submitted to SARME through subtotal Le Fort I osteotomy. Both the opening pattern and the mean bone density at midpalatal suture area to evaluate bone formation were assessed pre- and post-operatively (15, 60 and 180 days) through CBCT.Results Type I opening pattern (from anterior to posterior nasal spine) occurred in 12 subjects while type II opening pattern (from anterior nasal spine to transverse palatine suture) occurred in 2 individuals. The 180-day postoperative mean (PO 180) of bone density value was 49.9% of the preoperative mean (Pre) value.Conclusions The opening pattern of midpalatal suture is more related to patients’ age (23.9 years in type I and 33.5 years in type II) and surgical technique. It was not possible to observe complete bone formation at midpalatal suture area at the ending of the retention period studied (180 days). <![CDATA[Bioactivity, physical and chemical properties of MTA mixed with propylene glycol]]> AbstractObjective To investigate the physical (setting time, hardness, flowability, microstructure) and chemical (pH change, calcium release, crystallinity) properties and the biological outcomes (cell survival and differentiation) of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) mixed using different proportions of propylene glycol (PG) and water.Material and Methods White MTA was mixed with different water/PG ratios (100/0, 80/20 and 50/50). Composition (XRD), microstructure (SEM), setting time (ASTM C266-13), flowability (ANSI/ADA 57-2000), Knoop hardness (100 g/10 s) and chemical characteristics (pH change and Ca2+ release for 7 days) were evaluated. Cell proliferation, osteo/odontoblastic gene expression and mineralization induced by MTA mixed with PG were evaluated. MTA discs (5 mm in diameter, 2 mm thick) were prepared and soaked in culture medium for 7 days. Next, the discs were removed and the medium used to culture dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) for 28 days. Cells survival was evaluated using MTS assay (24, 72 and 120 h) and differentiation with RT-PCR (ALP, OCN, Runx2, DSPP and MEPE) and alizarin red staining (7 and 14 days). Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc analysis (a=0.05).Results The addition of PG significantly increased setting time, flowability and Ca2+ release, but it compromised the hardness of the material. SEM showed that 50/50 group resulted porous material after setting due to the incomplete setting reaction, as shown by XRD analysis. The addition of PG (80/20 and 50/50) was not capable to improve cell proliferation or to enhance gene expression, and mineralized deposition of DPSC after 7 and 14 days as compared to the 100/0.Conclusion Except for flowability, the addition of PG did not promote further improvements on the chemical and physical properties evaluated, and it was not capable of enhancing the bioactivity of the MTA. <![CDATA[Impact of brief exposure to antifungal agents on the post-antifungal effect and hemolysin activity of oral <em>Candida albicans</em>]]> AbstractPost-antifungal effect (PAFE) of Candida and its production of hemolysin are determinants of candidal pathogenicity. Candida albicans is the foremost aetiological agent of oral candidosis, which can be treated with polyene, azole, and echinocandin antifungals. However, once administered, the intraoral concentrations of these drugs tend to be subtherapeutic and transient due to the diluent effect of saliva and cleansing effect of the oral musculature. Hence, intra-orally, Candidamay undergo a brief exposure to antifungal drugs.Objective Therefore, the PAFE and hemolysin production of oral C. albicans isolates following brief exposure to sublethal concentrations of the foregoing antifungals were evaluated.Material and Methods A total of 50 C. albicans oral isolates obtained from smokers, diabetics, asthmatics using steroid inhalers, partial denture wearers and healthy individuals were exposed to sublethal concentrations of nystatin, amphotericin B, caspofungin, ketoconazole and fluconazole for 60 min. Thereafter, the drugs were removed and the PAFE and hemolysin production were determined by previously described turbidometric and plate assays, respectively.Results Nystatin, amphotericin B, caspofungin and ketoconazole induced mean PAFE (hours) of 2.2, 2.18, 2.2 and 0.62, respectively. Fluconazole failed to produce a PAFE. Hemolysin production of these isolates was suppressed with a percentage reduction of 12.27, 13.47, 13.33, 8.53 and 4.93 following exposure to nystatin, amphotericin B, caspofungin, ketoconazole and fluconazole, respectively.Conclusions Brief exposure to sublethal concentrations of antifungal drugs appears to exert an antifungal effect by interfering with the growth as well as hemolysin production of C. albicans. <![CDATA[Risk factors for postoperative complications following oral surgery]]> AbstractObjective The objective of this study was to clarify significant risk factors for postoperative complications in the oral cavity in patients who underwent oral surgery, excluding those with oral cancer.Material and Methods This study reviewed the records of 324 patients who underwent mildly to moderately invasive oral surgery (e.g., impacted tooth extraction, cyst excision, fixation of mandibular and maxillary fractures, osteotomy, resection of a benign tumor, sinus lifting, bone grafting, removal of a sialolith, among others) under general anesthesia or intravenous sedation from 2012 to 2014 at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstructive Surgery, Hiroshima University Hospital.Results Univariate analysis showed a statistical relationship between postoperative complications (i.e., surgical site infection, anastomotic leak) and diabetes (p=0.033), preoperative serum albumin level (p=0.009), and operation duration (p=0.0093). Furthermore, preoperative serum albumin level (&lt;4.0 g/dL) and operation time (≥120 minutes) were found to be independent factors affecting postoperative complications in multiple logistic regression analysis results (odds ratio 3.82, p=0.0074; odds ratio 2.83, p=0.0086, respectively).Conclusion Our results indicate that a low level of albumin in serum and prolonged operation duration are important risk factors for postoperative complications occurring in the oral cavity following oral surgery. <![CDATA[Motor, linguistic, personal and social aspects of children with Down syndrome]]> AbstractA global developmental delay is expected from Down syndrome, affecting motor, cognitive, linguistic and personal-social skills. However, not always these delays are proportional; different conditions occur due to several intrinsic and extrinsic variables that must be controlled to form groups of greater homogeneity.Objective To enhance personal-social, fine motor-adaptive, gross motor and linguistic skills among children with Down syndrome and compare them with typically developing children, matched for gender, socioeconomic status and mental age, while controlling some variables that interfere with the global development.Methods The ethical aspects were fulfilled (Case No. 040/2009). The following inclusion criteria were considered: participants without a history of prematurity, very low birth weight, congenital hypothyroidism, significant hearing and vision problems, and signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder. After the inclusion criteria were considered, 40 children participated in the study, of which 20 had Down syndrome (experimental group - EG), these being of both genders and with chronological ages ranging from 38 to 63 months, and the other 20 being typically developing children (control group - CG), matching the EG in terms of gender, socioeconomic status and mental age, with this age ranging from 13 to 50 months. The evaluation consisted in applying the Denver Developmental Screening Test II, a test that assesses areas such as personal-social, fine motor-adaptive, linguistic and gross motor development. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using Student’s t-test.Results A statistically significant difference was verified between the groups for the language and fine motor-adaptive areas.Conclusion Children with Down syndrome showed lower performance in language and fine motor skills when compared with typically developing children. There was no statistically significant difference in gross motor and personal-social areas. It is worth mentioning the importance of controlling the variables to deal with more homogeneous groups. <![CDATA[QMix<sup>®</sup> irrigant reduces lipopolysacharide (LPS) levels in an <em>in vitro</em> model]]> AbstractThe presence of endotoxin inside the root canal has been associated with periapical inflammation, bone resorption and symptomatic conditions.Objectives To determine, in vitro, the effect of QMix® and other three root canal irrigants in reducing the endotoxin content in root canals.Material and Methods Root canals of single-rooted teeth were prepared. Samples were detoxified with Co-60 irradiation and inoculated with E. coli LPS (24 h, at 37°C). After that period, samples were divided into 4 groups, according to the irrigation solution tested: QMix®, 17% EDTA, 2% chlorhexidine solution (CHX), and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). LPS quantification was determined by Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay. The initial counting of endotoxins for all samples, and the determination of LPS levels in non-contaminated teeth and in contaminated teeth exposed only to non-pyrogenic water, were used as controls.Results QMix® reduced LPS levels, with a median value of 1.11 endotoxins units (EU)/mL (p&lt;0.001). NaOCl (25.50 EU/mL), chlorhexidine (44.10 EU/mL) and positive control group (26.80 EU/mL) samples had similar results. Higher levels were found with EDTA (176.00 EU/mL) when compared to positive control (p&lt;0.001). There was no significant difference among EDTA, NaOCl and CHX groups. Negative control group (0.005 EU/mL) had statistically significant lower levels of endotoxins when compared to all test groups (p&lt;0.001).Conclusion QMix® decreased LPS levels when compared to the other groups (p&lt;0.001). 3% NaOCl, 2% CHX and 17% EDTA were not able to significantly reduce the root canal endotoxins load. <![CDATA[Influence of antimicrobial solutions in the decontamination and adhesion of glass-fiber posts to root canals]]> AbstractObjective This study evaluated the effect of root canal disinfectants on the elimination of bacteria from the root canals, as well as their effect on glass-fiber posts bond strength.Material and Methods Fifty-three endodontically treated root canals had post spaces of 11 mm in length prepared and contaminated with E. faecalis. For CFU/ml analysis, eight teeth were contaminated for 1 h or 30 days (n=4). Teeth were decontaminated with 5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or distilled water. As control, no decontamination was conducted. After decontamination, sterile paper points were used to collect samples, and CFU/ml were counted. For push-out, three groups were evaluated (n=15): irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or sterile distilled water. A bonding agent was applied to root canal dentin, and a glass-fiber post was cemented with a dual-cured cement. After 24 h, 1-mm-thick slices of the middle portion of root canals were obtained and submitted to the push-out evaluation. Three specimens of each group were evaluated in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s T3 test (α=0.05).Results The number of CFU/ml increased from 1 h to 30 days of contamination in control and sterile distilled water groups. Decontamination with NaOCl was effective only when teeth were contaminated for 1 h. CHX was effective at both contamination times. NaOCl did not influence the bond strength (p&gt;0.05). Higher values were observed with CHX (p&lt;0.05). SEM showed formation of resin tags in all groups.Conclusion CHX showed better results for the irrigation of contaminated root canals both in reducing the bacterial contamination and in improving the glass-fiber post bonding. <![CDATA[<em>In situ</em> carcinoma developed over oral lichen planus: a case report with analysis of BUB3, p16, p53, Ki67 and SOX4 expression]]> AbstractOral lichen planus (OLP) represents a common mucocutaneous disease. Various authors have suggested that OLP has malignant potential; however, the mechanisms involved in malignant transformation have not yet been elucidated. A 79-year-old man presented a white lesion for five months in the buccal mucosa diagnosed as OLP. After two months using 0.05% clobetasol ointment for treatment, the lesion became ulcerated. A new biopsy of the same lesion was performed, and histological analysis showed an in situ oral carcinoma (ISOC). An immunohistochemistry panel was performed, and p16 expression was negative in OLP, however, it showed weak cytoplasmic staining in ISOC. There was strong nuclear BUB3 staining in both OLP and ISOC areas. p53 showed less intense nuclear staining in both regions. Ki67 was negative in OLP area, but showed nuclear staining in the ISOC. SOX4 was negative in both studied areas. BUB3 expression, first reported in this case, and the p16 expression may suggest some influence of these genes on pathogenesis or malignant potential of OLP.