Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of Applied Oral Science]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1678-775720090007&lang=en vol. 17 num. SPE lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[<b>Proceedings of the 22<sup>nd</sup> Academic Conference of the Bauru School of Dentistry "Dr. Waldyr Antonio Janson", the 16<sup>th</sup> Academic Conference of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology of the Bauru School of Dentistry "Dr. Kátia de Freitas Alvarenga" and the 3<sup>rd</sup> Meeting of Latin American Region of the IADR and 8<sup>th</sup> Meeting of the Venezuelan Division of the IADR</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Dental manifestations in bariatric patients</b>: <b>review of literature</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The rate of bariatric surgery has significantly risen in the past decade as an increasing prevalence of extreme obesity can be observed. Although bariatric surgery is an effective therapeutic modality for extreme obesity, it is associated with risk factors affecting also oral health. Based on an overview of the current literature, this paper presents a summary of dental manifestations in bariatric patients. Bariatric surgeries are associated with an increased risk for gastro-esophageal reflux which in turn might account for the higher amount of carious and erosive lesions observed in bariatric patients. As a result, also dentin hypersensitivity might be observed more frequently. The current data indicate that recommended postsurgical meal patterns and gastric reflux might increase the risk for dental lesions, particularly in the presence of other risk factors, such as consumption of sweet-tasting foods and acidic beverages. Further research is needed to evaluate the correlation of bariatric surgery and the development of dental diseases. <![CDATA[<b>Influence of preventive dental treatment on mutans streptococci counts in patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of chlorhexidine gluconate, sodium fluoride and sodium iodine on mutans streptococci counts in saliva of irradiated patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-five patients were separated into three experimental groups and received chlorhexidine (0.12%), sodium fluoride (0.5%) or sodium iodine (2%), which were used daily during radiotherapy and for 6 months after the conclusion of the treatment. In addition, a fourth group, composed by 15 additional oncologic patients, who did not receive the mouthwash or initial dental treatment, constituted the control group. Clinical evaluations were performed in the first visit to dental clinic, after initial dental treatment, immediately before radiotherapy, after radiotherapy and 30, 60, 90 days and 6 months after the conclusion of radiotherapy. After clinical examinations, samples of saliva were inoculated on SB20 selective agar and incubated under anaerobiosis, at 37ºC for 48 h. Total mutans streptococci counts were also evaluated by using real-time PCR, through TaqMan system, with specific primers and probes for S. mutans and S. sobrinus. RESULTS: All preventive protocols were able to reduce significantly mutans streptococci counts, but chlorhexidine gluconate was the most effective, and induced a significant amelioration of radiotherapy side effects, such as mucositis and candidosis. CONCLUSION: These results highlights the importance of the initial dental treatment for patients who will be subjected to radiotherapy for head and neck cancer treatment. <![CDATA[<b>Resistance to tetracycline and </b><b>β</b><b>-lactams and distribution of resistance markers in enteric microorganisms and pseudomonads isolated from the oral cavity</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study evaluated the occurrence of enteric bacteria and pseudomonads resistant to tetracycline and β-lactams in the oral cavity of patients exhibiting gingivitis (n=89), periodontitis (n=79), periodontally healthy (n=50) and wearing complete dentures (n=41). Microbial identification and presence of resistance markers associated with the production of β-lactamases and tetracycline resistance were performed by using biochemical tests and PCR. Susceptibility tests were carried out in 201 isolates of enteric cocci and rods. Resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, imipenem, meropenem and tetracycline was detected in 57.4%, 34.6%, 2.4%, 1.9% and 36.5% of the isolates, respectively. β-lactamase production was observed in 41.2% of tested microorganisms, while the most commonly found β-lactamase genetic determinant was gene blaTEM. Tetracycline resistance was disseminated and a wide scope of tet genes were detected in all studied microbial genus. <![CDATA[<b>Influence of voids in the hybrid layer based on self-etching adhesive systems</b>: <b>a 3-D FE analysis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The presence of porosities at the dentin/adhesive interface has been observed with the use of new generation dentin bonding systems. These porosities tend to contradict the concept that etching and hybridization processes occur equally and simultaneously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the micromechanical behavior of the hybrid layer (HL) with voids based on a self-etching adhesive system using 3-D finite element (FE) analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three FE models (Mr) were built: Mr, dentin specimen (41x41x82 μm) with a regular and perfect (i.e. pore-free) HL based on a self-etching adhesive system, restored with composite resin; Mp, similar to M, but containing 25% (v/v) voids in the HL; Mpp, similar to Mr, but containing 50% (v/v) voids in the HL. A tensile load (0.03N) was applied on top of the composite resin. The stress field was obtained by using Ansys Workbench 10.0. The nodes of the base of the specimen were constrained in the x, y and z axes. The maximum principal stress (σmax) was obtained for all structures at the dentin/adhesive interface. RESULTS: The Mpp showed the highest peak of σmax in the HL (32.2 MPa), followed by Mp (30 MPa) and Mr (28.4 MPa). The stress concentration in the peritubular dentin was high in all models (120 MPa). All other structures positioned far from voids showed similar increase of stress. CONCLUSION: Voids incorporated into the HL raised the σmax in this region by 13.5%. This behavior might be responsible for lower bond strengths of self-etching and single-bottle adhesives, as reported in the literature. <![CDATA[<b>Comparative analysis between mandibular positions in centric relation and maximum intercuspation by cone beam computed tomography (CONE-BEAM)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This research consisted of a quantitative assessment, and aimed to measure the possible discrepancies between the maxillomandibular positions for centric relation (CR) and maximum intercuspation (MI), using computed tomography volumetric cone beam (cone beam method). The sample of the study consisted of 10 asymptomatic young adult patients divided into two types of standard occlusion: normal occlusion and Angle Class I occlusion. In order to obtain the centric relation, a JIG device and mandible manipulation were used to deprogram the habitual conditions of the jaw. The evaluations were conducted in both frontal and lateral tomographic images, showing the condyle/articular fossa relation. The images were processed in the software included in the NewTom 3G device (QR NNT software version 2.00), and 8 tomographic images were obtained per patient, four laterally and four frontally exhibiting the TMA's (in CR and MI, on both sides, right and left). By means of tools included in another software, linear and angular measurements were performed and statistically analyzed by student t test. According to the methodology and the analysis performed in asymptomatic patients, it was not possible to detect statistically significant differences between the positions of centric relation and maximum intercuspation. However, the resources of cone beam tomography are of extreme relevance to the completion of further studies that use heterogeneous groups of samples in order to compare the results. <![CDATA[<b>Analysis of the dentin-pulp complex in teeth submitted to orthodontic movement in rats</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In order to microscopically analyze the pulpal effects of orthodontic movement, 49 maxillary first molars of rats were submitted to orthodontic appliance composed of a closed coil spring anchored to the maxillary incisors, placed for the achievement of mesial movement. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten animals were used as the control group and were not submitted to orthodontic force; the other animals were divided into groups according to the study period of tooth movement, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. The investigation of pulp and periodontal changes included hyalinization, fibrosis, reactive dentin and vascular congestion. Statistical evaluation was performed between control and experimental groups and between periods of observation using non-parametric chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference concerning pulpal changes between control and experimental groups nor between periods of observation. The control group, at 3 and 5 days, revealed greater hyalinization of the periodontal ligament (p<0.05), whereas root resorption was significantly greater at 5 and 7 days (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: No morphological change from the effect of induced tooth movement could be found in the dentin-pulp complex. In addition, no inflammatory or pulp degeneration, detectable in optical microscopy, was found in experimental groups. <![CDATA[<b>The Virtual Man Project's CD-ROM "Voice Assessment</b>: <b>Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology & Medicine", Vol.1</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The CD-ROM "Voice Assessment: Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology & Medicine" was developed as a teaching tool for people interested in the production of the spoken or sung human voice. Its content comprises several subjects concerning the anatomy and physiology of spoken and sung voice. A careful assessment becomes necessary in order to ensure the effectiveness of teaching and learning educational materials, whether related to education or health, within the proposal of education mediated by technology. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the Virtual Man Project's CD-ROM "Voice Assessment: Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology & Medicine", as a self-learning material, in two different populations: Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology students and Lyrical Singing students. The participants were instructed to study the CD-ROM during 1 month and answer two questionnaires: one before and another one after studying the CD-ROM. The quantitative results were compared statistically by the Student's t-test at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Seventeen out of the 28 students who completed the study, were Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology students, while 11 were Lyrical Singing students (dropout rate of 44%). Comparison of the answers to the questionnaires before and after studying the CD-ROM showed a statistically significant increase of the scores for the questionnaire applied after studying the CD-ROM for both Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology and Lyrical Singing students, with p<0.001 and p<0.004, respectively. There was also a statistically significant difference in all topics of this questionnaire for both groups of students. CONCLUSION: The results concerning the evaluation of the Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology and Lyrical Singing students' knowledge before and after learning from the CD-ROM allowed concluding that the participants made significant improvement in their knowledge of the proposed contents after studying the CD-ROM. Based on this, it is assumed that this didactic material is an effective instrument for self-learning of this population. <![CDATA[<b>Temporomandibular disorders, voice and oral quality of life in women</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Some studies have shown a relationship between temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and dysphonia, as well as quality of life in oral health. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between severity of vocal self-perception and TMD severity and the correlation between oral health-related quality of life impairment and TMD severity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-three women aged 20 to 40 years, with or without complaint of dysphonia, were recruited at the Bauru campus of the University of São Paulo, Brazil, and the local community. All participants were subjected to an investigation of quality of life related to dental and speech aspects by the application of Oral Health Impact Profile-short form (OHIP-14) and the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) protocol. Also, a questionnaire was applied to detect the presence and severity of TMD. RESULTS: There was significant correlation between TMD and quality of life for all aspects analyzed in the oral health protocol, except for function and physical limitation (p>0.05). There was negative correlation between TMD and voice-related quality of life in the total score (p=0.007) as weel as physical (p=0.008) and socio-emotional aspects (p=0.017). In addition, there was statistically significant correlation between TMD and vocal self-perception (p=0.037). CONCLUSION: There is an association between TMD severity, voice-related and oral health-related quality of life. It is important to investigate in future studies the vocal self perception as well as the oral and voice conditions in patients with TMD. <![CDATA[<b>The maturational process of the auditory system in the first year of life characterized by brainstem auditory evoked potentials</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The study of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) allows obtaining the electrophysiological activity generated in the cochlear nerve to the inferior colliculus. In the first months of life, a period of greater neuronal plasticity, important changes are observed in the absolute latency and inter-peak intervals of BAEP, which occur up to the completion of the maturational process, around 18 months of life in full-term newborns, when the response is similar to that of adults. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to establish normal values of absolute latencies for waves I, III and V and inter-peak intervals I-III, III-V and I-V of the BAEP performed in full-term infants attending the Infant Hearing Health Program of the Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology Course at Bauru School of Dentistry, Brazil, with no risk history for hearing impairment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The stimulation parameters were: rarefaction click stimulus presented by the 3ª insertion phone, intensity of 80 dBnHL and a rate of 21.1 c/s, band-pass filter of 30 and 3,000 Hz and average of 2,000 stimuli. A sample of 86 infants was first divided according to their gestational age in preterm (n=12) and full-term (n=74), and then according to their chronological age in three periods: P1: 0 to 29 days (n=46), P2: 30 days to 5 months 29 days (n=28) and P3: above 6 months (n= 12). RESULTS: The absolute latency of wave I was similar to that of adults, generally in the 1st month of life, demonstrating a complete process maturity of the auditory nerve. For waves III and V, there was a gradual decrease of absolute latencies with age, characterizing the maturation of axons and synaptic mechanisms in the brainstem level. CONCLUSION: Age proved to be a determining factor in the absolute latency of the BAEP components, especially those generated in the brainstem, in the first year of life. <![CDATA[<b>Reference values of nonword repetition test for Brazilian Portuguese-speaking children</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Evaluation of the phonological working memory (PWM) through repetition of nonwords can provide important information on the linguistic abilities of children, thus differentiating those with and without communication disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to obtain reference values in the Nonword Repetition Test (NWRT) in order to investigate the performance of children without language disorders concerning this type of memory. Material and METHODS: The study was conducted on 480 normal children of both genders aged 4 years to 8 years and 11 months, attending preschool and elementary school. The NWRT consisted of repeating 20 (children up to 4 years) or 40 (for children aged 5 years or more) invented words with 2 to 5 syllables. The results were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis. Comparison between ages and between the number of syllables in nonwords was performed by the Tukey's multiple-comparison test and one-way analysis of variance, at a significance value of p<0.05. RESULTS: There was statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in performance between children of different age groups, except between 7- and 8-year-olds. The analysis also showed statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in the number of syllables between the different age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The reference values obtained indicated an improvement in performance with the increase of age of children, indicating an improvement in the storage of verbal material in the PWM. The performance was worsened with the increase in the number of syllables in words, demonstrating that the greater the number of syllables, the greater is the difficulty in storing verbal material. <![CDATA[<b>Communicative and psycholinguistic abilities in children with phenylketonuria and congenital hypothyroidism</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The Neonatal Screening for Inborn Errors of Metabolism of the Association of Parents and Friends of Special Needs Individuals (APAE) - Bauru, Brazil, was implanted and accredited by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 1998. It covers about 286 cities of the Bauru region and 420 collection spots. Their activities include screening, diagnosis, treatment and assistance to congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and phenylketonuria (PKU), among others. In 2005, a partnership was established with the Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Bauru, seeking to characterize and to follow, by means of research studies, the development of the communicative abilities of children with CH and PKU. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe communicative and psycholinguistic abilities in children with CH and PKU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-eight children (25 children aged 1 to 120 months with PKU and 43 children aged 1 to 60 months with CH) participated in the study. The handbooks were analyzed and different instruments were applied (Observation of Communication Behavior, Early Language Milestone Scale, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Gesell & Amatruda's Behavioral Development Scale, Portage Operation Inventory, Language Development Evaluation Scale, Denver Developmental Screening Test, ABFW Child Language Test-phonology and Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities), according to the children's age group and developmental level. RESULTS: It was observed that the children with PKU and CH at risk for alterations in their developmental abilities (motor, cognitive, linguistic, adaptive and personal-social), mainly in the first years of life. Alterations in the psycholinguistic abilities were also found, mainly after the preschool age. Attention deficits, language and cognitive alterations were more often observed in children with CH, while attention deficits with hyperactivity and alterations in the personal-social, language and motor adaptive abilities were more frequent in children with PKU. CONCLUSION: CH and PKU can cause communicative and psycholinguistic alterations that compromise the communication and affect the social integration and learning of these individuals, proving the need of having these abilities assisted by a speech and language pathologist. <![CDATA[<b>Introduction to the symposium</b>: <b>Two decades of ART: success through research</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The Neonatal Screening for Inborn Errors of Metabolism of the Association of Parents and Friends of Special Needs Individuals (APAE) - Bauru, Brazil, was implanted and accredited by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 1998. It covers about 286 cities of the Bauru region and 420 collection spots. Their activities include screening, diagnosis, treatment and assistance to congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and phenylketonuria (PKU), among others. In 2005, a partnership was established with the Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Bauru, seeking to characterize and to follow, by means of research studies, the development of the communicative abilities of children with CH and PKU. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe communicative and psycholinguistic abilities in children with CH and PKU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-eight children (25 children aged 1 to 120 months with PKU and 43 children aged 1 to 60 months with CH) participated in the study. The handbooks were analyzed and different instruments were applied (Observation of Communication Behavior, Early Language Milestone Scale, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Gesell & Amatruda's Behavioral Development Scale, Portage Operation Inventory, Language Development Evaluation Scale, Denver Developmental Screening Test, ABFW Child Language Test-phonology and Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities), according to the children's age group and developmental level. RESULTS: It was observed that the children with PKU and CH at risk for alterations in their developmental abilities (motor, cognitive, linguistic, adaptive and personal-social), mainly in the first years of life. Alterations in the psycholinguistic abilities were also found, mainly after the preschool age. Attention deficits, language and cognitive alterations were more often observed in children with CH, while attention deficits with hyperactivity and alterations in the personal-social, language and motor adaptive abilities were more frequent in children with PKU. CONCLUSION: CH and PKU can cause communicative and psycholinguistic alterations that compromise the communication and affect the social integration and learning of these individuals, proving the need of having these abilities assisted by a speech and language pathologist. <![CDATA[<b>Evolution of the the ART approach</b>: <b>highlights and achievements</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) was initiated in the mid-eighties in Tanzania in response to an inappropriately functioning community oral health programme that was based on western health care models and western technology. The approach has evolved to its present standing as an effective minimal intervention approach mainly because the originators anticipated the great potential of ART to alleviate inequality in oral health care, and because they recognised the need to carry out research to investigate its effectiveness and applicability. Twenty-five years later, ART was accepted by the World Health Organisation (1994) and the FDI World Dental Federation (2002). It is included in textbooks on cariology, restorative dentistry and minimal intervention dentistry. It is being systematically introduced into public oral health service systems in a number of low- and middle income countries. Private practitioners use it. Many publications related to aspects of ART have been published and many more will follow. To achieve quality results with ART one has to attend well-conducted and sufficiently long training courses, preferably in combination with other caries preventive strategies. ART should, therefore, not be considered in isolation and must be part of an evidence-based approach to oral health with a strong foundation based on prevention. <![CDATA[<b>Dental anxiety and pain related to ART</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) is considered to be well accepted, both by children and by adult patients. The objective of this review is to present and discuss the evidence regarding the acceptability of ART, from the patient's perspective. Aspects related to dental anxiety/fear and pain/discomfort have been highlighted, to facilitate better understanding and use of the information available in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: The ART approach has been shown to cause less discomfort than other conventional approaches and is, therefore, considered a very promising "atraumatic" management approach for cavitated carious lesions in children, anxious adults and possibly, for dental-phobic patients. <![CDATA[<b>The ART approach</b>: <b>clinical aspects reviewed</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The success of ART as a caries management approach is supported by more than 20 years of scientific evidence. ART follows the contemporary concepts of modern cariology and restorative dentistry. It challenges treatment concepts such as step-wise excavation and the need for complete removal of affected dentine. The ART approach so far has mainly used high-viscosity glass-ionomer as the sealant and restorative material. Cariostatic and remineralization properties have been ascribed to this material which requires further research to establish its clinical relevance. The adhesion of high-viscosity glass-ionomer to enamel in pits and fissures is apparently strong, as its remnants, blocking the pits and fissures, have been considered a possible reason for the low prevalence of carious lesion development after the glass-ionomer has clinically disappeared from it. Encapsulated high-viscosity glass-ionomers may lead to higher restoration survival results than those of the hand-mixed version and should, therefore, not be neglected when using ART. Similarly, the use of resin-modified glass-ionomer with ART should be researched. The effectiveness of ART when compared to conventional caries management approaches has been shown in numerous studies. Proper case selection is an important factor for long-lasting ART restoration survival. This is based on the caries risk situation of the individual, the size of the cavity opening, the strategic position of the cavitated tooth and the presence of adequate caries control measures. As the operator is one of the main causes for failure of ART restorations, attending a well-conducted ART training course is mandatory for successful implementation of ART. <![CDATA[<b>Transferring ART research into education in Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this study was to evaluate the teaching of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach in Brazilian dental schools. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire on this subject was sent to Pediatric Dentistry, Operative Dentistry and Public Health Dentistry professors. The questions approached the followig subjects: the method used to teach ART, the time spent on its teaching, under which discipline it is taught, for how many years ART has been taught and its effect on the DMFT index. RESULTS: A total of 70 out of 202 dental schools returned the questionnaire. The ART approach is taught in the majority of the Brazilian dental schools (96.3%), and in most of these schools it is taught both in theory and in clinical practice (62.9%). The majority (35.3%) of professors teach ART for 8 hours, and most often as part of the Pediatric Dentistry discipline (67.6%). It has been taught for the last 7 to 10 years in 34.3% of dental schools. Most professors did not observe a change in the DMFT index with this approach. There is a diversity in the teaching of ART in Brazil in terms of the number of hours spent, the teaching method (theory and practice), and the disciplines involved in its teaching. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to address the training of professors in the ART approach for the whole country. An educational model is proposed whereby a standard ART module features as part of other preventive and restorative caries care educational modules. This will facilitate and standardize the introduction and adoption of the ART approach in undergraduate education in Brazil. <![CDATA[<b>ART integration in oral health care systems in Latin American countries as perceived by directors of oral health</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this study was to carry out a situation analysis of: a) prevalence of ART training courses; b) integration of ART into the oral healthcare systems and; c) strengths and weaknesses of ART integration, in Latin American countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A structured questionnaire, consisting of 18 questions, was emailed to directors of national or regional oral health departments of all Latin American countries and the USA. For two countries that had not responded after 4 weeks, the questionnaire was sent to the Dean of each local Dental School. The questions were related to ART training courses, integration of ART in the dental curriculum and the oral healthcare system, barriers to ART implementation in the public health system and recommendations for ART implementation in the services. Factor analysis was used to construct one factor in the barrier-related question. Means and percentages were calculated. RESULTS: The response rate, covering 55% of all Latin American countries, was 76%. An ART training course had been given in all Latin American countries that responded, with more than 2 having been conducted in 64.7% of the respondent countries. ART was implemented in public oral health services in 94.7 % of the countries, according to the respondents. In 15.8% of the countries, ART was applied throughout the country and in 68.4%, in some areas or regions of a country. ART had been used for more, or less, than three years in 42.1% and 47.4% of the countries, respectively. Evaluation and monitoring activities to determine the effectiveness of ART restorations and ART sealants had been carried out in 42.1% of the countries, while evaluation training courses had taken place in only 3 countries (15.8%). Respondents perceived the "increase in the number of treated patients" as the major benefit of ART implementation in public oral health services. The major perceived barrier factors to ART implementation were "operator opinion" and "high patient load", followed by "lack in supplies of materials and instruments and operators" and "lack of ART training". Respondents recommended that the number of ART courses should be increased. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of ART into the public oral health systems in Latin American countries has taken place but is still in its infancy. More ART training courses need to be organized if the approach is to be adopted in oral health service systems in these countries. <![CDATA[<b>The implementation and preliminary evaluation of an ART strategy in Mexico</b>: <b>a country example</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The massive use of preventive measures in Mexico including fluoride toothpaste, a national program of salt fluoridation and education on prevention has resulted in a large decline in dental caries over the past two decades. There does however remain a largely unmet need for restorative treatment. This paper describes the steps leading up to the adoption of a strategy, as part of general health policy, to use Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) within the Mexican public health service as a means to address this. This included the development of training materials, the organization of training courses for existing dentists and the incorporation of ART into the undergraduate curriculum. RESULTS: Six years after the introduction of ART in the year 2000, it was estimated that over 2 million ART procedures had been provided. As part of the planning cycle, an evaluation was undertaken in 2008 to determine amongst Mexican dentists what were the perceived problems when implementing the ART approach. Such research identified that the scarcity of appropriate dental materials and the lack of suitable instruments were the major problems. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of ART restorations and sealants placed as part of this National Oral Health Program was undertaken. The survival outcomes after one year compared favorably with one other study conducted in Mexico but were somewhat lower than the results reported from a number of other countries. CONCLUSION: The ambitious and forward thinking policy for improving the oral health in Mexico is now showing dividends. One example is the ART strategy, which has been successful both in terms of the number of ART procedures provided and generally in terms of clinical outcomes. <![CDATA[<b>Two decades of ART</b>: <b>improving on success through further research</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Since the introduction of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach over twenty years ago, more than 190 research publications have appeared. The last research agenda defining research priorities for ART was published in 1999. The objective of the present work was to review existing research in the context of future research priorities for ART. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An internet survey was conducted amongst those who had published on ART or were known to be working on the ART approach, to solicit their views as to areas of future ART research. Three broad categories were defined, namely: 1. Basic and laboratory research; 2. Clinical research, and, 3. Community, Public Health, Health Services Research. RESULTS: A 31% response rate was achieved. The study identified a number of new areas of research as well as areas where additional research is required. These are expressed as recommendations for future ART research. CONCLUSIONS: The ART approach is based on a robust, reliable and ever-growing evidence base concerning its clinical applications which indicates that it is a reliable and quality treatment approach. In common with all other oral health care procedures, targeted applied research is required to improve the oral health care offered. <![CDATA[<b>Conclusions from the symposium</b>: <b>Two decades of ART: success through research</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Two decades of ART research has served as the catalyst for a new way of thinking about oral health care. It is now necessary to build on the success of ART research by educating existing and future oral health professionals and health decision makers about the benefits of the ART approach. It is also important to build upon the sound research base that already exists on ART even though enough is known about ART to consider it is a reliable and quality approach to control caries. While oral health promotion through prevention remains the essential foundation of oral health, the ART approach is an important corner stone in the building of global oral health. <![CDATA[<b>Abstracts of the works presented at the 22<sup>nd</sup> Academic Conference of the Bauru School of Dentistry</b> <b>"Dr</b> <b>Waldyr Antonio</b> <b>Janson"</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700022&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Two decades of ART research has served as the catalyst for a new way of thinking about oral health care. It is now necessary to build on the success of ART research by educating existing and future oral health professionals and health decision makers about the benefits of the ART approach. It is also important to build upon the sound research base that already exists on ART even though enough is known about ART to consider it is a reliable and quality approach to control caries. While oral health promotion through prevention remains the essential foundation of oral health, the ART approach is an important corner stone in the building of global oral health. <![CDATA[<b>Abstracts of the works presented at the 16<sup>th</sup> Academic Conference of Speech-language Pathology and Audiology of the Bauru School of Dentistry</b> <b>"Dra. Kátia de Freitas</b> <b>Alvarenga"</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Two decades of ART research has served as the catalyst for a new way of thinking about oral health care. It is now necessary to build on the success of ART research by educating existing and future oral health professionals and health decision makers about the benefits of the ART approach. It is also important to build upon the sound research base that already exists on ART even though enough is known about ART to consider it is a reliable and quality approach to control caries. While oral health promotion through prevention remains the essential foundation of oral health, the ART approach is an important corner stone in the building of global oral health.