Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of Applied Oral Science]]> vol. 19 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Editorial - The 89<sup>th</sup> General Session & Exhibition of the IADR and the Brazilian Saliva Symposium</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Saliva and tongue coating pH before and after use of mouthwashes and relationship with parameters of halitosis</b>]]> OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to evaluate saliva and tongue coating pH in oral healthy patients with morning bad breath before and after use of different oral mouthrinses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Saliva and tongue coating pH of 50 patients allocated in 5 groups were measured respectively by a digital pHmeter and color pH indicators, before, immediately after and 30 min after rinsing 5 different mouthrinses: cetilpiridine chloride associated with sodium chloride, triclosan, enzymatic solution, essential oil and distilled water. RESULTS: Only triclosan and essential oil increased salivary pH immediately after rising. The enzymatic solution decreased salivary and tongue coating pH immediately after rinsing. CONCLUSIONS: Salivary pH tended to be acidic while tongue coating pH tended to be alkaline, even after rising. Triclosan and essential oil mouthrinses increased salivary pH immediately after rinsing. Enzymatic solution decreased saliva and tongue coating pH immediately after rising. <![CDATA[<b>Flexural strength of fluorapatite-leucite and fuorapatite porcelains exposed to erosive agents in cyclic immersion</b>]]> OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the fexural strength of two porcelain materials (IPS d.SIGN and IPS e.max Ceram) exposed to erosive agents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty bar-shaped specimens were made from each of fuorapatite-leucite porcelain (IPS d.SIGN) and fuorapatite porcelain (IPS e.max Ceram) and divided into 8 groups of 15 specimens each. Six groups were alternately immersed in the following storage agents for 30 min: deionized water (control), citrate buffer solution, pineapple juice, green mango juice, cola soft drink and 4% acetic acid. Then, they were immersed for 5 min in deionized water at 37ºC. Seven cycles were completed, totalizing 245 min. A 7th group was continuously immersed in 4% acetic acid at 80ºC for 16 h. The final, 8th, group was stored dry at 37ºC for 245 min. Three-point bending tests were performed in a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed statistically by 2-way ANOVA, Tukey's HSD test and t-test at signifcance level of 0.05. RESULTS: The fexural strengths of all groups of each porcelain after exposure to erosive agents in cyclic immersion did not differ signifcantly (p&gt;0.05). For both types of porcelain, dry storage at 37ºC yielded the highest fexural strength, though without signifcant difference from the other groups (p&gt;0.05). The fexural strengths of all groups of fuorapatite porcelains were signifcantly higher (p<0.05) than those of the fuorapatite-leucite porcelains. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the erosive agents evaluated did not affect the fexural strength of the tested dental porcelains. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of green propolis addition to physical mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements</b>]]> OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements (GICs) combined with propolis as a natural antimicrobial substance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Typifed green propolis, as an ethanolic extract (EEP) or in the lyophilized form (powder), was incorporated to specimens of Ketac Fil Plus, ChemFlex and Ketac Molar Easymix GICs. For each test, 8 specimens of each material were prepared. For water sorption and solubility tests, specimens were subjected to dehydration, hydration and redehydration cycles until a constant mass was obtained for each step. Measurements were recorded using a digital balance of 10-4 g precision. For the diametral tensile strength test, specimens were tested in a universal test machine at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed after 24 h storage in deionized water. Data were evaluated by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (p<0.05). RESULTS: The addition of propolis to GIC clearly increased water sorption compared to pure material. Solubility was material-dependent and was not clearly evident. For the diametral tensile strength test, association with propolis altered negatively only Chemfex. CONCLUSION: It may be concluded that incorporation of propolis to GICs alters some properties in a material-dependent condition. <![CDATA[<b><i>In vitro</i></b><b> evaluation of the action of irrigating solutions associated with intracanal medications on <i>Escherichia coli</i> and its endotoxin in root canals</b>]]> OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effcacy of auxiliary chemical substances and intracanal medications on Escherichia coli and its endotoxin in root canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Teeth were contaminated with a suspension of E. coli for 14 days and divided into 3 groups according to the auxiliary chemical substance used: G1) 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); G2) 2% chlorhexidine gel (CLX); G3) pyrogenfree solution. After, these groups were subdivided according to the intracanal medication (ICM): A) Calcium hydroxide paste (Calen®), B) polymyxin B, and C) Calcium hydroxide paste+2% CLX gel. For the control group (G4), pyrogen-free saline solution was used without application of intracanal medication. Samples of the root canal content were collected immediately after biomechanical preparation (BMP), at 7 days after BMP, after 14 days of intracanal medication activity, and 7 days after removal of intracanal medication. The following aspects were evaluated for all collections: a) antimicrobial activity; b) quantifcation of endotoxin by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test (LAL). Results were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests at 5% signifcance level. RESULTS: The 2.5% NaOCl and CLX were able to eliminate E. coli from root canal lumen and reduced the amount of endotoxin compared to saline. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that 2.5% NaOCl and CLX were effective in eliminating E. coli. Only the studied intracanal medications were to reduce the amount of endotoxin present in the root canals, regardless of the irrigant used. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of nitric oxide inhibitor and donor substances on the infammatory process caused by endodontic irrigants</b>]]> Nitric oxide (NO) has been considered a key molecule in infammation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with L-NAME and sodium nitroprussiate, substances that inhibit and release NO, respectively, on tissue tolerance to endodontic irrigants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The vital dye exudation method was used in a rat subcutaneous tissue model. Injections of 2% Evans blue were administered intravenously into the dorsal penial vein of 14 male rats (200-300 g). The NO inhibitor and donor substances were injected into the subcutaneous tissue in the dorsal region, forming two groups of animals: G1 was inoculated with L-NAME and G2 with sodium nitroprussiate. Both groups received injections of the test endodontic irrigants: acetic acid, 15% citric acid, 17% EDTA-T and saline (control). After 30 min, analysis of the extravasated dye was performed by light absorption spectrophotometry (620 nm). RESULTS: There was statistically signifcant difference (p<0.05) between groups 1 and 2 for all irrigants. L-NAME produced a less intense infammatory reaction and nitroprussiate intensifed this process. CONCLUSIONS: Independently of the administration of NO inhibitors and donors, EDTA-T produced the highest irritating potential in vital tissue among the tested irrigating solutions. <![CDATA[<b>Craniofacial characteristics of Caucasian and Afro-Caucasian Brazilian subjects with normal occlusion</b>]]> OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the skeletal, dental and soft tissue characteristics of Caucasian and Afro-Caucasian Brazilian subjects with normal occlusion and to evaluate sexual dimorphism within the groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample comprised lateral cephalograms of untreated normal occlusion subjects, divided into 2 groups. Group 1 included 40 Caucasian subjects (20 of each sex), with a mean age of 13.02 years; group 2 included 40 Afro-Caucasian subjects (20 of each sex), with a mean age of 13.02 years. Groups 1 and 2 and males and females within each group were compared with t tests. RESULTS: Afro-Caucasian subjects presented greater maxillary protrusion, smaller upper anterior face height and lower posterior face height, larger upper posterior face height, greater maxillary and mandibular dentoalveolar protrusion as well as soft tissue protrusion than Caucasian subjects. The Afro-Caucasian female subjects had less mandibular protrusion and smaller total posterior facial height and upper posterior facial height than males. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian Afro-Caucasian subjects have greater dentoalveolar and soft tissue protrusion than Brazilian Caucasian subjects, with slight sexual dimorphism in some variables. <![CDATA[<b>HOXB5 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma</b>]]> Human HOX genes encode transcription factors that act as master regulators of embryonic development. They are important in several processes such as cellular morphogenesis and differentiation. The HOXB5 gene in particular has been reported in some types of neoplasm, but not in oral cancer. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the expression of HOXB5 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and in non-tumoral adjacent tissues, focusing on verifying its possible role as a broad tumor-associated gene and its association with histopathological and clinical (TNM) characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: RT-PCR was performed to amplify HOXB5 mRNA in 15 OSCCs and adjacent non-tumoral epithelium. A possible association with TNM and histopathologic data was verifed by the chi-square and post-hoc t-test. RESULTS: HOXB5 was amplifed in 60% non-tumoral epithelium and in 93.3% carcinomas. No statistically signifcant differences were found regarding the HOXB5 mRNA expression and TNM or histological grade. CONCLUSION: HOXB5 is expressed in OSCCs and its role in cancer progression should be further investigated. <![CDATA[<b>Periodontal treatment during pregnancy decreases the rate of adverse pregnancy outcome</b>: <b>a controlled clinical trial</b>]]> OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of non-surgical treatment of periodontal disease during the second trimester of gestation on adverse pregnancy outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pregnant patients during the 1st and 2nd trimesters at antenatal care in a Public Health Center were divided into 2 groups: NIG - "no intervention" (n=17) or IG- "intervention" (n=16). IG patients were submitted to a non-surgical periodontal treatment performed by a single periodontist consisting of scaling and root planning (SRP), professional prophylaxis (PROPH) and oral hygiene instruction (OHI). NIG received PROPH and OHI during pregnancy and were referred for treatment after delivery. Periodontal evaluation was performed by a single trained examiner, blinded to periodontal treatment, according to probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), plaque index (PI) and sulcular bleeding index (SBI) at baseline and 35 gestational weeks-28 days post-partum. Primary adverse pregnancy outcomes were preterm birth (<37 weeks), low birth weight (<2.5 kg), late abortion (14-24 weeks) or abortion (<14 weeks). The results obtained were statistically evaluated according to OR, unpaired t test and paired t test at 5% signifcance level. RESULTS: No signifcant differences were observed between groups at baseline examination. Periodontal treatment resulted in stabilization of CAL and PI (p&gt;0.05) at IG and worsening of all periodontal parameters at NIG (p<0.0001), except for PI. Signifcant differences in periodontal conditions of IG and NIG were observed at 2nd examination (p<0.001). The rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes was 47.05% in NIG and 6.25% in IG. Periodontal treatment during pregnancy was associated to a decreased risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcomes [OR=13.50; CI: 1.47-123.45; p=0.02]. CONCLUSIONS: Periodontal treatment during the second trimester of gestation contributes to decrease adverse pregnancy outcomes. <![CDATA[<b>Scanning Electron Microscopic study of <i>Piper betle</i> L. leaves extract effect against <i>Streptococcus mutans</i> ATCC 25175</b>]]> INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that Piper betle L. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development. OBJECTIVES: In this study, the effect of the Piper betle L. extract towards S. mutans (with/without sucrose) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and on partially purifed cell-associated glucosyltransferase activity were determined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: S. mutans were allowed to adhere to glass beads suspended in 6 different Brain Heart Infusion broths [without sucrose; with sucrose; without sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1); with sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1)]. Positive control was 0.12% chlorhexidine. The glass beads were later processed for SEM viewing. Cell surface area and appearance and, cell population of S. mutans adhering to the glass beads were determined upon viewing using the SEM. The glucosyltransferase activity (with/without extract) was also determined. One- and two-way ANOVA were used accordingly. RESULTS: It was found that sucrose increased adherence and cell surface area of S. mutans (p<0.001). S. mutans adhering to 100 µm² glass surfaces (with/without sucrose) exhibited reduced cell surface area, fuffy extracellular appearance and cell population in the presence of the Piper betle L. leaves extract. It was also found that the extract inhibited glucosyltransferase activity and its inhibition at 2.5 mg mL-1 corresponded to that of 0.12% chlorhexidine. At 4 mg mL-1 of the extract, the glucosyltransferase activity was undetectable and despite that, bacterial cells still demonstrated adherence capacity. CONCLUSION: The SEM analysis confrmed the inhibitory effects of the Piper betle L. leaves extract towards cell adherence, cell growth and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans visually. In bacterial cell adherence, other factors besides glucosyltransferase are involved. <![CDATA[<b><i>In vitro</i></b><b> dentin permeability after application of Gluma<sup>®</sup> desensitizer as aqueous solution or aqueous fumed silica dispersion</b>]]> OBJECTIVES: To assess and to compare the effects of Gluma® Desensitizer (GDL) with an experimental glutaraldehyde and HEMA containing fumed silica dispersion (GDG) on dentin permeability using a chemiluminous tracer penetration test. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty disc-shaped dentin specimens were dissected from extracted human third molars. The dentin specimens were mounted in a split chamber device for determination of permeability under liquid pressure using a photochemical method. Ten specimens were randomly selected and allocated to the evaluation groups Gluma® Desensitizer as aqueous solution and glutaraldehyde/HEMA as fumed silica dispersion, respectively. Dentin disc permeability was determined at two pressure levels after removal of smear with EDTA, after albumin soaking, and after application of the desensitizing agents. Two desensitizer-treated and rinsed specimens of each group were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for surface remnants. RESULTS: Comparatively large standard deviations of the mean EDTA reference and albumin soaked samples permeability values refected the differences of the dentin substrates. The mean chemiluminescence values of specimen treated with GDL and GDG, respectively, were signifcantly reduced after topical application of the desensitizing agents on albumin-soaked dentin. The effects of GDL and GDG on permeability were not signifcantly different. Treated specimens showed no surface remnants after rinsing. CONCLUSIONS: The experimental desensitizer gel formulation reduced dentin permeability as effectively as the original Gluma® Desensitizer solution. <![CDATA[<b>Difference in the color stability of direct and indirect resin composites</b>]]> Indirect resin composites are generally regarded to have better color stability than direct resin composites since they possess higher conversion degree. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at comparing the changes in color (ΔE) and color coordinates (ΔL, Δa and Δb) of one direct (Estelite Sigma: 16 shades) and 2 indirect resin composites (BelleGlass NG: 16 shades; Sinfony: 26 shades) after thermocycling. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Resins were packed into a mold and light cured; post-curing was performed on indirect resins. Changes in color and color coordinates of 1-mm-thick specimens were determined after 5,000 cycles of thermocycling on a spectrophotometer. RESULTS: ΔE values were in the range of 0.3 to 1.2 units for direct resins, and 0.3 to 1.5 units for indirect resins, which were clinically acceptable (ΔE<3.3). Based on t-test, ΔE values were not signifcantly different by the type of resins (p&gt;0.05), while ΔL, Δa and Δb values were signifcantly different by the type of resins (p<0.05). For indirect resins, ΔE values were infuenced by the brand, shade group and shade designation based on three-way ANOVA (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Direct and indirect resin composites showed similar color stability after 5,000 cycles of thermocycling; however, their changes in the color coordinates were different. <![CDATA[<b>Breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking patterns related to the prevalence of anterior open bite in primary dentition</b>]]> OBJECTIVE: Nutritional, immunological and psychological benefts of exclusive breastfeeding for the frst 6 months of life are unequivocally recognized. However, mothers should also be aware of the importance of breastfeeding for promoting adequate oral development. This study evaluated the association between breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking patterns and the prevalence of anterior open bite in primary dentition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Infant feeding and non-nutritive sucking were investigated in a 3-6 year-old sample of 1,377 children, from São Paulo city, Brazil. Children were grouped according to breastfeeding duration: G1 - non-breastfed, G2 - shorter than 6 months, G3 - interruption between 6 and 12 months, and G4 - longer than 12 months. Three calibrated dentists performed clinical examinations and classifed overbite into 3 categories: normal, anterior open bite and deep bite. Chi-square tests (p<0.05) with odds ratio (OR) calculation were used for intergroup comparisons. The impact of breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking on the prevalence of anterior open bite was analyzed using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence estimates of anterior open bite were: 31.9% (G1), 26.1% (G2), 22.1% (G3), and 6.2% (G4). G1 would have signifcantly more chances of having anterior open bite compared with G4; in the total sample (OR=7.1) and in the subgroup without history of non-nutritive sucking (OR=9.3). Prolonging breastfeeding for 12 months was associated with a 3.7 times lower chance of having anterior open bite. In each year of persistence with non-nutritive sucking habits, the chance of developing this malocclusion increased in 2.38 times. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking durations demonstrated opposite effects on the prediction of anterior open bite. Non-breastfed children presented signifcantly greater chances of having anterior open bite compared with those who were breastfed for periods longer than 12 months, demonstrating the benefcial infuence of breastfeeding on dental occlusion. <![CDATA[<b>Dental arch dimensions in the mixed dentition</b>: <b>a study of Brazilian children from 9 to 12 years of age</b>]]> OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated dental arch dimensional changes of Brazilian children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dental casts were taken from 66 children (29 males; 37 females) with normal occlusion selected among 1,687 students from public and private schools aged 9, 10, 11 and 12 years, according to the following criteria: Class I canine and molar relationships; well-aligned upper and lower dental arches; mixed dentition; good facial symmetry; no previous orthodontic treatment. Dental arch dimensions were taken by one examiner using the Korkhaus' compass and a digital pachymeter. ANOVA test was applied to compare the arch dimensions at the different ages and the t-test was used to compare the arch dimensions of male and female subjects. Arch forms were compared by means of chi-square tests. RESULTS: Only the maxillary anterior segment length showed a statistically signifcant increase from 10 to 12 years of age. Males had a signifcantly larger maxillary depth than females at the age range evaluated. The predominant dental arch form found was elliptical. CONCLUSIONS: In the studied age range, anterior maxillary length increased from 10 to 12 years of age, males had larger maxillary depth than females and the predominant arch form was elliptical. <![CDATA[<b>Facial and dental alterations according to the breathing pattern</b>]]> There is controversy in the literature about possible interaction of the respiratory mode with the facial and dental structures. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to perform a longitudinal assessment of the changes in facial and dental structures in Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion individuals, divided according to the respiratory pattern (predominantly nasal or mouth), at two distinct moments of craniofacial development. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pogonium and nose measurements were made on the lateral cephalometric tracings (LS'-Pog', LS'-B', B'-Pog', Pog'-PogTeg', Line NB, Pog-NB, N'-Prn, Prn-NPog, N-Prn-Sn, Prn-Sn-LS). Dental measurements were made on the plaster models (distances between the tips of the canine cusps and the tips of mesial cusps of the first molars) of 40 individuals aged 10 to 14 years (moment 1) and 13 to 16 years (moment 2), 23 being nose breathers (NB) and 17 being predominantly mouth breathers (MB). RESULTS: The Student's-t test and two-way ANOVA with repeated measures were applied to indicate differences between the mean values of these variables according to the moments and/or respiratory mode. CONCLUSIONS: There were alterations in the facial measurements, without interference of the breathing pattern. However, the breathing pattern infuenced dental alterations. <![CDATA[<b>Pleomorphic adenoma with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin cyst formations in minor salivary gland</b>: <b>a case report</b>]]> Pleomorphic adenoma (PA), the most common salivary gland tumor, accounts for 54 to 65% of all salivary gland neoplasias and 80% of the benign salivary gland tumors. It most frequently affects the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular and the minor salivary glands. Microscopically, mucous, sebaceous, oncocytic and squamous metaplasia, sometimes with the formation of keratin pearls, may be present, but the latter rarely results in the formation of extensive keratin-flled cysts lined by squamous epithelium. Extensive squamous metaplasia can be mistaken for malignancy, including mucoepidermoid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin cyst formations in a minor salivary gland, and discuss its microscopic features, including the immunohistochemical characteristics, and differential diagnosis of this uncommon presentation.