Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Neotropical Ichthyology]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1679-622520170003&lang=es vol. 15 num. 3 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Effects of cryoprotectants and low temperatures on hatching and abnormal embryo development of <em><strong><em>Prochilodus lineatus</em></strong></em> (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-62252017000300201&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effect of the cryoprotectants and the low temperatures on the embryonic development of Prochilodus lineatus, describing their main morphological alterations. On chilling sensitivity test, the survival rates at the twenty somites stage (20S) were 53.6% at 0ºC, and 100% in 5ºC. To test toxicity, the embryos were exposed to a graded series of 1,2-Propanediol (PROP), dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO4) and glycerol (GLY), terminating in a solution of high osmolarity. There was no significant difference in the embryos survival of toxicity test between series of PROP and Me2SO4 in the 6S and 20S. In the cooling protocols, were evaluated the effects of low temperature associated with cryoprotectants. At 5ºC, PROP showed survival rates above 75% in the gastrula stage (G) and above 90% in the 6S and 20S stages. High rates of abnormalities were observed, and the most recurrent were: small bodies, fins presenting uncontrolled cell growth, membrane rupture, and retraction. These results demonstrate the need to use cryoprotectant solutions, even when there is no ice nucleation, and, on the other hand, shows that high cryoprotectant concentrations promote numerous morphological lesions, compromising normal embryonic development.<hr/>RESUMO Este estudo avaliou os efeitos dos crioprotetores e das baixas temperaturas no desenvolvimento embrionário de Prochilodus lineatus, descrevendo suas principais alterações morfológicas. Nos testes de sensibilidade ao frio, as taxas de sobrevivência, no estágio de vinte somitos (20S), foram de 53,6% a 0ºC e 100% a 5ºC. Nos testes de toxicidade, os embriões foram expostos a uma série graduada dos crioprotetores: 1,2-Propanediol (PROP), dimetilsulfóxido (Me2SO4) e glicerol (GLY), terminando em uma combinação de alta osmolaridade. Não houve diferença significativa na sobrevivência dos embriões nas séries do PROP e Me2SO4 nos estágios de 6S e 20S. Nos protocolos de resfriamento, foram avaliados os efeitos da baixa temperatura associados as séries crioprotetoras. A 5ºC, o PROP apresentou taxas de sobrevivência acima de 75% no estádio de gástrula (G) e acima de 90% nos estádios 6S e 20S. Foram observadas altas taxas de anormalidades sendo as mais recorrentes: corpos pequenos, nadadeiras apresentando crescimento celular descontrolado, ruptura da membrana e retração vitelínica. Estes resultados demonstram a necessidade do uso das soluções crioprotetoras, mesmo não havendo nucleação de gelo e, em contrapartida, demonstra que as elevadas concentrações crioprotetoras promovem numerosas lesões morfológicas, comprometendo o desenvolvimento embrionário. <![CDATA[Migration and brackish environment use of <em><strong><em>Prochilodus lineatus</em></strong></em> (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae) inferred by Sr:Ca ratio transects of otolith]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-62252017000300202&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es ABSTRACT The streaked prochilod, Prochilodus lineatus, represents the most important fishery in the La Plata Basin (South America). Our objective was to analyze brackish environment use by the streaked prochilod captured from Paraná and Uruguay rivers. To accomplish this, lapillus otolith sections were analyzed for Sr:Ca with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) to infer habitat use of fish. To the interpretation of transects, a threshold that represents the transition between freshwater and brackish environments was calculated using the Sr:Ca ratio of the otolith edge of specimens captured in the first section of the La Plata Estuary (salinity ≥ 0.5 PSU). The percentage of fish using the estuary was higher in the Paraná (37%) than the Uruguay River (5%). Change-point analysis showed that fish entered the estuary between 1 and 3 times throughout life at a wide range of ages (0-15 years). These incursions had no obvious periodicity. This information should be integrated into future management actions, which should also be specific to each area since migration patterns differ between the major rivers of the basin.<hr/>RESUMEN El sábalo, Prochilodus lineatus, representa la pesquería más importante en la Cuenca del Río de la Plata (Sudamérica). Nuestro objetivo fue analizar el uso del hábitat estuarino del sábalo proveniente de los ríos Uruguay y Paraná. Para esto, se analizó la relación Sr:Ca en secciones de otolitos lapilli por ablación láser acoplada a espectrometría de masas con fuente de plasma de acoplamiento inductivo (LA ICP-MS) para inferir el uso de hábitat. Para interpretar las transectas, un umbral que representa la transición entre los ambientes de agua dulce y estuarino, fue calculado usando la relación Sr:Ca del borde del otolito de especímenes capturados en la primera sección del estuario del Plata (salinidad ≥0.5 UPS). El porcentaje de peces que usaron el estuario fue más elevado para el Paraná (37%) en relación al Uruguay (5%). El análisis de cambio puntual mostro que los individuos ingresan al estuario entre 1 a 3 veces a lo largo de la vida en un amplio rango de edades (0-15 años). Las incursiones no mostraron una periodicidad notoria. Esta información debería integrarse a futuras acciones de manejo que deberían ser específicas para cada área considerando los patrones de migración que difieren entre los grandes ríos de la Cuenca.