Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures]]> vol. 14 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Heat Transfer Search Algorithm for Sizing Optimization of Truss Structures]]> Abstract Heat transfer search (HTS) is a novel metaheuristic optimization algorithm that simulates the laws of thermodynamics and heat transfer. In this study, the HTS algorithm is adapted to truss structure optimization. Sizing optimization searches for the minimum weight of a structure subject to stress and displacement constraints. Three truss structures often taken as benchmarks in the optimization literature are selected here in order to verify the efficiency and robustness of the HTS algorithm. Optimization results indicate that HTS can obtain better designs (i.e. lighter trusses) than most of the state-of-the-art metaheuristic optimizers. The convergence behaviour of HTS also is as good as the other algorithms. <![CDATA[Non-Linear Three Dimensional Finite Elements for Composite Concrete Structures]]> Abstract The current investigation focused on the development of effective and suitable modelling of reinforced concrete component with and without strengthening. The modelling includes physical and constitutive models. New interface elements have been developed, while modified constitutive law have been applied and new computational algorithm is utilised. The new elements are the Truss-link element to model the interaction between concrete and reinforcement bars, the interface element between two plate bending elements and the interface element to represent the interfacial behaviour between FRP, steel plates and concrete. Nonlinear finite-element (FE) codes were developed with pre-processing. The programme was written using FORTRAN language. The accuracy and efficiency of the finite element programme were achieved by analyzing several examples from the literature. The application of the 3D FE code was further enhanced by carrying out the numerical analysis of the three dimensional finite element analysis of FRP strengthened RC beams, as well as the 3D non-linear finite element analysis of girder bridge. Acceptable distributions of slip, deflection, stresses in the concrete and FRP plate have also been found. These results show that the new elements are effective and appropriate to be used for structural component modelling. <![CDATA[Nonlinear Vibration and Mode Shapes of FG Cylindrical Shells]]> Abstract The nonlinear vibration and normal mode shapes of FG cylindrical shells are investigated using an efficient analytical method. The equations of motion of the shell are based on the Donnell’s non-linear shallow-shell, and the material is assumed to be gradually changed across the thickness according to the simple power law. The solution is provided by first discretizing the equations of motion using the multi-mode Galerkin’s method. The nonlinear normal mode of the system is then extracted using the invariant manifold approach and employed to decouple the discretized equations. The homotopy analysis method is finally used to determine the nonlinear frequency. Numerical results are presented for the backbone curves of FG cylindrical shells, nonlinear mode shapes and also the nonlinear invariant modal surfaces. The volume fraction index and the geometric properties of the shell are found to be effective on the type of nonlinear behavior and also the nonlinear mode shapes of the shell. The circumferential half-wave numbers of the nonlinear mode shapes are found to change with time especially in a thinner cylinder. <![CDATA[Seismic Design and Performance of Dual Moment and Eccentrically Braced Frame System Using PBPD Method]]> Abstract Most structural design codes use elastic analysis to calculate and distribute seismic base shear over the height. This may lead to unsuitable design and may cause undesirable damages to the structure. To solve this problem, in recent years the Performance-based Plastic Design (PBPD) method which considers the plastic behavior of the structure, has been proposed. In this study, the PBPD method is extended to the dual system of moment and eccentrically braced frames. As a code requirement, in dual systems the moment frame must be able to resist at least 25 percent of the base shear. In the proposed PBPD method, the shear resistance of each system is selected at the beginning of design process and this criterion can be contributed to the design process directly. In this regard, three 6, 12 and 20 story structures are designed based on PBPD and conventional method. To assess the behavior of each system, nonlinear pushover and time history analysis are conducted. Results show that dual frames that are designed by PBPD method have less stiffness and strength than frames that are designed by ordinary method. However the yield mechanism is controllable and plastic deformation capacity of structures are better conducted to design in PBPD method. The results also show that the collapse probability of frames that are designed by PBPD method is acceptable. <![CDATA[Investigation on the Effects of Process Parameters on Laser Percussion Drilling Using Finite Element Methodology; Statistical Modelling and Optimization]]> Abstract In the present research, the simulation of the Nickel-base superalloy Inconel 718 fiber-laser drilling process with the thickness of 1mm is investigated through the Finite Element Method. In order to specify the appropriate Gaussian distribution of laser beam, the results of an experimental research on glass laser drilling were simulated using three types of Gaussian distribution. The DFLUX subroutine was used to implement the laser heat sources of the models using the Fortran language. After the appropriate Gaussian distribution was chosen, the model was validated with the experimental results of the Nickel-base superalloy Inconel 718 laser drilling process. The negligible error percentage among the experimental and simulation results demonstrates the high accuracy of this model. The experiments were performed based on the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) as a statistical design of experiment (DOE) approach to investigate the influence of process parameters on the responses, obtaining the mathematical regressions and predicting the new results. Four parameters i.e. laser pulse frequency (150 to 550 Hz), laser power (200 to 500 watts), laser focal plane position (-0.5 to +0.5 mm) and the duty cycle (30 to 70%) were considered to be the input variables in 5 levels and four external parameters i.e. the hole's entrance and exit diameters, hole taper angle and the weight of mass removed from the hole, were observed to be the process output responses of this central composite design. By performing the statistical analysis, the input and output parameters were found to have a direct relation with each other. By an increase in each of the input variables, the entrance and exit hole diameters, the hole taper angel, and the weight of mass removed from the hole increase. Finally, the results of the conducted simulations and statistical analyses having been used, the laser drilling process was optimized by means of the desire ability approach. Good agreement between the simulated and the optimization results revealed that the model would be appropriate for laser drilling process numerical simulation. <![CDATA[A Modified FEM for Transverse and Lateral Vibration Analysis of Thin Beams Under a Mass Moving with a Variable Acceleration]]> Abstract In this paper, a new modified finite element method that can be used in the analysis of transverse and lateral vibrations of the thin beams under a point mass moving with a variable acceleration and constant jerk is presented. Jerk is the change in acceleration over time. In this method, the classical finite element of the beam is modified by the inclusion of the inertial effects of the moving mass. This modification is made using the relations between nodal forces and nodal deflections and shape functions of six DOF beam element. The mass, stiffness, and damping matrices of the modified finite element are determined by forces caused by the corresponding transverse and lateral accelerations and jerks, and transverse Coriolis and centripetal accelerations and jerks, respectively. This method was first applied on a simply supported beam plate to provide a comparison with the previous studies in literature, and it was proved that the results were within acceptable limits. Secondly, it was applied on a CNC type box-framed beam to analyse the dynamic response of the beam in terms of variable acceleration and jerk as well as constant velocity and mass ratios. <![CDATA[Controlled Pre-Corrosion Attack and Ultrasonic Fatigue Endurance of Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V]]> Abstract Ultrasonic fatigue tests were carried out on titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V on the base material and the pre-corroded specimen to assess the pre-corrosion effect on the fatigue life of this alloy. The pre-corrosion was obtained by immersion of specimens in an acid solution: hydrochloric acid with 1.4 of pH during 8 and 16 minutes. All ultrasonic fatigue tests were performed following a predetermined sequence to attain the nominal applied load. Infrared images were taken at the neck section of specimens during ultrasonic fatigue testing, revealing that temperature is higher for the specimens with pre-corrosion and it increases with the time of pre-corrosion. It was observed that pits generated by pre-corrosion were associated with stress concentration, temperature increase and fatigue endurance decrease. Fracture surfaces were analyzed to determine the crack initiation and propagation and the stress intensity factor range threshold (KTH was obtained for both: the pre-corroded and non pre-corroded specimens. <![CDATA[Stability Analysis of Variable Stiffness Composite Laminated Plates with Delamination Using Spline-FSM]]> Abstract The dynamic behavior of variable stiffness composite laminated (VSCL) plate with curvilinear fiber orientation subjected to in-plane end-loads is investigated. A variable stiffness design can increase the laminated composite structural performance and also provides flexibility for trading-offs between various structural properties. In each ply of the VSCL plate, the fiber-orientation angle assumed to be changed linearly with respect to horizontal geometry coordinate. The spline finite strip method based on both classical as well as higher order shear deformation plate theories is formulated to explain the structural behavior. The panel is assumed containing internal square delamination regions with friction and contact conditions at delaminated interfaces are not considered. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the developed method in predicting the structural dynamic behavior, some representing results are obtained and compared with those available in the literature. The effects of change in curvilinear fiber orientation angles on the structural stability is studied. The obtained results show very good conformity in comparison with those exists in the available literature. <![CDATA[Mechanics of Cable-Suspended Beams]]> Abstract The cable-suspended bridges differ from the elastic structures because of the inherent nonlinearity of the suspension cables. The primary focus of the available theories is to investigate the effect of nonlinearities associated with the distributed self-weight of the cable and its finite elastic displacements. The main point of departure of this paper is to study the effect of the configurational nonlinearity of the weightless linear elastic suspension cables undergoing small elastic displacements. Based upon authors’ theory of weightless elasto-flexible planar sagging cables, a new Beam with Elasto-Flexible Support (BEFS) model of the cable-deck interaction is proposed here. Rate-type constitutive equations and third order differential equations of motion are derived for a simple four-node cable-suspended beam structure undergoing small elastic vertical displacements. Static and dynamic analysis of the cable-suspended structures is carried out to reveal their characteristic configurational response. The proposed theory is critically evaluated in the context of existing theories of suspension bridges. <![CDATA[Experimental Evaluation of Low-Pass Shock Isolation Performance of Elastomers Using Frequency-Based Kolsky Bar Analyses]]> Abstract Elastomeric materials are used as shock isolation materials in a variety of environments to dampen vibrations and/or absorb energy from external impact for minimizing energy transfer between two objects or bodies. Some applications require the shock isolation materials to behave as a low-pass mechanical filter to mitigate the shock/impact at high frequencies but transmit the energy at low frequencies with minimal attenuation. In order to fulfill this requirement, a shock isolation material needs to be carefully evaluated and selected with proper experimental design, procedures, and analyses. In this study, a Kolsky bar was modified with pre-compression (up to 15.5 kN) and confinement capabilities to evaluate low-pass shock isolation performance in terms of acceleration attenuation through a variety of elastomers. The effects of preload and specimen geometry on the low-pass shock isolation response were also investigated.