Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures]]> vol. 14 num. 11 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[A New Fifth-Order Shear and Normal Deformation Theory for Static Bending and Elastic Buckling of P-FGM Beams]]> Abstract A new fifth-order shear and normal deformation theory (FOSNDT) is developed for the static bending and elastic buckling analysis of functionally graded beams. The properties of functionally graded material are assumed to vary through the thickness direction according to power-law distribution (P-FGM). The most important feature of the present theory is that it includes the effects of transverse shear and normal deformations. Axial and transverse displacements involve polynomial shape functions to include the effects of transverse shear and normal deformations. A polynomial shape function expanded up to fifth-order in terms of the thickness coordinate is used to account for the effects of transverse shear and normal deformations. The kinematics of the present theory is based on six independent field variables. The theory satisfies the traction free boundary conditions at top and bottom surfaces of the beam without using problem dependent shear correction factor. The closed-form solutions of simply supported FG beams are obtained using Navier’s solution procedure and non-dimensional results are compared with those obtained by using classical beam theory, first order shear deformation theory and other higher order shear deformation theories. It is concluded that the present theory is accurate and efficient in predicting the bending and buckling responses of functionally graded beams. <![CDATA[Numerical Material Model for Composite Laminates in High-Velocity Impact Simulation]]> Abstract A numerical material model for composite laminate, was developed and integrated into the nonlinear dynamic explicit finite element programs as a material user subroutine. This model coupling nonlinear state of equation (EOS), was a macro-mechanics model, which was used to simulate the major mechanical behaviors of composite laminate under high-velocity impact conditions. The basic theoretical framework of the developed material model was introduced. An inverse flyer plate simulation was conducted, which demonstrated the advantage of the developed model in characterizing the nonlinear shock response. The developed model and its implementation were validated through a classic ballistic impact issue, i.e. projectile impacting on Kevlar29/Phenolic laminate. The failure modes and ballistic limit velocity were analyzed, and a good agreement was achieved when comparing with the analytical and experimental results. The computational capacity of this model, for Kevlar/Epoxy laminates with different architectures, i.e. plain-woven and cross-plied laminates, was further evaluated and the residual velocity curves and damage cone were accurately predicted. <![CDATA[Experimental Investigation of Steel-Concrete Bond for Thin Reinforcing Bars]]> Abstract The steel-concrete bond is a fundamental property in reinforced concrete structures. Although there are several studies on the steel-concrete bond, few of them have evaluated the performance of reinforcing bars with diameters less than 10.0 mm, which includes 5.0, 6.3, and 8.0 mm diameters, which are normally used in reinforced-concrete elements. This study experimentally evaluates the bond between thin steel bars and concrete of 25MPa compression strength. Three types of methods of testing the bond-strength were performed: confined bar test, pull-out test and beam test. It was compared the adequacy of the tests to calculate the conformation coefficient of the bars. The results of the confined bars tests show that this test may be inadequate to determine the surface conformation coefficient of reinforcing bars thinner than 10 mm, especially for notched (CA-60) steel bars. The pull-out test resulted in better results in terms of evaluating the bond behavior. Regarding the specimens for the pull-out tests, a modified model with an anchorage length equal to 10 times the bar diameter is suggested. Therefore, the main contribution of this study, based on the results obtained and the methodology used, is to present a proposal for the evaluation of steel-concrete bond for thin rebars. <![CDATA[Numerical Analysis of Geometrically Non-Linear Behavior of Functionally Graded Shells]]> Abstract In this paper, a geometrically nonlinear analysis of functionally graded material (FGM) shells is investigated using Abaqus software. A user defined subroutine (UMAT) is developed and implemented in Abaqus/Standard to study the FG shells in large displacements and rotations. The material properties are introduced according to the integration points in Abaqus via the UMAT subroutine. The predictions of static response of several non-trivial structure problems are compared to some reference solutions in order to verify the accuracy and the effectiveness of the new developed nonlinear solution procedures. All the results indicate very good performance in comparison with references. <![CDATA[Rollover Index for the Diagnosis of Tripped and Untripped Rollovers]]> Abstract It is necessary to detect danger as soon as possible to avoid rollover of a vehicle in sudden events. Using rollover index in real time can be used for this purpose. The traditional rollover indices currently applying in the vehicles can only detect the untripped rollover due to severe lateral acceleration in vehicles. These indices cannot detect the tripped rollover resulted from vertical external forces in a long direction. There are recently many quantitative studies about the tripped rollover and an index was also introduced to this kind of rollover. In this research, we examined the dynamics of a SUV to improve this index and also presented a new index to detect the both types of rollovers. The precision and accuracy of the new index was evaluated by simulation in industrial software of Carsim. The numerical results of the new developed model were compared with the test results of an automobile at one-eighth scale in equal conditions and inputs. The results are indicative of the better performance of the new model presented in this research. <![CDATA[Investigating the Influence of Auxiliary Rails on Dynamic Behavior of Railway Transition Zone by a 3D Train-Track Interaction Model]]> Abstract Abrupt track vertical stiffness variations along railway tracks can lead to increased dynamic loads, asymmetric deformations, damaged track components, and consequently, increased maintenance costs. The junction of slab track and ballasted track is one of the existing areas where vertical track stiffness can suddenly change, therefore requiring a transition zone that smoothes the track stiffness change. One of the methods for constructing the transition zone at the junction of slab and ballasted tracks is to install auxiliary rails along the transition zone. In the present study, the dynamic behavior of this type of transition zone was evaluated by a train-track interaction model. For this purpose, a 3D model of the railway track was made, representing the slab track, the transition zone, and the ballasted track. Then, the modeling results were validated by the results of field tests. Afterwards, in order to study the dynamic behavior of the transition zone with auxiliary rails, different sensitive analyses, such as vehicle speed, vehicle load, number of auxiliary rails and railpad stiffness, were performed with the model. The obtained results showed that the use of auxiliary rails reduced the rail deflection variations along the transition zone from 35% to 28% for low and medium speeds (120, 160, 200 km/h), and from 40% to 33% for high speeds (250, 300 km/h). <![CDATA[Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding-Mode Control of Wheel Slide Protection Device for ER24PC Locomotive]]> Abstract Wheel Slide Protection Devices (WSPD) are employed in railway vehicles to maximize the average of the possible frictional braking force, which is a nonlinear function of the slip ratio of the wheel sets. In this paper, to control the WSPD, a low-order model is presented and un-modeled dynamics are considered as uncertainties. Due to the nonlinear dynamics of the system and presence of uncertainties, Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding-Mode Control (AFSMC) is employed to regulate the slip ratio towards the desired value. The proposed controller employs a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique to generate the braking torque. The second Lyapunov theorem is used to prove the closed-loop asymptotic stability. In the simulations, the switching dynamics of WSPD is considered and the multi-body dynamics method is used for modeling the longitudinal dynamics of ER24PC locomotive. The obtained results reveal that by using the AFSMC method, the slip ratios of wheel sets converge to the reference values. Unlike the conventional method, in which the fluctuations of slip ratio diverge near the stopping time, simulation studies reveal that with the AFSMC method, the stopping time of the locomotive and the fluctuation amplitude of the slip ratios are reduced. <![CDATA[Mechanical Behavior of Nano Structures Using Atomic-Scale Finite Element Method (AFEM)]]> Abstract This work presents a detailed description of the formulation and implementation of the Atomistic Finite Element Method AFEM, exemplified in the analysis of one- and two-dimensional atomic domains governed by the Lennard Jones interatomic potential. The methodology to synthesize element stiffness matrices and load vectors, the potential energy modification of the atomistic finite elements (AFE) to account for boundary edge effects, the inclusion of boundary conditions is carefully described. The conceptual relation between the cut-off radius of interatomic potentials and the number of nodes in the AFE is addressed and exemplified for the 1D case. For the 1D case elements with 3, 5 and 7 nodes were addressed. The AFEM has been used to describe the mechanical behavior of one-dimensional atomic arrays as well as two-dimensional lattices of atoms. The examples also included the analysis of pristine domains, as well as domains with missing atoms, defects, or vacancies. Results are compared with classical molecular dynamic simulations (MD) performed using a commercial package. The results have been very encouraging in terms of accuracy and in the computational effort necessary to execute both methodologies, AFEM and MD. The methodology can be expanded to model any domain described by an interatomic energy potential. <![CDATA[Stress State at the Vertex of a Composite Wedge, One Side of Which Slides Without Friction Along a Rigid Surface]]> Abstract For studying the stress-strain state at singular points and their neighborhoods new concept is proposed. A singular point is identified with an elementary volume that has a characteristic size of the real body representative volume. This makes it possible to set and study the restrictions at that point. It is shown that problems with singular points turn out to be ambiguous, their formulation depends on the combination of the material and geometric parameters of the investigated body. Number of constraints in a singular point is redundant compared to the usual point of the boundary (it makes singular point unique, exclusive). This circumstance determines the non-classical problem formulation for bodies containing singular points. The formulation of a non-classical problem is given, the uniqueness of its solution is proved (under the condition of existence), the algorithm of the iterative-analytical decision method is described. Restrictions on the state parameters at the composite wedge vertex, one generatrix of which is in non-friction contact with a rigid surface are studied under temperature and strength loading. The proposed approach allows to identify critical combinations of material and geometric parameters that define the singularity of stress and strain fields close to singular representative volumes. The constraints on load components needed to solution existence are established. An example of a numerical analysis of the state parameters at the wedge vertex and its neighborhood is considered. Solutions built on the basis of a new concept, directly in a singular point, and its small neighborhood differ significantly from the solutions made with asymptotic methods. Beyond a small neighborhood of a singular point the solutions obtained on the basis of different concepts coincide. <![CDATA[Dynamic Response and Microstructure Evolution of Oxygen-Free High-Conductivity Copper Liner in Explosively Formed Projectile]]> Abstract The dynamic response and microstructure evolution of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper in a shaped charge liner are investigated through microstructural examination of a soft-recovery EFP. Adiabatic shear bands and voids which is the failure original of copper EFP can be observed in the rear part of the projectile. Numerical simulation results illustrate that the highest plastic strain reaches about 2.9 which can fully accommodate the grains deformation of copper EFP during the formation process at strain rates of the order of 104s−1. Theoretical calculation results indicate that the highest temperature increase of EFP caused by shock wave and plastic deformation can reach 747K, which is 0.55T m (where T m is the melting temperature of copper). The main body of the EFP undergoes completely dynamic recrystallisation, and the average size of the refined grains significantly decreases to approximately 10┬Ám. A slight increase in grain size occurs mainly away from the center and extends towards the head and rear sections of the EFP. During the DRX process, the dislocation movement is believed to be the controlling mechanism significantly refining the microstructure.