Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures]]> vol. 13 num. 8 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[New Transition Wedge Design Composed by Prefabricated Reinforced Concrete Slabs]]> Abstract Important track degradation occurs in structure-embankment transitions, in which an abrupt change in track vertical stiffness arises, leading to a reduction in passengers comfort and safety. Although granular wedges are suggested by different railroad administrations as a solution to avoid these problems, they present some disadvantages which may affect track long-term performance. In this paper, a new solution designed with prefabricated reinforced concrete slabs is proposed. The aim of this solution is to guarantee a continuous and gradual track vertical stiffness transition in the vicinity of structures, overcoming granular wedges disadvantages. The aim of this study is to assess the performance of the novel wedge design by means of a 3-D FEM model and to compare it with the current solution. <![CDATA[Parametric Study of Stay Cables of a Bridge Under Simulated Spatially Correlated Turbulent Wind]]> Abstract The main objective of this work is to carry out a parametric study of stay cables of a bridge under simulated spatially correlated buffeting forces. This vibration mechanism is simulated with an Autoregressive and Moving Average (ARMA) model, and applied to mathematical models of the stay cables of the tallest cable-stayed bridge in Mexico. The use of auxiliary damping devices to mitigate vibration is evaluated. The analysis results showed that the use of a more realistic model to represent and characterize the variation in space and time of the fluctuating wind, which is not capture by the white noise or harmonic functions, is advantageous and offers a new alternative to evaluate the structural response of stay cables without and with dampers. The implications of the analyses results in the structural behavior of the stay cables of the bridge are discussed. <![CDATA[3D Characterization of Mixed-Mode Fracture Toughness of Materials Using a New Loading Device]]> Abstract In this paper, a new loading device was employed to conduct a mixed-mode fracture test. Therefore, disadvantages detected in the previous mixed-mode fracture toughness test methods can be avoided. The new fixture has perfect symmetry which provides a uniform stress state, creates the pure plane strain conditions and eliminates the unwanted mode-III loading conditions. The values of non-dimensional stress intensity factors for pure mode-I, pure mode-II, and pure mode-III were obtained using 3D models of new loading device and modified Arcan method in order to compare the results and investigate the variation of fracture parameters. Furthermore, the values of correction factors for pure mode-III in various loading angles were studied for both fixtures and it was resulted that in modified Arcan device there was a larger contribution of unwanted third mode loading conditions and therefore the values of mode-I and mode-II non-dimensional stress intensity factors were affected. In the present study, in order to compare the results, the fracture toughness values of ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) polymeric material were determined experimentally for both fixtures and a full range of mixed-mode loading conditions including pure mode-I and pure mode-II loading were created and tested. The differences in critical stress intensity factors of the fixtures were found about 7.00% and 42.65% in mode-I and mode-II loading conditions, respectively. <![CDATA[Influence of Fiber Properties on Shear Failure of Steel Fiber Reinforced Beams Without Web Reinforcement: ANN Modeling]]> Abstract In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN-10) model was developed to predict the ultimate shear strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) beams without web reinforcement. ANN-10 is a four-layered feed forward network with a back propagation training algorithm. The experimental data of 70 SFRC beams reported in the technical literature were utilized to train and test the validity of ANN-10. The input layer receives 10 input signals for the fiber properties (type, aspect ratio, length and volume content), section properties (width, overall depth and effective depth) and beam properties (longitudinal reinforcement ratio, compressive strength of concrete and shear span to effective depth ratio). ANN-10 has exhibited excellent predictive performance for both training and testing data sets, with an average of 1.002 for the average of predicted to experimental values. This performance of ANN-10 established the promising potential of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to simulate the complex shear behavior of SFRC beams. ANN-10 was applied to investigate the influence of the fiber volume content, type, aspect ratio and length on the ultimate shear strength of SFRC. <![CDATA[Finite Element Analysis of Structures with Extruded Aluminum Profiles Having Complex Cross Sections]]> Abstract Extruded aluminum profiles are widely used in building and automation structures due to their durability, lightweight, corrosion resistance, shorter fastening time and reusability. Proper design is crucial in maintaining the lifespan of these structures. It is therefore essential to determine the structural behaviors of the structures such as the natural frequency, mode shape, etc. The finite element analysis is a method which has been commonly used in determining structural behaviors. However, there are also numerous problems in analyzing these kinds of profiles using solid finite elements, such as modeling, meshing, solution time problems, etc. Therefore, beam finite elements have been used in the present study in modeling of the profiles. Furthermore, an equivalent beam element model has been developed for bolt-together connectors of the profiles. Simulation and experimental modal analysis have been conducted on example test systems. It has been demonstrated that this modeling technique is very practical and the results obtained from the method agree well with the experimental results. <![CDATA[Applicability of Artificial Neural Network and Nonlinear Regression to Predict Mechanical Properties of Equal Channel Angular Rolled Al5083 Sheets]]> Abstract Equal channel angular rolling (ECAR) is a severe plastic deformation (SPD) process in order to achieve ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure. In this paper, the mechanical properties of ECAR process using artificial neural network (ANN) and nonlinear regression have been illustrated. For this purpose, a multilayer perceptron (MLP) based feed-forward ANN has been used to predict the mechanical properties of ECARed Al5083 sheets. Channel oblique angle, number of passes and the route of feeding are considered as ANN inputs and tensile strength, elongation and hardness are considered as the outputs of ANN. In addition, the relationship between input parameters and mechanical properties were extracted separately using nonlinear regression method. Comparing the outputs of models and experimental results shows that models used in this study can predict and estimate mechanical properties appropriately. Where, the performance of ANN model is better than the correlations to predict mechanical properties. Finally, the developed outputs of neural network model are used to analyze the effects of input parameters on tensile strength, elongation and hardness of ECARed Al5083 sheets. <![CDATA[A New Approach for Severity Estimation of Transversal Cracks in Multi-layered Beams]]> Abstract Nowadays, the damage severity evaluation in mechanical structures is mostly performed by analyzing the natural frequency shift. The non-isotropic materials, as the multi-layered ones, are wide-spread in industrial applications, due to their interesting physic-mechanical properties. Thus, a deeper approach of multi-layered beams becomes an important request in the research domain. This paper introduces a damage severity estimator by expressing the crack evolution as a function of stored energy. It is well known that the energy stored in a beam without damage is greater than the energy of that damaged beam. As a consequence, the beam deflection can be related to the stored energy. In this regard, the possibility to split the damage localization and the damage severity assessment has been proven, and also the graphical evolution of the natural frequency shift has been achieved as a function of the crack depth. The results achieved by the finite element method (FEM) and experimental tests are given in tables and graphics. For the first five vibration modes, a comparison was made between frequencies accomplished by analytical, numerical and experimental analyses, in order to give more credibility to the accuracy of the research data presented in this paper. <![CDATA[On the Validation of a Numerical Model for the Analysis of Soil-Structure Interaction Problems]]> Abstract Modeling and simulation of mechanical response of structures, relies on the use of computational models. Therefore, verification and validation procedures are the primary means of assessing accuracy, confidence and credibility in modeling. This paper is concerned with the validation of a three dimensional numerical model based on the finite element method suitable for the dynamic analysis of soil-structure interaction problems. The soil mass, structure, structure's foundation and the appropriate boundary conditions can be represented altogether in a single model by using a direct approach. The theory of porous media of Biot is used to represent the soil mass as a two-phase material which is considered to be fully saturated with water; meanwhile other parts of the system are treated as one-phase materials. Plasticity of the soil mass is the main source of non-linearity in the problem and therefore an iterative-incremental algorithm based on the Newton-Raphson procedure is used to solve the nonlinear equilibrium equations. For discretization in time, the Generalized Newmark-β method is used. The soil is represented by a plasticity-based, effective-stress constitutive model suitable for liquefaction. Validation of the present numerical model is done by comparing analytical and centrifuge test results of soil and soil-pile systems with those results obtained with the present numerical model. A soil-pile-structure interaction problem is also presented in order to shown the potentiality of the numerical tool. <![CDATA[Effect of an Opening on Reinforced Concrete Hollow Beam Web Under Torsional, Flexural, and Cyclic Loadings]]> Abstract Hollow sections have been increasingly applied in the construction of buildings, bridges, offshore structures, and towers for passing electrical and mechanical pipes or other utilities. Torsion caused by external force is a weakness of hollow sections that is rarely investigated. In particular, the behavior of hollow sections with high-strength concrete (HSC) and ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) remains poorly studied. This study aims to examine the behavior of a reinforced concrete hollow beam with opening and compare it with a hollow beam without opening. The hollow beam with an opening is modeled using the finite element method and analyzed under torsional, flexural, and cyclic loading with HSC and UHPC materials. The effect of the opening section size on the behavior of hollow beam is also evaluated. The openings created in the web of hollow beams led to a decrease in beam capacity although the hollow beam with small opening can carry almost the same load as that of hollow beam without an opening. The result also shows that the capacity of UHPC beams for twisting is twice that of HSC beams. <![CDATA[2D Problem for a Long Cylinder in the Fractional Theory of Thermoelasticity]]> Abstract In this manuscript, we solve an asymmetric 2D problem for a long cylinder. The surface is assumed to be traction free and subjected to an asymmetric temperature distribution. A direct approach is used to solve the problem in the Laplace transformed domain. A numerical method is used to invert the Laplace transforms. Graphically results are given and discussed. <![CDATA[Erratum]]> Abstract In this manuscript, we solve an asymmetric 2D problem for a long cylinder. The surface is assumed to be traction free and subjected to an asymmetric temperature distribution. A direct approach is used to solve the problem in the Laplace transformed domain. A numerical method is used to invert the Laplace transforms. Graphically results are given and discussed.