Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures]]> vol. 13 num. 5 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Elasto-Plastic Stress Analysis in Rotating Disks and Pressure Vessels Made of Functionally Graded Materials]]> Abstract A new elastio-plastic stress solution in axisymmetric problems (rotating disk, cylindrical and spherical vessel) is presented. The rotating disk (cylindrical and spherical vessel) was made of a ceramic/metal functionally graded material, i.e. a particle-reinforced composite. It was assumed that the material's plastic deformation follows an isotropic strain-hardening rule based on the von-Mises yield criterion. The mechanical properties of the graded material were modeled by the modified rule of mixtures. By assuming small strains, Hencky's stress-strain relation was used to obtain the governing differential equations for the plastic region. A numerical method for solving those differential equations was then proposed that enabled the prediction of stress state within the structure. Selected finite element results were also presented to establish supporting evidence for the validation of the proposed approach. <![CDATA[Behaviour under Impact of Mixed Adhesive Joints for the Automotive Industry]]> Abstract The automotive industry is increasingly using adhesive joints bonding advanced lightweight materials to reduce vehicle weight. Strength under impact loadings is a major concern for this application and mixed adhesive joints can effectively improve the joints by combining stiffness and flexibility on the same overlap. This work introduces and studies several configurations for static and impact tests of mixed adhesive joints with four adhesives in different combinations. The main purpose of this work is the development of a strong adhesive joint using a mixed adhesive layer and perform a series of mechanical to study its mechanical behaviour. It is concluded that the use of the mixed adhesive technique improves both static and impact strength by introducing flexibility to the joint which subsequently allows more energy absorption when introduced in crash resistant structures. <![CDATA[Effects of Partial Edge Loading and Fibre Configuration on Vibration and Buckling Characteristics of Stiffened Composite Plates]]> Abstract In this work, the influence of uniaxial and biaxial partial edge loads on buckling and vibration characteristics of stiffened laminated plates is examined by using finite element method. As the initial pre-buckling stress distributions within an element are highly non-uniform in nature for a given loading and edge conditions, the critical loads are evaluated by dynamic approach. Towards this, a nine-node heterosis plate element and a compatible three-node beam element are developed by employing the effect of shear deformation for both the plate and the stiffeners respectively. In the structural modeling, the plate and the stiffener elements are treated separately, and then the displacement compatibility is maintained between them by using a transformation matrix. Effect of different parameters such as loaded edge width, position of loads, boundary conditions, ply-orientations and stiffener factors are considered in this study. Buckling results show that the uniaxial loaded stiffened plate with around (+30º/-30º)2 layup can withstand higher load irrespective of boundary conditions and loading patterns, whereas the maximum load resisting layup for the bi-axially loaded stiffened plate is purely dependent on edge conditions and loading patterns. <![CDATA[Behavior of Damaged Exterior RC Beam-Column Joints Strengthened by CFRP Composites]]> Abstract This paper presents an experimental investigation on the behavior of retrofitted beam-column joints subjected to reversed cyclic loading. The experimental program comprises 8 external beam-column joint connection subassemblages tested in 2 phases; one was the damaging phase and second was the repairing phase. The Beam-column joints were designed only for gravity loads. The joints had no beam-column joint transverse reinforcement and special stirrups in beam and column critical zones. These Non-Seismically designed (NS) joints were damaged with different levels at the first phase of the experiment. In the second phase, the damaged joints were strengthened with externally bonded carbon-fibre-reinforced polymers (C-FRP) sheets. From the observed responses of the examined specimens it can be deduced that the technique of externally bonded retrofitting (EBR) using C-FRP sheets is appropriate for the rehabilitation of the joints seismic capacity. This technique had a significant improvement of the energy dissipation and the performance level and finally it leads to improved type of damages compared with the damage modes of the specimens during the initial loading. Shortcomings of the application of C-FRP sheets for practical use are also pointed out. <![CDATA[TLP Structural Health Monitoring Based on Vibration Signal of Energy Harvesting System]]> Abstract Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of Tension Leg Platform (TLP) is very crucial for preventing catastrophic and sudden collapse of the structures. One of the methods of monitoring these structures is implementing SHM sensors. Supplying energy for these sensors for a long period is a challenging problem. So, one of the new methods of supplying energy for SHM, is usage of mechanical energy. In this method, the piezoelectric material is employed to convert the mechanical energy which is resulted from vibration of structure, to electrical energy. The advantage of this method is based on not implementing the battery charging system. Therefore, in this paper, after modeling TLP structure, energy supplying of these sensors with piezoelectric converters is studied. Furthermore, fault diagnosis of these structures in the presence of different uncertainties is proposed by the features of voltage signal, produced from piezoelectric patches and fuzzy classification method. Results show that this method can diagnose faults of the structure with an acceptable success rate. <![CDATA[Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Compressive Behavior of Circular Steel Tube-Confined Concrete Stub Columns by New Confinement Relationships]]> Abstract This paper presents a nonlinear analysis of axially loaded steel tube-confined concrete (STCC) stub columns with new confinement relationships. For this aim, a 3-D finite element model of STCC columns using ABAQUS program is developed and validated against the experimental data. Proper material constitutive models are proposed and the confinement parameters of confined concrete are determined by matching the numerical results via trial and error. The parameters considered for quantitative verification of the FE model include five different factors indicating the behavior of STCC columns: compressive strength corresponding to steel yielding point, initial peak strength and ultimate strength as well as longitudinal to circumferential stress ratio of steel tube at steel yielding point and initial peak point. For the qualitative verification, the axial and lateral stress-strain relationships of STCC columns are taken into account. The comparison results indicate that the model can accurately predict the compressive behavior of STCC stub columns. Finally, a parametric study is also performed to evaluate the effect of tube diameter-to-wall thickness ratio (D/t), concrete compressive strength (fc ) and steel yield strength (fy ) on the compressive behavior of STCC columns. According to the results of the parametric study, the interface shear stress and lateral confining pressure are not affected by fc while significantly increase with decreasing D/t. <![CDATA[Flexural Behavior of Beams Reinforced with Steel Bars Exceeding the Nominal Yield Strength]]> Abstract If steel manufactures usually comply with the minimum code specifications, the nominal yield strength of rebar can however be significantly exceeded in many countries, depending on the steel manufacturing processes. Such an increase in yield strength can have negative effects on the flexural behavior of beams designed as tension controlled, and reduce their ductility, an essential property in seismic resisting structures. An experimental and analytical study of the flexural behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams was conducted through the investigation of the Moment-Curvature relationships and the ultimate steel strains. The main variable was the level of the actual steel yield stress as compared to the nominal value. It was found that unexpectedly high values of steel yield stress reduce the beam ductility and violate the tension-control condition which was enforced in the design stage. Appropriate design corrections are proposed to account for high yield stress values in order to achieve the desired ductility of beams while maintaining the moment capacities. <![CDATA[Kelvin Viscoelasticity and Lagrange Multipliers Applied to the Simulation of Nonlinear Structural Vibration Control]]> Abstract This study proposes a new pure numerical way to model mass / spring / damper devices to control the vibration of truss structures developing large displacements. It avoids the solution of local differential equations present in traditional convolution approaches to solve viscoelasticity. The structure is modeled by the geometrically exact Finite Element Method based on positions. The introduction of the device's mass is made by means of Lagrange multipliers that imposes its movement along the straight line of a finite element. A pure numerical Kelvin/Voigt like rheological model capable of nonlinear large deformations is originally proposed here. It is numerically solved along time to accomplish the damping parameters of the device. Examples are solved to validate the formulation and to show the practical possibilities of the proposed technique <![CDATA[A Timoshenko Piezoelectric Beam Finite Element with Consistent Performance Irrespective of Geometric and Material Configurations]]> Abstract The conventional Timoshenko piezoelectric beam finite elements based on First-order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT) do not maintain the accuracy and convergence consistently over the applicable range of material and geometric properties. In these elements, the inaccuracy arises due to the induced potential effects in the transverse direction and inefficiency arises due to the use of independently assumed linear polynomial interpolation of the field variables in the longitudinal direction. In this work, a novel FSDT-based piezoelectric beam finite element is proposed which is devoid of these deficiencies. A variational formulation with consistent through-thickness potential is developed. The governing equilibrium equations are used to derive the coupled field relations. These relations are used to develop a polynomial interpolation scheme which properly accommodates the bending-extension, bending-shear and induced potential couplings to produce accurate results in an efficient manner. It is noteworthy that this consistently accurate and efficient beam finite element uses the same nodal variables as of conventional FSDT formulations available in the literature. Comparison of numerical results proves the consistent accuracy and efficiency of the proposed formulation irrespective of geometric and material configurations, unlike the conventional formulations. <![CDATA[A Study on Equivalent Spherical Structure of Buckyball-C <strong><sub>60</sub></strong> Based on Continuum Shell Model]]> Abstract The main goal of this research is to extract a suitable continuum modeling of buckyball-C60. For this purpose, firstly the lattice structure of buckyball-C60 is modelled and subsequently a spherical structure equivalent to fullerene structure is considered. The fullerene structure modeled with shell elements is under internal pressure and in the continuum shell modeling process. The results of simulation demonstrate that the fullerene structure can be modelled using spherical structure. The comparison between strain energies of the equivalent fullerene spherical model and molecular mechanics model under radial displacement, shows that C60-fullerene spherical structures can be modeled using a shell with 0.665 Å thickness, 5.07 TPa elastic modulus and 0.165 Poisson's ratio or a shell with 0.75 Å thickness, 4.84 TPa elastic modulus and 0.19 Poisson's ratio. Moreover, the applied elliptical strain is used to demonstrate that the performance of the continuum spherical shell model of C60 is faultless.