Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures]]> vol. 14 num. 13 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Effectiveness of Tuned Mass Dampers in Seismic Response Control of Isolated Bridges Including Soil-Structure Interaction]]> Abstract The effect of soil-structure interaction (SSI) on the dynamic responses of seismically isolated three-span continuous reinforced concrete (RC) bridge is investigated. Also, tuned mass damper(s) (TMD/s) is/are installed to control undesirable bearing displacement, even under the SSI effect. The TMDs are placed at the mid-span of the bridge and each tuned with a modal frequency, while controlling up to first few modes as desirable. The soil surrounding the foundation of pier is modeled by frequency independent coefficients. Dynamic analysis is carried out in time domain using direct integration method. In order to specify the effects of the SSI, the responses of the non-isolated, isolated, and controlled isolated bridge are compared. It is observed that the soil surrounding the pier has significant effects on the bearing displacement of the isolated RC bridges. In addition, it is observed that the seismic responses of isolated RC bridge reduced significantly with installation of the TMDs. <![CDATA[Ductility Analysis of RC Beams Considering the Concrete Confinement Effect Produced by the Shear Reinforcement: a Numerical Approach]]> Abstract In this paper, a simplified numerical approach to study the influence of the confinement effect provided by transversal reinforcement on the ductility behavior of RC beams in bending is proposed. A unidimensional FEM mechanical model coupled to the Mazars’ damage model to simulate concrete behavior was adopted to assess ductility curvatures at the ultimate limit state. The confinement effect was incorporated to the numerical model through a calibration process of the damage internal parameters, based on the Least Square Method and an analytical law proposed by Kent and Park (1971). Several numerical analyses were carried out considering different designs of RC beams according to a parametric study varying the neutral axis position, concrete compressive strength and the volumetric transversal reinforcement ratio. The obtained results showed the importance of the amount of transversal reinforcement on the ductility behavior, increasing the ductility factor even for the cases with inappropriate neutral axis position. <![CDATA[Recent Developments in Damage Identification of Structures Using Data Mining]]> Abstract Civil structures are usually prone to damage during their service life and it leads them to loss their serviceability and safety. Thus, damage assessment can guarantee the integrity of structures. As a result, a structural damage detection approach including two main components, a set of accelerometers to record the response data and a data mining (DM) procedure, is widely used to extract the information on the structural health condition. In the last decades, DM has provided numerous solutions to structural health monitoring (SHM) problems as an all-inclusive technique due to its powerful computational ability. This paper presents the first attempt to illustrate the data mining techniques (DMTs) applications in SHM through an intensive review of those articles dealing with the use of DMTs aimed for classification-, prediction- and optimization-based data mining methods. According to this categorization, applications of DMTs with respect to SHM research area are classified and it is concluded that, applications of DMTs in the SHM domain have increasingly been implemented, in the last decade and the most popular techniques in the area were artificial neural network (ANN), principal component analysis (PCA) and genetic algorithm (GA), respectively. <![CDATA[An Enhanced Random Vibration and Fatigue Model for Printed Circuit Boards]]> Abstract Aerospace vehicles are mostly exposed to random vibration loads during its operational lifetime. These harsh conditions excites vibration responses in the vehicles printed circuit boards, what can cause failure on mission functionality due to fatigue damage of electronic components. A novel analytical model to evaluate the useful life of embedded electronic components (capacitors, chips, oscillators etc.) mounted on Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) is presented. The fatigue damage predictions are calculated by the relative displacement between the PCB and the component, the lead stiffness, as well the natural vibration modes of the PCB and the component itself. Statistical methods are used for fatigue cycle counting. The model is applied to experimental fatigue tests of PCBs available on literature. The analytical results are of the same magnitude order of the experimental findings. <![CDATA[Assessing the Notch Sensitivity of High Strength Wires]]> Abstract High strength wires, which have a poor notch sensitivity performance, are currently been used on many offshore applications where high stresses without yielding are demanded. To assess these wires notch sensitivity, an integrated approach was implemented. An experimental program was conducted, through the realization of fatigue tests to obtain the fatigue limit for notched and notched free specimens to assess the fatigue stress concentration factor. A numerical approach using Finite Element Method, and an analytical model, available in technical literature, were used to assess the stress concentration factor. With both results, the notch sensitivity could be obtained. <![CDATA[A Simple FEM Formulation Applied to Nonlinear Problems of Impact with Thermomechanical Coupling]]> Abstract The thermal effects of problems involving deformable structures are essential to describe the behavior of materials in feasible terms. Verifying the transformation of mechanical energy into heat it is possible to predict the modifications of mechanical properties of materials due to its temperature changes. The current paper presents the numerical development of a finite element method suitable for nonlinear structures coupled with thermomechanical behavior; including impact problems. A simple and effective alternative formulation is presented, called FEM positional, to deal with the dynamic nonlinear systems. The developed numerical is based on the minimum potential energy written in terms of nodal positions instead of displacements. The effects of geometrical, material and thermal nonlinearities are considered. The thermodynamically consistent formulation is based on the laws of thermodynamics and the Helmholtz free-energy, used to describe the thermoelastic and the thermoplastic behaviors. The coupled thermomechanical model can result in secondary effects that cause redistributions of internal efforts, depending on the history of deformation and material properties. The numerical results of the proposed formulation are compared with examples found in the literature. <![CDATA[Viscoelastic Substrates Effects on the Elimination or Reduction of the Sandwich Structures Oscillations Based on the Kelvin-Voigt Model]]> Abstract Effects of viscoelastic substrates on the sandwich structures oscillations are examined in this paper. In this regard, dynamic response of sandwich annular panels with FG polar orthotropic face sheets resting on viscoelastic substrate is presented. Young’s modulus in the radial and circumferential direction, shear modulus and density of each face sheet may be varied continuously in the radial direction. The viscoelastic substrate is modeled as Kelvin-Voigt foundation. To describe more accurately response of sandwich structures, the governing dynamical equations are derived based on the layerwise theory and five systems of second order coupled partial differential equations are obtained. The effects of the stiffness and damping coefficients of the foundation on the dynamic behavior of sandwich plate are investigated for various transient loads and boundary condition. Since no available results may be found in literature to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the obtained results, the obtained results are verified by comparison with finite element results based on the three dimensional theory of elasticity for some special cases. <![CDATA[Static Limit Analysis of Reinforced Soil Structures by a Simple Finite Element and Second-Order Cone Programming]]> Abstract To discretize reinforced soil structures in plane strain and predict their collapse load, a simple three-node triangular finite element is formulated based on the static theorem of the limit analysis. The element satisfies the equilibrium equations and the mechanical boundary conditions in a weak sense. A modified Mohr-Coulomb yield surface is adopted to describe the reinforced soil behavior from a macromechanics point of view. It is also taken into account the possibility of tension failure of the reinforcement and failure of the reinforcement interface. The stated nonlinear convex optimization problem is cast as second-order cone programming. Numerical examples illustrate the predictive accuracy of the above scheme as well as the efficiency and speed of an interior-point method to reach optimal solutions. <![CDATA[Experiment and Calculation Method of the Dynamic Response of Deep Water Bridge in Earthquake]]> Abstract For deep-water long span bridges under earthquakes, the interaction between water and structure will inevitably induce the hydrodynamic force on the structures. Based on the Morison potential fluid theory, a simplified calculation method of hydrodynamic force was proposed. Taken the 3rd Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge in China as the prototype, the shaking table test for the elevated pile caps was performed. And the results from the experiment and the proposed simplified calculation method were analyzed and compared. The main conclusions include: the natural vibration frequency of the bridge in deep water is decreased, and the predominant frequency is reduced by 8.24% due to the water-structure interaction. In earthquake, the effect of hydrodynamic force on the dynamic response of the deep water bridge is significant that the bending moment of the main girder is increased 7.73% and the bottom bending moment of the most adverse pile is increased 14.22%. In the seismic design of deep-water bridges, the effect of water-structure interaction should not be ignored. <![CDATA[Dynamic Analysis of Imperfect FGM Circular Cylindrical Shells Reinforced by FGM Stiffener System Using Third Order Shear Deformation Theory in Term of Displacement Components]]> Abstract This paper presents dynamic analysis of an eccentrically stiffened imperfect circular cylindrical shells made of functionally graded materials (FGM), subjected to axial compressive load and filled inside by elastic foundations in thermal environments by analytical method. Shells are reinforced by FGM stringers and rings taking into account thermal elements. The stability equations in terms of displacement components for stiffened shells are derived by using the third-order shear deformation theory and smeared stiffeners technique.The closed-form expressions for determining the natural frequency, nonlinear frequency-amplitude curve and nonlinear dynamic response are obtained by using Galerkin method and fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The effects of stiffeners, foundations, imperfection, material and dimensional parameters pre-existent axial compressive and thermal load on dynamic responses of shells are considered.