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vol. 11 num. 14 lang. pt<![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]>http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif
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<![CDATA[<b>Trefftz- type FEM for solving orthotropic potential problems</b>]]>
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-78252014001400001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt
A simple Trefftz-type finite element method (TFEM) is proposed for solving certain potential problems in orthotropic media. The "body force", which is induced by internal sources or sinks, may produce domain integrals in the standard Trefftz finite element formulation. This will make the advantage "only-boundary integration" of TFEM lose entirely. To overcome this difficulty, the dual reciprocity method (DRM) is employed to transfer the original problem into a homogeneous one. Then, a particular solution (PS) Trefftz-type finite element model is established based on the modified functional. Three benchmark examples are investigated by the proposed approach and compared with the analytical solutions.<![CDATA[<b>Global optimal path planning of an autonomous vehicle for overtaking a moving obstacle</b>]]>
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-78252014001400002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt
In this paper, the global optimal path planning of an autonomous vehicle for overtaking a moving obstacle is proposed. In this study, the autonomous vehicle overtakes a moving vehicle by performing a double lane-change maneuver after detecting it in a proper distance ahead. The optimal path of vehicle for performing the lane-change maneuver is generated by a path planning program in which the sum of lateral deviation of the vehicle from a reference path and the rate of steering angle become minimum while the lateral acceleration of vehicle does not exceed a safe limit value. A nonlinear optimal control theory with the lateral vehicle dynamics equations and inequality constraint of lateral acceleration are used to generate the path. The indirect approach for solving the optimal control problem is used by applying the calculus of variation and the Pontryagin's Minimum Principle to obtain first-order necessary conditions for optimality. The optimal path is generated as a global optimal solution and can be used as the benchmark of the path generated by the local motion planning of autonomous vehicles. A full nonlinear vehicle model in CarSim software is used for path following simulation by importing path data from the MATLAB code. The simulation results show that the generated path for the autonomous vehicle satisfies all vehicle dynamics constraints and hence is a suitable overtaking path for the following vehicle.<![CDATA[<b>Analysis of the flexural mode response of a novel trimaran by segmented model test</b>]]>
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-78252014001400003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt
A novel ship concept design is significantly an "adhoc" process. In the preliminary design stage of novel vessels, it is very important to be able to develop an initial estimate of the effects of stiffness and mass distribution on the longitudinal flexural natural frequencies due to different general arrangements in still water at zero speed to satisfy design specifications. For new emerging designs, this estimate has to be made based on a model test. The experiments should also be planned so that scales effects and other features that are not present in full scale case, are minimized. A model with a length of 1.5 meter has been selected. The model was cut into four segments longitudinally and connected by a backbone beam with three elastic hinges joining the four segments. Wet vibration tests were conducted on the model, showed significant influences on the flexural natural frequencies through variations in stiffness and different mass distributions. The whipping frequency was calculated with four degrees of freedom theoretical model to compare with the experimental results. The theoretical model shows a good agreement with the experimental results.<![CDATA[<b>A robust triangular membrane element</b>]]>
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-78252014001400004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt
To analyze the plane problem with irregular mesh and complicated geometry, it is helpful to utilize the triangular element. In this study, several optimization criteria will be elaborated. By utilizing these provisions and satisfying the equilibrium conditions, a novel triangular element, named SST, is developed. To demonstrate the high accuracy and efficiency of the new element, a variety of structures will be solved. The findings will prove that the presented element has a low sensitivity to the geometric distortion. Moreover, the parasitic shear error will not arise when this element is employed. In addition to these, the proposed element is rotational invariant. Comparison studies will reveal that the SST element is more robust than the other well-known triangular ones.<![CDATA[<b>Wear prediction for dry revolute joint with clearance in multibody system by integrating dynamics model and wear model</b>]]>
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-78252014001400005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt
This work presents an investigation on wear prediction of multibody system including dry revolute clearance joint using a computational methodology. A procedure to analyze multibody system in which wear is present at revolute joints is presented. The study involves integrating a dynamics model of the mutibody system with clearance joint into a wear prediction procedure. The contact model in clearance joint is established using a hybrid nonlinear contact force model and the friction effect is considered by using a modified Coulomb friction model. The wear modeling of revolute clearance joint in multibody systems is presented based on the Archard's wear model. Finally, an academic four-bar multibody mechanical system with revolute clearance joint is used as numerical example application to perform the investigation.<![CDATA[<b>Modeling and analysis of waves in a heat conducting thermo-elastic plate of elliptical shape</b>]]>
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-78252014001400006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt
Wave propagation in heat conducting thermo elastic plate of elliptical cross-section is studied using the Fourier expansion collocation method based on Suhubi's generalized theory. The equations of motion based on two-dimensional theory of elasticity is applied under the plane strain assumption of generalized thermo elastic plate of elliptical cross-sections composed of homogeneous isotropic material. The frequency equations are obtained by using the boundary conditions along outer and inner surface of elliptical cross-sectional plate using Fourier expansion collocation method. The computed non-dimensional frequency, velocity and quality factor are plotted in dispersion curves for longitudinal and flexural (symmetric and antisymmetric) modes of vibrations.<![CDATA[<b>Study on TVD parameters sensitivity of a crankshaft using multiple scale and state space method considering quadratic and cubic non-linearities</b>]]>
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-78252014001400007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt
In this paper the effect of quadratic and cubic non-linearities of the system consisting of the crankshaft and torsional vibration damper (TVD) is taken into account. TVD consists of non-linear elastomer material used for controlling the torsional vibration of crankshaft. The method of multiple scales is used to solve the governing equations of the system. Meanwhile, the frequency response of the system for both harmonic and sub-harmonic resonances is extracted. In addition, the effects of detuning parameters and other dimensionless parameters for a case of harmonic resonance are investigated. Moreover, the external forces including both inertia and gas forces are simultaneously applied into the model. Finally, in order to study the effectiveness of the parameters, the dimensionless governing equations of the system are solved, considering the state space method. Then, the effects of the torsional damper as well as all corresponding parameters of the system are discussed.<![CDATA[<b>Modified generalized pushover analysis for estimating longitudinal seismic demands of bridges with elevated pile foundation systems</b>]]>
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-78252014001400008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt
In longitudinal multi-mode pushover analysis of bridges with elevated pile foundation systems, the inelastic contributions of the second mode cannot be neglected. Generalized pushover analysis cannot be applied directly in this condition. A modified generalized pushover procedure is developed for estimating seismic demands of bridges with elevated pile foundation systems. Modified generalized pushover procedure, modal pushover analysis and incremental dynamic analysis of a bridge with elevated pile foundation systems are conducted. The results show that the modified generalized pushover procedure can provide reasonable estimations of moments and predict more accurate plastic hinge rotations compared with modal pushover analysis.<![CDATA[<b>Dynamic behaviors of visco-elastic thin-walled spherical shells impact onto a rigid plate</b>]]>
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-78252014001400009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt
As a representative structure, ping-pong balls are usually used to study the mechanical properties of thin-walled spherical shells. In a previous study, the dynamic behaviors of ping-pong balls impinged onto a rigid plate were investigated. It was found that the dynamic deformation energy of the balls could be several times higher than that under quasi-static compression, which could not be completely explained by elastic-plastic material property, strain-rate and inertial effects. In this paper, more impact tests were conducted and the details including the contact time, deformation and rebound behaviors with different impact velocities were reinvestigated. Based on the experimental results, visco-elastic material model is applied and the numerical simulation of thin-walled spherical shells impact onto a plate is performed, in which the influences of the visco-elastic parameters and the impact velocity on the dynamic behaviors are studied. By adjusting the visco-elastic parameters, the contact time, deformation, and the coefficient of restitution agree well with the experimental results.<![CDATA[<b>Buckling configurations and dynamic response of buckled Euler-Bernoulli beams with non-classical supports</b>]]>
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-78252014001400010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt
Exact solutions of buckling configurations and vibration response of post-buckled configurations of beams with non-classical boundary conditions (e.g., elastically supported) are presented using the Euler-Bernoulli theory. The geometric nonlinearity arising from mid-plane stretching (i.e., the von Kármán nonlinear strain) is considered in the formulation. The nonlinear equations are reduced to a single linear equation in terms of the transverse deflection by eliminating the axial displacement and incorporating the nonlinearity and the applied load into a constant. The resulting critical buckling loads and their associated mode shapes are obtained by solving the linearized buckling problem analytically. The buckling configurations are determined in terms of the applied axial load and the transverse deflection. The first buckled shape is the only stable equilibrium position for all boundary conditions considered. Then the pseudo-dynamic response of buckled beams is also determined analytically. Natural frequency versus buckling load and natural frequency versus amplitudes of buckling configurations are plotted for various non-classical boundary conditions.