Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures]]> vol. 13 num. 6 lang. <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Experimentally Validated Combustion and Piston Fatigue Life Evaluation Procedures for the Bi-Fuel Engines, Using an Integral-Type Fatigue Criterion]]> Abstract A relatively complete procedure for high cycle fatigue life assessment of the engine components is outlined in the present paper. The piston is examined as a typical component of the engine. In this regard, combustion process and transient heat transfer simulations, determination of the instantaneous variations of the pressure and temperature in the combustion chamber, kinematic and dynamic analyses of the moving parts of the engine, thermoelastic stress analyses, and fatigue life analyses are accomplished. Results of the simulation are compared with the test data to verify the results. The heat transfer results are validated by the experimental results measured by the Templugs. The nonlinear multipoint contact constraints are modeled accurately. Results of the more accurate available fatigue criteria are compared with those of a fatigue criterion recently proposed by the first author. These results are also evaluated by comparing them with the experimental durability tests. The presented procedure may be used, e.g., to decide whether it is suitable to convert a gasoline-based engine to a bi-fuel one. Results of the various thermomechanical fatigue analyses performed reveal that the piston life decreases considerably when natural gas is used instead of gasoline. <![CDATA[Path Planning for Unmanned Underwater Vehicle in 3D Space with Obstacles Using Spline-Imperialist Competitive Algorithm and Optimal Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller]]> Abstract In this research, generation of a short and smooth path in three-dimensional space with obstacles for guiding an Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) without collision is investigated. This is done by utilizing spline technique, in which the spline control points positions are determined by Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) in three-dimensional space such that the shortest possible path from the starting point to the target point without colliding with obstacles is achieved. Furthermore, for guiding the UUV in the generated path, an Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller (IT2FLC), the coefficients of which are optimized by considering an objective function that includes quadratic terms of the input forces and state error of the system, is used. Selecting such objective function reduces the control error and also the force applied to the UUV, which consequently leads to reduction of energy consumption. Therefore, by using a special method, desired signals of UUV state are obtained from generated three-dimensional optimal path such that tracking these signals by the controller leads to the tracking of this path by UUV. In this paper, the dynamical model of the UUV, entitled as "mUUV-WJ-1" , is derived and its hydrodynamic coefficients are calculated by CFD in order to be used in the simulations. For simulation by the method presented in this study, three environments with different obstacles are intended in order to check the performance of the IT2FLC controller in generating optimal paths for guiding the UUV. In this article, in addition to ICA, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) are also used for generation of the paths and the results are compared with each other. The results show the appropriate performance of ICA rather than ABC and PSO. Moreover, to evaluate the performance of the IT2FLC, optimal Type-1 Fuzzy Logic Controller (T1FLC) and Proportional Integrator Differentiator (PID) controller are designed and applied to the UUV and compared with each other. The simulation results show the superiority of the IT2FLC than the other two controllers. <![CDATA[Fracture Failure of Reinforced Concrete Slabs Subjected to Blast Loading Using the Combined Finite-Discrete Element Method]]> Abstract Numerical modeling of fracture failure is challenging due to various issues in the constitutive law and the transition of continuum to discrete bodies. Therefore, this study presents the application of the combined finite-discrete element method to investigate the fracture failure of reinforced concrete slabs subjected to blast loading. In numerical modeling, the interaction of non-uniform blast loading on the concrete slab was modeled using the incorporation of the finite element method with a crack rotating approach and the discrete element method to model crack, fracture onset and its post-failures. A time varying pressure-time history based on the mapping method was adopted to define blast loading. The Mohr-Coulomb with Rankine cut-off and von-Mises criteria were applied for concrete and steel reinforcement respectively. The results of scabbing, spalling and fracture show a reliable prediction of damage and fracture. <![CDATA[Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Telescopic Mechanism for Truss Structure Bridge Inspection Vehicle Under Pedestrian Excitation]]> Abstract Nonlinear dynamic analysis of an axially moving telescopic mechanism for truss structure bridge inspection vehicle under pedestrian excitation is carried out. A biomechanically inspired inverted-pendulum model is utilized to simplify the pedestrian. The nonlinear equations of motion for the beam-pedestrian system are derived using the Hamilton's principle. The equations are transformed into two ordinary differential equations by applying the Galerkin's method at the first two orders. The solutions to the equations are acquired by using the Newmark-β method associated with the Newton-Raphson method. The time-dependent feature of the eigenfunctions for the two beams are taken into consideration in the solutions. Accordingly, the equations of motion for a simplified system, in which the pedestrian is regarded as moving cart, are given. In the numerical examples, dynamic responses of the telescopic mechanism in eight conditions of different beam-telescoping and pedestrian-moving directions are simulated. Comparisons between the vibrations of the beams under pedestrian excitation and corresponding moving cart are carried out to investigate the influence of the pedestrian excitation on the telescopic mechanism. The results show that the displacement of the telescopic mechanism under pedestrian excitation is smaller than that under moving cart especially when the pedestrian approaches the beams end. Additionally, compared with moving cart, the pedestrian excitation can effectively strengthen the vibration when the beam extension is small or when the pedestrian is close to the beams end. <![CDATA[Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams by a Manual Approach of Stringer-Panel Method]]> Abstract D-regions are defined by its non-linear strain distribution over a cross section. Deep beams are an example of D-regions, as most of its load is usually directly delivered to supports by arch mechanism. The present paper focus on the Stringer-Panel Method (SPM), an alternative procedure to some well-known methods for designing this type of structure, i.e., strut-and-tie method and finite element method. A manual approach of SPM is presented, by means of a simple principle of dividing a structure on two distinct elements: stringers, which absorb normal forces, and panels, which absorb shear forces by membrane action. Two practical examples of deep beams designed using SPM are presented and their overall behavior were investigated by means of non-linear analysis. Obtained results have shown that SPM is a very attractive alternative for analyzing reinforced concrete deep beams. <![CDATA[Effect of Web Holes and Bearing Stiffeners on Flexural-Shear Interaction Strength of Steel Cold-Formed C-Channel Sections]]> Abstract This paper presents an investigation on interaction equation between the required flexural strength, M, and the required shear strength, V, of cold-formed C-channels with web holes and bearing stiffeners. The primarily shear condition test was employed to study total 8 back to back lipped C channel sections of 95 and 100 mm depth when bearing stiffeners and circular holes were placed at center and both ends of specimens. The interaction equation were evaluated via Direct Strength Method, DSM, in accordance with the American Iron and Steel Institute for the design of cold-formed steel structural members, AISI 2007. A nonlinear finite element model was developed and verified against the test results in terms of failure buckling modes. It was concluded that the M-V interaction equation for specimens with web stiffeners was conservative where these specimens experienced plastic failure mode rather than local (Msl) or distortional (Msd) buckling mode. Moreover, the results indicated that proposed M-V interaction equation calculated by local buckling strength (Msl) adequately predicted the behavior of specimens with circular web holes. <![CDATA[Fastener Demands for Sheathing-Braced Cold-Formed Steel Stud Gravity Walls]]> Abstract We explore, in this paper, the demands and behavior on fasteners supplying sheathing-based bracing of gravity loaded cold-formed studs and wall assemblies. The studies are carried out by shell finite element (FE) models, which are compared to analytical solutions and previously completed laboratory tests conducted by the authors. The connection between the sheathing and the stud should be able to develop enough resistance to restrain global buckling of the studs; therefore, special attention has to be given to the demands on these connections for design. Local buckling and stress concentrations may damage some connections and redistribution of forces should be ensured. Classical practice for determining fastener demand - i.e., the 2% rule - may be deficient. An analytical method developed for determining fastener demand is compared to the FE models presented in this paper; the analytical method results in a reasonable prediction of the fastener forces in wall studs. <![CDATA[Crashworthiness Analysis and Evaluation of Fuselage Section with Sub-floor Composite Sinusoidal Specimens]]> Abstract Crashworthiness is one of the main concerns in civil aviation safety particularly with regard to the increasing ratio of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) in aircraft primary structures. In order to generate dates for model validations, the mechanical properties of T700/3234 were obtained by material performance tests, and energy-absorbing results were gained by quasi-static crushing tests of composite sinusoidal specimens. The correctness of composite material model and single-layer finite element model of composite sinusoidal specimens were verified based on the simulation results and test results that were in good agreement. A typical civil aircraft fuselage section with composite sinusoidal specimens under cargo floor was suggested. The crashworthiness of finite element model of fuselage section was assessed by simulating the vertical drop test subjected to 7 m/s impact velocity, and the influences of different thickness of sub-floor composite sinusoidal specimens on crashworthiness of fuselage section were also analyzed. The simulation results show that the established finite element model can accurately simulate the crushing process of composite sinusoidal specimens; the failure process of fuselage section is more stable, and the safety of occupants can be effectively improved because of the smaller peak accelerations that was limited to human tolerance, a critical thickness of sub-floor composite sinusoidal specimens can restrict the magnitude of acceleration peaks, which has certain reference values for enhancing crashworthiness capabilities of fuselage section and improving the survivability of passengers. <![CDATA[Design Optimization of a Random Suspension Device Considering a Reliability Constraint on the Frequency Response Function]]> Abstract This work deals with the design of a suspension device, idealized as a spring-mass-damper system. The amplitude of a nominal system is constrained to satisfy certain limitations in a given frequency band and the design is to be done as a reliability-based optimization. This constitutes a major difficulty since the constraint becomes a random process. To concentrate in the main ideas, only the stiffness of the system will be considered random. The stiffness is characterized by a uniform random variable, and its mean and standard deviation are the optimization parameters. The design problem is stated as a two-objective optimization. They are the mean and the standard deviation of the stiffness: one search for the lowest stiffness and the greatest standard deviation, while the amplitude response must be within the acceptable domain of vibration, which is prescribed. To generate the Pareto front, the Normal Boundary Intersection method is used in the RFNM algorithm. Results show that a not-connected Pareto curve can be obtained for some choice of constraint. Hence, in this simple example, one shows that difficult situations can occur in the design of dynamic systems when prescribing an amplitude-response hull. Despite the simplicity of the example treated here, chosen to highlight the main ideas without distraction, the strategy proposed here can be generalized for more complex cases and give valuable results, able to help designers to choose for the best compromise between the mean and the standard deviation in reliability-based designs. <![CDATA[Experimental Study of Tensile Test in Resistance Spot Welding Process]]> Abstract Resistance spot welding (RSW) is a widely used joining process for fabricating sheet metal assemblies in automobile industry .In comparison with other welding processes the RSW is faster and easier for automation. This process involves electrical, thermal and mechanical interactions. Resistance spot welding primarily takes place by localized melting spot at the interface of the sheets followed by its quick solidification under sequential control of pressure water-cooled electrode and flow of required electric current for certain duration. In this work the tensile tests were studied, the results obtained show that the type material, the overlap length, the angle of the rolling direction and the thickness of the sheet have an influence in resistance spot welding process.