Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Oral Research]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1806-832420190001&lang=e vol. 33 num. lang. e <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100200&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract Colchicine is widely used in the treatment of several inflammatory diseases due to its anti-inflammatory effect, but effects on bone metabolism are unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of systemically-administered colchicine on healthy periodontium and experimentally-induced periodontitis. In total, 42 male Wistar rats were included in this study. A non-ligated group constituting the negative control group (Control, C, n = 6) and a ligature-only group forming the positive control group (LO, n = 12) were created separately. Twelve rats were treated with 0.4 mg/kg colchicine and another 12 with 1 mg/kg colchicine. In the colchicine-administered groups, right mandibles constituted the ligated groups (1 mgC-L or 0.4 mgC-L) and left mandibles formed the corresponding non-ligated controls (1mgC or 0.4mgC). Silk ligatures were placed at the gingival margin of the lower first molars. The animals were euthanized at different time-points of healing (11 or 30 days). Alveolar bone loss was clinically measured and TRAP+ osteoclasts, osteoblastic activity, and MMP-1 expression were examined histologically. There was no increase in alveolar bone loss with either colchicine dose in healthy periodontium (p &gt; 0.05) and the highest level of alveolar bone loss, TRAP+ osteoclast number, and MMP-1 expression were measured in the LO group (p &lt; 0.05). The 0.4 mgC-L group showed less alveolar bone loss at 11 days (p &lt; 0.05), but greater loss at 30 days. The 1 mgC-L group showed higher osteoblast number than the other ligated groups (p &lt; 0.05) at both time-points. In summary, colchicine did not increase alveolar bone loss in healthy periodontium and also may tend to reduce periodontitis progression. However, further extensive study is necessary to understand the mechanism of colchicine action on alveolar bone loss in periodontitis.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100201&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract This study evaluated clinical and radiographic twelve-month outcomes of root canal treatments (CT) with smear layer removal, performed in primary teeth, using two different root canal filling materials. Pulpectomy was performed on 27 primary teeth with necrosis or irreversible pulpitis, caused by dental caries or trauma, in 23 children (2-7 years old). A single trained operator performed the CT in a single visit in cases without periapical or interradicular radiolucency (PIR) or in multiple visits in cases with PIR. Participants were selected based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, and randomly allocated into two groups: Group 1 (G1) – iodoform paste (iodoform + camphorated parachlorophenol + ointment comprising prednisolone acetate 5.0 mg and rifamycin 1.5 mg); Group 2 (G2) – Calen®/ZO paste. Treated teeth were restored with composite resin immediately after the root canal filling. The outcomes were evaluated clinically and radiographically according to specific criteria. Two blinded and standardized evaluators assessed the radiographic outcomes. We used descriptive analyses due to the small sample size. CTs were performed due to caries lesions in 70.4% of the cases and due to trauma in 29.6%. Only one tooth of G1 was unsuccessful; hence, pulpectomy performance in both groups was not influenced by the filling material, nor by any other analyzed variable. The level of the root canal filling was better in the Calen®/ZO group. The clinical and radiographic twelve-month outcomes indicated successful treatment, independently of the root filling material used.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100202&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the influence of chlorhexidine (liquid and gel) and zinc oxide in calcium hydroxide (CH) pastes on root pH in simulated external resorption. One hundred human anterior teeth with a single root canal were selected. After decoronation and root canal instrumentation, the specimens were divided into 4 experimental groups and 1 control group (without intracanal paste): CH + saline (CH+S), CH + 2% chlorhexidine liquid (CH+ CHX), CH + 2% chlorhexidine gel (CH+ CHXg), and CH + 2% chlorhexidine gel + zinc oxide (CH+ CHXg+ZnO). pH was measured using a microelectrode at 3 and 24 h, and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after inserting intracanal pastes. Data were analyzed statistically using an ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p &lt; 0.05). The CH+CHXg+ZnO group had the highest pH values throughout (p&lt;0.05). The CH+S and CH+ CHX groups had the highest pH values after 1 week and the CH+ CHXg group after 2 weeks. CH+ CHXg maintained the highest pH until the fourth week compared with CH+ CHX (p &lt; 0.05). The control group remained at a neutral pH at all evaluated times. It can be concluded that chlorhexidine solution or gel maintained the alkaline pH of CH, and chlorhexidine gel allowed a slower decrease in pH over time. CH+ CHXg+ZnO showed the highest pH values and was an effective intracanal medication for maintaining alkaline root pH in the area of resorption.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100203&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract Subepithelial connective tissue grafts (SCTGs) with a coronally advanced flap (CAF) are accepted as the gold standard for covering denuded root surfaces. In recent years, enamel matrix derivatives (EMDs) have been used for their regenerative potential in periodontics. The aim of this split-mouth and randomized controlled study was to assess the clinical and aesthetical impacts of EMD application in combination with SCTG+CAF in patients with Miller’s Class I and II gingival recessions in contralateral canines of the maxilla. Participants who underwent SCTG+CAF+EMD application were identified as the test group (n = 19) and those who underwent SCTG+CAF as control group (n = 19). The outcome parameters were recession depth/width, root coverage percentage, and root coverage aesthetic score (RES). RES was evaluated by two calibrated blind periodontists one year after the treatment. Statistically significant root coverage percentage was observed at one year post-treatment for both groups (p &lt; 0.05). However, significant differences between the groups were not observed in terms of total RES and complete root coverage rate (p &gt; 0.05). The test group had significantly better results than the control according to the soft tissue texture and mucogingival junction alignment results (p &lt; 0.05). These results indicate that EMDs contribute to the healing of soft tissue without scarring. As a result of better wound healing, the EMD-added group exhibited better results in terms of the harmony of the mucogingival junction between adjacent teeth. This paper is the first split-mouth study in which SCTG+CAF and SCTG+CAF+EMD were compared using RES in bilateral canines.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100204&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract The aim of this study was to assess self-reported history of root canal treatment (SRHRCT) as a method for detecting the presence of root canal treatment (RCT) and apical periodontitis (AP) in a southern Brazilian subpopulation. In this cross-sectional study, 136 military police officers from the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, were included. The participants were interviewed and full-mouth periapical radiographs were taken. A calibrated examiner determined the presence of RCT and AP by applying standardized criteria. The diagnostic accuracy of SRHRCT was calculated separately for RCT and AP. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (+PV and -PV), efficiency, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (+LR and -LR) were estimated. The mean age of the participants was 34.1 ± 10.4 years and 88.2% were males. Overall, SRHRCT demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for RCT, but not for AP: sensitivity (RCT = 0.960, AP = 0.757) and specificity (RCT = 0.835, AP = 0.631). The estimated values for PV and LR were: +PV (RCT=0.777, AP=0.396), -PV (RCT = 0.972, AP = 0.890), +LR (RCT = 5.853, AP = 2.057), and -LR (RCT = 0.046, AP = 0.383). SRHRCT proved to be a good predictor of the presence of RCT, but a weak predictor of AP in this subpopulation.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100205&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract To evaluate the influence of novel ultrasonic tips as an auxiliary method for the rotary preparation of flattened/oval-shaped canals. Forty-five mandibular incisors were selected and divided into one of three experimental groups (n = 15): Group PFCP – ProDesign Logic 25/.05 + Flatsonic + Clearsonic + Prodesign Logic 40/.01; Group FCP – Flatsonic + Clearsonic + ProDesign Logic 40/.01; and Group PP – Prodesign Logic 25/.05 + Prodesign Logic 40/.05. The teeth were scanned preoperatively and postoperatively using microcomputed tomography. The percentage values for increase in volume, non-instrumented surface area, dentin removal, degree of canal transportation, and centering ratio between the experimental groups were examined. Data were analyzed using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s tests (p &lt; 0.05). Group PFCP showed the greatest volume increase in the total portion of the root canal and the lowest percentage of non-instrumented surface area. Regarding the degree of transportation in the buccolingual direction, statistically significant differences between groups PFCP and PP were observed at the coronal third of the canal. In the mesiodistal direction, no statistically significant differences were observed at the coronal, middle, and apical thirds. As for the centering ratio, statistically significant differences were found in the buccolingual direction. In the mesiodistal direction, no statistically significant differences were observed at the coronal, middle, and apical thirds. The use of novel ultrasonic tips combined with rotary instruments in group PFCP provided a significant increase in volume and reduced the percentage of non-instrumented areas during the preparation of flattened/oval-shaped canals.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100206&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical performance and the fracture behavior of endocrown restorations prepared using distinct restorative materials. A total of 42 sound molars with similar crown size and shape were cut at 2 mm above the cementoenamel junction and endodontically treated. They were categorized according to the restorative material used to fabricate endocrown restorations (n=7), namely, conventional composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT), bulk fill composite (Filtek™ Bulk Fill), conventional composite modeled using resin adhesives (SBMP: Scotchbond™ Multipurpose Adhesive; or SBU: Scotchbond™ Universal Adhesive), and IPS e.max lithium disilicate (Ivoclar Vivadent; positive control). Unprepared sound teeth were used as negative control. All endocrowns were bonded using a self-adhesive cement (Rely-X™ U200). The teeth were submitted to fatigue (Byocycle) and fracture (EMIC DL500) testing. Load-to-fracture (in N) and work-of-fracture (Wf, in J/m2) values were analyzed by ANOVA (p &lt; 0.05). The endocrowns did not fracture or de-bond upon fatigue, showing similar load-to-fracture and work-of-fracture values, regardless of the restorative material (p &gt; 0.05). The endocrowns fabricated by combining Z350 and SBMP had the least harsh fractures, in contrast to endocrowns prepared using Z350 only, which exhibited an equilibrium between repairable and irrepairable fractures. The e.max endocrowns exhibited more aggressive failures (root fracture) than other groups, resulting in higher rates of irrepairable fractures. In conclusion, dental practitioners may satisfactorily restore severely damaged nonvital teeth using the endocrown technique. Composite endocrowns prepared using resin adhesive as modeler liquid or using bulk fill material may result in less aggressive failures, thus providing a new material perspective for endocrown restorations.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100207&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract Recent studies on functional tissue regeneration have focused on substances that favor cell proliferation and differentiation, including the bioactive phenolic compounds present in grape seed extract (GSE). The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the stimulatory potential of GSE in the functional activity of undifferentiated pulp cells and odontoblast-like cells. OD-21 and MDPC-23 cell lines were cultivated in odontogenic medium until subconfluence, seeded in 24-well culture plates in a concentration of 2x104/well and divided into: 1) OD-21 without GSE; 2) OD-21+10 µg/mL of GSE; 3) MDPC-23 without GSE; 4) MDPC-23+10 µg/mL of GSE. Cell proliferation, in situ detection of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total protein content were assessed after 3, 7 and 10 days, and mineralization was evaluated after 14 days. The data were analyzed by ANOVA statistical tests set at a 5% level of significance. Results revealed that cell proliferation increased after 10 days, and protein content, after 7 days of culture in MDPC-23 cells. In situ ALP staining intensity was higher in undifferentiated pulp cells and odontoblast-like cells after 7 and 10 days, respectively. A discrete increase in MDPC-23 mineralization after GSE treatment was observed despite OD-21 cells presenting a decrease in mineralized nodule deposits. Data suggest that GSE favors functional activity of differentiated cells more broadly than undifferentiated cells (OD-21). More studies with different concentrations of GSE must be conducted to confirm its benefits to cells regarding dentin regeneration.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100208&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract We assessed the effect of a new coating material based on resin-modified glass-ionomer with calcium (Ca) in inhibiting the demineralization of underlying and adjacent areas surrounding caries-like lesions in enamel. The measures used were surface hardness (SH) and cross-sectional hardness (CSH). Thirty-six bovine enamel specimens (3 × 6 × 2 mm) were randomly allocated into three groups (n = 12): No treatment (NT); resin-modified glass-ionomer with Ca (Clinpro XT Varnish, 3M ESPE) (CL), and fluoride varnish (Duraphat, Colgate) (DU). The specimens were subjected to alternated immersions in demineralizing (6 h) and remineralizing solutions (18 h) for 7 days. SH measurements were conducted at standard distances of 150, 300, and 450 µm from the treatment area. CSH evaluated the mean hardness profile over the depth of the enamel surface and at standard distances from the materials. The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis was conducted to evaluate the demineralization bands created on the sublayer by % of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and fluoride (F). Ca/P weight ratio was also calculated. Based on SH and CSH measurements, there was no difference between groups at the distances 150 µm (p = 0.882), 300 µm (p = 0.995), and 450 µm (p = 0.998). Up to 50 µm depth (at 150 µm from the treatment area), CL showed better performance than DU ( p&lt; 0.05). NT presented higher loss of Ca and P than CL and DU (p &lt; 0.05). There was no significant difference in the % of F ion among the three groups. The new coating material was similar to F varnish in attenuating enamel demineralization.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100209&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) and the thermal stability of bulk-fill and conventional composite resins. Eleven composite resin samples were prepared to evaluate the DC, Vickers microhardness (VMH), mass and residue/particle loss, glass transition temperature (Tg), enthalpy, and linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), microdurometer analyses, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dilatometry (DIL). The data were subjected to statistical analysis, with a significance level of 95%. DC and VMH were not influenced by the polymerized side of the sample, and statistical differences were recorded only among the materials. Decomposition temperature, melting, and mass and residue loss were dependent on the material and on the evaluation condition (polymerized and non-polymerized). Tg values were similar between the composites, without statistically significant difference, and CTE ranged from 10.5 to 37.1 (10-6/°C), with no statistical difference between the materials. There was a moderate negative correlation between CTE and the % of load particles, by weight. Most resins had a DC above that which is reported in the literature. TGA, Tg, and CTE analyses showed the thermal behavior of the evaluated composites, providing data for future research, assisting with the choice of material for direct or semidirect restorations, and helping choose the appropriate temperature for increasing the DC of such materials.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100210&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract This in situ study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and anti-demineralization effects of an experimental orthodontic adhesive containing triazine and niobium phosphate bioglass (TAT) around brackets bonded to enamel surfaces. Sixteen volunteers were selected to use intra-oral devices with six metallic brackets bonded to enamel blocks. The experimental orthodontic adhesives were composed by 75% BisGMA and 25% TEGDMA containing 0% TAT and 20% TAT. Transbond XT adhesive (TXT) was used as a control group. Ten volunteers, mean age of 29 years, were included in the study. The six blocks of each volunteer were detached from the appliance after 7 and 14 days to evaluate mineral loss and bacterial growth including total bacteria, total Streptococci, Streptococci mutans, and Lactobacilli. Statistical analysis was performed using GLM model - univariate analysis of variance for microhardness and 2-way ANOVA for bacterial growth (p&lt;0.05). The 20% TAT adhesive caused no difference between distances from bracket and the sound zone at 10-µm deep after 7 and 14 days. After 14 days, higher mineral loss was shown around brackets at 10- to 30-µm deep for TXT and 0% TAT adhesives compared to 20% TAT. S. mutans growth was inhibited by 20% TAT adhesive at 14 days. Adhesive with 20% TAT showed lower S. mutans and total Streptococci growth than 0% TAT and TXT adhesives. The findings of this study show that the adhesive incorporated by triazine and niobium phosphate bioglass had an anti-demineralization effect while inhibiting S. mutans and total Streptococci growth. The use of this product may inhibit mineral loss of enamel, preventing the formation of white spot lesions.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100211&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract Satisfaction with dental aesthetics is a subjective indicator used in epidemiological studies and is related to health behaviours. Little is known about the factors that influence this indicator, particularly among adolescents who live in a situation of social vulnerability. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between malocclusion and dental appearance in underprivileged Brazilian adolescents. This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in Piracicaba, Brazil, and evaluated 884 adolescents from 13 to 19 years of age. The dependent variable was satisfaction with dental appearance, and the independent variables were classified as individual (components of the Dental Aesthetic Index - DAI, sex and age) and contextual (social exclusion index). For statistical analysis, multilevel regression models were estimated. The individual variables were considered Level 1, and the contextual variable was considered Level 2, with a level of significance of 5%. The mean age of the adolescents was 15.3 years. Female adolescents more frequently affirmed that they were satisfied with their dental appearance than did male individuals. There was an increase in dissatisfaction with oral health with the increase in anterior maxillary overjet, midline diastema, larger anterior irregularity in the maxilla, larger anterior irregularity in the mandible, anterior open bite and antero-posterior molar relation. Satisfaction with dental appearance was associated with individual factors such as sex and DAI components.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100212&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract To synthesize Nano eggshell-titanium-dioxide (EB@TiO2) biocomposite and to evaluate its effectiveness in occluding opened dentine tubules. EB@TiO2 was synthesized and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Sixteen simulated bovine dentine discs were prepared and randomly assigned into four groups according to the following treatment (n = 4): Group 1: No treatment; Group 2: eggshell powder; Group 3: EB@TiO2; Group 4: Sensodyne. These were then agitated in a solution of 1g powder and 40mL water for 3hours. Thereafter, each dentine discs from the respective groups were post-treated for 5 min with 2wt% citric acid to test their acid resistant characteristics. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to observe the effectiveness of occluded dentine pre-and post-treatment. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized EB@TiO2 was tested using NIH 3T3 assay. ANOVA was used to evaluate the mean values of the occluded area ratio and the data of MTS assay. This was followed by a multi-comparison test with Bonferroni correction (α = .05). The XRD confirmed that EB@TiO2 was successfully modified through ball-milling. The TEM revealed the presence of both spherical and irregular particle shape powders. The SEM result showed that EB@TiO2 could effectively occlude open dentine tubules. Equally, the result demonstrated that EB@TiO2 exhibited the highest acid resistant stability post-treatment. NIH 3T3 assay identified that EB@TiO2 had little effect on the NIH 3T3 cell line even at the highest concentration of 100µg/ml. This study suggests that the application of EB@TiO2 effectively occluded dentine tubules and the occlusion showed a high acid resistant stability.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100213&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract In endodontic treatment, regardless of the instrumentation technique, the presence of a smear layer covering contaminated dentin walls is always a concern. Thus, irrigation plays an essential role in reducing bacterial load. To enhance irrigation effectiveness, different ultrasonic activation methods and the use of different tips have been studied. This study assessed the cleaning capacity of the novel NiTi ultrasonic tip for smear layer removal using ultrasonically activated irrigation (UAI) with passive or continuous ultrasonic irrigation (PUI or CUI, respectively), compared with conventional irrigation. Forty-five single-rooted human mandibular premolars were decoronated to a standardized length of 16 mm. Instrumentation was performed using the Genius system up to size 50.04 and irrigated with 3% NaOCl. The specimens were divided into three groups (n = 15) according to the final irrigation activation technique: conventional irrigation (CI), as control group; PUI; and CUI, following the manufacturer’s protocol. The samples were longitudinally cleaved and analyzed under a scanning electron microscope for smear layer removal according to a cleanliness score for the cervical, middle, and apical thirds. Data were evaluated by means of the Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey’s tests, with a 5% level of significance. UAI enhanced cleaning compared to conventional irrigation, mainly at the apical third. CUI showed the best results, with statistically significant lower scores than PUI and CI (p &lt; 0.05). Final irrigant activation with the NiTi tip showed better cleaning capacity than conventional irrigation. In addition, CUI resulted in better smear layer removal than PUI.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100214&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMGH) in the physico-chemical properties and antibacterial activity of an experimental resin sealant. An experimental resin sealant was formulated with 60 wt.% of bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate and 40 wt.% of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate with a photoinitiator/co-initiator system. PHMGH was added at 0.5 (G0.5%), 1 (G1%), and 2 (G2%) wt.% and one group remained without PHMGH, used as control (GCTRL). The resin sealants were analyzed for degree of conversion (DC), Knoop hardness (KHN), and softening in solvent (ΔKHN), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), contact angle (θ) with water or α-bromonaphthalene, surface free energy (SFE), and antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans for biofilm formation and planktonic bacteria. There was no significant difference for DC (p &gt; 0.05). The initial Knoop hardness ranged from 17.30 (±0.50) to 19.50 (± 0.45), with lower value for GCTRL (p &lt; 0.05). All groups presented lower KHN after immersion in solvent (p &lt; 0.05). The ΔKHN ranged from 47.22 (± 4.30) to 57.22 (± 5.42)%, without significant difference (p &gt; 0.05). The UTS ranged from 54.72 (± 11.05) MPa to 60.46 (± 6.50) MPa, with lower value for G2% (p &lt; 0.05). PHMGH groups presented no significant difference compared to GCTRL in θ (p &gt; 0.05). G2% showed no difference in SFE compared to GCTRL (p &gt; 0.05). The groups with PHMGH presented antibacterial activity against biofilm and planktonic bacteria, with higher antibacterial activity for higher PHMGH incorporation (p &lt; 0.05). PHMGH provided antibacterial activity for all resin sealant groups and the addition up to 1 wt.% showed reliable physico-chemical properties, maintaining the caries-protective effect of the resin sealant over time.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100215&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: We evaluated the antifungal and antibiofilm potential of the hydroalcoholic extract of bark from Anadenanthera colubrina (vell.) Brenan, known as Angico, against Candida spp. Antifungal activity was evaluated using the microdilution technique through the Minimum Inhibitory and Fungicide Concentrations (MIC and MFC). The antibiofilm potential was tested in mature biofilms formed by Candida species and analyzed through the counting of CFU/mL and scanning electron micrograph (SEM). In vivo toxicity and therapeutic action was evaluated in the Galleria mellonella model. The treatment with the extract, in low doses, was able to reduce the growth of planktonic cells of Candida species. MIC values range between 19.5 and 39 µg/mL and MFC values range between 79 and 625 µg/mL. In addition was able to reduce the number of CFU/mL in biofilms and to cause structural alteration and cellular destruction, observed via SEM. A. colubrina showed low toxicity in the in vivo assay, having not affected the viability of the larvae at doses below 100mg/kg and high potential in the treatment of C. albicans infection. Considering its high antifungal potential, its low toxicity and potential to treatment of infections in in vivo model, A. colubrina extract is a strong candidate for development of a new agent for the treatment of oral candidiasis.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100216&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of chitosan or nanodiamond incorporation on the color stability and surface roughness of a bisacrylic resin subjected to artificial aging. Four bisacrylic resins were evaluated, namely, control, chitosan-modified material, nanodiamond-modified material, and chitosan–nanodiamond-modified material. Twenty-four specimens were prepared for each material. The surface roughness was determined using a profilometer with a cut-off of 0.25 mm. The baseline color was measured according to the CIE L*a*b* system using a reflectance spectrophotometer. After these tests, the specimens were individually immersed in cola soft drink, red wine, or distilled water (n = 8) for 28 days. After the aging, the surface roughness and final color were re-evaluated. The color stability was determined using the difference between the coordinates obtained before and after the aging process. The data on roughness and color change were evaluated using ANOVA and the Tukey test (α = 0.05). The results show that the incorporation of nanodiamonds and chitosan into a bisacrylic resin provided a better color stability to the materials (p = 0.007). The storage in red wine resulted in a higher variation in the surface roughness values, especially when only the nanodiamond was incorporated to the material (p &lt; 0.05). The incorporation of both chitosan and nanodiamonds are promising in providing an improvement in the properties of the bisacrylic resin when they are simultaneously incorporated in the product.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100217&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the machinability of four CAD/CAM materials (n = 13) assessed by brittleness index, Vickers hardness, and fracture toughness and interaction among such mechanical properties. The materials selected in this in vitro study are Feldspathic ceramic [FC], Lithium-disilicate glass ceramic [LD], leucite-reinforced glass ceramic [LR], and nanofilled resin material [RN]. Slices were made from the blocks following original dimensions 14 × 12 × 3 mm (L × W × H), using a precision slow-speed saw device and then surfaces were regularized through a polishing device. Brittleness index and fracture toughness were calculated by the use of specific equations for each one of the properties. The Vickers hardness was calculated automated software in the microhardness device. One-way Anova and Pearson's correlation were applied to data evaluation. LD obtained the highest values for brittleness index and was not significantly different from FC. LR presented statistically significant difference compared with RN, which had the lowest mean. Vickers hardness showed LD with the highest average, and no statistical difference was found between FC and LR. RN presented the lowest average. Fracture toughness showed FC and LR not statistically different from each other, likewise LD and RN. The brittleness index, considered also as the machinability of a material, showed within this study as positively dependent on Vickers hardness, which leads to conclusion that hardness of ceramics is related to its milling capacity. In addition, fracture toughness of pre-sintered ceramics is compared to polymer-based materials.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100218&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: Human Leukocyte Antigen G (HLA-G) is a molecule involved in the tumor immunosuppression and also in the generation of regulatory T (Treg) cells, thus leading to evasion to the immune system host, and consequently, contributing to tumor progression in several cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of HLA-G by tumor cells and FoxP3+ Treg cells in 25 oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and 25 lower lip SCCs and analyze their relationship with clinical parameters. HLA-G expression was higher in oral tongue SCCs than in lower lip SCCs. In oral tongue SCCs and lower lip SCCs, no association between HLA-G expression and clinical parameters (tumor size, lymph node status, distant metastasis, and clinical stage) was verified (P&gt;0.05). FoxP3+ Treg cells were detected along the tumor invasive front in all cases of oral tongue and lower lip SCCs. In oral tongue SCC cases, the number of Treg cells tended to be higher in smaller tumors, tumors without regional lymph node metastasis, and tumors in early clinical stages, but the difference was not statistically significant (P&gt;0.05). A significant positive correlation was found between the expression of HLA-G by neoplastic cells and Treg cells in lower lip SCCs (p = 0.008). Our findings suggest the involvement of HLA-G and Treg cells in the modulation of immune responses in oral tongue and lower lip SCCs. This interaction between HLA-G and Treg cells may represent an evasion mechanism in these malignancies.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100219&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: This study aimed to assess the cyclic fatigue resistance of Genius and EdgeFile X1 reciprocating instruments compared with WaveOne Gold Primary. Twenty Genius (Ultradent) 25.04, 20 Genius 30.04, 20 EdgeFile X1 (EdgeEndo) and 20 WaveOne Gold Primary (Dentsply Maillefer) instruments were included in this study and tested in a static cyclic fatigue testing device, which has an artificial stainless steel canal with a 60° angle of curvature and a 5-mm radius of curvature. All instruments were operated in reciprocation mode until fracture occurred. The number of cycles to failure (NCF) was calculated and time to fracture (TF) was recorded in seconds using a digital chronometer. The mean and standard deviations of NCF and TF were calculated for each reciprocating system and the data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and to Dunn's test (p &lt; .05) using SigmaPlot software (Systat software, CA, USA). The fractured surfaces of five instruments from each brand were randomly examined and microphotographed by a low-vacuum environmental scanning electron microscopy – SEM (Tabletop Microscope TM3030, Hitachi, Japan) to confirm the cyclic fatigue fracture. EdgeFile exhibited the highest cyclic fatigue resistance, followed by both Genius files (p &lt; .05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, EdgeFile X1 instruments had significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance than did Genius and WaveOne Gold Primary instruments. The cyclic fatigue resistance of both Genius files was higher than that of WaveOne Gold Primary.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100220&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: This multicenter study aimed to identify the different implant- and patient-related risk factors for long-term short dental implant success. Through a retrospective chart review of three centers, patient information regarding demographic variables, smoking habits, history of periodontitis, systemic diseases, and medications in addition to the parameters for short implant placement including implant manufacturer, design, anatomical location, diameter and length, and type of placement was collected. For statistical analysis, univariate regression models were used at the implant and patient levels. A total of 460 short implants placed in 199 patients followed up for up to 9 years were reviewed. Survival rates of the short implants were 95.86% and 92.96% and success rates were 90% and 83.41% for implant- and patient-based analysis, respectively. Peri-implantitis was reported as the primary cause of short dental implant failure (34/46, 73.91%). Univariate regression models revealed that female sex was strongly related to short implant success. In addition, smoking and history of periodontitis were found to have a significant negative influence on short implant success at the implant and patient levels. Taken together, these results support the use of short implants as a predictable longterm treatment option; however, smoking and history of periodontitis are suggested to be the potential risk factors for short implant success. Therefore, clinicians need to assess these potential risk factors and make treatment decisions accordingly.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100222&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: Orthodontic bonding systems are submitted to demineralization and remineralization dynamics that might compromise their surface smoothness, and favor biofilm aggregation and caries development. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a cariogenic challenge model (in vitro pH-cycling model) on the surface roughness and topography of 3 bonding materials: Transbond™ XT (XT), Transbond™ Plus Color Change (PLUS) and Fuji Ortho™ LC (FUJI), by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Six specimens with standardized dimensions and surface smoothness were fabricated per group, and the materials were manipulated in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions. No polishing was necessary. AFM tests were performed before and after pH-cycling, taking 3 readouts per specimen. The roughness results (Ra) were obtained at nanometric levels (nm) and surface records were acquired in two- and three-dimensional images of height and lock-in phase of the material components. The surfaces of all groups analyzed in the study were morphologically altered, presenting images suggestive of matrix degradation and loss of matrix-load integrity. FUJI presented the greatest increase in surface roughness, followed by XT and PLUS, respectively (p≤0.001). Nevertheless, the roughness values found did not present sufficient degradation to harbor bacteria. The surface roughness of all tested materials was increased by pH-cycling. The use of materials capable of resisting degradation in the oral environment is recommended, in order to conserve their integrity and of the surrounding tissues.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100223&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of astragaloside IV (AsIV) on inflammation and immunity in rats with experimental periodontitis. Periodontitis was established in 48 Wistar rats, which were then randomly divided into model and 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg AsIV groups, with 12 rats in each group. The latter 3 groups were treated with AsIV at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, respectively. The control group (12 rats, without periodontitis) and model group were given the same amount of 5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. The treatment was performed once per day for 8 weeks. Before and after treatment, the tooth mobility scores of the rats were determined. After treatment, the salivary occult blood index (SOBI), plaque index (PLI), peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets, and serum inflammatory factor and immunoglobulin levels were determined. The results showed that, after treatment, compared with that in model group, in 40 mg/kg AsIV group, the general state of rats was improved, while the tooth mobility score, SOBI and PLI were significantly decreased (p &lt; 0.05); the peripheral blood CD4+ T cell percentage and CD4+/CD8+ ratio were significantly increased (p &lt; 0.05), while the CD8+ T cell percentage was significantly decreased (p &lt; 0.05); the serum tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-2 levels were significantly decreased (p &lt; 0.05); the serum immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G levels were significantly decreased (p &lt; 0.05). In conclusion, AsIV can alleviate inflammation and enhance immunity in rats with experimental periodontitis.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100224&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: Specific variants in genes that encode adipokines and their mRNA and protein expression were previously studied in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity, and similar studies have been performed for chronic periodontitis (CP). The aim of this case–control study was to investigate the possible impacts of adiponectin (ADIPOQ), leptin (LEP) and its receptor (LEPR), and resistin (RETN) on the etiopathogenesis of CP. Examinations were performed on 118 non–periodontitis healthy subjects (healthy controls, HC), 205 healthy individuals with CP (H + CP) and 86 type 2 diabetes patients with CP (T2DM + CP). Variants within the ADIPOQ (rs2241766, rs1501299), LEP (rs13228377, rs2167270), LEP receptor (rs1805096), and RETN (rs1862513) genes were determined by qPCR. In addition, the plasma levels of ADIPOQ, LEP, and RETN were analysed by ELISA for 80 individuals. The genotype frequencies of the SNP ADIPOQ +45G/T (rs2241766) differed between the HC and H + CP groups (p=0.03, pcorr&gt;0.05), and carriers of the TT genotype had a lower risk of developing CP compared to carriers of the GG or TG genotypes (p&lt;0.01, pcorr&gt;0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the plasma levels of ADIPOQ, LEP or RETN between the study groups (p &gt; 0.05). Plasma levels of the adipokines were also independent of the gene profiles (p &gt; 0.05). Adipokine plasma levels did not change in patients with H + CP/T2DM + CP compared to HC, but we did identify a specific polymorphism in the ADIPOQ gene that was associated with CP. Although the ADIPOQ +45G/T (rs2241766) gene variant may be a candidate biomarker for CP, further research is required in larger populations with different ethnic backgrounds before any final conclusions can be drawn about the role of this gene in CP.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100225&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: Eugenia dysenterica is a Brazilian tree investigated for its properties and bioactive compounds, which are believed to have both pharmacological and phytochemical therapeutic effects. The leaves of this tree contain tannins, flavonoids, terpenes, and saponins, with reportedly beneficial effects to the human body. Despite these therapeutic applications, its effects have never been tested on oral tissues. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antioxidant effects and the anti-inflammatory and repair properties of the acetone fraction of E. dysenterica on primary culture of human gingival fibroblasts and on the immortalized murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). For this purpose, a metabolic activity assay, a wound healing assay, a nitric oxide assay, and RT-qPCR were performed. The assays revealed a cytoprotective effect of this plant, suggested by the increase in the expression of SOD1 and NRF2. An antioxidant potential effect was observed in the DPPH• assay. However, the fraction of E. dysenterica did not show anti-inflammatory activity. In conclusion, Eugenia dysenterica may promote cytoprotection when associated with chlorhexidine digluconate because of its antioxidant effect. However, additional studies are necessary on other human dental tissues using other parts of the plant in order to develop a possible mouthwash to assist patients with oral disorders.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100226&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: This study investigates the color correspondence of resin cements and try-in pastes, and the color stability of bonded lithium disilicate ceramic disks. Resin composite disks were fabricated (n = 36) to serve as the background for lithium disilicate disks prepared in two thicknesses (0.5 and 1.0 mm, n = 18 each). Two brands were used for try-in and cement procedures: Variolink Veneer and AllCem Veneer. For baseline, water was applied between the ceramic disks and their respective backgrounds to achieve the control group. This set was subjected to color measurement using an intraoral measurement device (T0). The try-in was inserted between background and ceramic, and this set was subjected to color measurement (T1). After adhesive procedures, the ceramic disk was placed under cement, and color measurement was performed with uncured cement (T2) and 24 h after light-curing (T3). Each set was immersed in distilled water and thermal-cycled, with color measurement being performed after 10,000 (T4) and 20,000 (T5) cycles. Color differences were calculated by CIELab (rEab) and CIEDE2000 (rE00). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements and Tukey's test (α=5%). There was color correspondence of try-in and resin cement for the Variolink system, regardless of the ceramic thickness (p &gt; 0.05). For the AllCem system, the thickness significantly influenced the color measurement (p &lt; 0.001). The Variolink system also demonstrated color stability after 20,000 thermal cycles with rEab &lt; 3.46 and rE00 &lt; 2.25. It was concluded that the color correspondence between a try-in and its respective cement may vary according to resin cement composition.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100227&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: This study investigated the effectiveness of XP-Endo Finisher (XPF) associated with XP-Endo Shaper (XPS) or Reciproc Blue (RB) files in reducing bacterial load in oval-shaped root canals (RC) during chemomechanical preparation (CMP) using 0.9% saline solution (NaCl) or 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Eighty mandibular incisors with single oval-shaped RC were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. The teeth were randomly assigned to eight experimental groups (n = 10) according to the CMP, as follows: G1: XPS, G2: XPS + XPF, G3: RB, and G4: RB + XPF. CMP was performed with NaCl or NaOCl. The reduction of bacterial load was assessed by colony-forming unit count before (S1) and after (S2) CMP. Data normality was verified by using Shapiro-Wilk test. ANOVA, Tukey's test, and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used at a 5% significance level. Culturable bacteria were present in all S1 samples (p&gt;0.05). All instrumentation techniques were effective in reducing bacterial load, irrespective of the irrigating solution (p &lt; 0.05). With the use of NaCl, RB was more effective than XPS (p = 0.035). With the use of NaOCl, XPS and RB presented similar effectiveness (p = 0.779). XPF enhanced the bacterial reduction of both systems tested (p &lt; 0.05). The use of NaOCl improved the CMP, irrespective of the instrumentation technique used (p &lt; 0.05). In conclusion, XPS and RB files are effective in reducing bacterial levels in oval-shaped RC. The use of XPF as a method of agitation of the irrigating solution improved the cleaning efficiency of both file systems tested. Mechanical preparation performed with saline solution decreased culturable bacteria from the root canal, but antimicrobial substances such as NaOCl should be used to achieve a significantly better disinfection.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100228&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: Iontophoresis is a noninvasive technique, based on the application of a constant low-intensity electric current to facilitate the release of a variety of drugs, whether ionized or not, through biological membranes. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of iontophoresis using different electric current intensities on the uptake of fluoride in dental enamel with artificial caries lesions. In this in vitro operator-blind experiment, bovine enamel blocks (n = 10/group) with caries-like lesions and predetermined surface hardness were randomized into 6 groups: placebo gel without fluoride applied with a current of 0.8 mA (negative control), 2% NaF gel without application of any current, and 2% NaF gel applied with currents of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mA. Cathodic iontophoresis was applied for 4 min. The concentration of loosely bound fluoride (calcium fluoride) and firmly bound fluoride (fluorapatite) was determined. The results were analyzed by the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. Iontophoresis at 0.8 mA, combined with the application of fluoridated gel (2% NaF), increased fluoride uptake in enamel with caries-like lesions, as either calcium fluoride or fluorapatite.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100229&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: This clinical study compared the effectiveness of two rotary systems: HyFlex CM (Coltene-Whaledent, Altstetten, Switzerland) and ProTaper Next (Dentsply Sirona, Ballaigues, Switzerland) on the removal of cultivable bacteria and endotoxins from primarily infected root canals. This study was designed as a randomized single-blinded, 2-arm, clinical trial. Twenty-four primarily infected root canals were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups: HyFlex CM (n = 12); and ProTaper Next (n = 12). Samples were collected before and after the biomechanical preparation and inoculated in specific flasks. Irrigation was performed using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. A kinetic turbidimetric lysate assay of limulus amoebocytes was used to quantify endotoxins. Microbiological culture technique was used to determine the count of bacterial colony forming units (CFU/mL). Data collected were statistically analyzed using SigmaPlot 12.0 for Windows. The Two-Way ANOVA statistical test was performed and the level of significance was 5%. In the samples before the biomechanical preparation, cultivable bacteria and endotoxins were evidenced in 100% of the cases. The culture analysis revealed that there was no statistically significant difference in the bacterial reduction between the two instrumentation systems. Endotoxins were present in 100% of the canals after instrumentation and there was no statistical difference between the two systems in endotoxin reduction. Thus, it was concluded that both instrumentation systems were effective in reducing root canal bacteria and endotoxins with primary endodontic infection and that there was no statistical difference between them. However, no system was able to eliminate 100% of the bacteria and their by-products.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100230&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: The study characterizes dental implant surfaces treated with phosphoric acid to assess the effects of acid treatment on blood cells and correlate them with cytokine levels. The implant surfaces examined were divided into untreated metal surface (US; n = 50), metal surface treated with phosphoric acid (ATS; n = 50) and cement surface (CS; n = 50) groups. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and rheometry. The implants were incubated with human blood mononuclear cells for 24 h, with surface rinsing in the ATS treatment. Cell viability was determined by colorimetric methods and cytokines in the culture supernatant were quantified using flow cytometry. In the ATS group, the surface porosity and contact surface were increased and plaques were observed on the surface. The blood flow and viscosity curves were similar among the treatments, and the high cell viability rates indicate the biocompatibility of the materials used. An increase in the levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α was observed in the ATS and CS groups. There were positive correlations between IL-10 and IL-2 levels and between IL-10 and IL-4 levels in the culture supernatant of the ATS group. The results suggest that implant surface treatment with phosphoric acid activates the production of inflammatory cytokines. The increased cytokine levels can modulate the immune response, thereby improving biofunctional processes and promoting the success of dental implants.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100231&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the hydrofluoridric acid (HF) concentration and time of acid conditioning on bond strength of three glass ceramics to a resin cement. Thus, fifty blocks (10 mm x 5 mm x 2 mm) of each ceramic (LDCAD: IPS e.max CAD; LCAD: IPS Empress CAD and LDHP: IPS e.max Press) were made and embedded in acrylic resin. The surfaces were polished with sandpaper (#600, 800, 1000, and 1200 grits) and blocks were randomly divided into 15 groups (n = 10) according to the following factors: Concentration of HF (10% and 5%), conditioning time (20 s and 60 s) and ceramic (LDCAD, LDHP, and L). After conditioning, silane (Prosil / FGM) was applied and after 2 min, cylinders (Ø = 2 mm; h = 2 mm) of dual resin cement (AllCem / FGM) were made in the center of each block using a Teflon strip as matrix and light cured for 40 s (1,200 mW/cm2). Then, the samples were thermocycled (10,000 cycles, 5/55°C, 30s) and submitted to the shear bond test (50 KgF, 0.5 mm/min). The data (MPa) were analyzed with 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). Failure analysis was performed using a stereomicroscope (20x) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). ANOVA revealed that the “concentration” factor (p = 0.01) and the interaction “acid concentration X ceramic” (p = 0.009) had a significant effect, however, the “ceramic” (p = 0.897) and “conditioning time” (p = 0.260) factors did not influence the results. The LDHP10%60s (10.98 MPa)aA* group presented significantly higher bond strength than LDHP10%20s (6.57 MPa)bA, LCAD5%20s (6,90 ±3,5)aB and LDHP5%60s (5.66 ± 2,9MPa)aA* groups (Tukey). Failure analysis revealed that 100% of specimens had mixed failure. In conclusion, etching with 5% HF for 20 seconds is recommended for lithium disilicate and leucite-reinforced CAD/CAM ceramics. However, for pressed lithium disilicate ceramic, 10% HF for 60 s showed significantly higher bond strength to resin cement.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100232&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: This study evaluated the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of a new bioceramic endodontic sealer (i.e., Sealer Plus BC) in comparison with those of MTA Fillapex and AH Plus. L929 fibroblasts were cultured and Alamar Blue was used to evaluate cell viability of diluted extracts (1:50, 1:100, and 1:200) from each sealer at 24 h. Polyethylene tubes that were filled with material or empty (as a control) were implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. The rats were killed after 7 and 30 d (n = 8), and the tubes were removed for histological analysis. Parametric data was analyzed using a one-way ANOVA test, and nonparametric data was analyzed via the Kruskal–Wallis test followed by the Dunn test (p &lt; 0.05). A reduction in cell viability was observed in the extracts that were more diluted for Sealer Plus BC when compared to that of Control and AH Plus (p &lt; 0.05). However, the 1:50 dilution of the Sealer Plus BC was similar to that of the Control (p &gt; 0.05). Conversely, more diluted extracts of MTA Fillapex (1:200) and AH Plus (1:100 and 1:200) were similar to the Control (p &gt; 0.05). Histological analysis performed at 7 d did not indicate any significant difference between tissue response for all materials, and the fibrous capsule was thick (p &gt; 0.05). At 30 d, Sealer Plus BC was similar to the Control (p &gt; 0.05) and MTA Fillapex and AH Plus exhibited greater inflammation than the Control (p &lt; 0.05). The fibrous capsule was thin for the Control and for most specimens of Sealer Plus BC and AH Plus. Thus, Sealer Plus BC is biocompatible when compared to MTA Fillapex and AH Plus, and it is less cytotoxic when less-diluted extracts are used.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100233&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of gingivitis and calculus and their predictors in a population of adults in Brazil. A representative sample of 758 adults from 35 to 59 years of age from Porto Alegre city was examined. A structured questionnaire was applied. The Gingival Bleeding Index and the presence of calculus were measured at 4 sites/tooth. Multivariable logistic models were fitted to determine the predictors for gingival bleeding at &gt;20% of sites. Overall, 96.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]=95.1-98.0) of individuals had ≥ 1 bleeding site. The mean percentages of sites with gingivitis and calculus were 26.1% and 44.6%, respectively. The odds of gingivitis decreased by ∼45% for individuals ≥40 years old compared to younger adults. Individuals that never performed interproximal cleaning and non-whites had an approximately two times higher chance of gingivitis. Smokers had lower chances of gingivitis than never-smokers (odds ratio=0.40; 95% CI=0.24-0.68). Higher numbers of missing teeth were associated with higher chances of gingivitis. The percentage of calculus was significantly associated with skin color, education, proximal cleaning, smoking exposure, dental visits, and tooth loss. It can be concluded that the occurrence of gingivitis and calculus was high in this Brazilian population, and it was associated with age, skin color, education, self-reported proximal cleaning, smoking, dental care, and tooth loss.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100234&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the bond strength of a universal adhesive system to enamel surrounding real-life carious cavities. Twenty-eight permanent molars (n = 7) with carious lesions in dentin were subjected to selective carious tissue removal to firm dentin and had their crowns sectioned longitudinally. A universal adhesive system (Single Bond Universal [SBU] used in either etch-and-rinse and self-etch strategies) was compared with an etch-and-rinse Adper Single Bond 2 (ASB) and a self-etch Clearfil SE Bond (CSE) adhesive systems (control systems). Adhesives were applied on the enamel, assumed demineralized, surrounding the cavity margins and on sound enamel (control substrate). Composite cylinders were built (0.72 mm2) and microshear bond strength (µSBS) test was performed after 24 h of water storage. The µSBS values (MPa) were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests (α = 0.05). Bond strength values obtained in demineralized enamel surrounding carious cavity margins were significantly lower than that obtained in sound enamel (distant from carious cavity margins) (p = 0.035). The bonding strategy of the SBU did not influenced the bond strength values, which were higher than that obtained with ASB. CSE showed similar µSBS values to ASB and SBU in the self-etch mode. In conclusion, the bond strength to enamel assumed demineralized is lower than to sound enamel. The enamel surrounding carious cavities jeopardize the bonding of universal adhesive system. The bond strength of universal adhesive is similar, regardless to bonding strategy.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100235&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate soluble and insoluble fluoride concentrations in commercial varnishes, and their remineralization effect on artificial caries enamel lesions using surface and cross-sectional microhardness evaluations. Forty bovine enamel blocks were separated into four groups (n=10): control (no treatment), Enamelast (Ultradent Products), Duraphat (Colgate-Palmolive) and Clinpro White Varnish (3M ESPE). Surface enamel microhardness evaluations were obtained, artificial enamel caries lesions were developed by dynamic pH-cycling, and the varnishes were then applied every 6 days, after which the enamel blocks were submitted to dynamic remineralization by pH cycles. After removal of the varnishes, the enamel surfaces were reassessed for microhardness. The blocks were sectioned longitudinally, and cross-sectional microhardness measurements were performed at different surface depths (up to 300 μm depth). Polarized light microscopy images (PLMI) were made to analyze subsurface caries lesions. The fluoride concentration in whole (soluble and insoluble fluoride) and centrifuged (soluble fluoride) varnishes was determined using an extraction method with acetone. The data were analyzed to evaluate the surface microhardness, making adjustments for generalized linear models. There was a significant decrease in enamel surface microhardness after performing all the treatments (p&lt;0.0001). Enamelast and Duraphat showed significantly higher enamel microhardness values than the control and the Clinpro groups (p = 0.0002). Microhardness loss percentage was significantly lower for Enamelast (p = 0.071; One-way ANOVA). PLMI showed that subsurface caries lesions were not remineralized with the varnish treatments. No significant differences in the in-depth microhardness levels (p = 0.7536; ANOVA) were observed among the treatments. Enamelast presented higher soluble and insoluble fluoride concentrations than the other varnishes (p &lt; 0.0001; Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests). Enamelast and Duraphat varnishes promoted enamel surface remineralization, but no varnish remineralized the subsurface lesion body. Although insoluble and soluble fluoride concentration values did not correspond to those declared by the manufacturer, Enamelast presented higher fluoride concentration than the others.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100236&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate macrophage M1 and M2 subpopulations in radicular cysts (RCs) and periapical granulomas (PGs) and relate them to clinical and morphological aspects. M1 macrophages were evaluated by the percentage of CD68 immunostaining associated with the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, and M2 macrophages, by its specific CD163 antibody. The CD68+/CD163+ ratio was adopted to distinguish between the two macrophage subpopulations. Clinical, radiographic, symptomatology, treatment, and morphological parameters of lesions were collected and a significance level of p = 0.05 was adopted for statistical analysis. The results showed that the CD68+/CD163+ ratio was higher in the RCs (median = 1.22, p = 0.002), and the highest TNF-α immunostaining scores were found in RCs (p = 0.018); in PGs, the CD68+/CD163+ ratio was lower and associated with a greater CD163+ immunostaining (median = 1.02, p &lt;0.001). The TNF-α in cyst epithelium had a score of 3 in 10 cases and predominance of M1 macrophages by CD68+/CD163+ (median = 2.23). In addition, CD68+ cells had higher percentage of immunostaining in smaller RCs (p = 0.034). Our findings suggest that increased CD68 immunostaining associated with TNF-α cytokine in RCs results in a greater differentiation of the M1 phenotype. The higher CD163 immunostaining in PGs results in greater differentiation of the M2 phenotype. Therefore, the inflammatory state promoted by M1 macrophages is related to growth and progression of RCs; on the other hand, the immunomodulatory state of M2 macrophages is related to maintenance of PGs.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100237&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the penetration capacity of two endodontic cements, Endosequence BC Sealer and AH Plus, in artificial lateral canals. Twenty-six two-rooted, maxillary first premolars were instrumented to size 40.06 using K3 files. In each root, six lateral canals of two diameters (0.06 and 0.10 mm) were created with a working length of 2, 4, and 6 mm. The specimens were randomly divided into two groups according to the endodontic cement to be used (Endosequence BC Sealer and AH Plus) and obturated by the single-cone technique. The specimens were imaged by digital periapical radiography and scores from 0 to 4 were attributed according to the degree of penetration by sealers into the lateral canals. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis and Student-Newman-Keuls tests, and a significance level of p &lt; 0.05 was adopted. No significant difference was observed between the two endodontic cements used to fill the simulated lateral canals (p &gt; 0.05). The diameter of lateral canals only influenced the capacity of the Endosequence BC Sealer in filling the canals, and presented greater penetration in the lateral canals of diameter 0.10 mm (p &lt; 0.05). We concluded that the bioceramic endodontic cement Endosequence BC Sealer presented similar ability as AH Plus to fill simulated lateral canals.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100238&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract Oral hygiene, which is measured by the status of plaque-free tooth surfaces, is essential for the promotion of oral health. This study aimed to determine the social predictors of good oral hygiene for children in a suburban population in Nigeria. This was a secondary analysis of data. The study participants were 8- to 16-year-old children who were residents in Ile-Ife, which is a suburban population in Nigeria. Information on the age, gender, socioeconomic status, family structure, number of siblings and birth rank of each study participant was retrieved from the an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Oral hygiene status was determined through a simplified-oral hygiene index (OHI-S) and categorized as good, fair and poor. The association between oral hygiene status and sociodemographic variables was determined. The predictors of good oral hygiene were determined using a binomial regression analysis. Data on 2,107 individuals were retrieved, of which 44.8% had good oral hygiene and 17.1% had poor oral hygiene. The odds of having good oral hygiene were reduced for children who were 13 to 16 years old (p = 0.02) or male (P=0.002) and children with low socioeconomic status (p ≤ 0.001). The odds of having good oral hygiene increased for children who were last-born compared with those who were first-born (p = 0.02). Age, gender, socioeconomic status and birth-rank were significant social predictive factors of oral hygiene status among the study population. Based on these findings, targeted interventions can be conducted to improve the oral hygiene status of children and adolescents with these social profiles.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100239&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract Recently, it has been suggested that the anti-inflammatory hormone ghrelin (GHRL) and its receptor GHS-R may play a pivotal role in periodontal health and diseases. However, their exact regulation and effects in periodontitis are not known. The aim of this in-vitro study was to investigate the effect of microbial and inflammatory insults on the GHS-R1a expression in human osteoblast-like cells. MG-63 cells were exposed to interleukin (IL)-1β and Fusobacterium nucleatum in the presence and absence of GHRL for up to 2 d. Subsequently, gene expressions of GHS-R1a, inflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinase were analyzed by real-time PCR. GHS-R protein synthesis and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation were assessed by immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively. IL-1β and F. nucleatum caused a significant upregulation of GHS-R1a expression and an increase in GHS-R1a protein. Pre-incubation with a MEK1/2 inhibitor diminished the IL-1β-induced GHS-R1a upregulation. IL-1β and F. nucleatum also enhanced the expressions of cyclooxygenase 2, CC-chemokine ligand 2, IL-6, IL-8, and matrix metalloproteinase 1, but these stimulatory effects were counteracted by GHRL. By contrast, the stimulatory actions of IL-1β and F. nucleatum on the GHS-R1a expression were further enhanced by GHRL. Our study provides original evidence that IL-1β and F. nucleatum regulate the GHS-R/GHRL system in osteoblast-like cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that the proinflammatory and proteolytic actions of IL-1β and F. nucleatum on osteoblast-like cells are inhibited by GHRL. Our study suggests that microbial and inflammatory insults upregulate GHS-R1a, which may represent a protective negative feedback mechanism in human bone.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100240&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract Nowadays, demand for esthetic restorations has risen considerably; thus, nonmetal esthetic posts made of either high-strength ceramics or reinforced resins, such as fiber-reinforced resin posts, have become more and more popular. Important characteristics of fiber-reinforced posts involve a modulus of elasticity similar to dentin and their ability to be cemented by an adhesive technique. A total of 36 maxillary incisors were divided into four groups. In this study, four adhesively luted fiber-reinforced (glass fiber, quartz glass fiber, zirconia glass fiber and woven polyethylene fiber ribbon) post systems were used. Post spaces were prepared by employing drills according to the protocol established for each group, and each post was adhesively luted with one of three adhesive systems. Three segments per root apical to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) were obtained by sectioning the root under distilled water with a carbon spare saw. The samples (total of 108 sections) were 2.0±0.1 mm in thickness and they were stored individually in black film canisters with sterile distilled water. In order to determine the bond strength, the bonding area of each specimen was measured, and specimens were attached to a device to test microtensile strength at a speed of 1 mm/min. The analyses revealed no statistically significant differences between the adhesive systems and fiber-reinforced posts. (P&gt; 0.05). However, the coronal portion of the root dentin had the highest bond strength. Adhesive systems used along with fiber-reinforced resin posts demonstrated reliable bonding.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100241&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of periodontal treatment on the salivary cytokine levels and clinical parameters of individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) with gingivitis. A non-randomized, clinical trial was conducted in individuals diagnosed with spastic CP. Thirty-eight individuals were enrolled in the study and were categorized according to gingival index scores between 0-1 or 2-3, assigned to groups G2 or G1, respectively. Periodontal treatment comprised oral hygiene instructions, conventional mechanical treatment and 0.12% chlorhexidine applied as an adjunct. Clinical parameters and saliva samples were collected at baseline and at the 15-day follow-up visit. Bleeding on probing and periodontal screening and recording were determined. Non-stimulated saliva samples were obtained, and the salivary flow rate, the osmolality and the levels of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-12p70 were evaluated by a cytometric bead array. The Wilcoxon test, the Mann-Whitney test, Spearman correlation analysis, Poisson regression analysis and an adjusted analysis were performed (α = 0.05). The groups differed significantly in periodontal clinical parameters at baseline and at follow-up. Salivary flow rate and osmolality were similar in both groups at both timepoints. However, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were higher in G1 than in G2 at baseline. Mechanical treatment resulted in improved clinical parameters for both groups. Furthermore, mechanical treatment resulted in a significant reduction in salivary IL-1β and IL-8 levels for both groups after treatment. Periodontal treatment performed in individuals with CP and gingivitis reduces the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100242&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on tooth extraction sites in rats treated with bisphosphonates. Thirty Albinus Wistar male rats were administered 0.035 mg/kg zoledronic acid intravenously for 8 weeks, divided into four administrations with a 2-week interval between each application, after which their upper right central incisors were extracted to induce the development of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). The samples were divided into the following two groups: Group 1 (G1) underwent marginal resection of BRONJ followed by the use of PRP, while Group 2 (G2) underwent resection of BRONJ but without the use of PRP. The treatment groups were evaluated after 14, 28, and 42 days. Clinical, microtomographic, microscopic, and immunohistochemical (IHC) evaluations were performed. Microtomography results revealed no significant difference between the groups (p &lt;0.05) in any time period. Histomorphometric analysis showed increased bone formation over time for both groups (p &lt; 0.001). G1 demonstrated a greater amount of new bone formation than G2 at 28 and 42 days (p &lt; 0.001), with G1 presenting greater vascularization and a slightly higher VEGF expression. For both groups, RANKL/OPG expression levels were sufficient as a parameter for indicating the rate of bone remodeling in a previously treated area of osteonecrosis groups. Taken together, our findings indicated that the use of PRP improves the resolution process of BRONJ.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100243&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract The aim of the present study was to determine the concentration of total fluoride (TF) and total soluble fluoride (TSF) in children’s dentifrices marketed in the city of Lima, Peru. Three samples of 23 dentifrices (4 without fluoride and 19 with fluoride) were purchased in different pharmacies in Lima, Peru. The TF and TSF concentrations found in the dentifrices were determined by ion-selective electrode, expressed in ppm F (μg F/g of dentifrice). The TF concentration in the majority of the fluoride toothpastes matched that shown on the label, except for one declared as 1450 ppm F by the manufacturer, whereas only 515.1 ppm F was found. The concentration of TSF found in the fluoride toothpastes ranged from 457.5 to 1134.8 ppm F. All the dentifrices were formulated with silica, but one also presented calcium carbonate. In conclusion, 83% of the children’s dentifrices marketed in Lima, Peru, were fluoridated, but only 53% contained a TSF concentration greater than 1000 ppm F, the minimum concentration required to provide an anticaries effect.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100244&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness of dentin pretreatment with 100% ethanol (EWBT – ethanol wet bonding technique) and different adhesive protocols in noncarious cervical lesions (NCCL) after 6 months. Patients presenting at least one NCCL were included. NCCLs (n=148) were randomly assigned to 4 groups: NE (Non-EWBT + three-step etch-and-rinse (Scotchbond Multi Purpose, 3M ESPE [MP]), E (EWBT + MP); EB (EWBT + [Bond – third step of MP]), and EU (EWBT + universal adhesive (Single Bond Universal, 3M ESPE). Conventional acid-etching (Condac 37%, FGM) and nanohybrid resin composite (Z350, 3M ESPE) were used. Trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa = 0.61) evaluated the restorations at baseline (7 days) and 6-month recall using the USPHS modified criteria. Data were subjected to Chi square (α = 0.05). Differences in the success rate were found for the treatments (p = 0.003). EB presented the lowest success rate compared with the other groups (p &lt; 0.02). No significant differences were detected among NE, E, and EU (p &gt; 0.49). The survival rates were 97.23%, 97.30%, 78.95%, and 97.30% for NE, E, EB, and EU, respectively. Regarding postoperative sensitivity, a significant reduction was found for groups E (p = 0.027) and EU (p &lt; 0.01) after 6 months. After 6 months, EWBT associated to the hydrophobic adhesive system had the highest failure rate.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100245&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the association between weight status and ΔDMFS among 12-year-old schoolchildren from South Brazil. A total of 801 12-year-old schoolchildren were followed-up for 2.5 ± 0.3 years. Data collection included questionnaire, recording of anthropometric measures (height and weight), and caries examination. The outcome was the difference between DMFS (number of decayed, missing or filled surfaces) at follow-up and baseline (ΔDMFS). Weight status, based on body mass index-for-age Z-scores, was considered the main predictor variable. Negative binomial regression models were used to model the association, and rate ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated. A multivariable fractional polynomial model was used to further explore the relationship between obesity and dental caries. DMFS increased by 0.86 (95%CI = 0.65–1.07), 0.91 (95%CI = 0.59–1.23), and 0.42 (95%CI = 0.03–0.80) for normal weight, overweight, and obese schoolchildren, respectively. Obese adolescents had significantly lower ΔDMFS than normal weight ones (p &lt; 0.05). No significant association between categories of weight status and ΔDMFS was found (overweight, IRR=0.92, 95%CI = 0.69–1.21, p = 0.54; obese IRR = 0.75, 95%CI = 0.51–1.12, p = 0.16). However, the multivariable fractional polynomial model showed an inverted U shaped relationship with a decreasing ΔDMFS with increasing BMI (p &lt; 0.05). This population-based longitudinal study showed an inverse association between obesity and ΔDMFS over a 2.5-year period among South Brazilian adolescents.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100400&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the association between the different factors of loading protocols and the long-term stability of micro-screws from biomechanical and histological viewpoints. Searches were performed on PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Wanfang and CNKI databases for animal experiments comparing loading protocols and the long-term stability of micro-screws. Among 1011 detected papers, 16 studies met the eligibility criteria and were selected for analysis. Most studies showed medium methodological quality for evaluation of micro-screws' long-term stability. Five studies reported that loading would not destroy the long-term stability of micro-screws. Three studies indicated that low-intensity immediate loading or a 3-week minimal healing time was acceptable. Two studies reported that the loading magnitude was a controversial issue with regard to the micro-screws' long-term stability. Two studies suggested that counterclockwise loading could decrease the long-term stability of micro-screws. In conclusion, immediate loading below 100g force, healing time greater than 3 weeks, regular loading below 200g force and a clockwise direction of force supported the long-term stability of micro-screws. Further studies relating to the combination of varying loading conditions will be needed.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100500&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the association between the different factors of loading protocols and the long-term stability of micro-screws from biomechanical and histological viewpoints. Searches were performed on PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Wanfang and CNKI databases for animal experiments comparing loading protocols and the long-term stability of micro-screws. Among 1011 detected papers, 16 studies met the eligibility criteria and were selected for analysis. Most studies showed medium methodological quality for evaluation of micro-screws' long-term stability. Five studies reported that loading would not destroy the long-term stability of micro-screws. Three studies indicated that low-intensity immediate loading or a 3-week minimal healing time was acceptable. Two studies reported that the loading magnitude was a controversial issue with regard to the micro-screws' long-term stability. Two studies suggested that counterclockwise loading could decrease the long-term stability of micro-screws. In conclusion, immediate loading below 100g force, healing time greater than 3 weeks, regular loading below 200g force and a clockwise direction of force supported the long-term stability of micro-screws. Further studies relating to the combination of varying loading conditions will be needed.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100600&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: Proteomic techniques have become popular in medicine and dentistry because of their widespread use in analyzing bodily fluids such as blood, saliva, urine, and gingival crevicular fluids as well as hard tissues such as enamel, dentine, and cementum. This review is a guide to proteomic techniques in general dentistry, summarizing techniques and their clinical application in understanding and diagnosing diseases and their use in identifying biomarkers of various diseases.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100800&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: Proteomic techniques have become popular in medicine and dentistry because of their widespread use in analyzing bodily fluids such as blood, saliva, urine, and gingival crevicular fluids as well as hard tissues such as enamel, dentine, and cementum. This review is a guide to proteomic techniques in general dentistry, summarizing techniques and their clinical application in understanding and diagnosing diseases and their use in identifying biomarkers of various diseases.</description> </item> <item> <title/> <link>http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242019000100801&lng=e&nrm=iso&tlng=e</link> <description>Abstract: Variable rates of HPV infection have been reported in healthy oral mucosa worldwide. The main objective of this study was to detect and genotype HPV infection in users and nonusers of drugs with clinically healthy mucosa from the Northeast Brazil. Samples from 105 patients were amplified using the primers MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6+, and genotyping was performed by multiplex-PCR for HPV-6/11, 16 and 18. A total of 81.9% samples were positive. Among drug users, 84.5% presented the virus and 20.4% showed multiple infections. Among non-drug users, 78.7% were positive and 13.5% had multiple infections. Limited information is available on oral HPV in Brazilian population, especially for drug users, and our results showed higher HPV infection rates in both users and nonusers of drugs. More studies and researches focused on drug users including factors like sexual behavior, nutrition and cultural habits are necessary to enhance the comprehension of this relationship, and develop preventive strategies.</description> </item> </channel> </rss> <!--transformed by PHP 04:07:36 24-07-2019-->