Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Oral Research]]> vol. 32 num. lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Unprepared root canal surface areas: causes, clinical implications, and therapeutic strategies]]> Abstract: Chemomechanical preparation is intended to clean, disinfect, and shape the root canal. This step is of utmost importance during treatment of infected teeth with apical periodontitis, because treatment outcome depends on how effectively the clinician eliminates bacteria, their products, and necrotic tissue that would serve as substrate for bacterial regrowth. Nonetheless, curvatures and complex internal anatomical variations of the root canal system can pose a high degree of difficulty in reaching these goals. In infected teeth, bacteria may persist not only in difficult-to-reach areas such as isthmuses, ramifications, dentinal tubules, and recesses from C-shaped or oval/flattened canals, but also in areas of the main canal wall that remain untouched by instruments. If bacteria withstand chemomechanical procedures, there is an augmented risk for post-treatment apical periodontitis. This article discloses the reasons why some areas remain unprepared by instruments and discusses strategies to circumvent this issue and enhance infection control during endodontic treatment/retreatment of teeth with apical periodontitis. <![CDATA[Root canal preparation using micro-computed tomography analysis: a literature review]]> Abstract: This literature review has critically analyzed the published research related to the biomechanical preparation of root canals with three-dimensional analysis using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). In December 2017, six databases (PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, and Science Direct) were accessed using keywords to find articles including the use of the micro-CT analysis in biomechanical root canal preparation. There were 60 full articles that were selected, which were screened and read by two authors. The research that was reviewed and analyzed included root canal anatomy and sample selection, changes in canal shape and untouched canal areas, canal transportation and centering ability, and kinematics (motion). Of the studies selected, 49.18% discussed anatomical characteristics, with 54.1% of these studies describing mesial roots of mandibular molars with moderate curvature. Only 35% used a stratified distribution based on root canal system morphology and quantitative data obtained by micro-CT. The analysis of canal transportation and centering ability showed that transport values in the apical third exceeded the critical limit of 0.3 mm in mesial roots of mandibular molars with moderate curvature, especially in the groups in which a reciprocating system was used. In relation to kinematics, 91.70% of the reviewed studies evaluated continuous rotating instruments, followed by reciprocating rotation (38.33%), vibratory (15%), and the adaptive kinematics, which was in only 8.33%. The reciprocating kinematics was associated with higher canal decentralization and transportation indexes, as well as a greater capacity for dentin removal and debris accumulation. This literature review showed that the anatomy, the type of design and kinematics of instruments, and the experimental design are factors that directly influence the quality of biomechanical preparation of root canals analyzed in a qualitative and quantitative manner by micro-CT. <![CDATA[Nickel–titanium instruments in endodontics: a concise review of the state of the art]]> Abstract: The introduction of automated instrumentation in endodontics represented a major advance in progress for this specialty, with improvements in the quality and predictability of root canal preparation and a significant reduction in procedural errors. In recent years, endodontic instruments have undergone a series of changes brought about by modifications in design, surface treatments, and thermal treatments. In addition, new movements have also been incorporated to offer greater safety and efficiency, optimizing the properties of the NiTi alloy, especially through eccentric rotary motion. An understanding of the mechanical properties of these new NiTi instruments and their effect on the clinical performance of root canal preparation is essential if dental practitioners are to select the instruments that provide optimal clinical outcomes, especially in curved or flattened canals. The objective of this literature review is to present and discuss the characteristics of the NiTi alloys used in the major instrumentation systems available in the market, as well as the influence of the metallurgical and mechanical properties of NiTi instruments and the movements that drive them, to enable more accurate and predictable planning of root canal preparation. <![CDATA[Endodontic medicine: interrelationships among apical periodontitis, systemic disorders, and tissue responses of dental materials]]> Abstract: Endodontic medicine, which addresses the bidirectional relationship between endodontic infections and systemic diseases, has gained prominence in the field of endodontics. There is much evidence showing that while systemic disease may influence the pathogenesis of endodontic infection, endodontic infection can also cause systemic alterations. These alterations include more severe bone resorption and inflammation in the periapical area as well as enhanced systemic disease symptoms. Similarly, many reports have described the impact of systemic diseases on the tissue responses to dental materials. Conversely, the local use of dental materials may show systemic effects in the form of altered production of biomarkers. Thus, studies to better understand the mechanisms related to those connections are extremely important. In this context, the objective of this review was to analyze and discuss the current literature regarding the connections among these three factors—systemic diseases, endodontic infection, and endodontic dental materials—and determine how these connections may interfere in the systemic health status and the endodontic treatment outcomes, which are represented by periapical wound healing. <![CDATA[Etiologic role of root canal infection in apical periodontitis and its relationship with clinical symptomatology]]> Abstract: Evidence shows the polymicrobial etiology of endodontic infections, in which bacteria and their products are the main agents for the development, progression, and dissemination of apical periodontitis. Microbial factors in necrotic root canals (e.g., endotoxin) may spread into apical tissue, evoking and supporting a chronic inflammatory load. Thus, apical periodontitis is the result of the complex interplay between microbial factors and host defense against invasion of periradicular tissues. This review of the literature aims to discuss the complex network between endodontic infectious content and host immune response in apical periodontitis. A better understanding of the relationship of microbial factors with clinical symptomatology is important to establish appropriate therapeutic procedures for a more predictable outcome of endodontic treatment. <![CDATA[Tricalcium silicate-based cements: properties and modifications]]> Abstract: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been widely used for different reparative procedures in endodontics. The extensive use of this cement for pulp capping, apexifications, apical surgeries, and revascularization is related to its ability to induce tissue repair and to stimulate mineralization. Several research studies have tested modifications in the composition of MTA-based cements in order to enhance their clinical performance. Novel formulations have been introduced in the market with the aim of increasing flowability. Important properties such as appropriate radiopacity and setting time, color stability, alkaline pH, release of calcium ions, and biocompatibility have to be considered in these new formulations. The latest research studies on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of tricalcium silicate-based cements are discussed in this critical review. <![CDATA[Dendritic cells and their relation to apical peridontitis]]> Abstract: The purpose of this manuscript was to re-discuss apical periodontitis, apical biofilm, and its possible relationship with dendritic cells (DC). DCs are potent regulators of the immune system and their function is divided into three categories that involve the presentation of antigens: the presentation of antigens and activation of T cells; a not well established category suggested that DCs induce and maintain immunological tolerance; and the maintenance of the immune memory in conjunction with B cells. DCs in periapical inflammatory lesions are composed of at least two subpopulations that can be distinguished on the basis of ultrastructure and phenotype. These populations might differ in lineage, state of maturation, differentiation, activation, and/or function. The authors hereby analyzed the root apexes of teeth under SEM, after performing apicoectomy due to the failure of conventional endodontic treatment. Microbial biofilm with multispecies and areas of resorption with the presence of Howship lacunae, and images suggestive of denditric cells could be observed. The presence of DCs in periapical lesion could be an indication of the severity of the lesion, with a constant presence of antigen in the periradicular region. <![CDATA[Current trends of genetics in apical periodontitis research]]> Abstract: Genetics is an emerging topic in endodontic research focusing on the host response regarding the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis (AP). A number of genetic epidemiological studies carried out by many investigators worldwide have shown evidence of an association between certain candidate genes and AP. Some studies have been conducted on knockout mice with a deficiency in certain proteins, leading to more or less severe AP, and thus suggesting a pivotal role of these genes in AP pathogenesis. Other research has evaluated the association between genetic polymorphisms in humans with different AP aspects; these studies pointed out that genetic polymorphisms in some candidate genes are involved in inter-individual variations in their response to AP. Therefore, the objective of this report was to provide an updated overview of the genes involved in AP pathogenesis, with a focus on the most relevant candidate genes. <![CDATA[Root perforations: a review of diagnosis, prognosis and materials]]> Abstract: Root perforation results in the communication between root canal walls and periodontal space (external tooth surface). It is commonly caused by an operative procedural accident or pathological alteration (such as extensive dental caries, and external or internal inflammatory root resorption). Different factors may predispose to this communication, such as the presence of pulp stones, calcification, resorptions, tooth malposition (unusual inclination in the arch, tipping or rotation), an extra-coronal restoration or intracanal posts. The diagnosis of dental pulp and/or periapical tissue previous to root perforation is an important predictor of prognosis (including such issues as clinically healthy pulp, inflamed or infected pulp, primary or secondary infection, and presence or absence of intracanal post). Clinical and imaging exams are necessary to identify root perforation. Cone-beam computed tomography constitutes an important resource for the diagnosis and prognosis of this clinical condition. Clinical factors influencing the prognosis and healing of root perforations include its treatment timeline, extent and location. A small root perforation, sealed immediately and apical to the crest bone and epithelial attachment, presents with a better prognosis. The three most widely recommended materials to seal root perforations have been calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium silicate cements. This review aimed to discuss contemporary therapeutic alternatives to treat root canal perforations. Accordingly, the essential aspects for repairing this deleterious tissue injury will be addressed, including its diagnosis, prognosis, and a discussion about the materials actually suggested to seal root canal perforation. <![CDATA[Current options concerning the endodontically-treated teeth restoration with the adhesive approach]]> Abstract: Adhesive procedures have changed the way to restore endodontically treated teeth (ETT). It started with the shift from cast post-and-core to fiber post. The original focus on strength also shifted towards failure modes, revealing that catastrophic failures are still a concern when restoring endodontically-treated teeth even with fiber posts. As an alternative, postless approaches have been proposed in order to improve the chances of repair. The goal of this critical review is to present a survey of the current knowledge on adhesive approaches to restore endodontically treated teeth with and without extensive coronal tissue loss. The preservation of tooth structure of endodontically treated teeth is paramount. Partial versus full coverage of ETT, the role of the ferrule, the post type effect on catastrophic failures and postless alternatives as endocrowns and postless build-ups are reviewed. There is a consensus that the remaining tooth structure plays an important role in ETT survival, although the current literature still is contradictory on the influence of post type on root fractures as well as the benefits of avoiding a post or partially restoring a tooth. More clinical studies should be carried out with the modern postless adhesive alternatives to conventional approaches. <![CDATA[Pulp canal obliteration after traumatic injuries in permanent teeth – scientific fact or fiction?]]> Abstract: Pulp canal obliteration (PCO) is a frequent finding associated with pulpal revascularization after luxation injuries of young permanent teeth. The underlying mechanisms of PCO are still unclear, and no experimental scientific evidence is available, except the results of a single histopathological study. The lack of sound knowledge concerning this process gives rise to controversies, including the most suitable denomination. More than a mere semantic question, the denomination is an important issue, because it reflects the nature of this process, and directly impacts the treatment plan decision. The hypothesis that accelerated dentin deposition is related to the loss of neural control over odontoblastic secretory activity is well accepted, but demands further supportive studies. PCO is seen radiographically as a rapid narrowing of pulp canal space, whereas common clinical features are yellow crown discoloration and a lower or non-response to sensibility tests. Late development of pulp necrosis and periapical disease are rare complications after PCO, rendering prophylactic endodontic intervention useless. Indeed, yellowish or gray crown discoloration may pose a challenge to clinicians, and may demand endodontic intervention to help restore aesthetics. This literature review was conducted to discuss currently available information concerning PCO after traumatic dental injuries (TDI), and was gathered according to three topics: I) physiopathology of PCO after TDI; II) frequency and predictors of pulpal healing induced by PCO; and III) clinical findings related to PCO. Review articles, original studies and case reports were included aiming to support clinical decisions during the follow-up of teeth with PCO, and highlight future research strategies. <![CDATA[How biomechanics can affect the endodontic treated teeth and their restorative procedures?]]> Abstract: Endodontic treatment is a common dental procedure used for treating teeth which the pulp tissue has become irreversibly inflamed or necrotic as a result of the carious process or dental trauma. This procedure which involves mechanical and chemical preparation of root canal may affect several mechanical and physical properties of the tooth structure. The endodontic treatment can also influence the longevity of the rehabilitation of endodontically treated teeth and biomechanics during the oral function. For restoring endodontically treated teeth several factor and clinical decisions should be observed. The decision of the fiberglass post usage and the restorative materials are related to several factors such as the quantity and quality of remaining dental structure, presence of ferrule, post cementation length and final coronal restoration. In this review, the authors will address the effect of the endodontic treatment procedures on canal shape and mechanical properties of a tooth, and also discuss the parameters and the biomechanical principles of root canal treated teeth.