Scielo RSS <![CDATA[JISTEM - Journal of Information Systems and Technology Management]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1807-177520140001&lang=en vol. 11 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Editorial]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-17752014000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Discovering citizens reaction toward e-government: factors in e-government adoption]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-17752014000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en E-government has been considered as one approach for changing the face of government in the eyes of the citizenry. Therefore, citizens’ socialization in relation to their engagement with e-government should be explored. This study argues that citizens played a significant role in determining the success of an e-government project in the Middle Eastern country of Jordan. This paper aims to provide insight and evaluation into the factors that could influence e-government’s effective functioning in the Jordanian social community through its interaction with citizens. The study collected data from 356 Jordanian citizens via a survey, to ascertain their understanding of 10 factors that may influence their intention to use e-government services. To investigate the adoption of e-government services in depth, two departments in Jordan were selected: the Jordanian Government’s Income and Sales Tax Department (ISTD) and its Driver and Vehicle Licenses Department (DVDL). The factor analysis technique was used to identify the main factors related to e-government services’ adoption. The results indicated that trust in the internet, website design, religious beliefs, internet and computer skill confidence, word of mouth, resistance to change, perceived usefulness, relative advantage and complexity are the main factors that should be considered when addressing the topic of e-government services’ adoption in Jordan. This study is different from most existing studies on e-government adoption as it empirically investigated the impact of word of mouth (WOM), wasta (favoritism), and resistance to change on e-government adoption. This study highlights the importance of considering the social cohesion of the Jordanian community when exploring factors related to e-government adoption. <![CDATA[The future of audit]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-17752014000100021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The purpose of this study is to discuss the current state and future of auditing. Expert consensus is used as a basis to examine the current state of auditing and generate modifications both needed and likely to occur in the audit profession. This study contributes to the literature by using the Delphi method to develop predictions as to the direction of the audit industry and discuss the implications associated with these predictions. If auditors can better understand where the profession stands and where it is headed, then they can better prepare for the future. Some predictions emerging from this study relative to future audit practices include increasing automation of audit procedures, more predictive financial statements, continuous auditing of financial statements and transactions, and an increasingly global perspective regarding audit activities. <![CDATA[Critical success factors for a competitive advantage in electronic commerce: empirical study in paraguayan companies]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-17752014000100033&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en El comercio electrónico ha sido unas de las áreas de investigación más activa dentro del campo de Sistema de Información en los últimos años. Sería interesante descubrir cuáles son los factores críticos que afecta al comercio electrónico para llegar al éxito, y cuales podrían considerarse como una ventaja competitiva sostenible para las empresas. En esta investigación hemos desarrollado un modelo para el éxito del comercio electrónico basado en la propuesta de los autores DeLone y McLean sobre el actual modelo del éxito de Sistema de Informacion, testado con AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structures), sobre una muestra de 55 empresas paraguayas.  En cuanto a la bibliografía utilizada hemos realizado el estudio del meta-analisis con el fin de identificar las revistas científicas más relevantes, con sus respectivos autores del momento y los indicadores que representen importancia para el proyecto.  Los resultados han arrojado conclusiones valiosas para la realidad paraguaya, puesto que de los 10 factores críticos de éxito identificados se han encontrado que dos de ellos: “Expertos en tecnología de información (TI) e infraestructura” e “Interoperabilidad del sistema” son considerados como factores que se han convertido en una ventaja competitiva temporal y no ventaja competitiva sostenible a través del tiempo, por razones tales como carencia de los expertos en tecnología de información (TI) especialmente en cuanto al conocimiento del comercio electrónico y la lentitud del avance de los comercios que realizan actividades vía online.<hr/>Electronic commerce has been one of the most active fields of investigation in Information Technology in the last few years. It would be interesting to find out which critical factors keep electronic commerce from achieving success and which factors would be regarded as a sustainable competitive advantage for companies. In this investigation we have developed a model for the achievement of success in electronic commerce based on what is proposed by DeLone and McLean regarding the current model to achieve success in Information Systems, tested by the AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structures), through a sample of 55 Paraguayan companies.  As for the bibliography used, we have performed a meta-analysis study with the purpose of identifying the most relevant journals, with their respective current authors and the indicators that represent the importance to the project. The results have yielded valuable conclusions to the Paraguayan reality as only two of the 10 indentified critical factors for success were detected: “Experts in information technology (IT) and infrastructure” and “Interoperability of the system”.  These are regarded as factors which have been converted into a timely competitive advantage but not into a sustainable competitive advantage through time, due to reasons such as a lack of experts in information technology (IT), particularly regarding the knowledge of electronic commerce and the sluggishness of development of electronic commerce which carries out online activities. <![CDATA[Convergence in information and communication technology (ICT) using patent analysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-17752014000100053&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Since the 1990s, information and communication technology (ICT) has been perceived as the critical technology for economic development, and the ICT industry itself has been growing exceptionally fast. Moreover, technology convergence in ICT has received particular attention. ICT innovations diffuse into existing products and thus come to form a new integral part of the goods. This is an exploratory research to examine technology convergence of the supply side as a firm level in the ICT sector using International Patent Classification (IPC) of 43,636 sample patents from 1995 to 2008. This study finds a degree of merger and relationships between different technology domains through the association rule mining of patent co-classification. This type of analysis helps companies to take strategies under the environment of technological trajectory change. <![CDATA[Use of the RFID technology to overcome inefficiencies in the production process: an analysis of a microcomputer company in Ilhéus ? Bahia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-17752014000100065&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This paper presents a methodology for the integration of RFID technology into microcomputer assembly companies. Such a technology enables inventory control, tracking of parts/products and customer satisfaction. The methodology was developed to identify and evaluate the production process in an assembly company and to apply the process FMEA to evaluate potential faults and propose improvement actions for the use of RFID technology. The methodology was validated in a company from the Pólo de Informática de Ilhéus/BA. In this study, the viability of RFID technology for inventory control and traceability of the product was confirmed. Among the benefits obtained were the reduction of one of the workers from the inventory team, reduction in the costs of substituting a component, and reduction in lead-time. <![CDATA[Usability measure of chilean public online services: an e-government case study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-17752014000100085&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en La posibilidad de realizar cada vez más trámites públicos en línea (TPL) supone una vital ayuda a los usuarios y una disminución en los recursos que el gobierno debe invertir en acercarse a éstos. No obstante, el uso de herramientas digitales por parte de los usuarios parece dificultado por una serie de variables donde la usabilidad de los sistemas juega un rol preponderante. Esta investigación presenta una evaluación de la usabilidad de 60 TPLs en Chile a partir de la metodología de evaluación heurística, y propone mejoras a partir de un diagnóstico objetivo. Esta evaluación muestra 3 problemas principales en el servicio de TPLs en Chile: (1) los usuarios no sienten control en las acciones que realizan, (2) el sitio genera incertidumbre, (3) no se guía a los usuarios al realizar tareas relevantes. Ésto demuestra que la usabilidad es una variable importante al momento de explicar los problemas de masificación de los servicios en línea de gobierno electrónico, y que intervenciones en este sentido pueden hacerlos más eficientes tanto en Chile como otros países hispanoparlantes.<hr/>The possibility of conducting public online transactions means an important help to users and a reduction of governmental resources. However, the usage of the digital channel can get obstructed by different variables where the usability of the service plays an important role. This research presents a usability evaluation of 60 online services offered by the Chilean government. Following a heuristic evaluation model, we conducted a diagnosis and propose lines of improvement to the problems detected. The evaluation showed that the online services do not offer enough control to users, the services cause uncertainty while interacting with them, and there is not enough guidance to users during relevant steps of the interaction. The evaluation shows that usability is an important variable when explaining the difficulties of public online services spreading between users and it suggests that interventions in this sense could make more efficient the digital channel within the e-government context. <![CDATA[Technological innovation projects: proposal for an integrative model between project management and knowledge management in a customer-supplier perspective]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-17752014000100105&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In face of strong competition, companies in Brazil have increased their financial investments in automation, offering new products and services and reducing operating costs. These companies are focusing their efforts on core competencies and, therefore, they often lack the internal expertise to implement new projects, especially those that bring technological innovation. For this reason, we use the processes of outsourcing or subcontracting to help implement such projects. The unit of analysis in this study is the project and the object of the study to analyze the process of knowledge transfer from a provider to a customer during the duration of the project, which involves new technologies. The main motivation of this work is to address the acquisition and retention of new knowledge related to projects designed for business customers. We have developed a study of three cases of multiple financial firms that buy new technologies and two suppliers of information technology. As a practical result, a management model of knowledge transfer and retention of knowledge in client companies is proposed and incorporated into project management.<hr/>Na área financeira, as empresas no Brasil têm aumentado seus investimentos em automação para enfrentar a forte concorrência, oferecer novos produtos e serviços e reduzir custos operacionais. Essas empresas estão concentrando seus esforços nas competências essenciais e, por isso, muitas vezes não têm o conhecimento interno para a implementação de novos projetos, especialmente aqueles que trazem inovação tecnológica. Por esta razão, é utilizado o processo de terceirização ou subcontratação para ajudar na implementação desses projetos. A unidade de análise deste estudo é o projeto e o objeto do estudo analisar o processo de transferência de conhecimento de um fornecedor para um cliente durante o período de duração do projeto envolvendo novas tecnologias. A principal motivação deste trabalho foi a de tratar da obtenção e retenção de novos conhecimentos relacionados a projetos que são elaborados pelas empresas clientes. Foi elaborado um estudo de casos múltiplos de três empresas do setor financeiro que compram novas tecnologias e dois fornecedores de Tecnologia da Informação. Como resultado prático um modelo de gestão de transferência de conhecimentos e de manutenção do conhecimento nas empresas clientes foi proposto e incorporado na gestão de projetos. <![CDATA[Method for measuring the alignment between information technology strategic planning and actions of information technology governance]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-17752014000100131&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The purpose of this research is to present a method for measuring the degree of alignment between Strategic Planning and Information Technology Management practices and Information Technology Governance. A survey of IT governance maturity at the High Courts and the Supreme Court was carried out in order to reach this aim. The Attribute Table of the COBIT 4.1 was used both as a model for maturity analysis as for the degree of alignment of IT strategic plans of these bodies with the IT Strategic Planning established by the National Judiciary Council (CNJ). It was assessed the maturity of thirty four processes, according to six attributes, in the four COBIT domains. The proposed method, named COMPLAN-GTI, allows the linking of the guidelines of the strategic planning to the COBIT processes.  The field research above mentioned shows that the alignment between the planning established by the CNJ and those established by the High Courts and Supreme Court is around 68%, leading to the conclusion that the policies and actions established by the National Council of Justice for the Judiciary are being followed. The application of the method is also used to confirm whether the management practices and the IT Governance are consistent with the strategic plan established by the organization. It was observed in the research carried out in the Courts that the average convergence between PETIs and management practices and Governance lies around 70%, leading to the conclusion that the strategic plans exerted influence on the action planning of these organizations. <![CDATA[Benefits of the marketing information system in the clothing retail business]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-17752014000100153&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This paper has the purpose of being familiarized with the benefits of the marketing information system in companies that operate in the retail business. A field research was done in a major  clothing retailer, by means of a case study that consisted of interviews with two employees of the company, one from the top management and one from the marketing area, based on a semi-structured script , in addition to a documental analysis. The results indicate that information and its systematization possess great importance for the development of competitiveness, contributing to the development of the operations and to the promotion of new business opportunities, as provided by the pertinent literature. <![CDATA[Evaluation of management control systems in a higher education institution with the performance management and control]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-17752014000100169&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study aims to investigate the structure and operation of management control systems for performance evaluation in a private higher education institution (HEI). To capture the structure and operation of Management Control Systems (MCS) of the HEI, the survey instrument proposed by Ferreira and Otley was used (2006), called Performance Management and Control (PMC). Thus, an adapted PMC structure questionnaire was sent to 55 managers responsible for strategic actions and plans established in the business of the HEI, having 48 answered questionnaires. Also, four out of the five directors of the business school of the HEI were interviewed, besides the documentary research, for the triangulation of data and to validate the results. In data analysis, the techniques of descriptive statistics and information entropy were used. The results show that the overall level of performance evaluation for MCS reached a mean of 3.62 on the scale, less than partial agreement on the items presented. Some weaknesses were pointed out in the system used, and it was also denoted the need for better alignment among strategy, performance and control. It is concluded that the adapted PMC structure questionnaire managed to capture the structure and operation of MCS for performance evaluation in the HEI.<hr/>Este estudo objetiva averiguar a estrutura e o funcionamento dos sistemas de controle gerencial para avaliação de desempenho em uma instituição de ensino superior privada. Para captar a estrutura e funcionamento dos Sistemas de Controle Gerencial (SCG) da IES utilizou-se o instrumento de pesquisa proposto por Ferreira e Otley (2006), denominado Performance Management and Control (PMC). Assim, um questionário com a estrutura PMC adaptada foi enviado aos 55 gestores responsáveis pelas ações estratégicas e planos estabelecidos na área de negócios da IES, obtendo-se 48 questionários respondidos. Também foram entrevistados quatro dos cinco diretores da escola de negócios da IES, além de pesquisa documental, para triangulação dos dados e validação dos resultados. Na análise dos dados utilizaram-se as técnicas de estatística descritiva e entropia da informação. Os resultados mostram que o nível geral dos SCG para avaliação de desempenho alcançou média 3,62 na escala, inferior à concordância parcial nos quesitos apresentados. Foram apontados alguns pontos fracos no sistema utilizado, bem como se denotou a necessidade de melhor alinhamento entre estratégia, desempenho e controle. Conclui-se que o questionário com a estrutura PMC adaptada conseguiu captar a estrutura e o funcionamento dos SCG para avaliação de desempenho na IES. <![CDATA[Eliciting and defining requirements based on metaevaluation: the case of the CRAS 2008 Census]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-17752014000100193&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The Brazilian Ministry of Social Development and Fight against Hunger (MDS) regularly promotes the evaluation of its social programs, such as those developed in the Reference Centers for Social Assistance (CRAS). Such evaluations make use of a web system that supports the collection and processing of information as well as the dissemination of its results to local, regional and central government officials through the so-called CRAS Census. A meta-evaluation of the CRAS 2008 Census was carried out based on criteria specified by the Joint Committee (1994), from which we elicited requirements that enabled improvements of the web system. The article reports new requirements elicited from the meta-evaluation of the CRAS 2008 Census, held in the period 2009-2010. The approach of meta-evaluation as an alternative source of requirements elicitation took into consideration results from evaluations of social programs in order to identify system problems without the usual need of intense interaction with users. This approach revealed opportunities for improvements in the evaluation process that led to the elicitation of requirements for the computerized system. Some of the elicited features were incorporated into the Census 2010 and others may be incorporated in future censuses.<hr/> O Ministério do Desenvolvimento Social e Combate à Fome (MDS) promove periodicamente a avaliação dos seus programas sociais, como aqueles desenvolvidos nos Centros de Referência em Assistência Social (CRAS). Essa avaliação utiliza como instrumento um sistema web que suporta o processo de coleta e tratamento de informações e disseminação de resultados aos gestores municipais, estaduais e federais mediante o chamado Censo CRAS. Conduziu-se uma meta-avaliação do CRAS 2008, baseada nos critérios especificados pelo Joint Committee (1994), a partir da qual foram elicitados requisitos que possibilitaram a melhoria do referido sistema web. Neste artigo são relatados os resultados da meta-avaliação do Censo CRAS 2008, realizada no período de 2009 a 2010, na qual novos requisitos foram elicitados. A abordagem da meta-avaliação como fonte alternativa de elicitação de requisitos considerou os resultados de avaliações de programas sociais para identificar os problemas do sistema, sem a necessidade da usual e intensa interação com usuários, e revelou oportunidades de melhorias no processo de avaliação que conduziram à elicitação de requisitos para o sistema informatizado. Algumas funcionalidades elicitadas foram incorporadas ao Censo CRAS 2010 e outras poderão ser incorporadas em censos futuros. <![CDATA[Repertory grid, laddering, and content analysis: a psychometric approach to understand the information technology workforce]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-17752014000100215&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Um dos principais desafios quando se lida com pessoas é delas obter informações confiáveis. A dificuldade advém do acesso àquilo que se encontra, literalmente, na mente das pessoas. As tentativas de acesso a esses conteúdos estão limitadas aos filtros cognitivos e à retórica da pessoa que está sendo analisada. Neste artigo, repertory grid é aplicada com laddering e análise de conteúdo para confrontar construtos teóricos sobre gestão de equipes-cliente de tecnologia da informação (TI) com construtos “residentes” na cognição de profissionais de TI que implantam sistemas integrados de gestão (ERP). Os resultados demonstram a efetividade dessa composição metodológica para revelar fenômenos cognitivos e entender melhor os profissionais de TI.<hr/>A major challenge when researching on people relates to how reliable information can be retrieved from them. It is a matter of how to access what is literally inside people’s mind. Access is limited by the cognitive screening process that mediates human interaction, as well as by human rhetoric. We apply repertory grid, laddering and content analysis as an integrated psychometric approach to contrast two sets of constructs: a set of theoretically based constructs about the management of information technology professionals who work in customer teams, and a set of constructs that lie behind those professionals’ cognition in the particular case of implementing enterprise-wide systems (ERP). Results confirm the effectiveness of such a methodological approach to accurately reveal cognitive phenomena and to better understand the information technology workforce.