Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Clinics]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1807-593220150006&lang=en vol. 70 num. 6 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[New concepts and outcomes for children with hepatoblastoma based on the experience of a tertiary center over the last 21 years]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000600387&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to summarize the experience of a tertiary center in treating hepatoblastoma for the last 21 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-eight cases were included. The tumor extent and prognosis were assessed using the PRETEXT system. The following data were analyzed: age at diagnosis, comorbidities, prematurity, treatment modalities, histopathological findings, surgical details and complications, treatment outcomes, chemotherapy schedules, side effects and complications. Treatment outcomes included the occurrence of local or distant recurrence, the duration of survival and the cause of death. The investigation methods were ultrasonography, CT scan, serum alpha-fetoprotein level measurement and needle biopsy. Chemotherapy was then planned, and the resectability of the tumor was reevaluated via another CT scan. RESULTS: The mean numbers of neoadjuvant cycles and postoperative cycles of chemotherapy were 6±2 and 1.5±1.7, respectively. All children except one were submitted for surgical resection, including 50 partial liver resections and 7 liver transplantations. Statistical comparisons demonstrated that long-term survival was associated with the absence of metastasis (p=0.04) and the type of surgery (resection resulted in a better outcome than transplantation) (p=0.009). No associations were found between vascular invasion, incomplete resection, histological subtype, multicentricity and survival. The overall 5-year survival rate of the operated cases was 87.7%. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the experience of a Brazilian tertiary center in the management of hepatoblastoma in children demonstrates that long survival is associated with the absence of metastasis and the type of surgery. A multidisciplinary treatment involving chemotherapy, surgical resection and liver transplantation (including transplantations using tissue from living donors) led to good outcomes and survival indexes. <![CDATA[High-fidelity simulation versus case-based discussion for teaching medical students in Brazil about pediatric emergencies]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000600393&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To compare high-fidelity simulation with case-based discussion for teaching medical students about pediatric emergencies, as assessed by a knowledge post-test, a knowledge retention test and a survey of satisfaction with the method. METHODS: This was a non-randomized controlled study using a crossover design for the methods, as well as multiple-choice questionnaire tests and a satisfaction survey. Final-year medical students were allocated into two groups: group 1 participated in an anaphylaxis simulation and a discussion of a supraventricular tachycardia case, and conversely, group 2 participated in a discussion of an anaphylaxis case and a supraventricular tachycardia simulation. Students were tested on each theme at the end of their rotation (post-test) and 4-6 months later (retention test). RESULTS: Most students (108, or 66.3%) completed all of the tests. The mean scores for simulation versus case-based discussion were respectively 43.6% versus 46.6% for the anaphylaxis pre-test (p=0.42), 63.5% versus 67.8% for the post-test (p=0.13) and 61.5% versus 65.5% for the retention test (p=0.19). Additionally, the mean scores were respectively 33.9% versus 31.6% for the supraventricular tachycardia pre-test (p=0.44), 42.5% versus 47.7% for the post-test (p=0.09) and 41.5% versus 39.5% for the retention test (p=0.47). For both themes, there was improvement between the pre-test and the post-test (p&lt;0.05), and no significant difference was observed between the post-test and the retention test (p&gt;0.05). Moreover, the satisfaction survey revealed a preference for simulation (p&lt;0.001). CONCLUSION: As a single intervention, simulation is not significantly different from case-based discussion in terms of acquisition and retention of knowledge but is superior in terms of student satisfaction. <![CDATA[Septic pulmonary embolism caused by a <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> liver abscess: clinical characteristics, imaging findings, and clinical courses]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000600400&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: Septic pulmonary embolism caused by a Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae liver abscess is rare but can cause considerable morbidity and mortality. However, clinical information regarding this condition is limited. This study was conducted to elucidate the full disease spectrum to improve its diagnosis and treatment. METHOD: We reviewed the clinical characteristics, imaging findings, and clinical courses of 14 patients diagnosed with septic pulmonary embolism caused by a K. pneumoniae liver abscess over a period of 9 years. RESULTS: The two most prevalent symptoms were fever and shortness of breath. Computed tomography findings included a feeding vessel sign (79%), nodules with or without cavities (79%), pleural effusions (71%), peripheral wedge-shaped opacities (64%), patchy ground-glass opacities (50%), air bronchograms within a nodule (36%), consolidations (21%), halo signs (14%), and lung abscesses (14%). Nine (64%) of the patients developed severe complications and required intensive care. According to follow-up chest radiography, the infiltrates and consolidations were resolved within two weeks, and the nodular opacities were resolved within one month. Two (14%) patients died of septic shock; one patient had metastatic meningitis, and the other had metastatic pericarditis. CONCLUSION: The clinical presentations ranged from insidious illness with fever and respiratory symptoms to respiratory failure and septic shock. A broad spectrum of imaging findings, ranging from nodules to multiple consolidations, was detected. Septic pulmonary embolism caused by a K. pneumoniae liver abscess combined with the metastatic infection of other vital organs confers a poor prognosis. <![CDATA[The role of KIR2DL3/HLA-C*0802 in Brazilian patients with rheumatoid vasculitis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000600408&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: Rheumatoid arthritis is a polygenically controlled systemic autoimmune disease. Rheumatoid vasculitis is an important extra-articular phenotype of rheumatoid arthritis that can result in deep cutaneous ulcers. The objective of this study was to establish a correlation between the frequency of major histocompatibility complex class I/II alleles and killer immunoglobulin-like receptor genotypes in patients with cutaneous rheumatoid vasculitis. METHODS: Using the Scott &amp; Bacon 1984 criteria to diagnose rheumatoid vasculitis and after excluding any other causes such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, adverse drug reactions, infection, and smoking, patients who met the criteria were selected. All of the selected rheumatoid vasculitis patients presented deep cutaneous ulcers. Identification of the major histocompatibility complex class I/II and killer immunoglobulin-like receptor genotypes was performed by polymerase chain reaction assays of samples collected from the 23 rheumatoid vasculitis patients as well as from 80 controls (40 non-rheumatoid vasculitis RA control patients and 40 healthy volunteers). RESULTS: An association between the presence of the HLA-DRB1*1402 and HLA-DRB1*0101 alleles and cutaneous lesions in rheumatoid vasculitis patients and a correlation between the inhibitor KIR2DL3 and the HLA-C*0802 ligand in rheumatoid vasculitis patients were found. CONCLUSION: An association was found between the presence of the HLA-DRB1*1402 and HLA-DRB1*0101 alleles and the development of cutaneous lesions in rheumatoid vasculitis patients. Additionally, the HLA-C*0802 ligand protects these individuals from developing cutaneous lesions. <![CDATA[Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, Model for Liver Transplantation Survival and Donor Risk Index as predictive models of survival after liver transplantation in 1,006 patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000600413&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: Liver transplantation has not increased with the number of patients requiring this treatment, increasing deaths among those on the waiting list. Models predicting post-transplantation survival, including the Model for Liver Transplantation Survival and the Donor Risk Index, have been created. Our aim was to compare the performance of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, the Model for Liver Transplantation Survival and the Donor Risk Index as prognostic models for survival after liver transplantation. METHOD: We retrospectively analyzed the data from 1,270 patients who received a liver transplant from a deceased donor in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between July 2006 and July 2009. All data obtained from the Health Department of the State of São Paulo at the 15 registered transplant centers were analyzed. Patients younger than 13 years of age or with acute liver failure were excluded. RESULTS: The majority of the recipients had Child-Pugh class B or C cirrhosis (63.5%). Among the 1,006 patients included, 274 (27%) died. Univariate survival analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model showed hazard ratios of 1.02 and 1.43 for the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and the Model for Liver Transplantation Survival, respectively (p&lt;0.001). The areas under the ROC curve for the Donor Risk Index were always less than 0.5, whereas those for the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and the Model for Liver Transplantation Survival were significantly greater than 0.5 (p&lt;0.001). The cutoff values for the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (≥29.5; sensitivity: 39.1%; specificity: 75.4%) and the Model for Liver Transplantation Survival (≥1.9; sensitivity 63.9%, specificity 54.5%), which were calculated using data available before liver transplantation, were good predictors of survival after liver transplantation (p&lt;0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The Model for Liver Transplantation Survival displayed similar death prediction performance to that of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease. A simpler model involving fewer variables, such as the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, is preferred over a complex model involving more variables, such as the Model for Liver Transplantation Survival. The Donor Risk Index had no significance in post-transplantation survival in our patients. <![CDATA[Risk factors for surgical site infection of pilon fractures]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000600419&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: Pilon fracture is a complex injury that is often associated with severe soft tissue damage and high rates of surgical site infection. The goal of this study was to analyze and identify independent risk factors for surgical site infection among patients undergoing surgical fixation of a pilon fracture. METHODS: The medical records of all pilon fracture patients who underwent surgical fixation from January 2010 to October 2012 were reviewed to identify those who developed a surgical site infection. Then, we constructed univariate and multivariate logistic regressions to evaluate the independent associations of potential risk factors with surgical site infection in patients undergoing surgical fixation of a pilon fracture. RESULTS: A total of 519 patients were enrolled in the study from January 2010 to October 2012. A total of 12 of the 519 patients developed a surgical site infection, for an incidence of 2.3%. These patients were followed for 12 to 29 months, with an average follow-up period of 19.1 months. In the final regression model, open fracture, elevated postoperative glucose levels (≥125 mg/dL), and a surgery duration of more than 150 minutes were significant risk factors for surgical site infection following surgical fixation of a pilon fracture. CONCLUSIONS: Open fractures, elevated postoperative glucose levels (≥125 mg/dL), and a surgery duration of more than 150 minutes were related to an increased risk for surgical site infection following surgical fixation of a pilon fracture. Patients exhibiting the risk factors identified in this study should be counseled regarding the possible surgical site infection that may develop after surgical fixation. <![CDATA[Naming ability in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: what changes occur with the evolution of the disease?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000600423&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: Naming deficit is a linguistic symptom that appears in the initial phase of Alzheimer’s disease, but the types of naming errors and the ways in which this deficit changes over the course of the disease are unclear. We analyzed the performance of patients with Alzheimer’s disease on naming tasks during the mild and moderate phases and verified how this linguistic skill deteriorates over the course of the disease. METHODS: A reduced version of the Boston Naming Test was administered to 30 patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease, 30 patients with moderate Alzheimer’s disease and 30 healthy controls. Errors were classified as verbal semantic paraphasia, verbal phonemic paraphasia, no response (pure anomia), circumlocution, unrelated verbal paraphasia, visual errors or intrusion errors. RESULTS: The patients with moderate Alzheimer’s disease had significantly fewer correct answers than did both the control group and the group with mild Alzheimer’s disease. With regard to the pattern of errors, verbal semantic paraphasia errors were the most frequent errors in all three groups. Additionally, as the disease severity increased, there was an increase in the number of no-response errors (pure anomia). The group with moderate Alzheimer’s disease demonstrated a greater incidence of visual errors and unrelated verbal paraphasias compared with the other two groups and presented a more variable pattern of errors. CONCLUSIONS: Performance on nominative tasks worsened as the disease progressed in terms of both the quantity and the type of errors encountered. This result reflects impairment at different levels of linguistic processing. <![CDATA[Comparison of the safety and efficacy of a fixed-dose combination regimen and separate formulations for pulmonary tuberculosis treatment]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000600429&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: Fixed-dose combination formulations, which simplify the administration of drugs and prevent the development of drug resistance, have been recommended as a standard anti-tuberculosis treatment regimen. However, the composition and dosage recommendations for fixed-dose combination formulations differ from those for separate formulations. Thus, questions about the effectiveness and side effects of combination formulations remain. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of these two types of anti-tuberculosis regimens for pulmonary tuberculosis treatment. METHOD: A prospective, randomized controlled study was conducted using the directly observed treatment short-course strategy. Patients were randomly allocated to one of two short-course regimens. One year after completing the treatment, these patients’ outcomes were analyzed. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00979290. RESULTS: A total of 161 patients were enrolled, 142 of whom were evaluable for safety assessment. The two regimens had a similar incidence of adverse effects. In the per-protocol population, serum bilirubin concentrations at the peak level, at week 4, and at week 8 were significantly higher for the fixed-dose combination formulation than for the separate formulations. All patients had negative sputum cultures at the end of the treatment, and no relapse occurred after one year of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized study, transient higher serum bilirubin levels were noted for the fixed-dose combination regimen compared with the separate formulations during treatment. However, no significant difference in safety or efficacy was found between the groups when the directly observed treatment short-course strategy was used. <![CDATA[Developing a new endograft for the treatment of juxtarenal aortic aneurysms: definition and experimentation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000600435&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: To analyze angiotomographic parameters of juxtarenal aneurysms to assess the applicability of an endograft model to patients and to create in vitro and in vivo models to assess the new endograft. METHODS: A total of 49 patients with juxtarenal aneurysms were submitted to angiotomographic evaluation, and parameters such as the aortic diameter, the length of the neck, and the angulations of the celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery and renal arteries; the distances between them; and anatomic variations were analyzed. Based on these parameters, an endograft model was developed and tested in a newly created in vitro model of juxtarenal aneurysm. An experimental model of juxtarenal aneurysm was then established in six pigs weighing 50-60 kg to assess the new endograft model. RESULTS: The angiotomographic parameters of juxtarenal aneurysm measured in this study were similar to those reported in the literature and allowed the development of an endograft based on the hourglass concept, which was applicable to 85.8% of the patients. The in vitro model of juxtarenal aneurysm evidenced good radiopacity and functionality and permitted adjustments in the new device and technical improvements in the procedures for treating these aneurysms. In addition, the porcine model of juxtarenal aneurysm was successfully created in all six animals using a bovine pericardial patch, and use of the new endograft in three pilot procedures evidenced its feasibility. CONCLUSIONS: The Hourglass endograft was rendered applicable to treatment of the majority of patients with juxtarenal aneurysms simply by changing its diameter. Moreover, the new in vitro and in vivo models were shown to be effective for assessing both the presented endograft and experiments assessing the endovascular treatment of juxtarenal aneurysms. <![CDATA[Assessments of the associations of thrombus localization with accompanying disorders, risk factors, D-dimer levels, and the red cell distribution width in pulmonary embolism]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000600441&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary embolisms occur as a wide spectrum ranging from clinically asymptomatic thrombi to massive thrombi that lead to cardiogenic shock. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations of thrombus localization with risk factors, accompanying disorders, D-dimer levels and the red blood cell distribution width in patients with pulmonary embolism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 148 patients diagnosed with pulmonary embolism, the presence and anatomical localization of the thrombus were assessed via computed tomographic pulmonary angiography. The accompanying disorders, risk factors, serum D-dimer levels, and red blood cell distribution width of the patients were retrospectively evaluated. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02388841. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 54±16.0 years, and 48 patients were ≥65 years of age. The most frequent accompanying disorders were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (22%) and malignancy (10.1%), and the most frequent risk factors were recent operation (14.1%) and immobilization (18.2%). Thrombi were most frequently observed in the right pulmonary artery (37.8%). In 31% of the patients, the thrombus was localized to the main pulmonary arteries. Immobile patients exhibited a higher proportion of thrombi in the main pulmonary arteries than mobile patients. The mean D-dimer level and the mean red blood cell distribution width in the patients with thrombi in the main pulmonary arteries were higher than those in the patients with thrombi in more distal pulmonary arterial branches. CONCLUSION: Significant associations of proximally localized thrombi with immobilization, the D-dimer levels, and the red blood cell distribution width were observed. <![CDATA[Mesenteric hypoperfusion and inflammation induced by brain death are not affected by inhibition of the autonomic storm in rats]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000600446&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: Brain death is typically followed by autonomic changes that lead to hemodynamic instability, which is likely associated with microcirculatory dysfunction and inflammation. We evaluated the role of the microcirculation in the hemodynamic and inflammatory events that occur after brain death and the effects of autonomic storm inhibition via thoracic epidural blockade on mesenteric microcirculatory changes and inflammatory responses. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Brain death was induced via intracranial balloon inflation. Bupivacaine (brain death-thoracic epidural blockade group) or saline (brain death group) infusion via an epidural catheter was initiated immediately before brain death induction. Sham-operated animals were used as controls (SH group). The mesenteric microcirculation was analyzed via intravital microscopy, and the expression of adhesion molecules was evaluated via immunohistochemistry 180 min after brain death induction. RESULTS: A significant difference in mean arterial pressure behavior was observed between the brain death-thoracic epidural blockade group and the other groups, indicating that the former group experienced autonomic storm inhibition. However, the proportion of perfused small vessels in the brain death-thoracic epidural blockade group was similar to or lower than that in the brain death and SH groups, respectively. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 was similar between the brain death-thoracic epidural blockade and brain death groups but was significantly lower in the SH group than in the other two groups. The number of migrating leukocytes in the perivascular tissue followed the same trend for all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Although thoracic epidural blockade effectively inhibited the autonomic storm, it did not affect mesenteric hypoperfusion or inflammation induced by brain death. <![CDATA[Risk of congenital anomalies associated with antithyroid treatment during pregnancy: a meta-analysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000600453&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en To evaluate the association of either propylthiouracil or methimazole treatment for hyperthyroidism during pregnancy with congenital malformations, relevant studies were identified by searching Medline, PubMed, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE. We intended to include randomized controlled trials, but no such trials were identified. Thus, we included cohort studies and case-control studies in this meta-analysis. A total of 7 studies were included in the meta-analyses. The results revealed an increased risk of birth defects among the group of pregnant women with hyperthyroidism treated with methimazole compared with the control group (odds ratio 1.76, 95% confidence interval 1.47-2.10) or the non-exposed group (odds ratio 1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.39-2.10). A maternal shift between methimazole and propylthiouracil was associated with an increased odds ratio of birth defects (odds ratio 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.77). An equal risk of birth defects was observed between the group of pregnant women with hyperthyroidism treated with propylthiouracil and the non-exposed group (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 0.97-1.42). There was only a slight trend towards an increased risk of congenital malformations in infants whose mothers were treated with propylthiouracil compared with in infants whose mothers were healthy controls (odds ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.55). The children of women receiving methimazole treatment showed an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes relative to those of mothers receiving propylthiouracil treatment. We found that propylthiouracil was a safer choice for treating pregnant women with hyperthyroidism according to the risk of birth defects but that a shift between methimazole and propylthiouracil failed to provide protection against birth defects.