Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Clinics]]> vol. 72 num. 9 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Accuracy of transient elastography-FibroScan<sup>®</sup>, acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging, the enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) test, APRI, and the FIB-4 index compared with liver biopsy in patients with chronic hepatitis C]]> OBJECTIVES: Although liver biopsy is the gold standard for determining the degree of liver fibrosis, issues regarding its invasiveness and the small amount of liver tissue evaluated can limit its applicability and interpretation in clinical practice. Non-invasive evaluation methods for liver fibrosis can address some of these limitations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of transient elastography-FibroScan®, acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI), enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF), the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and the FIB-4 index compared with liver biopsy in hepatitis C. METHODS: We evaluated chronic hepatitis C patients who were followed at the Division of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hospital das Clínicas, Department of Gastroenterology of University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil, and who underwent liver biopsy. The accuracy of each method was determined by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and fibrosis was classified as significant fibrosis (≥F2), advanced fibrosis (≥F3), or cirrhosis (F4). The Obuchowski method was also used to determine the diagnostic accuracy of each method at the various stages of fibrosis. In total, 107 FibroScan®, 51 ARFI, 68 ELF, 106 APRI, and 106 FIB-4 analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 107 patients were included in the study. The areas under the ROC curve (AUROCs) according to fibrosis degree were as follows: significant fibrosis (≥F2): FibroScan®: 0.83, FIB-4: 0.76, ELF: 0.70, APRI: 0.69, and ARFI: 0.67; advanced fibrosis (≥F3): FibroScan®: 0.85, ELF: 0.82, FIB-4: 0.77, ARFI: 0.74, and APRI: 0.71; and cirrhosis (F4): APRI: 1, FIB-4: 1, FibroScan®: 0.99, ARFI: 0.96, and ELF: 0.94. The accuracies of transient elastography, ARFI, ELF, APRI and FIB-4 determined by the Obuchowski method were F0-F1: 0.81, 0.78, 0.44, 0.72 and 0.67, respectively; F1-F2: 0.73, 0.53, 0.62, 0.60, and 0.68, respectively; F2-F3: 0.70, 0.64, 0.77, 0.60, and 0.67, respectively; and F3-F4: 0.98, 0.96, 0.82, 1, and 1, respectively. CONCLUSION: Transient elastography remained the most effective method for evaluating all degrees of fibrosis. The accuracy of all methodologies was best at F4. <![CDATA[Cytogenomic assessment of the diagnosis of 93 patients with developmental delay and multiple congenital abnormalities: The Brazilian experience]]> OBJECTIVE: The human genome contains several types of variations, such as copy number variations, that can generate specific clinical abnormalities. Different techniques are used to detect these changes, and obtaining an unequivocal diagnosis is important to understand the physiopathology of the diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic capacity of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and array techniques for etiologic diagnosis of syndromic patients. METHODS: We analyzed 93 patients with developmental delay and multiple congenital abnormalities using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplifications and arrays. RESULTS: Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification using different kits revealed several changes in approximately 33.3% of patients. The use of arrays with different platforms showed an approximately 53.75% detection rate for at least one pathogenic change and a 46.25% detection rate for patients with benign changes. A concomitant assessment of the two techniques showed an approximately 97.8% rate of concordance, although the results were not the same in all cases. In contrast with the array results, the MLPA technique detected ∼70.6% of pathogenic changes. CONCLUSION: The obtained results corroborated data reported in the literature, but the overall detection rate was higher than the rates previously reported, due in part to the criteria used to select patients. Although arrays are the most efficient tool for diagnosis, they are not always suitable as a first-line diagnostic approach because of their high cost for large-scale use in developing countries. Thus, clinical and laboratory interactions with skilled technicians are required to target patients for the most effective and beneficial molecular diagnosis. <![CDATA[Experimental study of histological changes in vascular loops according to the duration of the postoperative period: Application in reconstructive microsurgery]]> OBJECTIVES: To analyze the histological changes observed in venous grafts subjected to arterial blood flow as a function of the duration of the postoperative period to optimize their use in free flap reconstructions. METHOD: Twenty-five rats (7 females and 18 males) underwent surgery. Surgeries were performed on one animal per week. Five weeks after the first surgery, the same five animals were subjected to an additional surgery to assess the presence or absence of blood flow through the vascular loop, and samples were collected for histological analysis. This cycle was performed five times. RESULTS: Of the rats euthanized four to five weeks after the first surgery, no blood flow was observed through the graft in 80% of the cases. In the group euthanized three weeks after the first surgery, no blood flow was observed in 20% of the cases. In the groups euthanized one to two weeks after the first surgery, blood flow through the vascular loop was observed in all animals. Moreover, intimal proliferation tended to increase with the duration of the postoperative period. Two weeks after surgery, intimal proliferation increased slightly, whereas strong intimal proliferation was observed in all rats evaluated five weeks after surgery. CONCLUSION: Intimal proliferation was the most significant change noted in venous grafts as a function of the duration of the postoperative period and was directly correlated with graft occlusion. In cases in which vascular loops are required during free flap reconstruction, both procedures should preferably be performed during the same surgery. <![CDATA[Long-term efficiency of cataract surgery with hydrophilic acrylic Ioflex intraocular lens]]> OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficiency of long-term cataract surgery using low-cost intraocular lens implantation in community campaigns. METHODS: Fifty-eight randomly selected patients were evaluated four years after phacoemulsification and Ioflex intraocular lens implantation. Causes of low visual acuity related to the intraocular lens were evaluated, and treatment costs were calculated. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 72±10.2 years. Four years after surgery, 25 eyes (43.0%) had decreased visual acuity related to the intraocular lens: posterior capsule opacification was noted in 24 eyes (41.3%), and intraocular lens opacification was noted in one eye (1.7%). The total cost of the post-surgical complication treatments represented 6.3% of the initial budget of the entire surgical patient group. CONCLUSIONS: The efficiency of cataract surgery with low-cost Ioflex intraocular lens implantation was significantly reduced in a long-term follow-up study because postoperative complications related to intraocular lenses emerged at higher rates than when the gold-standard treatment was used. <![CDATA[Early menarche and teenager pregnancy as risk factors for morbid obesity among reproductive-age women: A case-control study]]> OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate potential risk factors, including non-communicable diseases, for morbid obesity in women between 20 and 49 years of age. METHODS: We performed a case-control study with 110 morbidly obese women and 110 women with adequate weight who were matched by age and with a 1:1 case to control ratio. All women were between 20 to 49 years old and non-menopausal. Possible risk factors were evaluated through a self-report questionnaire assessing socio-demographic, obstetric and gynecological characteristics, presence of non-communicable diseases and habits. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio with respective confidence intervals. RESULTS: Menarche under 12 years old, teenage pregnancy and lower educational level were shown to be risk factors for morbid obesity among women of reproductive age. Incidences of non-communicable diseases (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, liver disease, lung disease, thyroid dysfunction, and joint pain) were increased in women with morbid obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Early menarche, teenage pregnancy and low education level are risk factors for the occurrence of morbid obesity in women of reproductive age. Some non-communicable diseases were already more prevalent in women with morbid obesity even before 50 years of age. <![CDATA[Endoscopic endonasal approach for mass resection of the pterygopalatine fossa]]> OBJECTIVES: Access to the pterygopalatine fossa is very difficult due to its complex anatomy. Therefore, an open approach is traditionally used, but morbidity is unavoidable. To overcome this problem, an endoscopic endonasal approach was developed as a minimally invasive procedure. The surgical aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of the endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of both benign and malignant tumors of the pterygopalatine fossa. METHOD: We report our experience with the endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of both benign and malignant tumors and summarize recent recommendations. A total of 13 patients underwent surgery via the endoscopic endonasal approach for pterygopalatine fossa masses from 2014 to 2016. This case group consisted of 12 benign tumors (10 juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas and two schwannomas) and one malignant tumor. RESULTS: No recurrent tumor developed during the follow-up period. One residual tumor (juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma) that remained in the cavernous sinus was stable. There were no significant complications. Typical sequelae included hypesthesia of the maxillary nerve, trismus, and dry eye syndrome. CONCLUSION: The low frequency of complications together with the high efficacy of resection support the use of the endoscopic endonasal approach as a feasible, safe, and beneficial technique for the management of masses in the pterygopalatine fossa. <![CDATA[The value of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy after extubation in patients with acute respiratory failure]]> OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy after extubation in patients with acute respiratory failure. METHODS: A single-center, prospective, randomized, controlled pilot trial was conducted between January 2013 and December 2014. Sixty enrolled patients were randomized immediately after extubation into either a high-flow nasal cannula group (n=30) or an air entrainment mask group (n=30) at a fixed inspired oxygen fraction (40%). The success rate of oxygen therapy, respiratory and hemodynamic parameters and subjective discomfort (using a visual analogue scale) were assessed at 24h after extubation. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable at extubation. A total of 46 patients were successfully treated including 27 patients in the high-flow nasal cannula group and 19 patients in the air entrainment mask group. Compared to the air entrainment mask group, the success rate of oxygen therapy and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen were significantly higher and the respiratory rate was lower in the high-flow nasal cannula group. In addition, less discomfort related to interface displacement and airway dryness was observed in the high-flow nasal cannula group than in the air entrainment mask group. CONCLUSIONS: At a fixed inspired oxygen fraction, the application of a high-flow nasal cannula after extubation achieves a higher success rate of oxygen therapy and less discomfort at 24h than an air entrainment mask in patients with acute respiratory failure. <![CDATA[Caring for critically ill patients outside intensive care units due to full units: a cohort study]]> OBJECTIVES: This study sought to analyze the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of critically ill patients who were denied intensive care unit admission due to the unavailability of beds and to estimate the direct costs of treatment. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed with critically ill patients treated in a university hospital. All consecutive patients denied intensive care unit beds due to a full unit from February 2012 to February 2013 were included. The data collected included clinical data, calculation of costs, prognostic scores, and outcomes. The patients were followed for data collection until intensive care unit admission or cancellation of the request for the intensive care unit bed. Vital status at hospital discharge was noted, and patients were classified as survivors or non-survivors considering this endpoint. RESULTS: Four hundred and fifty-four patients were analyzed. Patients were predominantly male (54.6%), and the median age was 62 (interquartile range (ITQ): 47 - 73) years. The median APACHE II score was 22.5 (ITQ: 16 - 29). Invasive mechanical ventilation was used in 298 patients (65.6%), and vasoactive drugs were used in 44.9% of patients. The median time of follow-up was 3 days (ITQ: 2 - 6); after this time, 204 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit and 250 had the intensive care unit bed request canceled. The median total cost per patient was US$ 5,945.98. CONCLUSIONS: Patients presented a high severity in terms of disease scores, had multiple organ dysfunction and needed multiple invasive therapeutic interventions. The study patients received intensive care with specialized consultation during their stay in the hospital wards and presented high costs of treatment. <![CDATA[An activating mutation in the <em>CRHR1</em> gene is rarely associated with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in poodles]]> OBJECTIVES: Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism is the most common cause of naturally occurring hypercortisolism in dogs. CRHR1 expression in human and dog corticotrophinomas suggested that this gene affects pituitary tumorigenesis. The present study aimed to investigate mutations in the CRHR1 coding region in poodles with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. METHODS: Fifty poodles with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism and 50 healthy poodles were studied. Genomic DNA was amplified by PCR and analyzed by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: The novel CRHR1 p.V97M mutation was identified in one dog. This valine residue, located in the amino-terminal extracellular domain, exhibits high affinity for its corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) ligand. Bioinformatic analysis revealed structural rearrangements in the mutant protein, with a 17% increase in the surface binding affinity between CRHR1 and CRH. In vitro functional studies showed that mutant CRHR1 induced higher ACTH secretion than the wild type after stimulation with human CRH. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that germline activating mutations in CRHR1 may be a rare cause of pituitary hyperadrenocorticism in poodles. <![CDATA[A Biomechanical Analysis of the Interlock Suture and a Modified Kessler-Loop Lock Flexor Tendon Suture]]> OBJECTIVE: In this work, we attempted to develop a modified single-knot Kessler-loop lock suture technique and compare the biomechanical properties associated with this single-knot suture technique with those associated with the conventional modified Kessler and interlock suture techniques. METHODS: In this experiment, a total of 18 porcine flexor digitorum profundus tendons were harvested and randomly divided into three groups. The tendons were transected and then repaired using three different techniques, including modified Kessler suture with peritendinous suture, interlock suture with peritendinous suture, and modified Kessler-loop lock suture with peritendinous suture. Times required for suturing were recorded and compared among groups. The groups were also compared with respect to 2-mm gap load, ultimate failure load, and gap at failure. RESULTS: For tendon repair, compared with the conventional modified Kessler suture technique, the interlock and modified Kessler-loop lock suture techniques resulted in significantly improved biomechanical properties. However, there were no significant differences between the interlock and modified Kessler-loop lock techniques with respect to biomechanical properties, gap at failure, and time required. CONCLUSIONS: The interlock and modified Kessler-loop lock techniques for flexor tendon sutures produce similar mechanical characteristics in vitro.