Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Clinics]]> vol. 72 num. 6 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Influence of the prone position on a stretcher for pregnant women on maternal and fetal hemodynamic parameters and comfort in pregnancy]]> OBJECTIVES: To analyze the influence of lying in prone position on a specially designed stretcher on the maternal-fetal hemodynamic parameters and comfort of pregnant women. METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial with 33 pregnant women divided into 2 groups: pregnant group sequence 1 and pregnant group sequence 2. The order of positions used in sequence 1 was Fowler’s position, prone position, supine position, left lateral, Fowler’s position 2, supine position 2, prone position 2 and left lateral 2. The order of positions used in sequence 2 was Fowler’s position, prone position, left lateral, supine position, Fowler’s position 2, left lateral 2, prone position 2 and supine position 2. Each woman remained in each position for 6 minutes. For the statistical analyses, we used Wilcoxon’s test for 2 paired samples when comparing the prone position with the other positions. The variables are presented in graphs showing the means and 95% confidence intervals. Trial Registration: Clinical Trial No. ISRCTN41359519 RESULTS: All the parameters were within the standards of normality. There were no differences between positions in terms of maternal heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, oxygen saturation and fetal heart rate. However, there were significant decreases in respiratory rate and systolic blood pressure in prone position 2 compared with left lateral 2. There was an increase in oxygen saturation in prone position compared with Fowler’s position and supine position 2 in both sequences. All the women reported feeling comfortable in the prone position. CONCLUSIONS: The prone position was considered safe and comfortable and could be advantageous for improving oxygen saturation and reducing the systolic blood pressure and respiratory rate. <![CDATA[Predictors of micro-costing components in liver transplantation]]> OBJECTIVES: Although liver transplantation procedures are common and highly expensive, their cost structure is still poorly understood. This study aimed to develop models of micro-costs among patients undergoing liver transplantation procedures while comparing the role of individual clinical predictors using tree regression models. METHODS: We prospectively collected micro-cost data from patients undergoing liver transplantation in a tertiary academic center. Data collection was conducted using an Intranet registry integrated into the institution’s database for the storing of financial and clinical data for transplantation cases. RESULTS: A total of 278 patients were included and accounted for 300 procedures. When evaluating specific costs for the operating room, intensive care unit and ward, we found that in all of the sectors but the ward, human resources were responsible for the highest costs. High cost supplies were important drivers for the operating room, whereas drugs were among the top four drivers for all sectors. When evaluating the predictors of total cost, a MELD score greater than 30 was the most important predictor of high cost, followed by a Donor Risk Index greater than 1.8. CONCLUSION: By focusing on the highest cost drivers and predictors, hospitals can initiate programs to reduce cost while maintaining high quality care standards. <![CDATA[Comparison of Electrocardiographic Criteria for Identifying Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Athletes from Different Sports Modalities]]> OBJECTIVES: In athletes, isolated electrocardiogram high voltage criteria are widely used to evaluate left ventricular hypertrophy, but positive findings are thought to represent normal electrocardiogram alterations. However, which electrocardiogram criterion can best detect left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes of various sport modalities remains unknown. METHODS: Five electrocardiogram criteria used to detect left ventricular hypertrophy were tested in 180 male athletes grouped according to their sport modality: 67% low-static and high-dynamic components and 33% high-static and high-dynamic components of exercise. The following echocardiogram parameters are the gold standard for diagnosing left ventricular hypertrophy: left ventricular mass index ≥134 g.m-2, relative wall thickness ≥0.42 mm, left ventricular diastolic diameter index ≥32 mm.m-2, septum wall thickness ≥13 mm, and posterior wall thickness ≥13 mm. Results for the various criteria were compared using the kappa coefficient. Significance was established at p&lt;0.05. RESULTS: Fifty athletes (28%) presented with left ventricular hypertrophy according to electrocardiogram findings, with the following sensitivities and specificities, respectively: 38-53% and 79-83% (Perugia), 22-40% and 89-91% (Cornell), 24-29% and 90% (Romhilt-Estes), 68-87% and 20-23% (Sokolow-Lyon), and 0% and 99% (Gubner). The Perugia and Cornell criteria had higher negative predictive values for the low-static and high-dynamic subgroup. Kappa coefficients were higher for Romhilt-Estes, Cornell and Perugia criteria than for Sokolow-Lyon and Gubner criteria. CONCLUSION: All five evaluated criteria are inadequate for detecting left ventricular hypertrophy, but the Perugia, Cornell and Romhilt-Estes criteria are useful for excluding its presence. The Perugia and Cornell criteria were more effective at excluding left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes involved in a sport modality with low-static and high-dynamic component predominance. <![CDATA[Language assessment of children with severe liver disease in a public service in Brazil]]> OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to compare language development (expressive and receptive skills) in children awaiting liver transplantation with that of children who have already undergone the surgical procedure. METHODS: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted with 76 children divided into groups, as follows: 31 children who were candidates for liver transplantation (Group 1; G1), 45 children who had already undergone liver transplantation (Group 2; G2), and a control group (CG) of 60 healthy, normally developing children. Health status information was gathered, and the Test of Early Language Development (TELD)-3 was used to assess language skills. Family household monthly income data were also gathered using a specific questionnaire. RESULTS: G1 had poorer language performance compared with G2 and the CG. G2 had lower language performance when compared with the CG. However, when considering the TELD-3 standard scores, G2 had scores within normal limits. The regression analysis indicated age as a risk factor for language deficits in Group 1 and family income as a risk factor for language deficits in G2. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that children with chronic liver disease have delays in language development. Transplanted children have linguistic performance within normal limits, but their scores tended to be lower than the CG. <![CDATA[Sonographic Findings of the Bifid Median Nerve and Persistent Median Artery in Carpal Tunnel: A Preliminary Study in Chinese Individuals]]> OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of anatomic variations of the bifid median nerve, persistent median artery and persistent median vein in Chinese individuals and their relationship with carpal tunnel syndrome. METHODS: One hundred and sixty median nerves were examined using ultrasonography and colour Doppler ultrasonography. The location, shape, and size of the bifid median nerve, persistent median artery and persistent median vein were recorded. The cross-sectional area of the bifid median nerve (two trunks) was measured at the level of the pisiform. RESULTS: Among the 160 wrists examined, a bifid median nerve was observed in 15 (9.4%) wrists, and a persistent median artery was observed in 12 (7.5%) wrists. These two variations either coexisted or were observed independently, and the probability of coexistence (6.3%) was higher than the probability of existing independently (bifid median nerve only 3.1%, persistent median artery only 1.3%). The cross-sectional area of the radial trunk was greater than (13 in 15, 86.7%) the cross-sectional area of the ulnaris trunk. Persistent median vein was observed in 9 wrists (5.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The persistent median artery and bifid median nerve tend to coexist, and the persistent median vein sometimes runs parallel to the persistent median artery. Their positional relationship in carpal tunnel is uncertain, and thus, preoperative ultrasound is necessary. These three variations do not present any additional risk for the development of carpal tunnel syndrome. <![CDATA[Combined aerobic and resistance training: are there additional benefits for older hypertensive adults?]]> OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a combination of aerobic and resistance training to those of isolated aerobic training on blood pressure, body composition, and insulin sensitivity in hypertensive older adults. METHOD: Forty-four patients were randomly assigned to the aerobic group, resistance and aerobic group, and control group. Before and after 10 weeks, the following data were obtained: 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure data, abdominal circumference, waist circumference, body mass index, lean mass, fat mass, and insulin sensitivity. The study was conducted with 3 training sessions per week. RESULTS: Comparison revealed significant reductions in the body mass index, abdominal and waist circumferences, and ambulatory blood pressure (24-hour, wakefulness and sleep systolic/diastolic blood pressures) in both the aerobic group and the resistance and aerobic (combined) group. The fat mass only changed in the combined group. There was no difference in the insulin sensitivity in any group. CONCLUSIONS: The combined treatment and aerobic treatment alone were equally effective in reducing the blood pressure, body mass index, and abdominal and waist circumferences, although the addition of the resistance component also helped reduce the fat mass. <![CDATA[Indications and visual outcomes of intrastromal corneal ring segment implantation in a large patient series]]> OBJECTIVES: To describe the indications for and visual outcomes of intrastromal corneal ring segment implantation. METHODS: A large retrospective case-series chart-review study was conducted using Sorocaba Ophthalmological Hospital medical records. This study included 1222 eyes (1196 patients) that were surgically treated between November 2009 and December 2012. The following preoperative data were collected: age, gender, type of medical care and funding source, surgical technique, best-corrected visual acuity, manifest sphere and cylinder refractive error, maximum and minimum central keratometry, and pachymetry measurements of the cornea at the thinnest point and at the ring channel. The postoperative best-corrected visual acuity and patient satisfaction were also determined. The cases were classified into six groups: four keratoconus groups (severe, advanced, moderate and mild), a pellucid marginal degeneration group and a post-graft irregular astigmatism group. This study was approved by the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (UTN number 1111-1182-6181, TRIAL RBR-6S72RF). RESULTS: The age (mean┬▒standard deviation) of the patients was 31.0┬▒10.0 years. The most prevalent pathology was keratoconus (1147 eyes, 93.8%). A correlation was found between ectasia severity and medical assistance (p&lt;0.001), and the most serious cases was treated by the Brazilian public health system. No complications were found in a total of 1155 surgeries, and after surgery, 959 patients were satisfied. Among the 164 dissatisfied patients, the majority failed to show improved best-corrected visual acuity. CONCLUSION: Patients in the public health system underwent surgical intervention for keratoconus later than those with private sources of funding. In the vast majority of operated cases, the patients reported improvements in vision. <![CDATA[Effectiveness and safety of first-generation protease inhibitors in real-world patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection in Brazil: a multicenter study]]> OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of first-generation protease inhibitors for the treatment of genotype 1 hepatitis C virus-infected patients at Brazilian reference centers. METHODS: This multicenter cross-sectional study included hepatitis C virus genotype 1 monoinfected patients treated with Peg-interferon, ribavirin, and either boceprevir (n=158) or telaprevir (n=557) between July 2013 and April 2014 at 15 reference centers in Brazil. Demographic, clinical, virological, and adverse events data were collected during treatment and follow-up. RESULTS: Of the 715 patients, 59% had cirrhosis and 67.1% were treatment-experienced. Based on intention-to-treat analysis, the overall sustained viral response was 56.6%, with similar effectiveness in both groups (51.9% for boceprevir and 58% for telaprevir, p=0.190). Serious adverse events occurred in 44.2% of patients, and six deaths (0.8%) were recorded. Cirrhotic patients had lower sustained viral response rates than non-cirrhotic patients (46.9% vs. 70.6%, p&lt;0.001) and a higher incidence of serious adverse events (50.7% vs. 34.8%, p&lt;0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that sustained viral response was associated with the absence of cirrhosis, viral recurrence after previous treatment, pretreatment platelet count greater than 100,000/mm3, and achievement of a rapid viral response. Female gender, age&gt;65 years, diagnosis of cirrhosis, and abnormal hemoglobin levels/platelet counts prior to treatment were associated with serious adverse events. CONCLUSION: Although serious adverse events rates were higher in this infected population, sustained viral response rates were similar to those reported for other patient cohorts. <![CDATA[Perioperative management of drugs commonly used in patients with rheumatic diseases: a review]]> Rheumatic diseases are very prevalent, affecting about 7 million people in North America; they affect the musculoskeletal system, often with systemic involvement and potential for serious consequences and limitation on quality of life. Clinical treatment is usually long-term and includes drugs that are considered either simple or complex and are occasionally unknown to many health professionals who do not know how to manage these patients in emergency units and surgical wards. Thus, it is important for clinicians, surgeons and anesthesiologists who are involved with rheumatic patients undergoing surgery to know the basic principles of therapy and perioperative management. This study aims to do a review of the perioperative management of the most commonly used drugs in rheumatologic patients. Manuscripts used in this review were identified by surveying MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, and COCHRANE databases and included studies containing i) the perioperative management of commonly used drugs in patients with rheumatic diseases: and ii) rheumatic diseases. They are didactically discussed according to the mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics; and perioperative management. In total, 259 articles related to the topic were identified. Every medical professional should be aware of the types of drugs that are appropriate for continuous use and should know the various effects of these drugs before indicating surgery or assisting a rheumatic patient postoperatively. This information could prevent possible complications that could affect a wide range of patients. <![CDATA[New evidences on the regulation of SF-1 expression by POD1/<em>TCF21</em> in adrenocortical tumor cells]]> OBJECTIVES: Transcription Factor 21 represses steroidogenic factor 1, a nuclear receptor required for gonadal development, sex determination and the regulation of adrenogonadal steroidogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether silencing or overexpression of the gene Transcription Factor 21 could modulate the gene and protein expression of steroidogenic factor 1 in adrenocortical tumors. METHODS: We analyzed the gene expression of steroidogenic factor 1 using qPCR after silencing endogenous Transcription Factor 21 in pediatric adrenal adenoma-T7 cells through small interfering RNA. In addition, using overexpression of Transcription Factor 21 in human adrenocortical carcinoma cells, we analyzed the protein expression of steroidogenic factor 1 using Western blotting. RESULTS: Transcription Factor 21 knockdown increased the mRNA expression of steroidogenic factor 1 by 5.97-fold in pediatric adrenal adenoma-T7 cells. Additionally, Transcription Factor 21 overexpression inhibited the protein expression of steroidogenic factor 1 by 0.41-fold and 0.64-fold in two different adult adrenocortical carcinoma cell cultures, H295R and T36, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Transcription Factor 21 is downregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that Transcription Factor 21 is a regulator of steroidogenic factor 1 and is a tumor suppressor gene in pediatric and adult adrenocortical tumors.