Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Clinics]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1807-593220160007&lang=pt vol. 71 num. 7 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Socioeconomic disparities in access to a hepatocellular carcinoma screening program in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322016000700361&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: Cirrhotic patients must receive an abdominal ultrasound every 6 months as part of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening. The aim of this study was to assess if HCC screening was performed as recommended by the literature and to observe the differences between the private and public services in Brazil. METHODS: We analyzed data from the HCC screenings of 253 cirrhotic patients from the University Hospital (n=177) and private sector (n=76) in Vitória, ES, Brazil. RESULTS: Ultrasound screening was performed every 13.1 months on average (SD 9.02). In 37 out of 253 patients, the screenings were performed close to the recommended frequency; 16 were performed every 6 months, and 21 were mostly performed during the follow-up period every 6 months. In the remaining 216 cases, ultrasounds were not performed according to the guidelines; for 106 patients, less than 50% of all ultrasounds were performed every 6 months and 110 patients showed an interval greater than one year. Patients from the private sector received ultrasound screenings near the ideal in 28.9% of cases, while patients from the University Hospital received ultrasounds in only 8.4% of cases (p&lt;0.0001). HCC was diagnosed in 30 patients (11.8%). For these 30 patients, 11 screenings were properly performed within 6 months (36.6%) and only 1 out of the 11 (9%) met the criteria for transplant. In the remaining 19 patients who did not receive the screening within 6 months, 6 (31.5%) did not meet the criteria for transplant. CONCLUSION: HCC screening in our environment was irregularly performed, mainly in the public service setting, which prevented early diagnosis in a large number of patients. <![CDATA[The Lowest Prevalence of Cholelithiasis in the Americas - An Autopsy-based Study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322016000700365&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: This study used autopsy to evaluate the prevalence of cholelithiasis and its associated risk factors in a population of healthy, young subjects who suffered a violent or natural death. METHODS: This study is a prospective evaluation of autopsies of 446 individuals from 2011 to 2013 in Brazil. Of that sample, 330 (74%) subjects died from violent deaths and 116 (26%) died naturally. The presence of biliary calculi, previous cholecystectomy, gender, age, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI) and alcohol use were evaluated. RESULTS: In the natural death group, 6.9% (95% CI 3.39 to 13.28) (3.08% of the male subjects and 11.76% of the female subjects) exhibited evidence of gallbladder disease. In the violent death group, only 2.12% (95% CI 0.96 to 4.43) (2.17% of the male subjects and 1.85% of the female subjects) of the subjects exhibited evidence of gallbladder disease. Age was correlated with the prevalence of gallbladder disease, but BMI was correlated with only gallbladder disease in the natural death group. CONCLUSIONS: This population has the lowest prevalence of cholelithiasis in the Americas. Dietary habits, physical activity, ethnicity, alcohol consumption and genetic factors may be responsible for this low prevalence. <![CDATA[Determinants of quality of life in Brazilian patients with myasthenia gravis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322016000700370&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: The aims of the current study were 1) to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Brazilian version of the 15-item Myasthenia Gravis Quality of Life Scale and 2) to investigate the quality of life of Brazilian patients with myasthenia gravis and its determinants. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 69 patients with myasthenia gravis who underwent neurological evaluation and completed questionnaires regarding quality of life (the 36-item Short Form of the Medical Outcomes Study and the 15-item Myasthenia Gravis Quality of Life Scale), anxiety and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The Brazilian version of the 15-item Myasthenia Gravis Quality of Life Scale showed high internal consistency and good concurrent validity with the 36-item Short Form of the Medical Outcomes Study and its subscales. Determinants of quality of life in Brazilian patients with myasthenia gravis included the current status of myasthenia gravis as assessed by the Myasthenia Gravis Composite, the current prednisone dose and the levels of anxiety and depression. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian version of the 15-item Myasthenia Gravis Quality of Life Scale is a valid instrument. Symptom severity, prednisone dosage and anxiety and depression levels impact the quality of life of patients with myasthenia gravis. <![CDATA[Association of hemoglobin with ankle-brachial index in general population]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322016000700375&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have demonstrated that both low and high hemoglobin concentrations are predictive of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in various populations. However, an association of hemoglobin with the ankle-brachial index, which is widely used as a screening test for peripheral arterial disease, has not yet been identified. METHODS: We examined 786 subjects (236 women and 550 men) who received routine physical check-ups. The ankle-brachial index and several hematological parameters, including the hemoglobin level, hematocrit and red blood cell count and other demographic and biochemical characteristics were collected. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between the ankle-brachial index and the independent determinants. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was conducted to calculate the cut-off level of hemoglobin for detecting a relatively low ankle-brachial index (less than 20% of all subjects, which was 1.02). RESULTS: The hemoglobin level, hematocrit and red blood cell count were correlated with the ankle-brachial index in the males (r=-0.274, r=-0.224 and r=-0.273, respectively, p&lt;0.001 for all), but these associations were not significant in the females. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that the independent determinants of the ankle-brachial index included age, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the white blood cell count for the females and age, hypertension, total cholesterol and hemoglobin (β=-0.001, p&lt;0.001) for the males after adjusting for confounding factors. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the cut-off level of hemoglobin for predicting a low ankle-brachial index was 156.5 g/L in the males. CONCLUSIONS: A high hemoglobin concentration was independently correlated with a low ankle-brachial index in the healthy males, indicating that an elevation in this level may be associated with an increased atherosclerosis risk. <![CDATA[Factors associated with the need for ventilation at birth of neonates weighing ≥2,500 g]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322016000700381&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: Approximately 20-40% of annual global neonatal deaths occur among infants with birthweights ≥2,500 g, and most of these deaths are associated with intrapartum asphyxia in low- and middle-income countries. This study aims to evaluate the peripartum variables associated with the need for resuscitation at birth of neonates weighing ≥2,500 g. METHOD: This case-control retrospective study was performed on data from all public reference maternity units in the state of Ceará, Northeast Brazil, between March 2009 and March 2010. The subjects were singleton neonates without malformations weighing ≥2,500 g, who required positive-pressure ventilation in the delivery room. The controls had a 1-minute Apgar score of ≥8 and did not undergo resuscitation. Variables associated with positive-pressure ventilation in the delivery room were evaluated via conditional multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 2,233 live births with birth weights ≥2,500 g, 1-minute Apgar scores ≤7, and no malformations, 402 patients met the inclusion criteria, and they were paired with 402 controls. Risk variables for positive-pressure ventilation at birth were a gestational age &lt;37 weeks (OR: 3.54; 95% CI: 1.14-10.92) and meconium-stained amniotic fluid (8.53; 4.17-17.47). Cervical examination at maternal admission (0.57; 0.38-0.84) and a written follow-up of the labor (0.68; 0.46-0.98) were identified as protective variables. CONCLUSIONS: Significant flaws in obstetric care are associated with the need for positive-pressure ventilation at birth for neonates weighing ≥2,500 g. <![CDATA[Investigating Compliance with Standard Precautions During Residency Physicians in Gynecology and Obstetrics]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322016000700387&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: Physician compliance with standard precautions is important in the specialty of gynecology and obstetrics because of the high frequency of invasive procedures. The current study investigated compliance with standard precautions among resident physicians working in gynecology and obstetrics. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted among resident physicians in gynecology and obstetrics in their first (R1), second (R2) and third (R3) years of residency at a teaching hospital in a city in São Paulo. A structured questionnaire that included demographic and professional aspects and the Standard Precautions Adherence Scale were used to collect data. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM® SPSS version 20. Ethical aspects were considered. RESULTS: Fifty-eight resident physicians participated in the study. Of the enrolled participants, 27 (46.6%) were in R1, 12 (20.7%) were in R2 and 19 (32.8%) were in R3. The standard precautions compliance score was 4.1, which was classified as intermediate. There were no significant differences in the compliance scores of the resident physicians across the three years of residency (H=2.34, p=0.310). CONCLUSION: Compliance with standard precautions among resident physicians was intermediate. Preventive measures in clinical practice are not fully adopted in the specialty of gynecology and obstetrics. More important, many professionals claimed lack of sufficient training in standard precautions in the workplace. Such circumstances should draw the attention of hospital management with regard to occupational health risks. <![CDATA[Evaluation of pulmonary sequestration with multidetector computed tomography angiography in a select cohort of patients: A retrospective study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322016000700392&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the role of multidetector computed tomography angiography in diagnosing patients with pulmonary sequestration. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the computed tomography studies and clinical materials of 43 patients who had undergone preoperative multidetector computed tomography angiography in our hospital and had pathologically proven pulmonary sequestration. Each examination of pulmonary sequestration was reviewed for type, location, parenchymal changes, arterial supply and venous drainage on two-dimensional and three-dimensional computed tomography images. RESULTS: Multidetector computed tomography successfully detected all pulmonary sequestrations in the 43 patients (100%). This included 40 patients (93.0%) with intralobar sequestration and 3 patients (7.0%) with extralobar sequestration. The locations of pulmonary sequestration were left lower lobe (28 cases, 70% of intralobar sequestrations), right lower lobe (12 cases, 30% of intralobar sequestrations) and costodiaphragmatic sulcus (3 cases). Cases of sequestered lung presented as mass lesions (37.2%), cystic lesions (32.6%), pneumonic lesions (16.3%), cavitary lesions (9.3%) and bronchiectasis (4.6%). The angioarchitecture of pulmonary sequestration, including feeding arteries from the thoracic aorta (86.1%), celiac truck (9.3%), abdominal aorta (2.3%) and left gastric artery (2.3%) and venous drainage into inferior pulmonary veins (86.0%) and the azygos vein system (14.0%), was visualized on multidetector computed tomography. Finally, the multidetector computed tomography angiography results of the sequestered lungs and angioarchitectures were surgically confirmed in all the patients. CONCLUSIONS: As a noninvasive modality, multidetector computed tomography angiography is helpful for making diagnostic decisions regarding pulmonary sequestration with high confidence and for visualizing the related parenchymal characteristics, arterial supply, and venous drainage features to help plan surgical strategies. <![CDATA[The Incidence and Prevalence of Thromboangiitis Obliterans in Taiwan: A Nationwide, Population-based Analysis of Data Collected from 2002 to 2011]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322016000700399&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and prevalence of thromboangiitis obliterans in Taiwan in the period spanning from 2002 to 2011. METHODS: We identified all incident and prevalent cases with a diagnosis of thromboangiitis obliterans (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 443.1) in the period spanning from 2002 to 2011 using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. We calculated the age- and sex-specific incidence and prevalence rates of thromboangiitis obliterans during the study period. RESULTS: From 2002 to 2011, 158 patients were diagnosed with thromboangiitis obliterans; of these, 76% were men. Most (63%) of the patients were &lt;50 years old when they were first diagnosed. After reaching 20 years of age, the incidence rate increased with age and peaked among those aged ≥60 years. The average incidence rate of thromboangiitis obliterans during the 2002–2011 period was 0.068 per 105 years. The incidence of thromboangiitis obliterans decreased with time, from 0.10 per 105 years in 2002 to 0.04 per 105 years in 2011. The prevalence increased from 0.26 × 10−5 in 2002 to 0.65 × 10−5 in 2011. CONCLUSION: This is the first epidemiologic study of thromboangiitis obliterans using claims data from a general population in Taiwan. This nationwide, population-based study found that the incidence and prevalence of thromboangiitis obliterans in Taiwan in the 2002–2011 period were lower than those in other countries before 2000. This study also revealed a trend of decreasing incidence with simultaneous increasing prevalence of thromboangiitis obliterans in Taiwan from 2002 to 2011. <![CDATA[Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging for measuring maturing cartilage: A phantom study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322016000700404&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging measurements of cartilage tissue-mimicking phantoms and to determine a combination of magnetic resonance imaging parameters to optimize accuracy while minimizing scan time. METHOD: Edge dimensions from 4 rectangular agar phantoms ranging from 10.5 to 14.5 mm in length and 1.25 to 5.5 mm in width were independently measured by two readers using a steel ruler. Coronal T1 spin echo (T1 SE), fast spoiled gradient-recalled echo (FSPGR) and multiplanar gradient-recalled echo (GRE MPGR) sequences were used to obtain phantom images on a 1.5-T scanner. RESULTS: Inter- and intra-reader reliability were high for both direct measurements and for magnetic resonance imaging measurements of phantoms. Statistically significant differences were noted between the mean direct measurements and the mean magnetic resonance imaging measurements for phantom 1 when using a GRE MPGR sequence (512x512 pixels, 1.5-mm slice thickness, 5:49 min scan time), while borderline differences were noted for T1 SE sequences with the following parameters: 320x320 pixels, 1.5-mm slice thickness, 6:11 min scan time; 320x320 pixels, 4-mm slice thickness, 6:11 min scan time; and 512x512 pixels, 1.5-mm slice thickness, 9:48 min scan time. Borderline differences were also noted when using a FSPGR sequence with 512x512 pixels, a 1.5-mm slice thickness and a 3:36 min scan time. CONCLUSIONS: FSPGR sequences, regardless of the magnetic resonance imaging parameter combination used, provided accurate measurements. The GRE MPGR sequence using 512x512 pixels, a 1.5-mm slice thickness and a 5:49 min scan time and, to a lesser degree, all tested T1 SE sequences produced suboptimal accuracy when measuring the widest phantom. <![CDATA[Temporal profile of intestinal tissue expression of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in a rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322016000700412&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: Necrotizing enterocolitis is a severe multifactorial intestinal disorder that primarily affects preterm newborns, causing 20-40% mortality and morbidity. Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein has been reported to be a biomarker for the detection of intestinal injuries. Our aim was to assess intestinal tissue injury and the molecular expression of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein over time in a necrotizing enterocolitis model. METHODS: A total of 144 Newborn rats were divided into two groups: 1) Control, which received breastfeeding (n=72) and 2) Necrotizing Enterocolitis, which received formula feeding and underwent hypoxia and hypothermia (n=72). A total of six time points of ischemia (2 times a day for 3 days; 12 pups for each time point) were examined. Samples were collected for analysis of body weight, morphological and histological characteristics, intestinal weight, intestinal weight/body weight ratio, injury grade, and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein levels. RESULTS: Body and intestinal weights were lower in the Necrotizing Enterocolitis group than in the Control group (p&lt;0.005 and p&lt;0.0005, respectively). The intestinal weight/body weight ratio was higher in the Necrotizing Enterocolitis group than in the Control group (p&lt;0.005) only at the sixth ischemia time point. The Necrotizing Enterocolitis group displayed higher expression of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (p&lt;0.0005) and showed greater tissue damage than the Control group. CONCLUSION: Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein was an efficient marker of ischemic injury to the intestine and a good correlation was demonstrated between the time of ischemic injury and the grade of intestinal injury.