Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Clinics]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1807-593220170012&lang=pt vol. 72 num. 12 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Screening protocol for dysphagia in adults: comparison with videofluoroscopic findings]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322017001200718&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: To compare the videofluoroscopic findings of patients with suspected oropharyngeal dysphagia with the results of a clinical screening protocol. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted on all consecutive patients with suspected oropharyngeal dysphagia between March 2015 and February 2016 who were assigned to receive a videofluoroscopic assessment of swallowing. All patients were first submitted to videofluoroscopy and then to the clinical assessment of swallowing. The clinical assessment was performed within the first 24 hours after videofluoroscopy. The videofluoroscopy results were analyzed regarding penetration/aspiration using an 8-point multidimensional perceptual scale. The accuracy of the clinical protocol was analyzed using the sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios and predictive values. RESULTS: The selected sample consisted of 50 patients. The clinical protocol presented a sensitivity of 50% and specificity of 95%, with an accuracy of 88%. “Cough” and “wet-hoarse” vocal quality after/during swallowing were clinical indicators that appeared to correctly identify the presence of penetration/aspiration risk. CONCLUSION: The clinical protocol used in the present study is a simple, rapid and reliable clinical assessment. Despite the absence of a completely satisfactory result, especially in terms of the sensitivity and positive predictive values, we suggest that lower rates of pneumonia can be achieved using a formal dysphagia screening method. <![CDATA[Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in patients with Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis: association with respiratory infection]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322017001200723&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: To determine the possible association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels with disease activity and respiratory infection in granulomatosis with polyangiitis patients during two different periods: winter/spring and summer/autumn. METHODS: Thirty-two granulomatosis with polyangiitis patients were evaluated in the winter/spring, and the same patients (except 5) were evaluated in summer/autumn (n=27). The 25OHD levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Disease activity was assessed by the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score Modified for Wegener’s Granulomatosis (BVAS/WG) and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) positivity. Respiratory infection was defined according the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. RESULTS: 25OHD levels were lower among patients in winter/spring than in summer/autumn (32.31±13.10 vs. 38.98±10.97 ng/mL, p=0.04). Seven patients met the criteria for respiratory infection: 5 in winter/spring and 2 in summer/autumn. Patients with respiratory infection presented lower 25OHD levels than those without infection (25.15±11.70 vs. 36.73±12.08 ng/mL, p=0.02). A higher frequency of low vitamin D levels (25OHD&lt;20 ng/mL) was observed in patients with respiratory infection (37.5% vs. 7.8, p=0.04). Serum 25OHD levels were comparable between patients with (BVAS/WG≥1 plus positive ANCA) and without disease activity (BVAS/WG=0 plus negative ANCA) (35.40±11.48 vs. 35.34±13.13 ng/mL, p=0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Lower 25OHD levels were associated with respiratory infection but not disease activity in granulomatosis with polyangiitis patients. Our data suggest that hypovitaminosis D could be an important risk factor for respiratory infection in granulomatosis with polyangiitis patients. <![CDATA[Effects of periarticular injection on analgesic effects and NSAID use in total knee arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322017001200729&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: This study examined periarticular multimodal drug injection and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for an early analgesic effect after total knee arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty. Patient satisfaction and benefits from the treatment were also assessed. METHODS: A total of 110 patients who were scheduled to undergo total knee arthroplasty and 86 patients who were scheduled to undergo total hip arthroplasty were divided into two groups, the study group and the control group. The study group received a periarticular multimodal drug injection during surgery. The control group received an equal volume of normal saline. All patients received an analgesia pump and a moderate dose of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Resting and motion Numeric Rating Scale scores, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index, knee or hip joint range of motion, length of postoperative hospital stay, patient satisfaction, total nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug consumption and side effects were recorded. RESULTS: Both study groups exhibited significant improvement in pain Numeric Rating Scale scores during rest and exercise several days after the surgery. The range of joint motion was greater in the study group, and the length of postoperative hospital stay was shorter than that in the control group. Patients in the study group consumed fewer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and reported greater satisfaction with surgery. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative periarticular multimodal drug injection significantly relieved pain after surgery and reduced nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug consumption. These patient had a better postoperative experience, including satisfaction and rehabilitation. <![CDATA[A new low-cost negative-pressure wound therapy <em>versus</em> a commercially available therapy device widely used to treat complex traumatic injuries: a prospective, randomized, non-inferiority trial]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322017001200737&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: Negative-pressure wound therapy has been widely adopted to reduce the complexity of treating a broad range of acute and chronic wounds. However, its cost is high. The objective of this study was to evaluate the following two different methods of negative-pressure wound therapy in terms of healing time: a low-cost method of negative-pressure wound therapy (a pressure stabilizer device connected to a hospital wall-vacuum system with a gauze-sealed dressing, USP) and the standard of care (vacuum-assisted closure, VAC). METHODS: This is a randomized, controlled, non-inferiority, unblinded trial. Patients admitted with complex injuries to a trauma center in a public referral hospital who were indicated for orthopedic surgery were randomized to a USP or VAC group. The primary outcome was the time required to achieve a “ready for surgery condition”, which was defined as a wound bed with healthy granulation tissue and without necrosis or purulent secretion. Wound bed area contraction, granulation tissue growth and the direct costs of the dressings were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Variation in area and granulation tissue growth were essentially the same between the systems, and healing time was equal between the groups (p=0.379). In both systems, serial debridement increased wound area (p=0.934), and granulation tissue was also increased (p=0.408). The mean treatment cost was US$ 15.15 in the USP group and US$ 872.59 in the VAC group. CONCLUSIONS: For treating complex traumatic injuries, USP was non-inferior to and less expensive than VAC. <![CDATA[Depression and adherence to antiretroviral treatment in HIV-positive men in São Paulo, the largest city in South America: Social and psychological implications]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322017001200743&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of depression and adherence to antiretroviral treatment in two groups of individuals: men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who have sex with women (MSW). METHODS: Two hundred and sixteen participants (MSM=116; MSW=100) who visited the Clinics Hospital of the School of the Medicine of the University of São Paulo completed two independent surveys (the BECK Depression Inventory and an adherence self-declared questionnaire) to evaluate their depression status and adherence to antiretroviral treatment, respectively. RESULTS: The study highlighted a positive relationship between depression and low adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in these patients regardless of age and sexual orientation. In addition, MSM subjects were two times more prone than MSW subjects to develop depression symptoms. White or mixed race men showed 7.6 times greater adherence to treatment than black men. The probability of complete adherence to treatment was 3.8 times higher in non-depressed subjects than in depressed subjects regardless of their ethnicity. The chance of developing depression was 4.17 times higher for an individual with non-adherent behavior than for an adherent individual. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with low adherence rates have proportionally higher depression rates. Depressed men tend to show less adherence to treatment. Black but not mixed race or white men show less adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and have a greater chance of developing depression, which directly interferes with adherence. The chances of developing depression are four times greater for a patient with non-adherent behavior than for a patient with adherent behavior. <![CDATA[Microcirculation improvement after short-term infusion of vasopressin in septic shock is dependent on noradrenaline]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322017001200750&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of vasopressin on the microcirculation and to develop a predictive model to estimate the probability of microcirculatory recruitment in patients with septic shock. METHODS: This prospective interventional study included patients with septic shock receiving noradrenaline for less than 48 hours. We infused vasopressin at 0.04 U/min for one hour. Hemodynamic measurements, including sidestream dark-field imaging, were obtained immediately before vasopressin infusion, 1 hour after vasopressin infusion and 1 hour after vasopressin withdrawal. We defined patients with more than a 10% increase in total vascular density and perfused vascular density as responders. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02053675. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were included, and nine (50%) showed improved microcirculation after infusion of vasopressin. The noradrenaline dose was significantly reduced after vasopressin (p=0.001) and was higher both at baseline and during vasopressin infusion in the responders than in the non-responders. The strongest predictor for a favorable microcirculatory response was the dose of noradrenaline at baseline (OR=4.5; 95% CI: 1.2-17.0; p=0.027). For patients using a noradrenaline dose higher than 0.38 mcg/kg/min, the probability that microcirculatory perfusion would be improved with vasopressin was 53% (sensitivity 78%, specificity 77%). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with septic shock for no longer than 48 h, administration of vasopressin is likely to result in an improvement in microcirculation when the baseline noradrenaline dose is higher than 0.38 mcg/kg/min. <![CDATA[Pain and quality of life in breast cancer patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322017001200758&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of pain on quality of life in breast cancer patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 400 patients, including 118 without metastasis, 160 with loco-regional metastasis and 122 with distant metastasis. The instruments used were the European Organization for Research and Treatment for Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 and the Breast Cancer-specific 23 and short McGill Pain Questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 71.7% of patients reported pain. The most frequent sensory descriptor used by patients was ‘jumping.’ In the evaluative dimension, the main descriptor chosen was troublesome. The Global Health self-assessment showed pain to be inversely correlated with quality of life: the group without metastasis had a mean score of 55.3 (SD=24.8) for those in pain, which rose to 69.7 (SD=19.2) for those without pain (p=0.001). Subjects with loco-regional metastasis had score of 59.1 (SD=21.3) when in pain, and those without pain had a significantly higher score of 72.4 (SD=18.6) (p&lt;0.001). Patients from the distant metastasis group showed similar results with a mean score of 48.6 (SD=23.1) for those in pain and 67.6 (SD=20.4) for those without pain (p=0.002). Regarding the association of pain intensity and quality of life, patients with distant metastasis and intense pain had the worst scores for quality of life with a functional scale mean of 49.9 (SD=17.3) (p&lt;0.009), a Symptom Scale score of 50.0 (SD=20.1) (p&lt;0.001) and a Global Health Scale score of 39.7 (SD=24.7) (p&lt;0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Pain compromises the quality of life of patients with breast cancer, particularly those with advanced stages of the disease. <![CDATA[Characteristics and Outcomes of Intensive Care Unit Survivors: Experience of a Multidisciplinary Outpatient Clinic in a Teaching Hospital]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322017001200764&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: To describe the experience of an outpatient clinic with the multidisciplinary evaluation of intensive care unit survivors and to analyze their social, psychological, and physical characteristics in a low-income population and a developing country. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. Adult survivors from a general intensive care unit were evaluated three months after discharge in a post-intensive care unit outpatient multidisciplinary clinic over a period of 6 years (2008-2014) in a University Hospital in southern Brazil. RESULTS: A total of 688 out of 1945 intensive care unit survivors received care at the clinic. Of these, 45.2% had psychological disorders (particularly depression), 49.0% had respiratory impairments (abnormal spirometry), and 24.6% had moderate to intense dyspnea during daily life activities. Patients experienced weight loss during hospitalization (mean=11.7%) but good recovery after discharge (mean gain=9.1%), and 94.6% were receiving nutrition orally. One-third of patients showed a reduction of peripheral muscular strength, and 5.7% had moderate to severe tetraparesis or tetraplegia. There was a significant impairment in quality of life (SF-36), particularly in the physical and emotional aspects and in functional capacity. The economic impacts on the affected families, which were mostly low-income families, were considerable. Most patients did not have full access to rehabilitation services, even though half of the families were receiving financial support from the government. CONCLUSIONS: A significant number of intensive care unit survivors evaluated 3 months after discharge had psychological, respiratory, motor, and socioeconomic problems; these findings highlight that strategies aimed to assist critically ill patients should be extended to the post-hospitalization period and that this problem is particularly important in low-income populations. <![CDATA[Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of endovascular management for transplant renal artery stenosis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322017001200773&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of endovascular intervention with angioplasty and stent placement in patients with transplant renal artery stenosis. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with transplant renal artery stenosis and graft dysfunction or resistant systemic hypertension who underwent endovascular treatment with stenting from February 2011 to April 2016 were included in this study. The primary endpoint was clinical success, and the secondary endpoints were technical success, complication rate and stent patency. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients with transplant renal artery stenosis underwent endovascular treatment, and three of them required reinterventions, resulting in a total of 27 procedures. The clinical success rate was 100%. All graft dysfunction patients showed decreased serum creatinine levels and improved estimated glomerular filtration rates and creatinine levels. Patients with high blood pressure also showed improved control of systemic blood pressure and decreased use of antihypertensive drugs. The technical success rate of the procedure was 97%. Primary patency and assisted primary patency rates at one year were 90.5% and 100%, respectively. The mean follow-up time of patients was 794.04 days after angioplasty. CONCLUSION: Angioplasty with stent placement for the treatment of transplant renal artery stenosis is a safe and effective technique with good results in both the short and long term. <![CDATA[Experimental implantation of an arterial substitute made of silicone reinforced with polyester fabric in rabbits]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322017001200780&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze silicone tubes with an internal diameter of 4 mm as a possible material for vascular prostheses. METHODS: Grafts were implanted into the infrarenal aortas of 33 rabbits. Fluoroscopic examinations were performed within 150 days after surgical implantation. Sample grafts were analyzed via electron microscopy to evaluate the eventual endothelialization of the prostheses. RESULTS: The patency rates of the prostheses were 87% (±6.7%) after 30 days, 73% (±9.3%) after 60 days and 48% (±12%) after 120 days. The material presented characteristics that support surgical implantation: good tolerance promoted by polyester tear reinforcement, ease of postoperative removal and a lack of pseudoaneurysms. However, intimal hyperplasia was a limiting factor for the patency rate. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that polydimethylsiloxane has limited potential as an alternative material for small vascular prostheses. <![CDATA[Second hand tobacco smoke adversely affects the bone of immature rats]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322017001200785&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of secondhand cigarette smoke exposure on longitudinal growth of the tibia of growing rats and some parameters of bone quality. METHODS: Forty female rats were randomly divided into four groups: control: rats were sham exposed; 30 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 30 days; 45 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 45 days; and 60 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 60 days. Blood samples were collected to evaluate the levels of cotinine and alkaline phosphatase. Both tibias were dissected and weighed; the lengths were measured, and the bones were then stored in a freezer for analysis of bone mineral content and mechanical resistance (maximal load and stiffness). RESULTS: Exposure of rats to tobacco smoke significantly compromised bone health, suggesting that the harmful effects may be time dependent. Harmful effects on bone growth were detected and were more pronounced at 60-day follow-ups with a 41.8% reduction in alkaline phosphatase levels (p&lt;0.01) and a decrease of 11.25% in tibia length (p&lt;0.001). Furthermore, a 41.5% decrease in bone mineral density was observed (p&lt;0.001), leading to a 42.8% reduction in maximum strength (p&lt;0.001) and a 56.7% reduction in stiffness (p&lt;0.001). CONCLUSION: Second hand cigarette smoke exposure in rats affected bones that were weaker, deforming them and making them osteopenic. Additionally, the long bone was shorter, suggesting interference with growth. Such events seem to be related to time of exposure. <![CDATA[Risk factors for the prognosis of pediatric medulloblastoma: a retrospective analysis of 40 cases]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322017001200790&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of secondhand cigarette smoke exposure on longitudinal growth of the tibia of growing rats and some parameters of bone quality. METHODS: Forty female rats were randomly divided into four groups: control: rats were sham exposed; 30 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 30 days; 45 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 45 days; and 60 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 60 days. Blood samples were collected to evaluate the levels of cotinine and alkaline phosphatase. Both tibias were dissected and weighed; the lengths were measured, and the bones were then stored in a freezer for analysis of bone mineral content and mechanical resistance (maximal load and stiffness). RESULTS: Exposure of rats to tobacco smoke significantly compromised bone health, suggesting that the harmful effects may be time dependent. Harmful effects on bone growth were detected and were more pronounced at 60-day follow-ups with a 41.8% reduction in alkaline phosphatase levels (p&lt;0.01) and a decrease of 11.25% in tibia length (p&lt;0.001). Furthermore, a 41.5% decrease in bone mineral density was observed (p&lt;0.001), leading to a 42.8% reduction in maximum strength (p&lt;0.001) and a 56.7% reduction in stiffness (p&lt;0.001). CONCLUSION: Second hand cigarette smoke exposure in rats affected bones that were weaker, deforming them and making them osteopenic. Additionally, the long bone was shorter, suggesting interference with growth. Such events seem to be related to time of exposure.