Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Clinics]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1807-593220150007&lang=pt vol. 70 num. 7 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Within-breath respiratory impedance and airway obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000700461&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVE: Recent work has suggested that within-breath respiratory impedance measurements performed using the forced oscillation technique may help to noninvasively evaluate respiratory mechanics. We investigated the influence of airway obstruction on the within-breath forced oscillation technique in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and evaluated the contribution of this analysis to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: Twenty healthy individuals and 20 smokers were assessed. The study also included 74 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We evaluated the mean respiratory impedance (Zm) as well as values for the inspiration (Zi) and expiration cycles (Ze) at the beginning of inspiration (Zbi) and expiration (Zbe), respectively. The peak-to-peak impedance (Zpp=Zbe-Zbi) and the respiratory cycle dependence (ΔZrs=Ze-Zi) were also analyzed. The diagnostic utility was evaluated by investigating the sensitivity, the specificity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01888705. RESULTS: Airway obstruction increased the within-breath respiratory impedance parameters that were significantly correlated with the spirometric indices of airway obstruction (R=−0.65, p&lt;0.0001). In contrast to the control subjects and the smokers, the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients presented significant expiratory-inspiratory differences (p&lt;0.002). The adverse effects of moderate airway obstruction were detected based on the Zpp with an accuracy of 83%. Additionally, abnormal effects in severe and very severe patients were detected based on the Zm, Zi, Ze, Zbe, Zpp and ΔZrs with a high degree of accuracy (&gt;90%). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude the following: (1) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease introduces higher respiratory cycle dependence, (2) this increase is proportional to airway obstruction, and (3) the within-breath forced oscillation technique may provide novel parameters that facilitate the diagnosis of respiratory abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. <![CDATA[Surgical treatment of endometrial cancer in developing countries: reasons to consider systematic two-step surgical treatment]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000700470&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVE : The aim of this study was to determine the lymph node status in a large cohort of women with endometrial cancer from the public health system who were referred to an oncology reference center in Brazil to identify candidates for the omission of lymphadenectomy based on clinicopathological parameters. METHODS : We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 310 women with endometrial cancer (255 endometrioid, 40 serous, and 15 clear cell tumors) treated between 2009 and 2014. We evaluated the histological type, grade (low vs. high), tumor size (cm), depth of myometrial invasion (≤50%, &gt;50%) and lymphovascular space invasion to determine which factors were correlated with the presence of lymph node metastasis. RESULTS : The factors related to lymph node involvement were tumor size (p=0.03), myometrial invasion (p&lt;0.01), tumor grade (p&lt;0.01), and lymphovascular space invasion (p&lt;0.01). The histological type was not associated with the nodal status (p=0.52). Only twelve of 176 patients (6.8%) had low-grade endometrioid carcinoma, tumor size ≤2 cm and &lt;50% myometrial infiltration. CONCLUSIONS : The omission of lymphadenectomy based on the histological type, grade, tumor size and depth of myometrial invasion is not likely to have a large impact on the surgical treatment of endometrial cancer in our population because most patients present with large and advanced tumors. New strategies are proposed that prioritize hysterectomy performed in a general hospital as soon as possible after diagnosis, followed by an evaluation of the need for lymph node dissection at a reference center. <![CDATA[Pfannenstiel incision for intact specimen extraction in laparoscopic transperitoneal radical nephrectomy: a longitudinal prospective outcome study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000700475&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the intra- and postoperative outcomes of patients undergoing laparoscopic radical nephrectomy with intact specimen extraction through a Pfannenstiel transverse suprapubic incision. METHODS: Prospective follow-up of 26 laparoscopic transperitoneal radical nephrectomies for suspected renal tumors in which the kidneys were extracted via a Pfannenstiel lower abdominal transverse incision. RESULTS: The mean operating time was 152.3 (80-255) minutes, and the mean blood loss was 90 (20-300) ml. The mean extraction time was 20.4 (12-35) minutes. The mean weight of the removed specimen was 631.5 (190-1505) grams, and the mean longest diameter of the extracted specimen was 17.4 (9-25) cm. The mean extraction incision size was 10.7 (7-16) cm. No open surgical conversions were necessary. Pain control was excellent, with minimal intravenous morphine equivalent narcotic use by patients: 15.7 (0-31) mg in the recovery room, 33.8 (0-127) mg on the first postoperative day and 8.7 (0-60) mg in the first week after discharge. The patients experienced a short duration to full ambulation and normal dietary intake. Postoperative follow-up visits were recorded for at least six months. The patients reported a high cosmetic satisfaction rate of 97.7% (60-100). No late postoperative complications were observed related to the extraction site. CONCLUSIONS: The operative specimen can be extracted via a low transverse Pfannenstiel incision during radical laparoscopic nephrectomy. This incision ensures the extraction of large specimens while preserving the aesthetic and functional advantages of laparoscopy without increasing the cancer risk. The absence of muscle cutting maintains the integrity of the abdominal wall and elicits minimal pain. No postoperative incisional hernias or keloid formations were observed. <![CDATA[Mean platelet volume is associated with disease severity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000700481&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is associated with cardiovascular diseases and thromboembolic events. The mean platelet volume (MPV) is a predictor of cardiovascular thromboembolic events. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between the MPV and disease severity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. METHODS: We prospectively included 194 obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients without cardiovascular disease (mean age 56.5±12.5 years) who were undergoing sleep tests. An overnight full laboratory polisomnography examination was conducted on each patient. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): (1) AHIlow group: 5≤AHI&lt;15, (2) AHImid group: 15&lt;AHI≤30, and (3) AHIhigh group: AHI&gt;30. RESULTS: The highest MPV values were found in the AHIhigh group compared with other groups (p&lt;0.05 for all). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the MPV was associated with the AHI (β=0.500, p&lt;0.001) and the high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level (β=0.194, p=0.010). CONCLUSION: The MPV is independently associated with both disease severity and inflammation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. <![CDATA[Liver lobe-based magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging using multiple b values in patients with hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis: association with the liver disease severity according to the Child-Pugh class]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000700486&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations of liver lobe-based magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging findings using multiple b values with the presence and Child-Pugh class of cirrhosis in patients with hepatitis B. METHODS: Seventy-four cirrhotic patients with hepatitis B and 25 healthy volunteers underwent diffusion-weighted imaging using b values of 0, 500, 800 and 1000 sec/mm2. The apparent diffusion coefficients of individual liver lobes for b(0,500), b(0,800) and b(0,1000) were derived from the signal intensity averaged across images obtained using b values of 0 and 500 sec/mm2, 0 and 800 sec/mm2, or 0 and 1000 sec/mm2, respectively, and were statistically analyzed to evaluate cirrhosis. RESULTS: The apparent diffusion coefficients for b(0,500), b(0,800) and b(0,1000) inversely correlated with the Child-Pugh class in the left lateral liver lobe, the left medial liver lobe, the right liver lobe and the caudate lobe (r=-0.35 to -0.60, all p&lt;0.05), except for the apparent diffusion coefficient for b(0,1000) in the left medial liver lobe (r=-0.17, p&gt;0.05). Among these parameters, the apparent diffusion coefficient for b(0,500) in the left lateral liver lobe best differentiated normal from cirrhotic liver, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.989. The apparent diffusion coefficient for b(0,800) in the right liver lobe best distinguished Child-Pugh class A from B-C and A-B from C, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.732 and 0.747, respectively. CONCLUSION: Liver lobe-based apparent diffusion coefficients for b(0,500) and b(0,800) appear to be associated with the presence and Child-Pugh class of liver cirrhosis. <![CDATA[Artificial disc and vertebra system: a novel motion preservation device for cervical spinal disease after vertebral corpectomy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000700493&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVE: To determine the range of motion and stability of the human cadaveric cervical spine after the implantation of a novel artificial disc and vertebra system by comparing an intact group and a fusion group. METHODS: Biomechanical tests were conducted on 18 human cadaveric cervical specimens. The range of motion and the stability index range of motion were measured to study the function and stability of the artificial disc and vertebra system of the intact group compared with the fusion group. RESULTS: In all cases, the artificial disc and vertebra system maintained intervertebral motion and reestablished vertebral height at the operative level. After its implantation, there was no significant difference in the range of motion (ROM) of C3-7 in all directions in the non-fusion group compared with the intact group (p&gt;0.05), but significant differences were detected in flexion, extension and axial rotation compared with the fusion group (p&lt;0.05). The ROM of adjacent segments (C3-4, C6-7) of the non-fusion group decreased significantly in some directions compared with the fusion group (p&lt;0.05). Significant differences in the C4-6 ROM in some directions were detected between the non-fusion group and the intact group. In the fusion group, the C4-6 ROM in all directions decreased significantly compared with the intact and non-fusion groups (p&lt;0.01). The stability index ROM (SI-ROM) of some directions was negative in the non-fusion group, and a significant difference in SI-ROM was only found in the C4-6 segment of the non-fusion group compared with the fusion group. CONCLUSION: An artificial disc and vertebra system could restore vertebral height and preserve the dynamic function of the surgical area and could theoretically reduce the risk of adjacent segment degeneration compared with the anterior fusion procedure. However, our results should be considered with caution because of the low power of the study. The use of a larger sample should be considered in future studies. <![CDATA[Olmesartan restores the protective effect of remote ischemic perconditioning against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000700500&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: Remote ischemic perconditioning is the newest technique used to lessen ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, its effect in hypertensive animals has not been investigated. This study aimed to examine the effect of remote ischemic perconditioning in spontaneously hypertensive rats and determine whether chronic treatment with Olmesartan could influence the effect of remote ischemic perconditioning. METHODS: Sixty rats were randomly divided into six groups: vehicle-sham, vehicle-ischemia/reperfusion injury, vehicle-remote ischemic perconditioning, olmesartan-sham, olmesartan-ischemia/reperfusion and olmesartan-remote ischemic perconditioning. The left ventricular mass index, creatine kinase concentration, infarct size, arrhythmia scores, HIF-1α mRNA expression, miR-21 expression and miR-210 expression were measured. RESULTS: Olmesartan significantly reduced the left ventricular mass index, decreased the creatine kinase concentration, limited the infarct size and reduced the arrhythmia score. The infarct size, creatine kinase concentration and arrhythmia score during reperfusion were similar for the vehicle-ischemia/reperfusion group and vehicle-remote ischemic perconditioning group. However, these values were significantly decreased in the olmesartan-remote ischemic perconditioning group compared to the olmesartan-ischemia/reperfusion injury group. HIF-1α, miR-21 and miR-210 expression were markedly down-regulated in the Olmesartan-sham group compared to the vehicle-sham group and significantly up-regulated in the olmesartan-remote ischemic perconditioning group compared to the olmesartan-ischemia/reperfusion injury group. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that (1) the protective effect of remote ischemic perconditioning is lost in vehicle-treated rats and that chronic treatment with Olmesartan restores the protective effect of remote ischemic perconditioning; (2) chronic treatment with Olmesartan down-regulates HIF-1α, miR-21 and miR-210 expression and reduces hypertrophy, thereby limiting ischemia/reperfusion injury; and (3) recovery of the protective effect of remote ischemic perconditioning is related to the up-regulation of HIF-1α, miR-21 and miR-210 expression. <![CDATA[Effects of ethyl pyruvate on leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the mesenteric microcirculation during early sepsis treatment]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000700508&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: Experimental studies on sepsis have demonstrated that ethyl pyruvate is endowed with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ethyl pyruvate on leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the mesenteric microcirculation in a live Escherichia coli-induced sepsis model in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were administered an intravenous suspension of E. coli bacteria or were subjected to a sham procedure. Three hours after bacterial infusion, the rats were randomized into the following groups: a control group without treatment, a group treated with lactated Ringer’s solution (4 mL/kg, i.v.), and a group treated with lactated Ringer’s solution (4 mL/kg, i.v.) plus ethyl pyruvate (50 mg/kg). At 24 h after bacterial infusion, leukocyte-endothelial interactions were investigated using intravital microscopy, and the expression of P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was evaluated via immunohistochemistry. White blood cell and platelet counts were also determined at baseline and 3 h and 24 h after E. coli inoculation. RESULTS: The non-treated and lactated Ringer’s solution-treated groups exhibited increases in the numbers of rolling leukocytes (∼2.5-fold increase), adherent cells (∼3.0-fold), and migrated cells (∼3.5-fold) compared with the sham group. In contrast, treatment with Ringer’s ethyl pyruvate solution reduced the numbers of rolling, adherent and migrated leukocytes to the levels observed in the sham group. Additionally, the expression of P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was significantly increased on mesenteric microvessels in the non-treated group compared with the sham group (p&lt;0.001). The expression of both adhesion molecules was reduced in the other groups, with ethyl pyruvate being more effective than lactated Ringer’s solution. Infusion of bacteria caused significant leukopenia (3 h), followed by leukocytosis with granulocytosis (24 h). There was also an intense and progressive reduction in the number of platelets. However, no differences were observed after treatment with the different solutions. CONCLUSIONS: The presented data suggest that ethyl pyruvate efficiently reduces the inflammatory response in the mesenteric microcirculation in an experimental model of sepsis induced by live E. coli and is associated, at least in part, with down-regulation of P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. <![CDATA[Cytomegalovirus infection in transplant recipients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000700515&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Cytomegalovirus infection is a frequent complication after transplantation. This infection occurs due to transmission from the transplanted organ, due to reactivation of latent infection, or after a primary infection in seronegative patients and can be defined as follows: latent infection, active infection, viral syndrome or invasive disease. This condition occurs mainly between 30 and 90 days after transplantation. In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in particular, infection usually occurs within the first 30 days after transplantation and in the presence of graft-versus-host disease. The major risk factors are when the recipient is cytomegalovirus seronegative and the donor is seropositive as well as when lymphocyte-depleting antibodies are used. There are two methods for the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection: the pp65 antigenemia assay and polymerase chain reaction. Serology has no value for the diagnosis of active disease, whereas histology of the affected tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage analysis are useful in the diagnosis of invasive disease. Cytomegalovirus disease can be prevented by prophylaxis (the administration of antiviral drugs to all or to a subgroup of patients who are at higher risk of viral replication) or by preemptive therapy (the early diagnosis of viral replication before development of the disease and prescription of antiviral treatment to prevent the appearance of clinical disease). The drug used is intravenous or oral ganciclovir; oral valganciclovir; or, less frequently, valacyclovir. Prophylaxis should continue for 90 to 180 days. Treatment is always indicated in cytomegalovirus disease, and the gold-standard drug is intravenous ganciclovir. Treatment should be given for 2 to 3 weeks and should be continued for an additional 7 days after the first negative result for viremia. <![CDATA[Prognostic value of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lung cancer: A meta-analysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000700524&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Recently, a series of studies explored the correlation between the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and the prognosis of lung cancer. However, the current opinion regarding the prognostic role of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lung cancer is inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of published articles to investigate the prognostic value of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lung cancer. The hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. An elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio predicted worse overall survival, with a pooled HR of 1.243 (95%CI: 1.106-1.397; Pheterogeneity=0.001) from multivariate studies and 1.867 (95%CI: 1.487-2.344; Pheterogeneity=0.047) from univariate studies. Subgroup analysis showed that a high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio yielded worse overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (HR=1.192, 95%CI: 1.061-1.399; Pheterogeneity=0.003) as well as small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (HR=1.550, 95% CI: 1.156-2.077; Pheterogeneity=0.625) in multivariate studies. The synthesized evidence from this meta-analysis of published articles demonstrated that an elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was a predictor of poor overall survival in patients with lung cancer. <![CDATA[Ischemia-modified albumin must be evaluated as an oxidative stress marker together with albumin and bilirubin in individuals with acute appendicitis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000700531&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Recently, a series of studies explored the correlation between the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and the prognosis of lung cancer. However, the current opinion regarding the prognostic role of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lung cancer is inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of published articles to investigate the prognostic value of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lung cancer. The hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. An elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio predicted worse overall survival, with a pooled HR of 1.243 (95%CI: 1.106-1.397; Pheterogeneity=0.001) from multivariate studies and 1.867 (95%CI: 1.487-2.344; Pheterogeneity=0.047) from univariate studies. Subgroup analysis showed that a high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio yielded worse overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (HR=1.192, 95%CI: 1.061-1.399; Pheterogeneity=0.003) as well as small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (HR=1.550, 95% CI: 1.156-2.077; Pheterogeneity=0.625) in multivariate studies. The synthesized evidence from this meta-analysis of published articles demonstrated that an elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was a predictor of poor overall survival in patients with lung cancer. <![CDATA[ERRATA]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000700533&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Recently, a series of studies explored the correlation between the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and the prognosis of lung cancer. However, the current opinion regarding the prognostic role of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lung cancer is inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of published articles to investigate the prognostic value of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lung cancer. The hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. An elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio predicted worse overall survival, with a pooled HR of 1.243 (95%CI: 1.106-1.397; Pheterogeneity=0.001) from multivariate studies and 1.867 (95%CI: 1.487-2.344; Pheterogeneity=0.047) from univariate studies. Subgroup analysis showed that a high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio yielded worse overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (HR=1.192, 95%CI: 1.061-1.399; Pheterogeneity=0.003) as well as small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (HR=1.550, 95% CI: 1.156-2.077; Pheterogeneity=0.625) in multivariate studies. The synthesized evidence from this meta-analysis of published articles demonstrated that an elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was a predictor of poor overall survival in patients with lung cancer.