Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Clinics]]> vol. 69 num. 6 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Remifentanil-based total intravenous anesthesia for pediatric rigid bronchoscopy: comparison of adjuvant propofol and ketamine]]> OBJECTIVE:Laryngoscopy and stimuli inside the trachea cause an intense sympatho-adrenal response. Remifentanil seems to be the optimal opioid for rigid bronchoscopy due to its potent and short-acting properties. The purpose of this study was to compare bolus propofol and ketamine as an adjuvant to remifentanil-based total intravenous anesthesia for pediatric rigid bronchoscopy.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Forty children under 12 years of age who had been scheduled for a rigid bronchoscopy were included in this study. After midazolam premedication, a 1 µg/kg/min remifentanil infusion was started, and patients were randomly allocated to receive either propofol (Group P) or ketamine (Group K) as well as mivacurium for muscle relaxation. Anesthesia was maintained with a 1 µg/kg/min remifentanil infusion and bolus doses of propofol or ketamine. After the rigid bronchoscopy, 0.05 µg/kg/min of remifentanil was maintained until extubation. Hemodynamic parameters, emergence characteristics, and adverse events were evaluated.RESULTS:The demographic variables were comparable between the two groups. The decrease in mean arterial pressure from baseline values to the lowest values during rigid bronchoscopy was greater in Group P (p= 0.049), while the reduction in the other parameters and the incidence of adverse events were comparable between the two groups. The need for assisted or controlled mask ventilation after extubation was higher in Group K.CONCLUSION:Remifentanil-based total intravenous anesthesia with propofol or ketamine as an adjuvant drug along with controlled ventilation is a viable technique for pediatric rigid bronchoscopy. Ketamine does not provide a definite advantage over propofol with respect to hemodynamic stability during rigid bronchoscopy, while propofol seems more suitable during the recovery period. <![CDATA[Serum cystatin C is a sensitive early marker for changes in the glomerular filtration rate in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery]]> OBJECTIVE:Pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopy results in transient oliguria and decreased glomerular filtration and renal blood flow. The presence of oliguria and elevated serum creatinine is suggestive of acute renal injury. Serum cystatin C has been described as a new marker for the detection of this type of injury. In this study, our aim was to compare the glomerular filtration rate estimated using cystatin C levels with the rate estimated using serum creatinine in patients with normal renal function who were undergoing laparoscopic surgery.METHODS:In total, 41 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy or hiatoplasty were recruited for the study. Blood samples were collected at three time intervals: first, before intubation (T1); second, 30 minutes after the establishment of pneumoperitoneum (T2); and third, 30 minutes after deflation of the pneumoperitoneum (T3). These blood samples were then analyzed for serum cystatin C, creatinine, and vasopressin. The Larsson formula was used to calculate the glomerular filtration rate based on the serum cystatin C levels, and the Cockcroft-Gault formula was used to calculate the glomerular filtration rate according to the serum creatinine levels.RESULTS:Serum cystatin C levels increased during the study (T1 = T2&lt;T3; p&lt;0.05), whereas serum creatinine levels decreased (T1 = T2&gt;T3; p&lt;0.05). The calculated eGlomerular filtration rate-Larsson decreased, whereas the eGlomerular filtration rate-Cockcroft-Gault increased. There was no correlation between cystatin C and serum creatinine. Additionally, Pearson's analysis showed a better correlation between serum cystatin C and the eGlomerular filtration rate than between serum creatinine and the eGlomerular filtration rate.CONCLUSION:This study demonstrates that serum cystatin C is a more sensitive indicator of changes in the glomerular filtration rate than serum creatinine is in patients with normal renal function who are undergoing laparoscopic procedures. <![CDATA[Comparison of depression, anxiety and long-term quality of health in patients with a history of either primary closure or Limberg flap reconstruction for pilonidal sinus]]> OBJECTİVE:Pilonidal sinus is characterized by high operative morbidity mainly due to wound problems. We aimed to compare the quality of health, comfort and psychological status in patients who underwent surgery for pilonidal sinus.METHODS:A total of 205 pilonidal sinus patients operated on with either primary closure or Limberg flap reconstruction were compared in terms of depression, anxiety, and long-term quality of health by using Short Form 36, Beck Depression Inventory, and Beck Anxiety Inventory scales.RESULTS:There were 107 patients in the primary closure group with a mean follow-up of 29.6±7.7 months and 98 patients in the Limberg flap group with a mean follow-up of 34.1±7.3 months. In the SF-36 analysis, the mental health and bodily pain scores (59±6 and 56±11 in the primary closure group and 62±8 and 61±10 in the Limberg flap group) were significantly higher in the Limberg flap group (p= 0.014 and p= 0.002, respectively). The mean Beck Depression Inventory (19±6.13 vs. 16±4.90 p&lt;0.001) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (19±6.27 vs. 16±4.90 p&lt;0.001) scores were lower in the Limberg flap group.CONCLUSION:Limberg flap reconstruction produced better quality of health scores according to the SF 36, especially in terms of mental health and bodily pain. There was a higher tendency towards anxiety and depression in the primary closure group. <![CDATA[Epicardial adipose tissue and pericoronary fat thickness measured with 64-multidetector computed tomography: potential predictors of the severity of coronary artery disease]]> OBJECTIVE:The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between pericoronary fat and the severity and extent of atherosclerosis, quantified using 64-multidetector computed tomography, in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.METHODS:The study population consisted of 131 patients who were clinically referred for noninvasive multislice computed tomography coronary angiography for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. Patients were classified as follows: no atherosclerosis, Group 1; nonobstructive atherosclerosis (luminal narrowing &lt;50% in diameter), Group 2; and obstructive atherosclerosis (luminal narrowing ≥50%) in a single vessel or obstructive atherosclerosis in the left main coronary artery and/or multiple vessels, Group 3. Epicardial adipose tissue was defined as the adipose tissue between the surface of the heart and the visceral layer of the pericardium (visceral epicardium). Epicardial adipose tissue thickness (mm) was determined in the right ventricular anterior free wall. The mean thickness of the pericoronary fat surrounding the three coronary arteries was used for the analyses.RESULTS:The average thickness over all three regions was 13.2 ± 2.1 mm. The pericoronary fat thickness was significantly increased in Group 3 compared with Groups 2 and 1. The epicardial adipose tissue thickness was significantly increased in Group 3 compared with Groups 2 and 1. A receiver operating characteristic curve for obstructive coronary artery disease was assessed to verify the optimum cut-off point for pericoronary fat thickness, which was 13.8 mm. A receiver operating characteristic curve for obstructive coronary artery disease was also assessed to verify the optimum cut-off point for epicardial adipose tissue, which was 6.8 cm.CONCLUSION:We showed that the epicardial adipose tissue and pericoronary fat thickness scores were higher in patients with obstructive coronary artery diseases. <![CDATA[Non-nutritive sucking evaluation in preterm newborns and the start of oral feeding: a multicenter study]]> OBJECTIVES:The assessment of early sucking by preterm infants provides information on the ability of these infants to efficiently and safely receive nutrients via an oral route (oral feeding). To analyze the application and reliability of an instrument in assessing non-nutritive sucking that indicates a capacity for oral feeding in the routine care of different neonatal units.METHODS:A multicenter, prospective cohort study was conducted in seven neonatal units. A non-nutritive sucking assessment with a formulary validated by Neiva et al (2008) (variables evaluated: rooting reaction; easy initiation of sucking; labial sealing; tongue central groove; peristaltic tongue movements; jaw raising and lowering movements; labial, tongue and jaw coordination; sucking strength; sucking rhythm; bites; excessive jaw excursion; stress signals) was applied to 199 pre-term newborns, who had a chronological age ≥ 2 days and were clinically stable. These infants were divided into two groups based on their corrected gestational age at the first assessment, as follows: Group I-infants with a gestational age ≤ 33 weeks and Group II-infants with a gestational age between 34 and 36 6/7 weeks.RESULTS:The mean gestational age was 31.66±2 weeks, and the mean birth weight was 1494 ± 373 g. The mean scores on the non-nutritive sucking assessment were 46 ± 25 in Group I and 49 ± 24 in Group II. The beginning of oral feeding was successful in 43 (67.2%) infants in Group I and 64 (81%) infants in Group II (p= 0.089).CONCLUSION:The method identified preterm infants who were able to feed orally based on 33 points in the non-nutritive sucking assessment and a corrected gestational age of 32 weeks or more. The corrected gestational age was the most important factor in predicting the success of oral feeding. <![CDATA[Outcomes in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome randomly assigned to invasive <em>versus</em> conservative treatment strategies: A meta-analysis]]> OBJECTIVE:The goal of the present study was to compare the prognoses of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes who were treated with invasive or conservative treatment strategies.METHODS:We performed a meta-analysis of studies of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes to assess the benefits of an invasive strategy vs. a conservative strategy for short- and long-term survival. We searched PubMed for studies published from 1990 to November 2012 that investigated the effects of an invasive vs. conservative strategy in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes. The following search terms were used: “non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction”, “unstable angina”, “acute coronary syndromes”, “invasive strategy”, and “conservative strategy”. The primary endpoints were all-cause mortality at 30 days and 1 year.RESULTS:Seven published studies were included in the present meta-analysis. The pooled analyses show that an invasive strategy decreased the risk of death (risk ratio [0.839] [95% confidence interval {0.648-1.086}; I2, 86.46%] compared to a conservative strategy over a 30-day-period. Furthermore, invasive treatment also decreased patient mortality (risk ratio [0.276] [95% confidence interval {0.259-0.294}; I2, 94.58%]) compared to a conservative strategy for one year.CONCLUSION:In non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes, an invasive strategy is comparable to a conservative strategy for decreasing short- and long-term mortality rates. <![CDATA[Clinical correlation between N-terminal pro-b-type natriuretic peptide and angiographic coronary atherosclerosis]]> OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to investigate the clinical correlation between angiographic coronary atherosclerosis and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide along with other known correlated factors.METHODS:In total, 153 patients with a diagnostic hypothesis of stable angina, unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction were classified as group A (patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries) or group B (patients with angiographic coronary atherosclerosis). The two groups were analyzed with respect to the following factors: gender, age, body mass index, abdominal circumference, smoking, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, early family history of atherosclerosis, statin use, the presence of metabolic syndrome, clinical presentation and biochemical factors, including cholesterol, creatinine and fibrinogen plasma concentrations, monocyte counts and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide.RESULTS:Univariate analyses comparing the two groups revealed that group B patients more frequently had diabetes, used statins and had systolic dysfunction, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels ≥250 pg/mL, fibrinogen levels &gt;500 mg/dL and ≥501 monocytes/mm3 compared with group A patients (p&lt;0.05). Nevertheless, multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the independent predictors of angiographic coronary atherosclerosis were an N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level ≥250 pg/mL, diabetes mellitus and increased monocyte numbers and fibrinogen plasma concentration, regardless of the creatinine level or the presence of systolic dysfunction.CONCLUSIONS:An N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide plasma concentration of ≥250 pg/mL is an independent predictor of angiographic coronary atherosclerosis. <![CDATA[Referred speech-language and hearing complaints in the western region of São Paulo, Brazil]]> OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiological profile of the population attending primary health care units in the western region of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, highlighting referred speech-language and hearing complaints.METHOD:This investigation was a cross-sectional observational study conducted in primary health care units. Household surveys were conducted and information was obtained from approximately 2602 individuals, including (but not limited to) data related to education, family income, health issues, access to public services and access to health services. The speech-language and hearing complaints were identified from specific questions.RESULTS:Our results revealed that the populations participating in the survey were heterogeneous in terms of their demographic and economic characteristics. The prevalence of referred speech-language and hearing complaints in this population was 10%, and only half the users of the public health system in the studied region who had complaints were monitored or received specific treatment.CONCLUSIONS:The results demonstrate the importance of using population surveys to identify speech-language and hearing complaints at the level of primary health care. Moreover, these findings highlight the need to reorganize the speech-language pathology and audiology service in the western region of São Paulo, as well as the need to improve the Family Health Strategy in areas that do not have a complete coverage, in order to expand and improve the territorial diagnostics and the speech-language pathology and audiology actions related to the prevention, identification, and rehabilitation of human communication disorders. <![CDATA[Repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms with bifurcated endografts: a single-center study]]> OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to describe our early experience in the treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms with bifurcated endografts. We report on our initial twelve-month experience using this approach.METHODS:Clinical data on patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms treated at a single tertiary center in Brazil were prospectively recorded. The eligibility for endovascular treatment was evaluated by computed tomography scanning and anatomical features were determined based on the method of treatment.RESULTS:From February 2012 to January 2013 (12 months), 28 consecutive patients (mean age 67.2 years, range 45-85 years) underwent treatment for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms at our hospital. Eighteen patients (64.3%) were suitable for and underwent endovascular treatment with bifurcated endografts (16 patients) or aortouniiliac endografts (two patients). Ten patients who were considered unsuitable for endograft repair underwent open repair. Seven patients were classified as hemodynamically unstable (Endovascular, 5; Open, 2), and 21 were classified as stable (Endovascular, 13; Open, 8). The overall 30-day mortality rate associated with endovascular treatment was 27.8% (stable, 18.7%; unstable, 40%) and the rate associated with open repair was 50% (stable, 37.5%; unstable, 100%).CONCLUSIONS:In this study, the suitability of patients for endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms was high and the overall results of endovascular treatment remain encouraging. Indeed, bifurcated endografts are a feasible option for treating anatomically eligible ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms. <![CDATA[An increase in the cerebral infarction area during fatigue is mediated by il-6 through an induction of fibrinogen synthesis]]> OBJECTIVES:Our study aimed to investigate the impact of fatigue on the severity of stroke and to explore the underlying mechanisms.METHODS:Fatigued male rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion and the infarcted brain area was determined. Then, coagulation parameters were assessed in the fatigued group and a control group. In addition, the level of fibrinogen was determined in rats deprived of sleep for various numbers of days. To study whether interleukin-6 was involved in fibrinogen synthesis during fatigue, we also measured levels of interleukin-6 in rats deprived of sleep for various numbers of days. Furthermore, brain injury by middle cerebral artery occlusion was measured in wild-type mice, interleukin-6-/- mice and wild-type mice treated with bezafibrate.RESULTS:More severe cerebral infarction was observed in the fatigued rats, resulting in an infarct ratio of 23.4%. The infarct ratio was significantly increased in the fatigued rats compared with that in the control group (8%, p&lt;0.05). The level of fibrinogen was increased significantly in the fatigued rats compared with that in the control group. In addition, a marked reduction in fibrinogen level was observed in the fatigued interleukin-6-/- mice compared to their wild-type counterparts, whereas no difference was observed between fatigued wild-type mice and interleukin-6-/- rats treated with recombinant human interleukin-6. The reduction in brain injury due to middle cerebral artery occlusion during fatigue was observed in interleukin-6-/- mice and wild-type mice treated with bezafibrate.CONCLUSION:Fatigue could increase stroke severity and was associated with the interleukin-6-induced expression of fibrinogen. <![CDATA[Dental anomalies in children submitted to antineoplastic therapy]]> Cancer is the third most frequent cause of death in children in Brazil. Early diagnosis and medical advances have significantly improved treatment outcomes, which has resulted in higher survival rates and the management of late side effects has become increasingly important in caring for these patients. Dental abnormalities are commonly observed as late effects of antineoplastic therapy in the oral cavity. The incidence and severity of the dental abnormalities depend on the child's age at diagnosis and the type of chemotherapeutic agent used, as well as the irradiation dose and area. The treatment duration and aggressivity should also be considered. Disturbances in dental development are characterized by changes in shape, number and root development. Enamel anomalies, such as discoloration, opacities and hypoplasia are also observed in these patients. When severe, these abnormalities can cause functional and esthetic sequelae that have an impact on the children's and adolescents' quality of life. General dentists and pediatric dentists should understand these dental abnormalities and how to identify them aiming for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. <![CDATA[Pharmacological management of osteogenesis]]> Osteogenesis and bone remodeling are complex biological processes that are essential for the formation of new bone tissue and its correct functioning. When the balance between bone resorption and formation is disrupted, bone diseases and disorders such as Paget's disease, fibrous dysplasia, osteoporosis and fragility fractures may result. Recent advances in bone cell biology have revealed new specific targets for the treatment of bone loss that are based on the inhibition of bone resorption by osteoclasts or the stimulation of bone formation by osteoblasts. Bisphosphonates, antiresorptive agents that reduce bone resorption, are usually recommended as first-line therapy in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Numerous studies have shown that bisphosphonates are able to significantly reduce the risk of femoral and vertebral fractures. Other antiresorptive agents indicated for the treatment of osteoporosis include selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as raloxifene. Denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody, is another antiresorptive agent that has been approved in Europe and the USA. This agent blocks the RANK/RANKL/OPG system, which is responsible for osteoclastic activation, thus reducing bone resorption. Other approved agents include bone anabolic agents, such as teriparatide, a recombinant parathyroid hormone that improves bone microarchitecture and strength, and strontium ranelate, considered to be a dual-action drug that acts by both osteoclastic inhibition and osteoblastic stimulation. Currently, anti-catabolic drugs that act through the Wnt-β catenin signaling pathway, serving as Dickkopf-related protein 1 inhibitors and sclerostin antagonists, are also in development. This concise review provides an overview of the drugs most commonly used for the control of osteogenesis in bone diseases.