Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Clinics]]> vol. 73 num. lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Improving the Management of Hereditary Angioedema]]> <![CDATA[Noninvasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm With Papillary-Like Nuclear Features (NIFTP): Achieving Better Agreement By Refining Diagnostic Criteria]]> <![CDATA[Breaking Paradigms: Students in Perspective]]> <![CDATA[The Association of Vitamin D Levels and the Frailty Phenotype Among Non-geriatric Dialysis Patients: A Cross-sectional Study]]> OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of frailty and the association of vitamin D levels and the frailty phenotype among non-geriatric dialysis patients. METHOD: Seventy-four stable, chronic hemodialysis patients from the hemodialysis unit of the hospital were enrolled in the study. The patients’ medical histories and laboratory findings were obtained from the medical records of the dialysis unit. Serum parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were determined using chemiluminometric immunoassays. Frailty was defined by Fried et al. as a phenotype; shrinking, weakness, self-reported exhaustion, decreased activity and slowed walking speed were evaluated. RESULTS: Forty-one (55%) of the patients were males. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to frailty scores: 39 (53%) patients were frail, 6 (8%) patients were intermediately frail, and 28 (39%) patients were normal. Significant differences were found for 25-hydroxy vitamin D and hemoglobin levels among the groups; however, no differences were observed in body mass index, comorbidities, sex, marital status, education, disease and dialysis durations, or parathyroid hormone, creatinine, serum calcium, phosphorus, and potassium levels. CONCLUSIONS: Weakness and slowness are serious outcomes of both vitamin D deficiency and frailty, and vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risks of decreased physical activity, falls, fractures and death in postmenopausal women and older men. Although studies on frailty have focused on older adults, growing evidence indicates that the frailty phenotype is becoming a factor associated with poor health outcomes in non-geriatric populations with chronic disease. <![CDATA[Application of a pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics approach to the free propofol plasma levels during coronary artery bypass grafting surgery with hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass]]> OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to apply a pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics approach to investigate the free propofol plasma levels in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting under hypothermic conditions compared with the off-pump procedure. METHODS: Nineteen patients scheduled for on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting under hypothermic conditions (n=10) or the equivalent off-pump surgery (n=9) were anesthetized with sufentanil and propofol target-controlled infusion (2 μg/mL) during surgery. The propofol concentration was then reduced to 1 μg/mL, and a pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analysis using the maximum-effect-sigmoid model obtained by plotting the bispectral index values against the free propofol plasma levels was performed. RESULTS: Significant increases (two- to five-fold) in the free propofol plasma levels were observed in the patients subjected to coronary artery bypass grafting under hypothermic conditions. The pharmacokinetics of propofol varied according to the free drug levels in the hypothermic on-pump group versus the off-pump group. After hypothermic coronary artery bypass was initiated, the distribution volume increased, and the distribution half-life was prolonged. Propofol target-controlled infusion was discontinued when orotracheal extubation was indicated, and the time to patient extubation was significantly higher in the hypothermic on-pump group than in the off-pump group (459 versus 273 min, p=0.0048). CONCLUSIONS: The orotracheal intubation time was significantly longer in the hypothermic on-pump group than in the off-pump group. Additionally, residual hypnosis was identified through the pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics approach based on decreases in drug plasma protein binding in the hypothermic on-pump group, which could explain the increased hypnosis observed with this drug in this group of patients. <![CDATA[Increase of 10% in the Rate of Adverse Drug Reactions for Each Drug Administered in Hospitalized Patients]]> OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk factors, incidence and severity of adverse drug reactions in in-patients. METHODS: This prospective study evaluated 472 patients treated at a teaching hospital in Brazil between 2010 and 2013 by five medical specialties: Internal Medicine, General Surgery, Geriatrics, Neurology, and Clinical Immunology and Allergy. The following variables were assessed: patient age, gender, comorbidities, family history of hypersensitivity, personal and family history of atopy, number of prescribed drugs before and during hospitalization, hospital diagnoses, days of hospitalization. The patients were visited every other day, and medical records were reviewed by the investigators to detect adverse drug reactions. RESULTS: There were a total of 94 adverse drug reactions in 75 patients. Most reactions were predictable and of moderate severity. The incidence of adverse drug reactions was 16.2%, and the incidence varied, according to the medical specialty; it was higher in Internal Medicine (30%). Antibiotics were the most commonly involved medication. Chronic renal failure, longer hospital stay, greater number of diagnoses and greater number of medications upon admission were risk factors. For each medication introduced during hospitalization, there was a 10% increase in the rate of adverse drug reaction. In the present study, the probability of observing an adverse drug reaction was 1 in 104 patients per day. CONCLUSIONS: Adverse drug reactions are frequent and potentially serious and should be better monitored in patients with chronic renal failure or prolonged hospitalization and especially in those on ‘polypharmacy’ regimens. The rational use of medications plays an important role in preventing adverse drug reactions. <![CDATA[Monitoring auditory cortical plasticity in hearing aid users with long latency auditory evoked potentials: a longitudinal study]]> OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare long-latency auditory evoked potentials before and after hearing aid fittings in children with sensorineural hearing loss compared with age-matched children with normal hearing. METHODS: Thirty-two subjects of both genders aged 7 to 12 years participated in this study and were divided into two groups as follows: 14 children with normal hearing were assigned to the control group (mean age 9 years and 8 months), and 18 children with mild to moderate symmetrical bilateral sensorineural hearing loss were assigned to the study group (mean age 9 years and 2 months). The children underwent tympanometry, pure tone and speech audiometry and long-latency auditory evoked potential testing with speech and tone burst stimuli. The groups were assessed at three time points. RESULTS: The study group had a lower percentage of positive responses, lower P1-N1 and P2-N2 amplitudes (speech and tone burst), and increased latencies for the P1 and P300 components following the tone burst stimuli. They also showed improvements in long-latency auditory evoked potentials (with regard to both the amplitude and presence of responses) after hearing aid use. CONCLUSIONS: Alterations in the central auditory pathways can be identified using P1-N1 and P2-N2 amplitude components, and the presence of these components increases after a short period of auditory stimulation (hearing aid use). These findings emphasize the importance of using these amplitude components to monitor the neuroplasticity of the central auditory nervous system in hearing aid users. <![CDATA[Preventable adverse drug events in critically ill HIV patients: Is the detection of potential drug-drug interactions a useful tool?]]> OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop a strategy to identify adverse drug events associated with drug-drug interactions by analyzing the prescriptions of critically ill patients. METHODS: This retrospective study included HIV/AIDS patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit between November 2006 and September 2008. Data were collected in two stages. In the first stage, three prescriptions administered throughout the entire duration of these patients’ hospitalization were reviewed, with the Micromedex database used to search for potential drug-drug interactions. In the second stage, a search for adverse drug events in all available medical, nursing and laboratory records was performed. The probability that a drug-drug interaction caused each adverse drug events was assessed using the Naranjo algorithm. RESULTS: A total of 186 drug prescriptions of 62 HIV/AIDS patients were analyzed. There were 331 potential drug-drug interactions, and 9% of these potential interactions resulted in adverse drug events in 16 patients; these adverse drug events included treatment failure (16.7%) and adverse reactions (83.3%). Most of the adverse drug reactions were classified as possible based on the Naranjo algorithm. CONCLUSIONS: The approach used in this study allowed for the detection of adverse drug events related to 9% of the potential drug-drug interactions that were identified; these adverse drug events affected 26% of the study population. With the monitoring of adverse drug events based on prescriptions, a combination of the evaluation of potential drug-drug interactions by clinical pharmacy services and the monitoring of critically ill patients is an effective strategy that can be used as a complementary tool for safety assessments and the prevention of adverse drug events. <![CDATA[Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Combined with Methylprednisolone Improves Functional Outcomes in Rats with Experimental Acute Spinal Cord Injury]]> OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of combined treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and methylprednisolone in rats subjected to experimental spinal cord injury. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats received a moderate spinal cord injury and were divided into four groups: control (no treatment); G-CSF (G-CSF at the time of injury and daily over the next five days); methylprednisolone (methylprednisolone for 24 h); and G-CSF/Methylprednisolone (methylprednisolone for 24 h and G-CSF at the time of injury and daily over the next five days). Functional evaluation was performed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan score on days 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 following injury. Motor-evoked potentials were evaluated. Histological examination of the spinal cord lesion was performed immediately after euthanasia on day 42. RESULTS: Eight animals were excluded (2 from each group) due to infection, a normal Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan score at their first evaluation, or autophagy, and 32 were evaluated. The combination of methylprednisolone and G-CSF promoted greater functional improvement than methylprednisolone or G-CSF alone (p&lt;0.001). This combination also exhibited a synergistic effect, with improvements in hyperemia and cellular infiltration at the injury site (p&lt;0.001). The groups displayed no neurophysiological differences (latency p=0.85; amplitude p=0.75). CONCLUSION: Methylprednisolone plus G-CSF promotes functional and histological improvements superior to those achieved by either of these drugs alone when treating spinal cord contusion injuries in rats. Combining the two drugs did have a synergistic effect. <![CDATA[Improvement in lung function and functional capacity in morbidly obese women subjected to bariatric surgery]]> OBJECTIVE: To determine whether weight loss in women with morbid obesity subjected to bariatric surgery alters lung function, respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity and the level of habitual physical activity and to investigate the relationship between these variables and changes in both body composition and anthropometrics. METHODS: Twenty-four women with morbid obesity were evaluated with regard to lung function, respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity, body composition, anthropometrics and the level of habitual physical activity two weeks prior to and six months after bariatric surgery. RESULTS: Regarding lung function, mean increases of 160 mL in slow vital capacity, 550 mL in expiratory reserve volume, 290 mL in forced vital capacity and 250 mL in forced expiratory volume in the first second as well as a mean reduction of 490 mL in inspiratory capacity were found. Respiratory muscle strength increased by a mean of 10 cmH2O of maximum inspiratory pressure, and a 72-meter longer distance on the Incremental Shuttle Walk Test demonstrated that functional capacity also improved. Significant changes also occurred in anthropometric variables and body composition but not in the level of physical activity detected using the Baecke questionnaire, indicating that the participants remained sedentary. Moreover, correlations were found between the percentages of lean and fat mass and both inspiratory and expiratory reserve volumes. CONCLUSION: The present data suggest that changes in body composition and anthropometric variables exerted a direct influence on functional capacity and lung function in the women analyzed but exerted no influence on sedentarism, even after accentuated weight loss following bariatric surgery. <![CDATA[Standardization of a spinal cord lesion model and neurologic evaluation using mice]]> OBJECTIVE: To standardize a spinal cord lesion mouse model. METHODS: Thirty BALB/c mice were divided into five groups: four experimental groups and one control group (sham). The experimental groups were subjected to spinal cord lesion by a weight drop from different heights after laminectomy whereas the sham group only underwent laminectomy. Mice were observed for six weeks, and functional behavior scales were applied. The mice were then euthanized, and histological investigations were performed to confirm and score spinal cord lesion. The findings were evaluated to prove whether the method of administering spinal cord lesion was effective and different among the groups. Additionally, we correlated the results of the functional scales with the results from the histology evaluations to identify which scale is more reliable. RESULTS: One mouse presented autophagia, and six mice died during the experiment. Because four of the mice that died were in Group 5, Group 5 was excluded from the study. All the functional scales assessed proved to be significantly different from each other, and mice presented functional evolution during the experiment. Spinal cord lesion was confirmed by histology, and the results showed a high correlation between the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan Locomotor Rating Scale and the Basso Mouse Scale. The mouse function scale showed a moderate to high correlation with the histological findings, and the horizontal ladder test had a high correlation with neurologic degeneration but no correlation with the other histological parameters evaluated. CONCLUSION: This spinal cord lesion mouse model proved to be effective and reliable with exception of lesions caused by a 10-g drop from 50 mm, which resulted in unacceptable mortality. The Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan Locomotor Rating Scale and Basso Mouse Scale are the most reliable functional assessments, and but the horizontal ladder test is not recommended. <![CDATA[<em>Burkholderia cepacia,</em> cystic fibrosis and outcomes following lung transplantation: experiences from a single center in Brazil]]> OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of Burkholderia cepacia complex colonization in cystic fibrosis patients undergoing lung transplantation. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed clinical data and respiratory tract samples (sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage) collected from suppurative lung disease patients between January 2008 and November 2013. We also subtyped different Burkholderia cepacia complex genotypes via DNA sequencing using primers against the recA gene in samples collected between January 2012 and November 2013. RESULTS: From 2008 to 2013, 34 lung transplants were performed on cystic fibrosis patients at our center. Burkholderia cepacia complex was detected in 13 of the 34 (38.2%) patients. Seven of the 13 (53%) strains were subjected to genotype analysis, from which three strains of B. metallica and four strains of B. cenocepacia were identified. The mortality rate was 1/13 (7.6%), and this death was not related to B. cepacia infection. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that colonization by B. cepacia complex and even B. cenocepacia in patients with cystic fibrosis should not be considered an absolute contraindication to lung transplantation in Brazilian centers. <![CDATA[Voice deviation, dysphonia risk screening and quality of life in individuals with various laryngeal diagnoses]]> OBJECTIVES: To characterize the voice quality of individuals with dysphonia and to investigate possible correlations between the degree of voice deviation (D) and scores on the Dysphonia Risk Screening Protocol-General (DRSP), the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) measure and the Voice Handicap Index, short version (VHI-10). METHODS: The sample included 200 individuals with dysphonia. Following laryngoscopy, the participants completed the DRSP, the V-RQOL measure, and the VHI-10; subsequently, voice samples were recorded for auditory-perceptual and acoustic analyses. The correlation between the score for each questionnaire and the overall degree of vocal deviation was analyzed, as was the correlation among the scores for the three questionnaires. RESULTS: Most of the participants (62%) were female, and the mean age of the sample was 49 years. The most common laryngeal diagnosis was organic dysphonia (79.5%). The mean D was 59.54, and the predominance of roughness had a mean of 54.74. All the participants exhibited at least one abnormal acoustic aspect. The mean questionnaire scores were DRSP, 44.7; V-RQOL, 57.1; and VHI-10, 16. An inverse correlation was found between the V-RQOL score and D; however, a positive correlation was found between both the VHI-10 and DRSP scores and D. CONCLUSION: A predominance of adult women, organic dysphonia, moderate voice deviation, high dysphonia risk, and low to moderate quality of life impact characterized our sample. There were correlations between the scores of each of the three questionnaires and the degree of voice deviation. It should be noted that the DRSP monitored the degree of dysphonia severity, which reinforces its applicability for patients with different laryngeal diagnoses. <![CDATA[Preoperative treatment with 5α-reductase inhibitors and the risk of hemorrhagic events in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate – A population-based cohort study]]> OBJECTIVES: To assess the associations between preoperative treatment with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors and the risks of blood transfusion during transurethral resection of the prostate and blood clot evacuation or emergency department visits for hematuria within 1 month after surgery. METHODS: We used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database in this population-based cohort study. A total of 3,126 patients who underwent first-time transurethral resection of the prostate from 2004 to 2013 were identified. Adjusted odds ratios estimated by multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the independent effects of the preoperative use of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors on the risks of perioperative hemorrhagic events after adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: Two hundred and ninety-seven (9.4%) patients were treated with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors for &lt;3 months, and 65 (2.1%) patients were treated for ≥3 months prior to undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate. The blood transfusion rates for patients who were not treated with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (controls), patients who were treated with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors for &lt;3 months, and patients who were treated with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors ≥3 months were 9.5%, 8.8%, and 3.1%, respectively. 5-alpha reductase inhibitors tended to decrease the risk of blood transfusion; however, this association was not statistically significant (adjusted odds ratio=0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.02-1.01). Age ≥80 years, coagulopathy, and a resected prostate tissue weight &gt;50 g were associated with significantly higher risks of blood transfusion than other parameters. CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide study did not show that significant associations exist between 5-alpha reductase inhibitor use before transurethral resection of the prostate and the risks of blood transfusion and blood clot evacuation or emergency visits for hematuria. <![CDATA[Difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of rare diseases according to the perceptions of patients, relatives and health care professionals]]> OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to present a survey of vulnerabilities and to suggest approaches for the treatment of rare diseases according to the perceptions of a group of affected individuals, patient association representatives and health care professionals. METHODS: The focus group technique was used in interviews with patients and primary caregivers, patient support groups/non-governmental organizations, primary health care professionals and physician specialists. RESULTS: The transcript analysis focused on thematic units, which were tailored to each group and allowed comparisons in search of concordant views. Unanimity was observed in relation to the physical, emotional and social damage to the life standards of the affected individuals and their families as a result of illness. The Brazilian health system was unanimously classified as inadequate to respond to the needs of patients with rare diseases, and this inadequacy led to unpleasant experiences, such as the seemingly endless referrals among health services to reach a final diagnosis and develop a treatment plan. CONCLUSIONS: The complex set of health system requirements necessary to support the care of patients with rare diseases represents an obstacle to successfully meeting the needs of patients and their families. Therefore, it is important to develop specific public policies to create referral services, guarantee access to appropriate therapeutic modalities and incorporate technologies that promote research for developing new, affordable therapies. <![CDATA[Micromass cultures are effective for differentiation of human amniotic fluid stem cells into chondrocytes]]> OBJECTIVES: Articular cartilage is vulnerable to injuries and undergoes an irreversible degenerative process. The use of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal stem cells for the reconstruction of articular cartilage is a promising therapeutic alternative. The aim of this study was to investigate the chondrogenic potential of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal stem cells from human amniotic fluid from second trimester pregnant women in a micromass system (high-density cell culture) with TGF-β3 for 21 days. METHODS: Micromass was performed using amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal stem cells previously cultured in a monolayer. Chondrocytes from adult human normal cartilage were used as controls. After 21 days, chondrogenic potential was determined by measuring the expression of genes, such as SOX-9, type II collagen and aggrecan, in newly differentiated cells by real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The production of type II collagen protein was observed by western blotting. Immunohistochemistry analysis was also performed to detect collagen type II and aggrecan. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. RESULTS: SOX-9, aggrecan and type II collagen were expressed in newly differentiated chondrocytes. The expression of SOX-9 was significantly higher in newly differentiated chondrocytes than in adult cartilage. Collagen type II protein was also detected. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that stem cells from human amniotic fluid are a suitable source for chondrogenesis when cultured in a micromass system. amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal stem cells are an extremely viable source for clinical applications, and our results suggest the possibility of using human amniotic fluid as a source of mesenchymal stem cells. <![CDATA[Cardiovascular abnormalities in patients with oral cleft: a clinical-electrocardiographic-echocardiographic study]]> OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to describe the clinical, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic cardiological findings in a group of patients with oral clefts. METHODS: This is a prospective cross-sectional study on 70 children (age range from 13 days to 19 years) with oral clefts who attended the multidisciplinary program of a university hospital from March 2013 to September 2014. The patients were evaluated by a pediatric cardiologist and underwent detailed anamnesis, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and echocardiogram. RESULTS: Sixty percent of the patients were male; 55.7% presented with cleft lip and palate, and 40.0% presented with health complaints. Comorbidities were found in 44.3%. Relevant pregnancy, neonatal, family and personal antecedents were present in 55.7%, 27.1%, 67.2%, and 24.3% of the patients, respectively. Regarding the antecedents, 15.2% of the patients presented with a cardiac murmur, 49.0% with a familial risk of developing plurimetabolic syndrome, and 6% with family antecedents of rheumatic fever. Electrocardiographic evaluation showed one case of atrioventricular block. Echocardiograms were abnormal in 35.7% of the exams, including 5 cases of mitral valve prolapse — one of which was diagnosed with rheumatic heart disease. CONCLUSION: The finding of a family risk of developing plurimetabolic syndrome and a diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease indicates that patients with oral clefts may be more prone to developing acquired heart disease. Thus, our findings highlight the importance of anamnesis and methodological triangulation (clinical-electrocardiographic-echocardiographic) in the investigation of patients with oral clefts and emphasize that cardiological follow-up to evaluate acquired and/or rhythm heart diseases is necessary. This strategy permits comorbidity prevention and individualized planned treatment. <![CDATA[Neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin on rat retinas subjected to oligemia]]> OBJECTIVES: Erythropoietin may have neuroprotective potential after ischemia of the central nervous system. Here, we conducted a study to characterize the protective effects of erythropoietin on retinal ganglion cells and gliotic reactions in an experimentally induced oligemia model. METHODS: Rats were subjected to global oligemia by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion and then received either vehicle or erythropoietin via intravitreal injection after 48 h; they were euthanized one week after the injection. The densities of retinal ganglion cells and contents of glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocytes/Müller cells) and cluster of differentiation 68 clone ED1 (microglia/macrophages), assessed by fluorescence intensity, were evaluated in frozen retinal sections by immunofluorescence and epifluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: Retinal ganglion cells were nearly undetectable one week after oligemia compared with the sham controls; however, these cells were partially preserved in erythropoietin-treated retinas. The contents of glial fibrillary acidic protein and cluster of differentiation 68 clone ED1, markers for reactive gliosis, were significantly higher in retinas after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion than those in both sham and erythropoietin-treated retinas. CONCLUSIONS: The number of partially preserved retinal ganglion cells in the erythropoietin-treated group suggests that erythropoietin exerts a neuroprotective effect on oligemic/ischemic retinas. This effect could be related to the down-modulation of glial reactivity, usually observed in hypoxic conditions, clinically observed during glaucoma or retinal artery occlusion conditions. Therefore, glial reactivity may enhance neurodegeneration in hypoxic conditions, like normal-tension glaucoma and retinal ischemia, and erythropoietin is thus a candidate to be clinically applied after the detection of decreased retinal blood flow. <![CDATA[Analysis of the Role of Physicians in the Cessation of Cigarette Smoking Based on Medical Specialization]]> OBJECTIVE: Physicians do not adequately use their unique professional privilege to prevent patients from smoking. The aim of this study was to investigate the type and extent of advice given to patients by physicians of different medical specialties regarding smoking cessation. METHODS: In total, 317 volunteer physicians were included in this study. The participants rated their attitudes toward the smoking habits of their patients by completing a questionnaire. The approaches used to address the smoking habits of patients significantly differed among physicians working at polyclinics, clinics and emergency service departments (p&lt;0.001). Physicians working at clinics exhibited the highest frequency of inquiring about the smoking habits of their patients, while physicians working at emergency service departments exhibited the lowest frequency. RESULTS: Physicians from different medical specialties significantly differed in their responses. Physicians specializing in lung diseases, thoracic surgery, and cardiology were more committed to preventing their patients from cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The role of physicians, particularly pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons, is critical in the fight against cigarette smoking. Promoting physician awareness of this subject is highly important in all other branches of medicine. <![CDATA[Type II and III Selective Fetal Growth Restriction: Perinatal Outcomes of Expectant Management and Laser Ablation of Placental Vessels]]> OBJECTIVES: To describe the perinatal outcomes of type II and III selective fetal growth restriction (sFGR) in monochorionic-diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies treated with expectant management or laser ablation of placental vessels (LAPV). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of cases of sFGR that received expectant management (type II, n=6; type III, n=22) or LAPV (type II, n=30; type III, n=9). The main outcomes were gestational age at delivery and survival rate. RESULTS: The smaller fetus presented an absent/reversed “a” wave in the ductus venosus (arAWDV) in all LAPV cases, while none of the expectant management cases presented arAWDV. The median gestational age at delivery was within the 32nd week for expectant management (type II and III) and for type II LAPV, and the 30th week for type III LAPV. The rate of at least one twin alive at hospital discharge was 83.3% and 90.9% for expectant management type II and III, respectively, and 90% and 77.8% for LAPV type II and III, respectively. CONCLUSION: LAPV in type II and III sFGR twins with arAWDV in the smaller fetus seems to yield outcomes similar to those of less severe cases that received expectant management. <![CDATA[Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and severe maternal morbidity: is there an association?]]> OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the occurrence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among women experiencing a severe maternal morbidity event and associated factors in comparison with those without maternal morbidity. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, 803 women with or without severe maternal morbidity were evaluated at 6 months to 5 years postpartum for the presence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Interviews were conducted by telephone and electronic data was stored. Data analysis was carried out by using χ2, Fisher’s Exact test, and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: There was no significant change in the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder related to a previous severe maternal morbidity experience. There were also no differences in diagnostic criteria for severe maternal morbidity (hypertensive syndromes, hemorrhage, surgical intervention or intensive care unit admission required, among other management criteria). Low parity (2.5-fold risk) and increasing age were factors associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. CONCLUSIONS: A severe maternal morbidity episode is not associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms within five years of the severe maternal morbidity event and birth. However, a more advanced maternal age and primiparity increased the risk of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. This does not imply that women who had experienced a severe maternal morbidity event did not suffer or need differentiated care. <![CDATA[Impact of discharge medication counseling in the cardiology unit of a tertiary hospital in Brazil: A randomized controlled trial]]> OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-provided discharge counseling on mortality rate, hospital readmissions, emergency department visits, and medication adherence at 30 days post discharge. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was approved by the local ethics committee and included patients aged 18 years or older admitted to the cardiology ward of a Brazilian tertiary hospital. The intervention group received a pharmacist-led medication counseling session at discharge and a telephone follow-up three and 15 days after discharge. The outcomes included the number of deaths, hospital readmissions, emergency department visits, and medication adherence. All outcomes were evaluated during a pharmacist-led ambulatory consultation performed 30 days after discharge. RESULTS: Of 133 patients, 104 were included in the analysis (51 and 53 in the intervention and control groups, respectively). The intervention group had a lower overall readmission rate, number of emergency department visits, and mortality rate, but the differences were not statistically significant (p&gt;0.05). However, the intervention group had a significantly lower readmission rate related to heart disease (0% vs. 11.3%, p=0.027), despite the small sample size. Furthermore, medication counseling contributed significantly to improved medication adherence according to three different tools (p&lt;0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacist-provided discharge medication counseling resulted in better medication adherence scores and a lower incidence of cardiovascular-associated hospital readmissions, thus representing a useful service for cardiology patients. <![CDATA[Early psychiatric morbidity in a Brazilian sample of acute ischemic stroke patients]]> OBJECTIVE: Stroke is a major public health problem worldwide, and its neuropsychiatric sequelae are frequent and disabling. Furthermore, there is evidence that these sequelae impair recovery. Brazil has the highest stroke rates in Latin America, but data on the frequency of neuropsychiatric disorders in these patients are scarce. This study aimed to identify mental disorders among in-hospital patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus (MINI-Plus) was applied to 60 patients during the first week of hospitalization. RESULTS: Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 55% of the patients. A wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders have been identified, mainly mood and anxiety disorders. Specifically, we identified major depression (26.7%), alcohol abuse or dependence (11.7%), specific phobia (8.3%), generalized anxiety disorder (6.7%), psychosis (5.0%), social phobia (3.3%), adjustment disorder (3.3%) and panic disorder (1.7%). CONCLUSION: Psychiatric comorbidity should be evaluated as part of the rehabilitation of stroke patients and should be carefully examined by physicians. <![CDATA[Low estrogen doses normalize testosterone and estradiol levels to the female range in transgender women]]> OBJECTIVE: The ideal dosage of cross-sex hormones remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, estradiol and prolactin levels after low-dose estrogen therapy with or without cyproterone acetate in transgender women. METHODS: The serum hormone and biochemical profiles of 51 transgender women were evaluated before gonadectomy. Hormone therapy consisted of conjugated equine estrogen alone or combined with cyproterone acetate. The daily dose of conjugated equine estrogen was 0.625 mg in 41 subjects and 1.25 mg in 10 subjects, and the daily dose of cyproterone acetate was 50 mg in 42 subjects and 100 mg in one subject. RESULTS: Estrogen-only therapy reduced the testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels from 731.5 to 18 ng/dL, 6.3 to 1.1 U/L and 9.6 to 1.5 U/L, respectively. Estrogen plus cyproterone acetate reduced the testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels from 750 to 21 ng/dL, 6.8 to 0.6 U/L and 10 to 1.0 U/L, respectively. The serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, estradiol and prolactin in the patients treated with estrogen alone and estrogen plus cyproterone acetate were not significantly different. The group receiving estrogen plus cyproterone acetate had significantly higher levels of gamma-glutamyltransferase than the group receiving estrogen alone. No significant differences in the other biochemical parameters were evident between the patients receiving estrogen alone and estrogen plus cyproterone acetate. CONCLUSION: In our sample of transgender women, lower estrogen doses than those usually prescribed for these subjects were able to adjust the testosterone and estradiol levels to the physiological female range, thus avoiding high estrogen doses and their multiple associated side effects. <![CDATA[En bloc vertebrectomy for the treatment of spinal lesions. Five years of experience in a single institution: a case series]]> OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to describe the experience of a Brazilian public university hospital regarding the treatment of metastatic or benign spine lesions with en bloc vertebrectomy of the thoracic and lumbar spines. METHODS: This study was a retrospective case series and included all medical records of patients with benign aggressive, primary malignant, or metastatic spine lesions who underwent en bloc vertebrectomy from 2010 to 2015. RESULTS: A total of 17 patients were included in the analysis. Most of them (71%) were indicated for surgery based on an oncologic resection for localized disease cure. Overall, 10 of the 17 patients (59%) underwent vertebrectomy via an isolated posterior approach using the technique described by Roy-Camille et al. and Tomita et al., while 7 patients (41%) underwent double approach surgeries. Of the 17 patients who underwent the en bloc resection, 8 are still alive and in the outpatient follow-up (47%), and almost all patients with metastatic lesions (8/9) died. The average survival time following the surgical procedure was 23.8 months. Considering the cases of metastatic lesions and the cases of localized disease (malignant or benign aggressive disease) separately, we observed an average survival time of 15 months and 47.6 months respectively. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates and reinforces the reproducibility of the en bloc vertebrectomy technique described by Tomita et al. <![CDATA[Use of direct oral anticoagulants for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension]]> OBJECTIVES: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is one of the most prevalent forms of pulmonary hypertension and is a major complication of acute pulmonary embolism. One mainstay of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension treatment is lifelong anticoagulation. The recent advent of direct oral anticoagulants for acute pulmonary embolism treatment has provided a viable and effective alternative for treating this condition. However, little is known about the efficacy of this new class of drugs for treating chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants in the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. METHODS: A cohort of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients who initiated treatment with direct oral anticoagulants between June 2015 and November 2016 were enrolled in this study. RESULTS: Sixteen patients used rivaroxaban, three used dabigatran and one used apixaban for a mean follow-up of 20.9 months. The mean age was 51 years, and eighteen patients were classified as functional class II/III. Eight patients underwent a pulmonary endarterectomy and exhibited clinical, hemodynamic and functional improvement and currently continue to use direct oral anticoagulants. No episode of venous thromboembolism recurrence was identified during the follow-up period, but there was one episode of major bleeding after a traumatic fall. CONCLUSIONS: Although direct oral anticoagulants appear to be a safe and effective alternative for treating chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, larger studies are needed to support their routine use. <![CDATA[Specific questionnaire detects a high incidence of intra-operative hypersensitivity reactions]]> OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of intra-operative immediate hypersensitivity reactions and anaphylaxis. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at the Department of Anesthesiology, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil, from January to December 2010. We developed a specific questionnaire to be completed by anesthesiologists. This tool included questions about hypersensitivity reactions during anesthesia and provided treatments. We included patients with clinical signs compatible with immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Hhypersensitivity reactions were categorized according to severity (grades I-V). American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification (ASA 1-6) was analyzed and associated with the severity of hypersensitivity reactions. RESULTS: In 2010, 21,464 surgeries were performed under general anesthesia. Anesthesiologists answered questionnaires on 5,414 procedures (25.2%). Sixty cases of intra-operative hypersensitivity reactions were reported. The majority patients (45, 75%) had hypersensitivity reactions grade I reactions (incidence of 27.9:10,000). Fifteen patients (25%) had grade II, III or IV reactions (intra-operative anaphylaxis) (incidence of 7:10,000). No patients had grade V reactions. Thirty patients (50%) were classified as ASA 1. The frequency of cardiovascular shock was higher in patients classified as ASA 3 than in patients classified as ASA 1 or ASA 2. Epinephrine was administered in 20% of patients with grade III hypersensitivity reactions and in 50% of patients with grade II hypersensitivity reactions. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients had hypersensitivity reactions grade I reactions; however, the incidence of intra-operative anaphylaxis was higher than that previously reported in the literature. Patients with ASA 3 had more severe anaphylaxis; however, the use of epinephrine was not prescribed in all of these cases. Allergists and anesthesiologists should implement preventive measures to reduce the occurrence of anaphylaxis. <![CDATA[Unilateral spatial neglect in the acute phase of ischemic stroke can predict long-term disability and functional capacity]]> OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the degree of unilateral spatial neglect during the acute phase of stroke and long-term functional independence. METHODS: This was a prospective study of right ischemic stroke patients in which the independent variable was the degree of spatial neglect and the outcome that was measured was functional independence. The potential confounding factors included sex, age, stroke severity, topography of the lesion, risk factors, glycemia and the treatment received. Unilateral spatial neglect was measured using the line cancellation test, the star cancellation test and the line bisection test within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms. Functional independence was measured using the modified Rankin and Barthel scales at 90 days after discharge. The relationship between unilateral spatial neglect and functional independence was analyzed using multiple logistic regression that was corrected for confounding factors. RESULTS: We studied 60 patients with a median age of 68 (34-89) years, 52% of whom were male and 74% of whom were Caucasian. The risk for moderate to severe disability increased with increasing star cancellation test scores (OR=1.14 [1.03-1.26], p=0.01) corrected for the stroke severity, which was a confounding factor that had a statistically positive association with disability (OR=1.63 [1.13-2.65], p=0.01). The best chance of functional independence decreased with increasing star cancellation test scores (OR=0.86 [0.78-0.96], p=0.006) corrected for the stroke severity, which was a confounding factor that had a statistically negative association with independence (OR=0.66 [0.48-0.92], p=0.017). CONCLUSION: The severity of unilateral spatial neglect in acute stroke worsens the degree of long-term disability and functional independence. <![CDATA[Resting spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac autonomic control in anabolic androgenic steroid users]]> OBJECTIVES: Misuse of anabolic androgenic steroids in athletes is a strategy used to enhance strength and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. However, its abuse leads to an imbalance in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, increased vascular resistance, and increased blood pressure. However, the mechanisms underlying these alterations are still unknown. Therefore, we tested whether anabolic androgenic steroids could impair resting baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac sympathovagal control. In addition, we evaluate pulse wave velocity to ascertain the arterial stiffness of large vessels. METHODS: Fourteen male anabolic androgenic steroid users and 12 nonusers were studied. Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate were recorded. Baroreflex sensitivity was estimated by the sequence method, and cardiac autonomic control by analysis of the R-R interval. Pulse wave velocity was measured using a noninvasive automatic device. RESULTS: Mean spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, baroreflex sensitivity to activation of the baroreceptors, and baroreflex sensitivity to deactivation of the baroreceptors were significantly lower in users than in nonusers. In the spectral analysis of heart rate variability, high frequency activity was lower, while low frequency activity was higher in users than in nonusers. Moreover, the sympathovagal balance was higher in users. Users showed higher pulse wave velocity than nonusers showing arterial stiffness of large vessels. Single linear regression analysis showed significant correlations between mean blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity and pulse wave velocity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence for lower baroreflex sensitivity and sympathovagal imbalance in anabolic androgenic steroid users. Moreover, anabolic androgenic steroid users showed arterial stiffness. Together, these alterations might be the mechanisms triggering the increased blood pressure in this population. <![CDATA[Liver biopsy may facilitate pancreatic graft evaluation: Positive association between liver steatosis and pancreatic graft adipose infiltration]]> OBJECTIVES: The number of pancreatic transplants has decreased in recent years. Pancreatic grafts have been underutilized compared to other solid grafts. One cause of discard is the macroscopic appearance of the pancreas, especially the presence of fatty infiltration. The current research is aimed at understanding any graft-related association between fatty tissue infiltration of the pancreas and liver steatosis. METHODS: From August 2013 to August 2014, a prospective cross-sectional clinical study using data from 54 multiple deceased donor organs was performed. RESULTS: Micro- and macroscopic liver steatosis were significantly correlated with the donor body mass index ([BMI]; p=0.029 and p=0.006, respectively). Positive gamma associations between pancreatic and liver macroscopic and microscopic findings (0.98; confidence interval [CI]: 0.95-1 and 0.52; CI 0.04-1, respectively) were observed. Furthermore, comparisons of liver microscopy findings showed significant differences between severe versus absent (p&lt;0.001), severe versus mild (p&lt;0.001), and severe versus moderate classifications (p&lt;0.001). The area under the receiver operating curve was 0.94 for the diagnosis of steatosis by BMI evaluation using a cut-off BMI of 27.5 kg/m2, which yielded 100% sensitivity, 87% specificity, and 100% negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a positive association of macroscopic and microscopic histopathological findings in steatotic livers with adipose infiltration of pancreatic grafts. <![CDATA[Relationship between circulating VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin and MMP9 and the extent of coronary lesions]]> OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory molecules play a role in the development of atherosclerosis, which is the primary origin of cardiovascular disorders. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has attempted to investigate the relationship between these circulating molecules and the prediction of cardiovascular risk. The present study aimed to investigate the relationships of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin and matrix metalloproteinase 9 serum concentrations with the extent of coronary lesions. METHODS: Seventy-four individuals who were undergoing coronary angiography for the first time for diagnostic purposes were enrolled in this study. The extent of the coronary lesion was assessed using the Friesinger Index, and subjects were classified into four groups: no lesions, minor lesions, intermediate lesions and major lesions. Serum biochemical parameters and serum concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin and matrix metalloproteinase 9 were analyzed. RESULTS: The vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 concentration was higher than 876 ng/mL in individuals with intermediate and major lesions (p&lt;0.001 and p=0.020, respectively). Moreover, logistic regression analysis showed that these patients had an increased risk of having an intermediate lesion (p=0.007). Interestingly, all individuals with major lesions had vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 concentrations higher than 876 ng/mL. No association was found between the concentrations of the other proteins and the Friesinger Index. CONCLUSIONS: Serum vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 may be associated with the extent of coronary lesions. Moreover, it may represent an alternative to improve the cardiovascular risk classification in patients without acute coronary syndrome. <![CDATA[Malignancy rates for Bethesda III subcategories in thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB)]]> OBJECTIVES: Most thyroid diseases are nodular and have been investigated using ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), the reports of which are standardized by the Bethesda System. Bethesda category III represents a heterogeneous group in terms of lesion characteristics and the malignancy rates reported in the literature. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the differences in the malignancy rates among Bethesda III subcategories. METHODS: Data from 1,479 patients who had thyroid surgery were reviewed. In total, 1,093 patients (89.6% female, mean age 52.7 (13-89) years) were included, and 386 patients were excluded. FNAB results (based on Bethesda Class) and histopathological results (benign or malignant) for coincident areas were collected. Bethesda III patients were subcategorized according to cytopathological characteristics (FLUS: follicular lesion of undetermined significance, Bethesda IIIA; AUS: atypia of undetermined significance, Bethesda IIIB). Data were correlated to obtain the malignancy rates for each Bethesda category and the newly defined subcategory. RESULTS: FNAB results for these patients were as follows: Bethesda I: 3.1%; Bethesda II: 18.6%; Bethesda III: 35.0%; Bethesda IV: 22.1%; Bethesda V: 4.1%; and Bethesda VI: 17.1%. The malignancy rates for Bethesda Class IIIB were significantly higher than those for Bethesda Class IIIA (p&lt;0.001) and Bethesda Class IV (p&lt;0.001). Bethesda Class IIIA showed significantly lower malignancy rates than Bethesda Class III overall (p&lt;0.001) CONCLUSIONS: Improvements of the Bethesda System should consider this subcategorization to better reflect different malignancy rates, which may have a significant impact on the decision-making process. <![CDATA[Performance of the <sup>13</sup>C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of <em>H. pylori</em> infection using a substrate synthesized in Brazil: A preliminary study]]> OBJECTIVE: The 13C-urea breath test is the main non-invasive test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. The availability of this test throughout the country is limited, mainly due to the difficulty in obtaining the labeled isotope from abroad. Recently, researchers from the Nuclear Energy Center in Agriculture at the University of São Paulo (CENA/USP) succeeded in synthesizing 13C-enriched urea for Helicobacter pylori diagnosis. The aim of the study was to compare the performance of the 13C-urea breath test using 13C-urea acquired abroad with that of a test using 13C-urea synthesized in Brazil. METHOD: Sixty-four dyspeptic patients participated in the study (24 men and 40 women). Initially, the patients performed the 13C-urea breath test using the imported substrate (Euriso-Top, France). Seven to fourteen days later, all the patients repeated the test using the Brazilian substrate. The samples from both examinations were processed in an infrared isotope analyzer (IRIS, Wagner Analisen Technik, Germany), and all delta over baseline (DOB) [%] values above four were considered positive results. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients (42%) exhibited negative results for Helicobacter pylori infection, and thirty-seven patients (58%) exhibited positive results when tested using the foreign substrate (gold standard). There was a 100% concordance regarding the presence or absence of infection when the gold standard results were compared with those obtained using the Brazilian substrate. CONCLUSIONS: Similar performance in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection was demonstrated when using the 13C-urea breath test with the Brazilian 13C-urea substrate and the test with the substrate produced abroad. This validation represents an important step toward increasing the availability of the 13C-urea breath test throughout the country, which will have a positive influence on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. <![CDATA[Collagen I and III in women with diastasis recti]]> OBJECTIVES: Interest in elucidating the etiology of hernias has encouraged countless studies of musculoaponeurotic structures in individuals with and without hernias. Studies of hernia patients have firmly demonstrated a correlation between hernias and collagen alterations in their fascia. Diastasis recti is an increased width of the abdominal midline that is exclusively composed of interlacing aponeurotic expansions of the anterolateral abdominal muscles. The condition is common among women undergoing abdominoplasty, and many factors, not only mechanical, play a role. The goal of this study is to evaluate and compare collagen type I and III levels in the midline fascia of women with and without diastasis recti to report their possible influence on this condition. METHODS: This is a case-control study nested within a surgical cohort of 18 women with diastasis recti and 18 women without the condition (cases and controls, respectively). Fascia from the midline of the abdominal wall was collected and analyzed through immunohistochemistry using polyclonal antibodies to collagen type I and III. RESULTS: Both type I and type III collagen were less abundant in women with diastasis recti than in those without the condition, and the difference was statistically significant (p&lt;0.001). CONCLUSION: Low collagen type I and type III levels in the midline of the abdominal wall may play a key role in the development of diastasis recti. <![CDATA[Study on the Correlation between Barium Radiography and Pulmonary Infection rate in the Evaluation of Swallowing Function]]> OBJECTIVES: To compare the results respectively obtained from the utilization of 60% barium sulfate suspension and Iohexol as contrast agents for videofluoroscopic swallowing studies and the relationship between the clinical application of the two kinds of contrast agents and the incidence of pneumonia. METHODS: Sixty cases of stroke patients with dysphagia were selected in rehabilitation department of our hospital, and the gender, age, position of the disease, and stroke nature between groups had no significant difference. Among which, 30 patients who were administered 350 mgI/ml Iohexol, and the other 30 patients with 60% barium sulfate suspension as contrast agent. We performed videofluoroscopic swallowing studies with barium 60% versus Iohexol within 1 week after admission and 2 weeks after admission. RESULTS: After 2 weeks in hospital, the aspiration pneumonia incidence of two groups was statistically significant (p&lt;0.05), the pneumonia incidence of Iohexol group was lower than barium sulfate group which might have a impossble relevance with barium aspiration. CONCLUSIONS: During the videofluoroscopic swallowing study of dysphagia after stroke, barium sulfate can enhance the pneumonia incidence, and Iohexol can be widely applied in videofluoroscopic swallowing study. <![CDATA[Evaluation of systemic inflammation in patients being weaned from mechanical ventilation]]> OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate systemic inflammatory factors and their relation to success or failure in a spontaneous ventilation test. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included a sample of 54 adult patients. Demographic data and clinical parameters were collected, and blood samples were collected in the first minute of the spontaneous ventilation test to evaluate interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and C-reactive protein. RESULTS: Patients who experienced extubation failure presented a lower rapid shallow breathing index than those who passed, and these patients also showed a significant increase in C-reactive protein 48 hours after extubation. We observed, moreover, that each unit increase in inflammatory factors led to a higher risk of spontaneous ventilation test failure, with a risk of 2.27 (1.001 - 4.60, p=0.049) for TNFα, 2.23 (1.06 - 6.54, p=0.037) for IL-6, 2.66 (1.06 - 6.70, p=0.037) for IL-8 and 2.08 (1.01 - 4.31, p=0.04) for IL-10, and the rapid shallow breathing index was correlated with IL-1 (r=-0.51, p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: C-reactive protein is increased in patients who fail the spontaneous ventilation test, and increased ILs are associated with a greater prevalence of failure in this process; the rapid shallow breathing index may not be effective in patients who present systemic inflammation. <![CDATA[Outcomes analysis of breast reduction in Brazilian women using the BREAST-Q<sup>®</sup> questionnaire: a cross-sectional controlled study]]> OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse patient-reported outcomes of reduction mammoplasty among Brazilian women. METHODS: A total of 100 women were enrolled in this cross-sectional controlled study, 50 with breast hypertrophy (Hypertrophy Group) and 50 who had undergone breast reduction at least six and up to 12 months before (Mammoplasty Group). The Brazilian version of the BREAST-Q® was applied to assess patient-reported outcomes. The module reduction/mastopexy was used, and the preoperative and postoperative versions were applied to the hypertrophy and mammoplasty groups, respectively. RESULTS: The mammoplasty group presented higher scores for the subscales satisfaction with breasts, psychosocial well-being, sexual well-being and physical well-being (p=0.0001 for all of these subscales). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that patients submitted to reduction mammoplasty are satisfied with the outcomes and present better quality of life scores compared with women with breast hypertrophy. <![CDATA[The influence of inspiratory muscle training combined with the Pilates method on lung function in elderly women: A randomized controlled trial]]> OBJECTIVE: Aging is progressive, and its effects on the respiratory system include changes in the composition of the connective tissues of the lung that influence thoracic and lung compliance. The Powerbreathe® K5 is a device used for inspiratory muscle training with resistance adapted to the level of the inspiratory muscles to be trained. The Pilates method promotes muscle rebalancing exercises that emphasize the powerhouse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of inspiratory muscle training combined with the Pilates method on lung function in elderly women. METHODS: The participants were aged sixty years or older, were active women with no recent fractures, and were not gait device users. They were randomly divided into a Pilates with inspiratory training group (n=11), a Pilates group (n=11) and a control group (n=9). Spirometry, manovacuometry, a six-minute walk test, an abdominal curl-up test, and pulmonary variables were assessed before and after twenty intervention sessions. RESULTS: The intervention led to an increase in maximal inspiratory muscle strength and pressure and power pulmonary variables (p&lt;0.0001), maximal expiratory muscle strength (p&lt;0.0014), six-minute walk test performance (p&lt;0.01), and abdominal curl-up test performance (p&lt;0.00001). The control group showed no differences in the analyzed variables (p&gt;0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest inspiratory muscle training associated with the Pilates method provides an improvement in the lung function and physical conditioning of elderly patients. <![CDATA[Prophylactic application of laser light restores L-FABP expression in the livers of rats submitted to partial ischemia]]> OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of pre-conditioning treatment with laser light on hepatic injury in rats submitted to partial ischemia using mitochondrial function and liver fatty acid binding protein as markers. METHODS: Rats were divided into four groups (n=5): 1) Control, 2) Control + Laser, 3) Partial Ischemia and 4) Partial Ischemia + Laser. Ischemia was induced by clamping the hepatic pedicle of the left and middle lobes of the liver for 60 minutes. Laser light at 660 nm was applied to the liver immediately prior to the induction of ischemia at 22.5 J/cm2, with 30 seconds of illumination at five individual points. The animals were sacrificed after 30 minutes of reperfusion. Blood and liver tissues were collected for analysis of mitochondrial function, determination of malondialdehyde and analysis of fatty acid binding protein expression by Western blot. RESULTS: Mitochondrial function decreased in the Partial Ischemia group, especially during adenosine diphosphate-activated respiration (state 3), and the expression of fatty acid binding protein was also reduced. The application of laser light prevented bioenergetic changes and restored the expression of fatty acid binding protein. CONCLUSION: Prophylactic application of laser light to the livers of rats submitted to partial ischemia was found to have a protective effect in the liver, with normalization of both mitochondrial function and fatty acid binding protein tissue expression. <![CDATA[UNIFESP Info Plastica – An informative application covering the most frequently performed plastic surgeries worldwide]]> OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop a free smartphone application with reliable and useful information for the lay public on the most frequently performed plastic surgeries worldwide. METHODS: The five most frequently performed surgeries worldwide according to ISAPS (International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery) were selected. Information from the websites of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS), American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS) and Brazilian Society of Plastic Surgery (SBCP) and from the Outpatient and Hospital Medicine Guide of the Plastic Surgery Division at the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP) was used for content assembly. YouTube videos with patients’ postoperative testimonials were used for an improved understanding of their real concerns. Printed text was distributed to patients in Brazil’s Unified Health Service to improve comprehensibility. Content on each of the five surgeries was presented in the application with the following layout: What is the surgery?; Who are the candidates?; Preparations for surgery; Stages of surgery; Recovery after surgery; Complications; Choice of surgeon; Consultation; What is the cost? and Glossary. All material was delivered to an outsourced company to produce the application software. RESULTS: The result was the creation of an application with extensive content on the most frequently performed plastic surgeries. CONCLUSION: The UNIFESP Info Plastica application is an academically based, free and reliable source of information for the lay public interested in all aspects of the most frequently performed plastic surgeries worldwide. <![CDATA[Natural history of 39 patients with Achondroplasia]]> OBJECTIVES: To characterize the natural history of 39 achondroplastic patients diagnosed by clinical, radiological and molecular assessments. METHODS: Observational and retrospective study of 39 patients who were attended at a public tertiary level hospital between 1995 and 2016. RESULTS: Diagnosis was made prenatally in 11 patients, at birth in 9 patients and within the first year of life in 13 patients. The most prevalent clinical findings were short stature, high forehead, trident hands, genu varum and macrocephaly. The most prevalent radiographic findings were rhizomelic shortening of the long bones and narrowing of the interpediculate distance of the caudal spine. There was motor developmental delay in 18 patients and speech delay in 16 patients. The most common clinical intercurrences were middle ear dysfunction, sleep apnea, limb pain and obesity from 2 to 9 years of age. One patient was large for the gestational age but did not develop obesity. One patient developed hydrocephalus at 10 years old. The current age of the patients varies from 15 months to 36 years. The molecular study performed by Sanger sequencing of the common heterozygous mutation 1138G&gt;A in FGFR3 was positive in all patients. Four cases were inherited, and 35 were sporadic (paternal age from 19 to 66 years). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnoses were made early based on clinical and radiographic findings. All cases were confirmed molecularly. Despite presenting a benign course, it is necessary to establish a systematic protocol for the surveillance of these patients due to the common clinical intercurrences. <![CDATA[Serum Paraoxonase, Arylesterase, and Glutathione-S-Transferase Activities and Oxidative Stress Levels in Patients with Mushroom Poisoning]]> OBJECTIVES: Consumption of toxic species of mushrooms may have detrimental effects and increase oxidative stress. Paraoxonase, arylesterase and glutathione-S-transferase are antioxidants that resist oxidative stress. In this study, we analyzed the changes in these enzymes during intoxication due to mushrooms. METHODS: The study enrolled 49 adult patients with a diagnosis of mushroom poisoning according to clinical findings and 49 healthy volunteers as the control group. The patients with mild clinical findings were hospitalized due to the possibility that the patient had also eaten the mushrooms and due to clinical findings in the late period, which could be fatal. Paraoxonase, arylesterase, and glutathione-S-transferase concentrations, as well as total antioxidant and oxidant status, were determined in the 49 patients and 49 healthy volunteers by taking blood samples in the emergency department. RESULTS: While paraoxonase, arylesterase, and total antioxidant status were significantly decreased in the patient group (p&lt;0.05), glutathione-S-transferase, total oxidant status and the oxidative stress index were significantly higher (p&lt;0.05). There was a positive correlation between the hospitalization time and the oxidative stress index (r=0.752, p&lt;0.001), whereas a negative correlation was found with glutathione-S-transferase (r=-0.420, p=0.003). CONCLUSION: We observed a significant decrease in paraoxonase and arylesterase and an increase in glutathione-S-transferase and oxidative stress indexes in patients with mushroom poisoning, indicating that these patients had an oxidative status. In particular, a low total antioxidant status and high oxidative stress index may gain importance in terms of the assessment of hospitalization duration. <![CDATA[Expression of tumor suppressors miR-195 and let-7a as potential biomarkers of invasive breast cancer]]> OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Some miRNAs, including let-7a and miR-195, have been described as tumor suppressors. However, the roles of these microRNAs in breast cancer progression remain controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate miR-195 and let-7a expression as potential biomarkers of invasive breast cancer. METHODS: In the present study, 200 individuals were separated into three groups: (i) 72 women constituting the control group who were selected according to rigorous and well-established criteria; (ii) 56 patients with benign breast tumors; and (iii) 72 patients with malignant breast cancers of different clinical stages. The miR-195 and let-7a expression levels in serum were evaluated by real-time PCR. The results were assessed alone and in combination, and the analysis included an estimation of sensitivity and specificity in ROC curves. RESULTS: Compared with the benign and control groups, both microRNAs were downregulated in the malignant breast cancer patient group. Compared with the malignant group, the combination of both biomarkers in the control and benign groups showed good sensitivity and specificity in the serum with AUCs of 0.75 and 0.72, respectively. The biomarker combination for the control group versus the malignant group exhibited a better sensitivity and specificity than for the benign group versus the malignant group. CONCLUSION: These findings support the evidence that the analysis of miR-195 and let-7a can be used as a non-invasive biomarker for breast cancer detection. <![CDATA[Current management of biliary atresia based on 35 years of experience at a single center]]> OBJECTIVE: The prognosis of patients with biliary atresia undergoing Kasai portoenterostomy is related to the timing of the diagnosis and the indication for the procedure. The purpose of the present study is to present a practical flowchart based on 257 children who underwent Kasai portoenterostomy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent Kasai portoenterostomy between 1981 and 2016. RESULTS: During the first period (1981 to 2009), 230 infants were treated, and the median age at the time of surgery was 84 days; jaundice was resolved in 77 patients (33.5%). During the second period, from 2010 to 2016, a new diagnostic approach was adopted to shorten the wait time for portoenterostomy; an ultrasonography examination suggestive of the disease was followed by primary surgical exploration of the biliary tract without complementary examination or liver biopsy. Once the diagnosis of biliary atresia was confirmed, a portoenterostomy was performed during the same surgery. During this period, 27 infants underwent operations; the median age at the time of surgery was 66 days (p&lt;0.001), and jaundice was resolved in 15 patients (55.6% - p=0.021), with a survival rate of the native liver of 66.7%. CONCLUSION: Primary surgical exploration of the biliary tract without previous biopsy was effective at improving the prognostic indicators of patients with biliary atresia undergoing Kasai portoenterostomy. <![CDATA[Comparison of botulinum toxin and propranolol for essential and dystonic vocal tremors]]> OBJECTIVES: Vocal tremors, which cause social difficulties for patients, may be classified as resting or action tremors. Of the vocal action tremors, essential and dystonic tremors are the most common. Botulinum toxin and oral medications have been used to treat vocal tremors, but no comparative clinical trials have been performed. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of botulinum toxin injection and the oral administration of propranolol in the treatment of essential and dystonic vocal tremors. METHODS: This clinical trial recruited 15 patients, divided into essential and dystonic vocal tremor groups. Patients in both groups received successive treatment with botulinum toxin and propranolol. The treatments were administered at different times; the order of treatment was randomly selected. Patients were assessed with flexible nasofibrolaryngoscopy and with perceptual and acoustic voice evaluations. A statistical significance level of 0.05 (5%) was used. RESULTS: Botulinum toxin produced statistically significant improvements in perceptual measures of vocal instability in patients with dystonic vocal tremors compared with baseline values and treatment with propranolol. The acoustic measure of variability in the fundamental frequency was significantly lower in patients with dystonic vocal tremors after treatment with botulinum toxin. CONCLUSION: Essential and dystonic vocal tremors responded differently to treatment. Dystonic vocal tremors responded significantly to treatment with botulinum toxin but not oral propranolol. Essential vocal tremors did not respond significantly to either treatment, perhaps due to the small number of patients, which is a limitation of this research. <![CDATA[Liver transplantation for acute liver failure due to antitubercular drugs – a single-center experience]]> OBJECTIVES: Patients receiving treatment for tuberculosis are at risk of developing acute liver failure due to the hepatotoxicity of antitubercular drugs. We aimed to describe our experience with liver transplantation from deceased donors in this situation. METHODS: We identified patients undergoing transplantation for acute liver failure due to antitubercular drugs in our prospectively maintained database. RESULTS: Of 81 patients undergoing transplantation for acute liver failure, 8 cases were attributed to antitubercular drugs during the period of 2006-2016. Regarding the time of tuberculosis treatment until the onset of jaundice, patients were on antitubercular drugs for a mean of 64.7 days (21-155 days). The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score of patients ranged from 32 to 47 (median 38), and seven patients underwent transplantation under vasopressors. The 1-year survival was 50%. Three patients died during the week following transplantation due to septic shock (including a patient with acute liver failure due to hepatic/disseminated tuberculosis), and the remaining patient died 2 months after transplantation due to pulmonary infection. There were 2 cases of mild rejection and 1 case of moderate rejection. Of the surviving patients, all were considered cured of tuberculosis after alternative drugs were given. CONCLUSION: Patients arrived very sick and displayed poor survival after deceased donor transplantation. <![CDATA[Is subjective sleep evaluation a good predictor for obstructive sleep apnea?]]> OBJECTIVE: To compare subjective sleep evaluation obtained using four questionnaires with polysomnography results for individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnea. METHODS: Observational and analytical study in which individuals underwent polysomnography were studied retrospectively to investigate sleep disorders. We compared subjective data from a research database used to predict obstructive sleep apnea based on the STOP-BANG questionnaire, evaluation of excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), sleep quality questionnaire (Mini Sleep Questionnaire) and Post-Sleep Data Collection Instrument with the self-reported total sleep time and sleep-onset latency for subjects with and without obstructive sleep apnea. RESULTS: The STOP-BANG questionnaire was a good predictor for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea. However, the other instruments did not show a significant difference between healthy and sick individuals. Patients’ perceptions of their sleep onset time were significantly lower than the polysomnographic data, but this difference remained for both subjects with and without obstructive sleep apnea. No difference was found between the subjective duration of sleep and the total sleep time assessed by polysomnography in either the healthy subjects or the patients. CONCLUSION: Except for the STOP-BANG questionnaire, subjective evaluation of sleepiness, sleep quality, perception of onset, and total sleep time are not important parameters for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea, which reinforces the need for an active search for better management of these patients. <![CDATA[ACE gene dosage determines additional autonomic dysfunction and increases renal angiotensin II levels in diabetic mice]]> OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate cardiovascular autonomic modulation and angiotensin II (Ang II) activity in diabetic mice that were genetically engineered to harbor two or three copies of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene. METHODS: Diabetic and non-diabetic mice harboring 2 or 3 copies of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene were used in the present study. Animals were divided into 4 groups: diabetic groups with two and three copies of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (2CD and 3CD) and the respective age-matched non-diabetic groups (2C and 3C). Hemodynamic, cardiovascular, and autonomic parameters as well as renal Ang II expression were evaluated. RESULTS: Heart rate was lower in diabetic animals than in non-diabetic animals. Autonomic modulation analysis indicated that the 3CD group showed increased sympathetic modulation and decreased vagal modulation of heart rate variability, eliciting increased cardiac sympathovagal balance, compared with all the other groups. Concurrent diabetes and either angiotensin-converting enzyme polymorphism resulted in a significant increase in Ang II expression in the renal cortex. CONCLUSION: Data indicates that a small increase in angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in diabetic animals leads to greater impairment of autonomic function, as demonstrated by increased sympathetic modulation and reduced cardiac vagal modulation along with increased renal expression of Ang II. <![CDATA[Does resistance training improve body image satisfaction among the elderly? A cross-sectional study]]> OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate whether body image satisfaction improves with practice in resistance training in elderly women. METHODS: Forty women were selected and randomly divided into an untrained group (UN) group and a group trained in resistance exercises (RT). To evaluate body image satisfaction, the silhouette matching task was used. RESULTS: No differences were found between current (5.45±0.24) and ideal (4.7±0.12) silhouettes in the RT group. However, the UN group showed a significant difference (p&lt;0.01) between current (10.4±0.43) and ideal (5.6±0.26) silhouettes. The current silhouette was significantly different between the UN and RT groups (p&lt;0.002). However, the ideal silhouette value did not differ between them. Body satisfaction was present in 90% of the participants in the RT group, and the difference was 15% less than that in the UN group (x2 test, p&lt;0.001). CONCLUSION: Resistance training in elderly women can promote satisfaction with their body image. <![CDATA[Intraoperative imprint cytology versus histological diagnosis for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy]]> OBJECTIVES: To compare imprint cytology and paraffin section histology for sentinel lymph node detection in women with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHOD: A cross-sectional study and report of the sentinel lymph node statuses of 64 patients with breast cancer who underwent intraoperative imprint cytology and neoadjuvant chemotherapy in a referral cancer institute in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2014 and 2016. RESULTS: The mean age was 51 years. The most common histological type was invasive ductal carcinoma (93.75%), and the most common differentiation grade was 2 (62.5%). Overall, 153 lymph nodes were identified, with a mean of 2.39/case. Thirty-four lymph nodes tested positive for malignancy by imprint cytology, and 55 tested positive by histology. Of the 55 positive lymph nodes, 41 (74.5%) involved macrometastases, and 14 (25.5%) involved micrometastases. There were 21 false negatives with imprint cytology, namely, 7 for macrometastases and 14 for micrometastases, resulting in a rate of 17.6%. The sensitivity of imprint cytology was 61.8%, with a specificity and positive predictive value of 100%, a negative predictive value of 82.4% and an accuracy of 86.3%. The method presented null sensitivity for the identification of micrometastases. CONCLUSIONS: The false-negative rate with imprint cytology was associated with the number of sentinel lymph nodes obtained. The rate found for complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy was comparable to the rates reported in the literature. The accuracy of imprint cytology was good, and its specificity was excellent for sentinel lymph node detection; however, the method was unable to detect lymph node micrometastases. <![CDATA[Measuring herpes zoster disease burden in São Paulo, Brazil: a clinico-epidemiological single-center study]]> OBJECTIVES: Herpes zoster is characterized by acute neuritis and post-herpetic neuralgia. Currently, data concerning the zoster-associated impact on quality of life and healthcare resource utilization in Brazil are scarce. This study measured the zoster-associated burden in a Brazilian population. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational, single-cohort study conducted in a primary hospital’s emergency room in São Paulo, Brazil. Patients enrolled at various timepoints during a zoster episode were followed over 180 days. The Zoster Brief Pain Inventory and the Initial Zoster Impact Questionnaire assessed zoster-associated pain. The EuroQoL assessed the impact of herpes zoster and/or zoster-associated pain on quality of life. Healthcare resource utilization was assessed by patient-reported questionnaires. RESULTS: One-hundred forty-six zoster patients were enrolled [mean (SD) age of 69.9 (10.9) years]. Mean (SD) worst pain scores decreased from 5.3 (3.5) at baseline to 1.9 (3.0) 180 days following rash onset. Mean (SD) EuroQoL scores significantly decreased from 0.9 (0.2) before rash appearance to 0.7 (0.2) after rash onset (p&lt;0.001), followed by gradual improvements in quality of life over 180 days, with pre-herpes zoster quality of life achieved at the end of the observation period. The majority of patients purchased prescription medications (89.7%) and required doctor’s office visits (65.8%) for zoster episodes. CONCLUSIONS: Herpes zoster is associated with a significant disease burden, including zoster-associated pain, impaired quality of life and increased healthcare resource utilization in Brazil. These results support the implementation of early intervention and prevention programs such as vaccinations to reduce the herpes zoster-associated disease burden in Brazil. <![CDATA[Clinical Application of Atlantoaxial Pedicle Screw Placement Assisted by a Modified 3D-Printed Navigation Template]]> OBJECTIVES: To investigate the primary clinical value of atlantoaxial pedicle screw placement assisted by a modified 3D-printed navigation template. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the cases of 17 patients treated from June 2015 to September 2016 with atlantoaxial pedicle screw placement assisted by a modified 3D-printed navigation template. All procedures were performed prior to surgery, including thin-slice CT scanning, medical image sampling and computerized 3D modeling of the atlantoaxial joint, optimal pedicle screw trajectory determination, and anatomical trait acquisition for the atlantoaxial pedicle, spinous process of the axis, vertebral lamina and posterior lateral mass, and design of a reverse template. During surgery, a navigation template was tightly attached to the atlantoaxial joint to assist in pedicle screw placement. Surgeons subsequently used an electric drill to remove the template through a guide channel and then placed the atlantoaxial pedicle screw. Observed indexes included the VAS score, JOA improvement rate, surgery duration, and blood loss. RESULTS: Surgery was successful in all 17 patients, with an average operation duration of 106±25 min and an average blood loss of 220±125 ml. Three days postoperatively, the VAS score decreased from 6.42±2.21 to 3.15±1.26. Six months postoperatively, the score decreased to 2.05±1.56. The postoperative JOA score increased significantly from 7.68±2.51 to 11.65±2.72 3 d after surgery and to 13.65±2.57 after 6 months. Sixty-eight pedicle screws were inserted successfully, with 34 in the atlas and 34 in the axis. According to the Kawaguchi standard, 66 screws were in grade 0 (97.06%), and 2 were in grade 1 (2.94%). The pre- and postoperative transverse and sagittal screw angles showed no significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: Atlantoaxial pedicle screw placement assisted by a modified 3D-printed navigation template is worth recommending due to the improved accuracy in screw placement, improved patient safety and beneficial clinical effects. <![CDATA[The effects of motor adaptation on ankle isokinetic assessments in older drivers]]> OBJECTIVES: This study sought to analyze the extent of motor adaptation in ankle plantar flexors and dorsiflexors among older drivers during clinical isokinetic testing. METHODS: One hundred older adults (70.4±5.7 years) participated in two bilateral ankle plantar flexor and dorsiflexor isokinetic assessments at 30°/sec. Peak torque (PTQ), PTQ adjusted for body weight (PTQ/BW), and total work (TW) were analyzed. RESULTS: On the dominant side, PTQ/BW and TW were significantly greater for the second plantar flexion test than were those for the first such test (p&lt;0.001), whereas PTQ, PTQ/BW, and TW (p&lt;0.001) were significantly greater for the second dorsiflexion test than were those for the first such test. On the non-dominant side, plantar flexion PTQ and TW were significantly lower for the second test than were those for the first test (p&lt;0.001). CONCLUSION: Older drivers demonstrated better performance with the dominant limb on the second test. The low variability in test execution showed the existence of a motor adaptation effect for the tested movements, despite the short recovery period between the assessments. <![CDATA[The ROPScore as a Screening Algorithm for Predicting Retinopathy of Prematurity in a Brazilian Population]]> OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the accuracy of the ROPScore algorithm as a predictor of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: A prospective cohort of 220 preterm infants with a birth weight ≤1500 g and/or gestational age ≤32 weeks was included. The ROPScore was determined in the sixth week of life in 181 infants who then survived until a corrected gestational age of 45 weeks. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of the algorithm were analyzed. RESULTS: ROP was found in 17.6% of the preterm infants. The sensitivity of this test for any stage of ROP was 87.5%, while that for severe ROP was 95.4% (21/22 cases). The PPV and NPV were 59.6% and 97%, respectively, for any stage of ROP and 44.7% and 99.25%, respectively, for severe ROP. The ROPScore could therefore hypothetically reduce the number of ophthalmologic examinations required to detect ROP by 71.8%. CONCLUSION: The ROPScore is a useful screening tool for ROP and may optimize examinations and especially the identification of severe ROP. <![CDATA[Applicability of a novel mathematical model for the prediction of adult height and age at menarche in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty]]> OBJECTIVES: Unfavorable predicted adult height and psychosocial inadequacy represent parameters used to guide therapeutic intervention in girls with central precocious puberty. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog is the first-line treatment. The aim of this study was to compare two methods used to predict adult height and assess a validated tool for predicting the age at menarche in girls with central precocious puberty. METHODS: The predicted adult height of 48 girls with central precocious puberty was calculated at diagnosis using the Bayley-Pinneau method based on average and advanced bone age tables and compared with the predicted adult height calculated using a mathematical model. In addition, the age at spontaneous menarche was predicted using the new formulae. After Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog treatment, the predicted adult height was calculated using only the Bayley-Pinneau tables. RESULTS: The achieved adult height was within the target height range in all treated girls with central precocious puberty. At diagnosis, the predicted adult height using the Bayley-Pinneau tables was lower than that using the mathematical model. After the Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog treatment, the predicted adult height using the Bayley-Pinneau method with the average bone age tables was the closest to the achieved adult height. Using the formulae, the predicted age at spontaneous menarche was 10.1±0.5 yr. The Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog treatment significantly postponed this event until 11.9±0.7 yr in these “idiopathic” central precocious puberty girls, highlighting the beneficial effect of this treatment. CONCLUSION: Both initial adult height prediction methods are limited and must be used with caution. The prediction of the age at spontaneous menarche represents an innovative tool that can help in clinical decisions regarding pubertal suppression. <![CDATA[Relationships between female infertility and female genital infections and pelvic inflammatory disease: a population-based nested controlled study]]> OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to examine the associations of female genital infections and certain comorbidities with infertility. METHODS: The Taiwan National Health Research Database was searched for women with a new diagnosis of infertility between 2000 and 2013. Women without a diagnosis of infertility served as a control group and were matched with the infertility cases by age (±3 years) and index year. They were divided into two groups: ≤40 years old and &gt;40 years old. Univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression models were employed to identify the risk factors associated with infertility. RESULTS: A total of 18,276 women with a new diagnosis of infertility and 73,104 matched controls (mean cohort age, 31±6.2 years) were included. According to the adjusted multivariate analysis, pelvic inflammatory disease involving the ovary, fallopian tube, pelvic cellular tissue, peritoneum (odds ratio (OR)=4.823), and uterus (OR=3.050) and cervical, vaginal, and vulvar inflammation (OR=7.788) were associated with an increased risk of infertility in women aged ≤40 years. In women aged &gt;40 years, pelvic inflammatory disease of the ovary, fallopian tube, pelvic cellular tissue, and peritoneum (OR=6.028) and cervical, vaginal, and vulvar inflammation (OR=6.648) were associated with infertility. Obesity, lipid metabolism disorders, dysthyroidism, abortion (spontaneous or induced), bacterial vaginosis, endometritis, and tubo-ovarian abscess were associated with an increased risk of infertility according to the univariate analysis but not the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Female genital tract infections, but not the comorbidities studied here, are associated with an increased risk of infertility. <![CDATA[A didactic approach to presenting verbal and visual information to children participating in research protocols: the comic book informed assent]]> OBJECTIVE: When children participate in research protocols, consent (by a parent or legal guardian) and assent (by the children) must be given. Understanding research protocols can be challenging for an adult and even more difficult for a child. The aim of this study was to describe the development of a comic book created to facilitate children’s understanding of informed assent with clear and simple language. METHODS: Five researchers with scores above seven according to the Fehring criteria developed the comic book, avoiding the use of technical terminology. Twenty children between 7 and 12 years old, and enrolled in a larger study, responded using a Likert scale and questions about the clarity of texts and illustrations. The final version met National Health System Resolutions (Resoluções do Conselho Nacional da Saúde - CNS n° 196/1996 and 466/2012). RESULTS: The comic book assent presents a short story containing information about a real study: the invitation to participate, objectives, methods, instruments, procedures, risks, benefits, and the researchers’ contact information. Most of the participants answered that they perceived the content of the text to be “Excellent” (40%) and “Very good” (40%), and the illustrations were perceived as “Excellent” (45%) and “Very good” (55%). CONCLUSION: The construction of a simple and clear model of informed assent is possible, and this model should be used in experiments with children. <![CDATA[Clinical-epidemiological and laboratory profiles of severe <em>Schistosomiasis mansoni</em> infections at a university hospital]]> OBJECTIVE: Schistosomiasis remains a public health problem. This was a descriptive and retrospective study of 42 patients with a severe form of schistosomiasis who were admitted to the outpatient clinic of the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A data collection questionnaire was designed from the patient charts, and the following variables were evaluated: age, sex, place of birth, occupation, signs and symptoms of schistosomiasis, data from laboratory and imaging examinations, data regarding treatment outcomes, and the existence of comorbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 15.0 and Microsoft Excel 2003 software. The significance levels of the tests were fixed, accepting 5% type 1 error (α=0.05). Since this was a retrospective observational study, not all data were available for analysis. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 48.24 years; 57.1% were male. Statistically significant associations were observed between splenomegaly and thrombocytopenia (p=0.004) and between splenomegaly and leukopenia (p=0.046); however, only 4.5% of the patients had esophageal hemorrhage. Some patients received a specific treatment; of those, 42% took praziquantel, and 35.4% took oxamniquine. Nonspecific drug therapy was given as follows: 65% received propranolol, 90% omeprazole, and 43.6% aluminum hydroxide. The other treatments were as follows: 92.9% of patients underwent endoscopic treatment, 85% received sclerotherapy, and 62.5% used elastic bandages. CONCLUSION: This preliminary study presents a multidisciplinary outpatient follow-up associated with endoscopic and drug treatments that may be effective at preventing bleeding. <![CDATA[Relationship between the biomechanical properties of the cornea and anterior segment measurements]]> OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship of biomechanical properties, corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor with age, sex and various corneal parameters measured with a Pentacam in normal subjects. METHODS: A total of 226 eyes from 113 patients were enrolled in this study. The subjects underwent Ocular Response Analyzer and Pentacam evaluations. A varying-intercept multilevel regression was implemented using Bayesian inference. The predictor variables were age, sex, central corneal thickness, corneal volume at a 7-mm diameter, anterior chamber angle and volume, anterior chamber depth, mean radius of the corneal curvature and corneal astigmatism. RESULTS: Corneal hysteresis ranged from 5.5 to 14.8 mmHg (mean 10.42±1.74 mmHg), and the corneal resistance factor ranged from 5.7 to 15.5 mmHg (mean 10.23±1.88 mmHg). No predictor variable other than gender and central corneal thickness had a significant correlation with either corneal hysteresis or corneal resistance factor. Corneal hysteresis was positively associated with female sex and with central corneal thickness, and corneal resistance factor was positively associated with central corneal thickness. CONCLUSION: Despite the associations found, only a small fraction of the variance in biomechanical measurements could be explained by the descriptors that were evaluated, indicating the influence of other corneal aspects on the biomechanical characteristics. <![CDATA[Impaired baroreflex sensitivity and increased systolic blood pressure variability in chronic post-ischemic stroke]]> OBJECTIVES: Acute post-stroke patients present cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction, which manifests as lower heart rate variability and impaired baroreflex sensitivity. However, few studies performed to date have evaluated cardiovascular autonomic function in chronic post-stroke patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic modulation in chronic post-ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: The seventeen enrolled subjects were divided into a stroke group (SG, n=10, 5±1 years after stroke) and a control group (CG, n=7). Non-invasive curves for blood pressure were continuously recorded (Finometer®) for 15 minutes while the subject was in a supine position. Heart rate variability and blood pressure variability were analyzed in the time and frequency domains. RESULTS: No differences were observed in systolic and diastolic pressure and heart rate between post-stroke patients and healthy individuals. The SG group had lower indexes for heart rate variability in the time domain (standard deviation of normal to normal R-R intervals, SDNN; variance of normal to normal R-R intervals, VarNN; and root mean square differences of successive R-R intervals, RMSSD) and a lower high-frequency band for heart rate variability than was observed in the CG. Systolic blood pressure variability and the low-frequency band for systolic pressure were higher in post-stroke patients, while the alpha index was lower in the SG than in the CG. CONCLUSION: After ischemic stroke, affected patients present chronically reduced heart rate variability, impaired cardiac vagal modulation, increased systolic blood pressure variability and higher sympathetic vascular modulation along with impaired baroreflex sensitivity, which can increase the risk of cardiovascular events, despite adequate blood pressure control. <![CDATA[Underwater endoscopic mucosal resection of serrated adenomas]]> OBJECTIVES: Serrated polyps, which are considered to be precursors of colorectal carcinoma, include hyperplastic polyps, sessile serrated adenomas and traditional serrated adenomas. With the exception of hyperplastic polyps, all of these lesions must be removed. This study sought to examine whether underwater endoscopic mucosal resection is a safe and effective technique for treating serrated polyps. METHODS: Cases in which patients were submitted for underwater endoscopic mucosal resection and histologically diagnosed with sessile serrated adenoma were prospectively registered. RESULTS: The median patient age was 54.5 years (range, 48 to 72 years), and the patients included 4 men (28.5%) and 10 women (71.5%). One lesion (6.2%), 10 lesions (62.5%), 1 lesion (6.2%), 3 lesions (18.8%) and 1 lesion (6.2%) were found in the cecum, the ascending colon, the hepatic flexure, the transverse colon and the descending colon, respectively. The median lesion size was 20 mm (range, 10 to 35 mm). Eight lesions (50%) were removed en bloc, and the remaining eight lesions (50%) were removed using a piecemeal technique. None of the cases were complicated by perforation or delayed bleeding. CONCLUSION: Underwater resection could be a feasible, safe and effective alternative for the resection of sessile serrated adenomas. <![CDATA[Age and mini-mental state examination score can predict poor-quality spirometry in the elderly: a cross-sectional study]]> OBJECTIVES: The goal was to identify predictors of poor-quality spirometry in community-dwelling older adults and their respective cutoffs. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional population-based study involving 245 elderly subjects (age≥60 years). The spirometric data were categorized as good or poor quality, and cognitive status was assessed using an adapted version (scaled to have a maximum of 19 points) of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Multivariate analysis was used to assess the association between poor-quality spirometry and sociodemographic, behavioral and health characteristics. The best cutoff points for predicting poor-quality spirometry were evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: In this population, 61 (24.9%) subjects with poor-quality spirometry were identified. After multiple logistic regression analysis, only age and Mini-Mental State Examination score were still associated with poor-quality spirometry (p≤0.05). The cutoff for the Mini-Mental State Examination score was 15 points, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.628 (p=0.0017), sensitivity of 74.5% and specificity of 49.5%; for age, the cutoff was 78 years, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.718 (p=0.0001), sensitivity of 57.4% and specificity of 79.9%. CONCLUSION: Age and Mini-Mental State Examination score together are good predictors of poor-quality spirometry and can contribute to the screening of community-dwelling older adults unable to meet the minimum quality criteria for a spirometric test. <![CDATA[Quality of life after stroke: impact of clinical and sociodemographic factors]]> OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of ischemic stroke on health-related quality of life (QoL) and associate this event with individuals’ clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: We investigated the clinical and demographic aspects of stroke patients. The Modified Rankin Scale, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale (SS-QoL) were used for correlation analysis. RESULTS: Among 131 patients with ischemic stroke, 53.4% of patients presented with moderate to severe disability on the Rankin Scale. According to the SS-QoL, several QoL domains were compromised. QoL was significantly negatively correlated with the values of the Rankin and NIHSS scales, indicating lower QoL among people with worse functional status and greater clinical severity of stroke (p&lt;0.001). The use of orthosis and total anterior circulation infarct subtype of stroke led to a more marked reduction in QoL. CONCLUSION: The present study described an inversely proportional relationship between the severity of stroke, disability and QoL. The use of orthosis also had a negative impact on QoL. Early identification of these factors could promote better interventions for individuals with ischemic stroke, minimizing disabilities and improving QoL. <![CDATA[Effect of ductus deferens lavage on the time to achieve azoospermia in patients undergoing vasectomy]]> OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of normal saline lavage of the distal vas deferens ampulla in patients undergoing vasectomy on the time to achieve azoospermia. METHODS: A prospective randomized study of 60 men divided into two groups, group lavage (GL, n=30) in which distal vas deferens ampulla lavage was performed with 10 ml of normal saline during the vasectomy, and group without lavage (GWL, n=30) in which control patients received only a vasectomy. The patients provided sperm for semen analysis at the 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th and 25th ejaculations. RESULTS: Fifteen participants in GL and 16 in GWL, for a total of 31 patients, were excluded due to not completing the control spermiogram. The tests carried out at the five ejaculations showed immobile spermatozoa in 40 and 85.71%, 66.67 and 78.57%, 93.33 and 85.71%, 86.67 and 71.43%, and 93.33 and 85.71% of participants in GL and GWL, respectively. CONCLUSION: Vas deferens duct lavage with 10 ml of normal saline during vasectomy did not decrease the time required to achieve postoperative azoospermia. <![CDATA[Oxidized and electronegative low-density lipoprotein as potential biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in obese adolescents]]> OBJECTIVES: To evaluate biomarkers associated with early cardiometabolic risk in obese adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 137 adolescents of both sexes aged 10 to 19 years divided into a normal weight group (NW) (n=69) and an obese group (OB) (n=68). RESULTS: As expected, obesity showed positive associations with homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triacylglycerol, insulin, plasma levels of non-esterified fatty acids, and cholesterol ester transfer protein activity and negative associations with plasma antioxidant levels. Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and electronegative low-density lipoprotein [LDL(-)] levels were significantly higher in the OB group. Higher tertiles of oxLDL were associated with increased values of body mass index; waist circumference; fatty mass percentage (%FM); and the atherogenic lipids non-high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B and triacylglycerol. Higher tertiles of LDL(-) were robustly associated with body mass index and waist circumference. Logistic regression models (odds ratios) confirmed that increased values of lipids and apolipoprotein B were associated with increased risk of oxLDL. For LDL(-), these associations were not significant, suggesting that another mechanism is involved in generating this particle in obese adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Obese adolescents showed increased plasma LDL(-) and oxLDL, and obese girls had more LDL(-) than obese boys. Therefore, oxLDL is strongly and independently associated with classical cardiovascular risk factors, while increased levels of LDL(-) were influenced by body mass index, waist circumference and demographic parameters in obese adolescents. <![CDATA[Risk assessment of venous thromboembolism and thromboprophylaxis in pregnant women hospitalized with cancer: Preliminary results from a risk score]]> OBJECTIVES: Hospitalized patients with cancer are at high risk of developing venous thromboembolism, and the risk increases with pregnancy. The aim of this study was to apply a thromboprophylaxis protocol with a venous thromboembolism risk score for hospitalized pregnant women with cancer and to evaluate the effects on maternal morbidity and mortality. METHODS: A longitudinal and prospective study was conducted from December 2014 to July 2016. The venous thromboembolism risk score was modified from the guidelines of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Patients were classified as low (score &lt;3) or high risk (score ≥3). The high-risk group received thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin, unless the patient had a contraindication for anticoagulation. One patient could have undergone more than one evaluation. RESULTS: Fifty-two ratings were descriptively analyzed: 34 (65.4%) were classified as high risk, and 28/34 (82.3%) received low-molecular-weight heparin, 1 received unfractionated heparin, and 5 did not receive intervention. Most patients (23/52; 44.2%) had breast cancer. The main risk factors for venous thromboembolism in the high-risk group were chemotherapy (within 6 months; 22/34; 64.7%). No patient exhibited venous thromboembolism, adverse effects of anticoagulation or death up to three months after hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Most pregnant women with cancer had a high risk for venous thromboembolism at the time of hospitalization. Breast cancer was the most prevalent cancer, and recent chemotherapy was the main risk factor for anticoagulation. The application of a thromboprophylaxis protocol and determination of a venous thromboembolism risk score for these patients was useful for the prevention of maternal morbidity and mortality due to venous thromboembolism. <![CDATA[Acute blood pressure responses after different isometric handgrip protocols in hypertensive patients]]> OBJECTIVE: The present study analyzed blood pressure responses after a single session of isometric handgrip exercise performed with different volumes and intensities by patients with hypertension. METHODS: This randomized crossover trial submitted 12 hypertensive patients (58±5 years old) to four isometric handgrip exercise sessions in a random order: 4 x 2 min at 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction (S30%); 4 x 2 min at 50% of the maximal voluntary contraction (S50%2min); 4 x 3 min at 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction (S30%3min); and a control session. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and rate-pressure product were measured pre- and post-exercise (30th min). RESULTS: No significant changes were observed in cardiovascular variables after any session (p&gt;0.05 for all comparisons). Similarly, individual analyses revealed heterogeneity in the responses, including increases in blood pressure observed in some sessions. Patients with reduced blood pressure after an isometric handgrip exercise session exhibited a higher body mass index, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate (p&lt;0.05). They also tended to be younger (p=0.07). CONCLUSION: Isometric handgrip exercise performed with different intensities and volumes did not reduce the blood pressure of hypertensive patients. <![CDATA[Quality of life amongst adolescents and young adults with cystic fibrosis: correlations with clinical outcomes]]> OBJECTIVES: The current study sought to evaluate the quality of life of young patients with cystic fibrosis and correlate these results with the clinical parameters indicative of disease severity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study applied the validated Portuguese version of a cystic fibrosis specific quality of life questionnaire to clinically stable patients aged 14 to 21 years old. The correlations between the questionnaire domain scores and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) values, the Shwachman-Kulczycki score, and body mass index were assessed, and correlations were considered as significant when p&lt;0.05. RESULTS: A total of 31 patients (11 females; 16.4±2.3 years old) were evaluated, and the median scores on the questionnaire domains ranged from 66.7 to 100. A significant correlation was found between body mass index and the weight (r=0.43, p=0.016) and the eating questionnaire domains (r=0.44, p=0.013); between FEV1 and the physical (r=0.53, p=0.002) and treatment burden (r=0.41, p=0.023) domains; and between the Shwachman-Kulczycki score and the physical (r=0.39, p=0.03), health (r=0.41, p=0.023), and role (r=0.37, p=0.041) domains. A significant difference was found amongst patients with FEV1 values above or below 60% of the predicted value with regard to the role and health domains. No differences in the scores were found according to gender. CONCLUSIONS: The current cystic fibrosis specific quality of life questionnaire scores exhibited wide variability across all domains; however, they indicated a relatively satisfactory quality of life amongst the patients studied. Certain domains exhibited significant correlations with clinical parameters; thus, this instrument has consistent associations with clinical outcomes. <![CDATA[Kidney injury and other complications related to colonoscopy in inpatients at a tertiary teaching hospital]]> OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical complications related to colonoscopy in inpatients with multiple diseases. Among the known complications, acute kidney injury was the primary focus. METHODS: This was an observational retrospective study of 97 inpatients. Data relating to age; gender; comorbidities; current medication; blood tests (renal function, blood glucose and LDL cholesterol levels); length of hospital stay; indication, results, and complications of colonoscopies; and time to the development of kidney injury were collected between June 2011 to February 2012. RESULTS: A total of 108 colonoscopies (9 screening and 88 diagnostic) were conducted in 97 patients. Renal injury occurred in 41.2% of the patients. The univariate analysis revealed that kidney injury was related to the use of diuretics, statins, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; however, the multivariate analysis showed that only the use of diuretics was associated with kidney injury. The occurrence of kidney injury and the time to its development were independent of the previous glomerular filtration rate as calculated with the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. CONCLUSIONS: The use of diuretics was the only independent variable associated with the development of kidney injury in inpatients with multiple comorbidities who underwent colonoscopy. The occurrence of kidney injury and the time to its development were independent of previous CKD-EPI-based assessments of renal function. These results highlight the increased risk of colonoscopy in such patients, and its indication should be balanced strictly and perhaps avoided as a screening test. <![CDATA[Association of breast cancer with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Northeast Brazil: molecular evidence]]> OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of human papillomavirus DNA and genotypes in breast cancer and normal breast tissue samples obtained from women from the northeast region of Brazil. METHOD: One hundred three breast cancer samples and 95 normal breast samples, as the non-malignant controls, were studied. DNA extraction was verified by human beta-globin gene amplification, and polymerase chain reaction was conducted based on HPV L1-specific consensus primers MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6+, followed by nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction with type-specific primers for the E6/E7 consensus region. RESULTS: Human papillomavirus DNA was detected in 51 (49.5%) breast carcinoma samples and 15 (15.8%) normal breast samples (p&lt;0.0001). Human papillomavirus genotypes 6 and 11 were identified in 15.2% of all samples. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of human papillomavirus infection in breast cancer samples indicates a potential role of this virus in breast carcinogenesis in the studied participants. <![CDATA[Ethacrynic acid decreases expression of proinflammatory intestinal wall cytokines and ameliorates gastrointestinal stasis in murine postoperative ileus]]> OBJECTIVES: Several compounds characterized by an olefin linkage conjugated to a carbonyl group have anti-inflammatory properties. The diuretic ethacrynic acid (EA) is a compound of this type. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that ethacrynic acid can modulate the development of ileus after bowel manipulation. METHODS: Groups (n=9) of male C57Bl/6 mice underwent surgical manipulation of the small intestine using a pair of cotton-tipped applicators (MAN). Control animals (CONT) did not undergo any surgical intervention or receive treatment. MAN mice were pre- and post-treated with four intraperitoneal doses of phosphate buffered saline (PBS), EA1 (1mg/kg per dose), or EA10 (10mg/kg per dose). Gastrointestinal transit of non-absorbable FITC-labeled dextran was assessed by gavaging the mice with the tracer 24h after operation and assessing FD70 concentration 120 min later in the bowel contents from the stomach, 10 equally long segments of small intestine, cecum, and two equally long segments of colon. The geometric center for the tracer was calculated for each animal. Expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) transcripts in the ileal muscularis propria was assessed using semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: In control animals, the mean (±SE) geometric center for the transit marker was 9.89±0.47, whereas it was 4.59±0.59 for PBS-treated animals (p&lt;0.05 vs CONT). The geometric center for pre- post treatment with low (1mg/kg) and high (10mg/kg) doses of ethacrynic acid were 7.23±0.97 and 5.15±0.57, respectively. Compared to PBS, treatment with ethacrynic acid (1mg/kg) significantly decreased manipulation-induced IL-6 and iNOS mRNA expression in the wall of the small bowel. CONCLUSIONS: Pre- and post-treatment with ethacrynic acid ameliorates ileus and modulates inflammation in the gut wall induced by bowel manipulation. <![CDATA[Factors that influence the redox state in children: An exploratory study]]> OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of the redox state via malondialdehyde (MDA) as a lipid peroxidation biomarker and hydrophilic antioxidant capacity (HAC) with dietary, anthropometric, demographic, socio-economic and clinical variables as well as the serum concentrations of vitamins in children aged 20-36 months. This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2013 to May 2014 and included a total of 100 children. METHODS: The variables studied included anthropometric measurements, dietary intake by the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), socio-demographic features, clinical attributes, serum redox status, and serum vitamin concentrations. RESULTS: Children with a family income above the minimum wage and adequate body mass index (BMI) presented higher HAC. The MDA concentration was higher in children older than 24 months. Breastfeeding for up to 120 days provided greater antioxidant capacity. Children classified in the 2nd tertile for “fruit and vegetables” and “milk and dairy products” consumption showed lower levels of MDA. There was a positive correlation of MDA with serum vitamin A levels. These results show that among children in the 20-36 months age group, family income, breastfeeding, BMI and intake of fruits and vegetables can have an influence on the imbalance of the redox state. CONCLUSION: One strategy to prevent the imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants could be for health professionals to raise awareness among families, as such knowledge could repress/prevent the progression/initiation of several diseases in adult life. <![CDATA[Evaluation of Job-Related Anxiety Symptoms Among Brazilian Social Security Medical Experts]]> OBJECTIVES: The function of a medical expert within the scope of the Brazilian social security system consists of medically evaluating the examinee to draw a conclusive opinion on the person’s working ability capacity and to characterize the disability for social security and assistance purposes. Forensic decisions inevitably converge on two opposite outcomes: concession or refusal. Rejection is against the interests of the candidates, who can direct their disappointment and dissatisfaction at the professional, exposing the latter to potentially stressful situations. The present study aimed to determine whether the prevalence of stress and anxiety symptoms is higher among social security medical experts than among medical experts in other public service careers. The study was also intended to propose organizational changes aimed at the preservation and recovery of the mental health of medical experts. METHODS: The evaluation was conducted using a specific, previously validated job-related stress questionnaire and a series of questions about subjective perceptions of work performance, labor stressors and emotional status. RESULTS: We found an overwhelming and alarming prevalence of stress and dissatisfaction related to occupational aspects among social security experts, often culminating in emotional exhaustion, a characteristic feature of burnout syndrome. CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of job-related stress among social security doctors in Brazil, warranting implementation of specific measures to ensure the adequate provision of social security services to the population, thus avoiding social injustice and financial damage. <![CDATA[Experience in Intra-arterial Chemotherapy using Two Protocols for the Treatment of OSCC over Two Decades at the University Hospital Vienna]]> OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study performed a comprehensive analysis of the usage of intra-arterial chemotherapy (iaCh) for locally recurrent UICC stage IV oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) over two decades at the Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery at the University Hospital Vienna to assess the utility of its future use. METHODS: Between 1994 and 2014, iaCh was indicated in 48 OSCC cases. In these, the two most frequent iaCh schemes, cisplatin/5-fluorouracil (Cis/5-FU) and methotrexate/bleomycin (MTX/Bleo), were chosen for further analysis. The effect on survival of two distinct intra-arterial protocols and their covariates were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method as well as univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 29.91 months. The two intra-arterial chemotherapy groups did not differ significantly in sample size, demographic data or therapeutic covariates. The Cis/5-FU iaCh regimen was associated with significantly better overall survival (median OS 2.6 years vs. 1.3 years; p=0.002) and had a beneficial effect on survival (HR=3.62, p=0.015). Side effects occurred at a frequency similar to that described in the literature for intravenous chemotherapy (ivCh). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a preference for administering Cis/5-FU for iaCh. Nevertheless, due to economic considerations in healthcare expenditures, there is no future for iaCh in the treatment of head and neck carcinomas because ivCh is known to be equivalent. <![CDATA[Are there differences in the growth adaptation processes of growing and mature organism models of short bowel syndrome?]]> OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to present an experimental model of short bowel syndrome (SBS) in weaning rats and to compare the adaptative mechanisms of the remaining bowel in weaning rats and adult animals by means of morphometric, histologic and molecular methods. METHODS: Twenty-four weaning rats were divided into 3 groups of 8 animals, one control group and two short bowel groups (euthanasia after 4 and 21 days), and were compared with similar adult groups. Morphometric evaluations of the animals and histopathological and molecular studies of the remaining bowel were performed. RESULTS: The weight of young rats increased after enterectomy, whereas that of adult rats decreased after enterectomy (p&lt;0.0001). The ratio of intestinal length/body weight was significantly higher in weaning rats than in adults (p&lt;0.002), showing that intestinal growth was more intense in weaning rats. Intestinal resection promoted increased thickness of the small bowel lamina propria (p=0.001) and reduced thickness of the colon lamina propria (p=0.04) in weaning rats relative to those in adults. In addition, intestinal resection promoted increased expression of the Bcl-xl gene (antiapoptotic) in adult animals compared with that in weaning rats (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Morphometric, histological and molecular differences were shown in the adaptation processes of growing and mature organisms. <![CDATA[α-Linolenic acid prevents hepatic steatosis and improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet]]> OBJECTIVES: Dietary omega-3 fatty acids have been efficacious in decreasing serum cholesterol levels and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the metabolic and molecular changes induced by the omega-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), which is found in linseed oil, are not fully understood. In this study, we showed a correlation between ALA and insulin resistance, inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). METHODS: We studied 40 male mice (C57/BL6) divided into 4 groups: a control (C) group, a control + omega-3/ALA (CA) group, a high-fat diet (HFD) (H) group and a high-fat diet + omega-3/ALA (HA) group. For 8 weeks, the animals in the H and HA groups were fed a high-fat (60%) diet, while the animals in the C and CA groups received regular chow. The diets of the CA and HA groups were supplemented with 10% lyophilized ALA. RESULTS: ALA supplementation improved glucose tolerance and reduced insulin resistance, as measured by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, respectively. In addition, ALA reduced hepatic steatosis and modified the standard fat concentration in the liver of animals fed an HFD. Dietary ALA supplementation reduced the serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), increased the expression of important chaperones such as binding immunoglobulin protein (BIP) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and reduced the expression of C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) in hepatic tissues, suggesting an ERS adaptation in response to ALA supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary ALA supplementation is effective in preventing hepatic steatosis; is associated with a reduction in insulin resistance, inflammation and ERS; and represents an alternative for improving liver function and obtaining metabolic benefits. <![CDATA[Ultrasonographic characterization of the ulnar collateral ligament of normal thumbs in different age groups]]> OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to perform ultrasonographic characterization of the normal ulnar collateral ligament in different age groups and compare it in men and women and in dominant and nondominant hands. METHODS: Forty right-handed volunteers in the age groups 20-30, 31-40, 41-50, and 51-60 years without a history of trauma or surgical procedure in the studied joint were evaluated. The studied parameters were ligament length, greatest ligament thickness, ligament longitudinal section area in the longitudinal plane, distance from the aponeurosis of the adductor muscle to the metacarpal head surface and joint opening at rest and under abduction stress. RESULTS: The results indicated that the mean values of all parameters had minor variations with age, hand dominance, and gender and were slightly higher in men than in women and in the dominant hand than the nondominant hand. However, a statistically significant difference was observed between the joint opening at rest and under stress. In terms of age, there was a small but nonsignificant decrease in the values, likely because of the natural aging process. CONCLUSION: The low variability in the evaluated parameters indicates that large differences between sides or genders are not to be expected. A greater change is likely to indicate a pathological situation. <![CDATA[Early mobilization practices of mechanically ventilated patients: a 1-day point-prevalence study in southern Brazil]]> OBJECTIVES: To assess early mobilization practices of mechanically ventilated patients in southern Brazilian intensive care units (ICUs) and to identify barriers associated with early mobilization and possible complications. METHODS: A prospective, observational, multicenter, 1-day point-prevalence study was conducted across 11 ICUs and included all mechanically ventilated adult patients. Hospital and ICU characteristics and patients’ demographic data, the highest level of mobilization achieved in the 24 hours prior to the survey and related barriers, and complications that occurred during mobilization were collected in the hospital and the ICU. RESULTS: A total of 140 patients were included with a mean age of 57±17 years. The median and interquartile range was 7 (3-17) days for the length of ICU stay to the day of the survey and 7 (3-16) days for the duration of mechanical ventilation (MV). The 8-level mobilization scale was classified into two categories: 126 patients (90%) remained in bed (level 1-3) and 14 (10%) were mobilized out of bed (level 4-8). Among patients with an endotracheal tube, tracheostomy, and noninvasive ventilation, 2%, 23%, and 50% were mobilized out of bed, respectively (p&lt;0.001 for differences among the three groups). Weakness (20%), cardiovascular instability (19%), and sedation (18%) were the most commonly observed barriers to achieving a higher level of mobilization. No complications were reported. CONCLUSIONS: In southern Brazilian ICUs, the prevalence of patient mobilization was low, with only 10% of all mechanically ventilated patients and only 2% of patients with an endotracheal tube mobilized out of bed as part of routine care. <![CDATA[Goal-directed therapy in patients with early acute kidney injury: a multicenter randomized controlled trial]]> OBJECTIVES: Acute kidney injury is associated with many conditions, and no interventions to improve the outcomes of established acute kidney injury have been developed. We performed this study to determine whether goal-directed therapy conducted during the early stages of acute kidney injury could change the course of the disease. METHODS: This was a multicenter prospective randomized controlled study. Patients with early acute kidney injury in the critical care unit were randomly allocated to a standard care (control) group or a goal-directed therapy group with 8h of intensive treatment to maximize oxygen delivery, and all patients were evaluated during a period of 72h. NCT02414906. RESULTS: A total of 143 patients were eligible for the study, and 99 patients were randomized. Central venous oxygen saturation was significantly increased and the serum lactate level significantly was decreased from baseline levels in the goal-directed therapy group (p=0.001) compared to the control group (p=0.572). No significant differences in the change in serum creatinine level (p=0.96), persistence of acute kidney injury beyond 72h (p=0.064) or the need for renal replacement therapy (p=0.82) were observed between the two groups. In-hospital mortality was significantly lower in the goal-directed therapy group than in the control group (33% vs. 51%; RR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.37-1.00, p=0.048, number needed to treat=5). CONCLUSIONS: Goal-directed therapy for patients in the early stages of acute kidney injury did not change the disease course. <![CDATA[Lung cancer biopsy: Can diagnosis be changed after immunohistochemistry when the H&E-Based morphology corresponds to a specific tumor subtype?]]> OBJECTIVES: Advancements in non-small cell lung cancer treatment based on targeted therapies have made the differentiation between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma increasingly important. Pathologists are challenged to make the correct diagnosis in small specimens. We studied the accuracy of an immunohistochemical panel in subclassifying non-small cell lung cancer in routine small biopsies and compared the results with the diagnosis from resected lung specimens, autopsy samples or biopsied/resected metastases. METHODS: In total, 340 lung cancer biopsies were investigated for the expression of CK5, TTF1, p63 and surfactant. RESULTS: We characterized 166 adenocarcinomas and 124 squamous cell carcinomas. Overall, 85% of cases displayed binary staining (TTF1 positive/p63 negative, and vice versa). The diagnoses of ten cases with a morphology that indicated a specific tumor subtype were changed after immunohistochemistry (IHC). A second specimen was available for 71 patients, and the first diagnosis at biopsy was confirmed in 95% of these cases. Most non-small cell lung cancer cases present a binary immunohistochemical profile in small biopsies, contributing to good diagnostic accuracy with routine markers. In a small proportion of cases, the diagnosis can be changed after IHC even when the morphological aspects indicate one specific tumor subtype. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that routine small biopsies of lung cancer without classic morphology should be subjected to a minimum immunohistochemical panel to differentiate adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma. <![CDATA[Histomorphometric analysis of the skin of women during the reproductive period]]> OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the histomorphometry of the skin of women during the reproductive period according to the Fitzpatrick classification. METHODS: Thirty women aged 30 to 45 years were included in this study. We studied the surgical sites of extracted nevi. The material was processed for routine histology and then stained with haematoxylin and eosin as well as Picrosirius red. Four-micrometre histological sections were analysed according the Fitzpatrick criteria (skin pigmentation). The skin thickness and collagen concentration were determined for the reticular dermal skin. The data were statistically analysed with ANOVA. RESULTS: Fitzpatrick skin types I and II were thicker than the other skin types. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that white skin may be less thick than dark skin. <![CDATA[Rectus femoris muscle mass evaluation by ultrasound: facilitating sarcopenia diagnosis in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease stages]]> OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the validity and reliability of ultrasonography measurement of rectus femoris cross-sectional area compared to computed tomography in patients in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease and analyzed the association between these measurements and the diagnosis of sarcopenia. METHODS: One hundred patients with nondialysis chronic kidney disease were evaluated. Sarcopenia was defined using the criteria of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project (FNIH). The rectus femoris cross-sectional area was evaluated using ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS: The prevalence of sarcopenia was 29% according to the FNIH criteria. The difference in mean rectus femoris cross-sectional area by ultrasonography and computed tomography was 3.97 mm, with a strong correlation between the two methods (p&lt;0.001). Bland-Altman plot analysis showed good agreement between computed tomography and ultrasonography. Rectus femoris cross-sectional area was significantly correlated with muscle strength (r=0.300, p=0.002), lean body mass in the upper limbs (r=0.286, p=0.004), and lean body mass in the lower limbs (r=0.271, p=0.006). The prevalence of sarcopenia was 12% (n=12) based on the definition of low muscle mass according to ultrasonography of the rectus femoris cross-sectional area. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography was demonstrated to be a valid and reliable method for evaluating the rectus femoris cross-sectional area in patients in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease. <![CDATA[Age is the main factor related to expiratory flow limitation during constant load exercise]]> OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction among the determinants of expiratory flow limitation (EFL), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), dysanapsis ratio (DR) and age during cycling at different intensities in young and middle-aged men. METHODS: Twenty-two (11 young and 11 middle-aged) men were assessed. Pulmonary function tests (DR), cardiopulmonary exercise tests (VO2peak) and two constant load tests (CLTs) at 75% (moderate intensity) and 125% (high intensity) of the gas exchange threshold were performed to assess EFL. EFL was classified using the percentage of EFL determined from both CLTs (mild: 5%-30%, moderate: 30%-50%, severe: &gt;50%). RESULTS: Only the middle-aged group displayed EFL at both exercise intensities (p&lt;0.05). However, the number of participants with EFL and the percentage of EFL were only associated with age during high-intensity exercise. CONCLUSIONS: There was no interaction between the determinants. However, age was the only factor that was related to the presence of EFL during exercise in the age groups studied. <![CDATA[Description of training loads using whole-body exercise during high-intensity interval training]]> OBJECTIVES: To describe external training load and internal training load through sets of a single session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) body work. METHODS: Twenty male individuals (24±3 years) performed a HIIT body work protocol consisting of a single bout of exercise with 1:1 stimuli. The exercises used were 30 min in duration with “all-out” intensity. The exercises included jumping jacks, mountain climbers, burpees and squat jumps, totaling 20 min of exercise. During exercise, total movement capacity, blood lactate measurement, ratings of perceived exertion and recovery, training load and intensity were monitored. RESULTS: The single bout examined showed a total of 382±89 movements. Differences (p&lt;0.01) in the total amount of movement for each exercise were noted, reflecting the difficulty of maintaining exercise over time. Increases in lactate concentrations (before: 0.98±0.16, after: 14.10±1.66; mmol/L) were found postexercise. Significant differences (p&lt;0.01) were found after the fifth set, and the values for movement capacity remained higher than the values of the first set, demonstrating high load in a single session. No differences in ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during the sets were found. However, the ratings of perceived recuperation from the second set were significantly (p&lt;0.01) lower than those from the first set. CONCLUSIONS: The exercise protocol used in this study was of high intensity and produced large values for stress during performance, with increases recorded for the internal load indicators. <![CDATA[NMR-based metabolomics to select a surgical method for treating papillary thyroid carcinoma]]> OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate differences in the metabolomic profiles of patients who received different surgeries for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). METHODS: Two surgical methods, i.e., unilateral and total thyroidectomy, were employed according to different disease conditions. Sera from patients who were treated with levothyroxine sodium tablets before and after surgery was analyzed with a Bruker 500 Hz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer. Data were analyzed via principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) with SIMCA-P+ 11.0 software, and metabolites were obtained and compared. The first and second principal components were selected from PCA, PLS-DA, and orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA). A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: There were significant differences in serum metabolomics before and after surgery. Compared with unilateral thyroidectomy, total thyroidectomy reversed some highly increased metabolite levels (e.g., taurine and betaine). More significant variations in abnormal metabolites were noted after total thyroidectomy than after unilateral thyroidectomy (e.g., alanine, choline, hippurate, and formic acid). CONCLUSIONS: The choice of surgical method for PTC patients should be based not only on the tumor condition but also on the potential consequences of metabolic variations. Total thyroidectomy reversed some increased metabolite levels but led to accumulation of some other metabolites due to the loss of thyroid function; thus, metabolic disturbances caused by thyroid hormone deficiency should be prevented in advance. <![CDATA[Assessment of suicidal behavior and factors associated with a diagnosis of prostate cancer]]> OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of suicide risk in a group of patients who have been diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (PC) and to identify the factors that affect suicidal behavior. METHODS: Patients from a tertiary care oncology center in São Paulo, Brazil participated in this study and were interviewed after being diagnosed with low-risk or intermediate-risk PC, per the D’Amico risk classification, between September 2015 and March 2016. Patients underwent suicide risk assessment sessions using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the CAGE substance abuse screening tool before they started treatment and surveillance. Psychiatric treatment history, family history of suicidal behavior, and the use of psychotropic drugs were also examined. RESULTS: The prevalence of suicide risk among 250 patients who were recently diagnosed with low-risk or intermediate-risk PC was 4.8%. According to the HADS, 10.8% and 6.8% of patients had a positive score anxiety and for depression, respectively. Alcoholism was suspected in 2.8% of the group. Suicide risk was associated with anxiety (p=0.001); depression (p=0.005); being divorced, separated, widowed, or single (p=0.045); living alone (p=0.028); and prior psychological treatment (p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: After being diagnosed with PC, patients who display risk factors for suicide should be monitored by a mental health team. <![CDATA[A prediction model for hypoxemia during routine sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy]]> OBJECTIVES: The current study was designed to assess the clinical predictors of hypoxemia and to develop a multivariable, predictive model for hypoxemia during routine gastrointestinal endoscopy. METHODS: In total, 308 patients were enrolled in the analysis. Demographic data, concurrent chronic disease information, anesthetic dose and Modified Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (MOAA/S) scores were collected and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression indicated that age (OR: 1.04; 95%CI 1.01-1.08), body mass index (BMI) (OR: 1.12; 95%CI: 1.02-1.21) and habitual snoring (OR: 3.71; 95%CI: 1.62-8.48) were independently associated with hypoxemia. A logistic regression function (LR model) was developed to predict hypoxemia considering the parameters of -7.73+0.04 age (years), +0.11 BMI, and +1.31 habitual snoring (yes or no). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the LR model was 0.76. CONCLUSIONS: The LR model, consisting of age, BMI and habitual snoring, was a useful predictor of hypoxemia during routine sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy. <![CDATA[Laparoscopic splenectomy: a new approach]]> OBJECTIVES: To introduce a new laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) approach. METHODS: Sixteen patients underwent LS with general anaesthesia and carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum. The details of the surgery are as follows: 1. The omentum was incised along the greater curvature and retracted as much as possible to expose the pancreatic body and tail. 2. The right arteriovenous root in the gastric omentum was ligated to sufficiently expose the pancreatic body and tail. 3. The pancreatic capsula was opened along the inferior margin of the pancreatic tail, elevated and separated until the superior margin of the pancreas was grasped. The entire splenic pedicle was retracted using a string. The branching blood vessels in the splenic hilus were ligated using clamps and separated. The splenogastric and splenophrenic ligaments were transected proximally using an ultrasonic knife, and the thick short gastric blood vessels were clamped. This procedure allows complete exposure of the area above the pancreatic tail where the splenic hilus is located. The splenoportal vasculature was suspended using a 7-0 silk suture to easily manipulate this tissue. The splenic portal vessels were dissected using an ultrasonic knife, and the portal vessels were isolated individually using vascular clamps and transected. The splenogastric and lienorenal ligaments were also transected. The spleen was then placed into a bag, and the surgical port was slightly enlarged. Finally, the spleen was sectioned for removal. RESULTS: Fifteen surgeries were successfully performed from March 2015 to January 2016. One patient underwent laparotomy. No patients developed postoperative intra-abdominal haemorrhage or infection. One patient developed subcutaneous emphysema, and one developed a wound infection. No deaths occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Active exposure of the area dorsal to the pancreatic tail is a safe and simple splenectomy method. <![CDATA[Transcatheter Closure of Perimembranous Ventricular Septal Defects in Children using a Wire-Drifting Technique]]> OBJECTIVE: Explore the feasibility and safety of transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects using a wire-drifting technique (WT) in children. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 121 pediatric patients diagnosed with perimembranous ventricular septal defects who underwent interventional treatment at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University from Dec 2011 to Dec 2014. Based on the method used for arteriovenous loop establishment during the procedure, the patients were divided into a conventional technique (CT) group and a WT group. RESULTS: In total, 51 of the 53 patients (96.2%) in the CT group and 66 of the 68 patients (97.1%) in the WT group achieved procedural success, with no significant difference between the two groups (p&gt;0.05). The CT group showed a nonsignificantly higher one-time success rate of arteriovenous loop establishment (94.3% vs. 91.2%, p&gt;0.05). The procedure time was 46.0 (14.0) min and 46.5 (10.0) min in the CT and WT groups, respectively. The CT procedure was discontinued in the 2 cases (3.8%) of intraprocedural atrioventricular block in the CT group. In the one case (1.9%) of postprocedural atrioventricular block in the CT group, a permanent pacemaker was implanted to resolve third-degree atrioventricular block three months after the procedure. In the WT group, no cases of intraprocedural atrioventricular block occurred, and one case (1.5%) of postprocedural atrioventricular block occurred. In this case, intravenous dexamethasone injection for three days returned the sinus rhythm to normal. Aggravated mild to moderate tricuspid regurgitation was observed in 2 patients (3.8%) in the CT group during the 2-year follow-up period; aggravated tricuspid regurgitation was not observed in the WT group. During the 2-year follow-up period, there was no evidence of residual shunting in either group. CONCLUSION: Transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects with the WT is safe and effective in children. <![CDATA[Ongoing maturation in the time-compressed speech test]]> OBJECTIVES: To verify the neuromaturational influence in the ability of auditory closure, that is, to verify the performance of children and young adults in the ability of auditory closure, through the time compressed speech test (TCS). METHODS: Thirty children (8 to 10 years old) and 30 young adults (16 to 24 years old) with normal hearing without complaints (neurological, cognitive, auditory processing) who performed TFC (monosyllables and disyllables) with a compression ratio of 60% in both ears. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and ANOVA with repeated measures with a significance level of 0.05. The minimum statistical power was 80%. RESULTS: In the comparison between ears, there was no significant difference between groups for the monosyllables. For disyllables, the second ear tested was better in children, and the right ear was better than the left ear for young adults. In the comparison between modalities (monosyllables and disyllables), children did not show significant differences. The performance of the young adults was better in the disyllables in both ears. Comparing the age groups, the young adults were better than the children for both modalities and ears. CONCLUSION: The study has demonstrated the influence and impact of age (maturational factor) on TCS test performance, showing the importance of establishing normality patterns for various age groups to provide a standardized tool for evaluation of auditory closure ability. <![CDATA[Preanalytical conditions can interfere with <em>M. tuberculosis</em> detection by PCR in respiratory samples]]> OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis is one of the most prevalent infections in humans. Although culture is the reference for diagnosis, its sensitivity is compromised, especially in paucibacillary samples. Because polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifies mycobacterial DNA, it is more sensitive than culture for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, its performance can be affected by intrinsic sample inhibitors and by the extraction/detection techniques used. METHODS: We evaluated the influence of preanalytical conditions on Mtb detection in samples of sputum (SPU), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and pleural fluid (PF) using combinations of extraction/detection methods. Respiratory samples were prepared to contain different concentrations of red blood cells and nucleated cells to which increasing amounts of Mtb colonies were inoculated and submitted to PCR. RESULTS: Up to 102 CFU/ml of Mtb were detected in the SPU in all methods, except for the Roche extraction/detection method, regardless of the preanalytical sample condition. In BAL samples, medium and high concentrations of cells and high concentrations of red blood cells contributed to a lower Mtb detection, regardless of the extraction method used. In PF, red blood cells were the variable that most interfered with Mtb detection, with better recovery (102 CFU/ml) observed with the Qiagen/Nanogen combination. CONCLUSION: The choice of Mtb extraction and detection method is of fundamental importance for PCR analytical sensitivity, especially when paucibacillary samples and/or samples containing potential PCR inhibitors are analyzed. <![CDATA[Relationship between food perceptions and health-related quality of life in a prospective study with breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy]]> OBJECTIVE: To correlate the perceptions related to dietary intake with the domains and subscales of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in women with breast neoplasms receiving chemotherapy. METHODS: In this prospective study, 55 women with breast cancer were followed up during chemotherapy at three different times (T0, T1, T2). Before chemotherapy, perceptions related to food consumption were evaluated. HRQL was analyzed with the EORTC QLQ-C30 and Br23 instruments 21 days after each investigated cycle. The differences (T2-T0) in the subscales and HRQL domains were correlated with the differences (T2-T0) in the appetite scores. Spearman’s correlation was used to verify a possible correlation between differences in functional and overall HRQL domains (T2-T0) and differences in appetite scores for certain foods and between the differences in some subscales of EORTC QLQ-C30 and Br23 (T2-T0) and differences in appetite scores for certain food groups (T2-T0). RESULTS: Correlations between pain and appetite for bitter taste and between an increased appetite for juices and pain intensification or fatigue were identified, and pain was correlated with an appetite for starchy foods. An appetite for vegetables, legumes and meat/eggs was correlated with physical function. The only significant correlation with social functions occurred between the appetite for sweet foods and these functions. We found a correlation between overall health, emotional function, social function and physical function and the appetite for juices. CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy alters the individual’s relationship with food and, consequently, the individual’s HRQL. <![CDATA[Prevalence of overweight and obesity and associated factors in school children and adolescents in a medium-sized Brazilian city]]> OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children and adolescents in a medium-sized Brazilian city. METHODS: In total, 1,125 children and adolescents between the ages of 5.6 and 18 years from public and private schools participated in the study. The sample included 681 girls and 444 boys. Each subject’s weight and height were obtained according to Brazilian guidelines (SISVAN). The triceps (TSF), subscapular (SSF), biceps, suprailiac, femoral and calf skinfolds were measured in triplicate. Body mass index (BMI) was classified as the BMI percentile (BMIP) according to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007 criteria. The percentage body fat (%BF) was obtained using the equations by Slaughter et al., 1998. Categorical variables were analyzed using the chi-squared test. RESULTS: Overall, 364 participants with excess weight were identified: 17.3% were overweight, and 15.0% were obese. Among the girls, 18.0% were overweight, and 12.5% were obese; among the boys, 15.3% were overweight, and 18.0% were obese. These prevalence rates were higher when the time spent watching TV or participating in media-related activities surpassed 5 hrs/day, when individuals belonged to a higher economic class and when the head of the family had a higher education level (≥12 years). CONCLUSION: It is important to emphasize the need to increase our understanding of factors associated with overweight and obesity, and it is essential to implement measures and policies aimed at reversing this trend, such as stimulating healthy eating habits and physical activity and reducing time spent watching TV and participating in other media activities, including video games and social networking. <![CDATA[Influence of dental occlusion on the athletic performance of young elite rowers: a pilot study]]> OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to assess the influence of dental occlusion on body posture and the competitive performance of young elite rowers. METHOD: Dental occlusion disturbance devices were used to simulate dental malocclusions. We assessed the influence of malocclusion on the body balance, paravertebral muscle contraction symmetry, and muscular power of young elite rowers. A nonparametric permutation test for repeated measures ANOVA, a Cochran’s Q test for paired data and a paired Student’s t-test were used in order to statistically evaluate the influence of artificial occlusal disturbance on each factor. A force platform and a Dyno Concept 2 machine were used as measuring instruments. RESULTS: A total of 7 members of the “Pôle France Aviron” (age range of 15-17 years) were enrolled in the study. None of the body balance parameters was significantly influenced by the artificial occlusal disturbance. The interposition of an occlusal silicone splint significantly increased the proportion of athletes presenting asymmetric muscular contractions from 14.3% to 85.7% (p=0.025) and induced a significant 17.7% decrease in the athletes’ muscular power (p=0.030). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the negative impacts of an occlusal disturbance on the athletic performance of young elite rowers. The detection of malocclusion traits by regular occlusal monitoring would be of great interest in this population. <![CDATA[Instruments for augmentative and alternative communication for children with autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review]]> New technologies designed to improve the communication of autistic children can also help to promote interaction processes and cognitive and social development. The aim of this study was to analyze the instruments used to improve the communication skills of children with autism spectrum disorder. We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases using the descriptors “autism”, “Asperger”, “education”, “children” and “assistive technology” and selected articles that met the following inclusion criteria: (i) original research; (ii) written in English; (iii) based on participants with a primary diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder; and (iv) tested an instrument designed to promote communication in children with autism spectrum disorder. Our search retrieved 811 articles, of which 34 met the inclusion criteria. Data on 26 instruments were extracted, and the measurement properties of the instruments were combined with information about their outcomes and presentation. The most commonly used interventions were the Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children program and the Picture Exchange Communication System. The Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children program was shown to produce improvements in the communication skills, socialization and self-care skills of children with autism spectrum disorder. The Picture Exchange Communication System produced inconsistent results. The results of the identified studies confirm the significant importance of these instruments in improving the communicative process of autistic children. <![CDATA[The diagnosis and treatment of tibial intercondylar chondroblastoma]]> OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diagnosis and treatment of tibial intercondylar chondroblastoma. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the diagnosis and treatment of 12 patients with tibial intercondylar chondroblastoma admitted to the orthopedics department from May 2011 to February 2016; among them were 4 males and 3 females aged 10-19 years, with an average age of 15.7 years. Tibial intercondylar chondroblastoma was on the left and right side in 7 and 5 cases, respectively. The preoperative average Lysholm score of the knee joint was 68 (42-87). A posteromedial approach was applied in all cases. The incisions were approximately 5-8 cm in length. Complete curettage and inactivation were performed after fenestration, and allogeneic bone grafts were transplanted. Then, the posterior cruciate ligament insertion was fixed with 5.0 suture anchors. All patients were followed up with regularly to monitor for tumor recurrence, observe bone graft healing, and reassess the Lysholm score of the knee. RESULTS: Patients were followed for 7-55 months, and the median follow-up time was 19 months. One patient experienced tumor relapse 4 months after the operation. Incision, inactivation and cementation were performed. Then, the bone was fixed with anchors. In the other 11 patients, the bone graft healed over an average period of 6.2 months (4-10 months), with good functional recovery postoperatively. The average postoperative Lysholm score of the knee was 91 (81-95). CONCLUSION: Tibial intercondylar chondroblastoma has unique clinical and imaging characteristics and can effectively be treated by curettage followed by the inactivation, transplantation and fixation of allogeneic bone grafts with suture anchors through a posteromedial approach. <![CDATA[Proposal for a New Histological Scoring System for Cartilage Repair]]> OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a new histological scoring system for use in a partial-thickness cartilage repair animal model. Although previous papers have investigated the regeneration of articular cartilage, the good results achieved in small animals have not been replicated in large animal models or humans, possibly because of the frequent use of models with perforation of the subchondral bone plates. Partial-thickness lesions spare the subchondral bone, and this pattern is the most frequent in humans; therefore, new therapies should be tested using this model. However, no specific histological score exists to evaluate partial-thickness model results. METHODS: Histological sections from 30 ovine knees were reviewed to develop a new scoring system. The sections were subjected to H&amp;E, Safranin O, and Masson’s trichrome staining. RESULTS: This paper describes a new scoring tool that is divided into sections in detail: repair of tissue inside the lesion, cartilage around the lesion and degenerative changes at the base of the lesion. Scores range from 0 to 21; a higher score indicates better cartilage repair. DISCUSSION: Unlike existing tools, this new scale does not assign points for the positioning of a tidemark; we propose evaluation of the degenerative changes to the subchondral bone and calcified cartilage layer. It is necessary to remove the whole joint to access and study the evolution of the lesion as well as the surrounding tissue. CONCLUSION: This article emphasizes the importance of a partial-thickness animal model of cartilage repair and presents a new histological scoring system. <![CDATA[Relationship between the Asp1104His polymorphism of the nucleotide excision repair gene ERCC5 and treatment sensitivity to oxaliplatin in patients with advanced colorectal cancer in China]]> OBJECTIVES: To study the relationship between the Asp1104His polymorphism of the nucleotide excision repair gene ERCC5 and treatment sensitivity to oxaliplatin in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) in China. METHODS: A group of 226 patients in the Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology at Zhejiang Xiaoshan Hospital from July 2011∼December 2016 and a control group of 226 normal healthy individuals were involved in this study. All patients were first diagnosed with advanced CRC and were treated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. The genotype of ERCC5 at the site of amino acid 1104 was determined by a TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR approach. RESULTS: There were no differences in age or gender between the groups, but the percentages of smokers and individuals with a family history of cancer were significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group. Analysis of the G/C polymorphism frequency among the patients and the healthy controls showed that the frequencies of the CC genotype and the CC+GC genotype were significantly related to CRC, but no significant difference in these frequencies was found between genders. The analysis of the relationship between the 5-year survival rate and different genotypes showed that in the total patient group, regardless of gender, the 5-year survival rate was significantly associated with the Asp1104His polymorphism of ERCC5. CONCLUSIONS: The Asp1104His polymorphism of ERCC5 was associated with the risk and 5-year survival rate of CRC as well as treatment sensitivity to oxaliplatin. <![CDATA[Audiometric evaluation in individuals with mucopolysaccharidosis]]> OBJECTIVES: To characterize the audiometric evaluation and acoustic immittance measures in different types of mucopolysaccharidosis. METHOD: Fifty-three mucopolysaccharidosis patients were evaluated. The classification consisted of type I (Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie and Scheie syndrome), type II (Hunter syndrome), type III (Sanfilippo syndrome), type IV (Morquio syndrome), and type VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome). Immittance audiometry and play or conventional threshold tone audiometry were used to obtain auditory thresholds and were chosen according to the patient’s chronological age and ability to understand/respond to the procedure. The findings were analyzed using descriptive statistics and considering the recommendations for research involving human beings contained in Resolution CNE N° 466/2012. RESULTS: Fifty-one subjects (96.2%) had hearing loss, and the conductive type was the most frequent. Only two (3.8%) patients presented bilateral thresholds within normal limits, one with type IV mucopolysaccharidosis and the other with type VI. There were 11 individuals (20.8%) with mucopolysaccharidosis type I with mixed hearing loss, 9 (16.9%) individuals with type I with conductive hearing loss and 9 (16.9%) with type VI with conductive hearing loss. Mild hearing loss was most common (37.3%), followed by moderately severe hearing loss (36.3%). The type B tympanometric curve (80.4%) was the most frequent. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the individuals with mucopolysaccharidosis types I, II, III, IV and VI presented mixed or conductive hearing losses of mild to moderately severe degree, type B tympanograms and an absence of contralateral acoustic reflexes. <![CDATA[Normal values for sagittal spinal alignment: a study of Brazilian subjects]]> OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to investigate the normal values of and chain of correlations between spinopelvic parameters in a Brazilian population. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study including asymptomatic adult subjects who had full spinal radiographs performed. The subjects were stratified by age into 3 groups (18-39 years old, 40-59 years old, and &gt;60 years old), and radiographic parameters were compared across age groups and gender using ANOVA and Student’s t-test, respectively. The relationships between various radiographic parameters were evaluated with Pearson correlation coefficients. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty asymptomatic volunteers (mean age, 48 years) met the inclusion criteria. The mean sagittal parameters in a normal Brazilian population were as follows: lumbar lordosis (LL) of 56.8°, pelvic tilt (PT) of 12.4°, pelvic incidence (PI) of 49.4°, PI-LL of -7.4°, T1 pelvic angle (TPA) of 8°, sagittal vertical axis (SVA) of -0.54 cm and T1 slope of 25.2°. Subjects ≥60 years old had significantly higher values of SVA (p=0.024) and TPA (p=0.009) than the two younger age groups. The TPA was significantly correlated with the following spinopelvic parameters: LL (r=-0.172, p=0.005), PT (r=0.776, p&lt;0.001), PI (r=0.508, p&lt;0.001), PI-LL (r=0.717, p&lt;0.001), SVA (r=0.409, p&lt;0.001) and T1 slope (r=0.172, p=0.050). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated significant physiologic trunk inclination with increasing age. The TPA, an angular parameter of global spinal alignment, presented a chain of correlations with different spinal segments. <![CDATA[Relationships of interleukin-10 with the regulatory T cell ratio and prognosis of cervical cancer patients]]> OBJECTIVE: This study investigated serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels, changes in peripheral blood CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell (PBCDT) ratios, and the prognosis of cervical cancer (CC) patients. METHODS: Seventy patients with CC composed the observation group, and 70 healthy subjects composed the control group. The PBCDT ratios in the CC patients and healthy subjects were calculated. Serum IL-10 levels were detected with a double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: The PBCDT ratio was higher in the patients with active CC [12.16±2.41%] than in the control subjects [6.34±1.05%]. Serum IL-10 levels were higher in the patients with CC [384±106 pg/ml] than in the control subjects [104±50 pg/ml]; the differences in both PBCDT ratio and IL-10 level were statistically significant (p&lt;0.01). Serum IL-10 levels were positively correlated with PBCDT ratios (r=0.375, p&lt;0.05). The 5-year patient survival rate was significantly higher in the low serum IL-10 group (64.2%) than in the high serum IL-10 group (42.8%, p=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: PBCDT ratios and serum IL-10 levels are related to CC activity. These factors are reciprocally related and influence one another, and both are involved in the development and progression of CC. Low IL-10 expression is beneficial regarding the survival of patients with CC. <![CDATA[A comparison of the efficiency of 22G <em>versus</em> 25G needles in EUS-FNA for solid pancreatic mass assessment: A systematic review and meta-analysis]]> Our aim in this study was to compare the efficiency of 25G versus 22G needles in diagnosing solid pancreatic lesions by EUS-FNA. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Studies were identified in five databases using an extensive search strategy. Only randomized trials comparing 22G and 25G needles were included. The results were analyzed by fixed and random effects. A total of 504 studies were found in the search, among which 4 randomized studies were selected for inclusion in the analysis. A total of 462 patients were evaluated (233: 25G needle/229: 22G needle). The diagnostic sensitivity was 93% for the 25G needle and 91% for the 22G needle. The specificity of the 25G needle was 87%, and that of the 22G needle was 83%. The positive likelihood ratio was 4.57 for the 25G needle and 4.26 for the 22G needle. The area under the sROC curve for the 25G needle was 0.9705, and it was 0.9795 for the 22G needle, with no statistically significant difference between them (p=0.497). Based on randomized studies, this meta-analysis did not demonstrate a significant difference between the 22G and 25G needles used during EUS-FNA in the diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions. <![CDATA[Stroke risk among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis]]> Increased stroke risk among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients has not yet been established. In this study, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess stroke risk among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched from database inception until December 31, 2016 to identify longitudinal observational studies that investigated the association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and stroke. Stroke risk was quantified by overall and subgroup analyses, and a pooled hazard ratio was calculated. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Publication bias was assessed using Begg’s rank correlation test. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. In a random-effects model, significantly increased stroke risk was observed among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.43). In subgroup analyses stratified by stroke subtype, study quality, and adjustment by socioeconomic status, the association between increased stroke risk and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients was robust. Statistically significant publication bias was not detected. In summary, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was found to be associated with increased stroke risk. Additional prospective studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the increase in stroke risk and identify effective preventive interventions. <![CDATA[Brazilian Guidelines for Hereditary Angioedema Management - 2017 Update Part 1: Definition, Classification and Diagnosis]]> Hereditary angioedema is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by recurrent angioedema attacks with the involvement of multiple organs. The disease is unknown to many health professionals and is therefore underdiagnosed. Patients who are not adequately diagnosed and treated have an estimated mortality rate ranging from 25% to 40% due to asphyxiation by laryngeal angioedema. Intestinal angioedema is another important and incapacitating presentation that may be the main or only manifestation during an attack. In this article, a group of experts from the “Associação Brasileira de Alergia e Imunologia (ASBAI)” and the “Grupo de Estudos Brasileiro em Angioedema Hereditário (GEBRAEH)” has updated the Brazilian guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hereditary angioedema. <![CDATA[Evaluation Instruments for Quality of Life Related to Melasma: An Integrative Review]]> The aim of this study was to analyze scientific production concerning the validation and cultural adaptation of quality of life evaluation instruments for patients with melasma and to offer a critical reflection on these methods. A literature review was performed based on a search of the Web of Science, Bireme, PubMed, Elsevier Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. All published articles from indexed periodicals in these electronic databases up to December 2015 were included. Eight articles were identified, of which only one (12.5%) referred to the development and validation of a specific instrument for evaluation of the quality of life of melasma patients. An additional six articles (75%) referred to transcultural adjustment and validation of the same instrument in other languages, and another (12.5%) article reported the development of a generic instrument for evaluation of quality of life in patients with pigment disorders. This review revealed only one specific instrument developed and validated in different cultures. Despite being widely used, this instrument did not follow the classic construction steps for psychometric instruments, which paves the way for future studies to develop novel instruments. <![CDATA[Prognostic Role of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio in Resected Gastric Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis]]> High levels of inflammatory markers and the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio appear to be associated with worse overall survival in solid tumors. However, few studies have analyzed the role of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in gastric cancer patients scheduled to undergo curative resection. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to analyze the relationship between the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and overall survival in patients with gastric cancer submitted to curative resection and to identify the clinicopathological features (age, gender, tumor depth, nodal involvement and tumor differentiation) that are correlated with high neutrophil-lymphocyte ratios. A literature search of PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane and EMBASE through November 2017 was conducted. Articles that included gastric cancer patients submitted to curative resection and preoperatory neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio values were included. A total of 7 studies comprising 3264 patients from 5 different countries were included. The meta-analysis revealed an association of high neutrophil-lymphocyte ratios with older age, male gender, lower 5-year overall survival, increased depth of tumor invasion, positive nodal involvement but not with histological differentiation. Evaluation of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio is a cost-effective method that is widely available in preoperatory settings. Furthermore, it can effectively predict prognosis, as high values of this biomarker are related to more aggressive tumor characteristics. This ratio can also be used to stratify risk in patients within the same disease stage and may be used to assist in individualized follow-up and treatment. <![CDATA[Simple but not simpler: a systematic review of Markov models for economic evaluation of cervical cancer screening]]> The aim of this study was to critically evaluate the quality of the models used in economic evaluations of screening strategies for cervical cancer prevention. We systematically searched multiple databases, selecting model-based full economic evaluations (cost-effectiveness analyses, cost-utility analyses, and cost-benefit analyses) of cervical cancer screening strategies. Two independent reviewers screened articles for relevance and performed data extraction. Methodological assessment of the quality of the models utilized formal checklists, and a qualitative narrative synthesis was performed. Thirty-eight articles were reviewed. The majority of the studies were conducted in high-income countries (82%, n=31). The Pap test was the most used screening strategy investigated, which was present in 86% (n=33) of the studies. Half of the studies (n=19) used a previously published Markov model. The deterministic sensitivity analysis was performed in 92% (n=35) of the studies. The mean number of properly reported checklist items was 9 out of the maximum possible 18. Items that were better reported included the statement of decision problem, the description of the strategies/comparators, the statement of time horizon, and information regarding the disease states. Compliance with some items of the checklist was poor. The Markov models for economic evaluation of screening strategies for cervical cancer varied in quality. The following points require improvement: 1) assessment of methodological, structural, heterogeneity, and parameter uncertainties; 2) model type and cycle length justification; 3) methods to account for heterogeneity; and 4) report of consistency evaluation (through calibration and validation methods). <![CDATA[An unfavorable intrauterine environment may determine renal functional capacity in adulthood: a meta-analysis]]> Since studies show that an unfavorable environment during intrauterine development predisposes individuals to several diseases in adulthood, our objective is to assess the relation between fetal growth restriction and chronic renal disease in adults. We searched four different electronic databases through November 2017: CENTRAL, EMBASE, LILACS and MEDLINE. We selected studies with longitudinal or transversal designs associating kidney function in adulthood with low birth weight. Two reviewers evaluated the inclusion criteria and the risk of bias and extracted data from the included papers. Thirteen studies were selected for the systematic review and meta-analysis. We observed increased risks of presenting end-stage renal disease (risk ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.47), a lower glomerular filtration rate (ml/min) (mean difference 7.14; 95% confidence interval: -12.12, -2.16), microalbuminuria (risk ratio 1.40; 95% confidence interval: 1.28, 1.52) and a small increase in the albumin/creatinine ratio (mean difference 0.46; 95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.90) in the low birth weight patients, compared with control group. These findings suggest that low birth weight is associated with renal dysfunction in adults. <![CDATA[Passage of <em>Borrelia burgdorferi</em> through diverse Ixodid hard ticks causes distinct diseases: Lyme borreliosis and Baggio-Yoshinari syndrome]]> Baggio-Yoshinari syndrome is an emerging, tick-borne, infectious disease recently discovered in Brazil. This syndrome is similar to Lyme disease, which is common in the United States of America, Europe and Asia; however, Brazilian borreliosis diverges from the disease observed in the Northern Hemisphere in its epidemiological, microbiological, laboratory and clinical characteristics. Polymerase chain reaction procedures showed that Baggio-Yoshinari syndrome is caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto spirochete. This bacterium has not yet been isolated or cultured in adequate culture media. In Brazil, this zoonosis is transmitted to humans through the bite of Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus genera ticks; these vectors do not belong to the usual Lyme disease transmitters, which are members of the Ixodes ricinus complex. The adaptation of Borrelia burgdorferi to Brazilian vectors and reservoirs probably originated from spirochetes with atypical morphologies (cysts or cell-wall-deficient bacteria) exhibiting genetic adjustments, such as gene suppression. These particularities could explain the protracted survival of these bacteria in hosts, beyond the induction of a weak immune response and the emergence of serious reactive symptoms. The aim of the present report is to note differences between Baggio-Yoshinari syndrome and Lyme disease, to help health professionals recognize this exotic and neglected zoonosis. <![CDATA[Review of a three-year study on the dental care of onco-hematological pediatric patients]]> The aim of this study was to provide an updated review of dental procedures undertaken at the dental unit of the Onco-hematology service of the Instituto da Criança at the Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (ICr/HC-FMUSP). We retrospectively reviewed 565 of 1902 medical and dental records of patients diagnosed with onco-hematological diseases who were seen in a 3-year study (January 2015 to December 2017). We assessed data regarding population characteristics, onco-hematological diagnosis and dental procedures performed. Of the selected medical records, preventive dentistry was the most common procedure undertaken in this population, followed by oral maxillofacial surgeries, restorative dentistry and oral mucositis treatment. The most prevalent malignant diagnosis was acute lymphocytic leukemia, and the most prevalent nonmalignant diagnosis was sickle-cell anemia. Preventive dental procedures represent most of the dental procedures undertaken in hospitalized onco-hematological pediatric patients. <![CDATA[Precision Medicine: Changing the way we think about healthcare]]> Health care has changed since the decline in mortality caused by infectious diseases as well as chronic and non-contagious diseases, with a direct impact on the cost of public health and individual health care. We must now transition from traditional reactive medicine based on symptoms, diagnosis and treatment to a system that targets the disease before it occurs and, if it cannot be avoided, treats the disease in a personalized manner. Precision Medicine is that new way of thinking about medicine. In this paper, we performed a thorough review of the literature to present an updated review on the subject, discussing the impact of the use of genetics and genomics in the care process as well as medical education, clinical research and ethical issues. The Precision Medicine model is expanded upon in this article to include its principles of prediction, prevention, personalization and participation. Finally, we discuss Precision Medicine in various specialty fields and how it has been implemented in developing countries and its effects on public health and medical education. <![CDATA[ERRATUM: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of amfepramone and mazindol as a monotherapy for the treatment of obese or overweight patients]]> Health care has changed since the decline in mortality caused by infectious diseases as well as chronic and non-contagious diseases, with a direct impact on the cost of public health and individual health care. We must now transition from traditional reactive medicine based on symptoms, diagnosis and treatment to a system that targets the disease before it occurs and, if it cannot be avoided, treats the disease in a personalized manner. Precision Medicine is that new way of thinking about medicine. In this paper, we performed a thorough review of the literature to present an updated review on the subject, discussing the impact of the use of genetics and genomics in the care process as well as medical education, clinical research and ethical issues. The Precision Medicine model is expanded upon in this article to include its principles of prediction, prevention, personalization and participation. Finally, we discuss Precision Medicine in various specialty fields and how it has been implemented in developing countries and its effects on public health and medical education.