Scielo RSS <![CDATA[BAR - Brazilian Administration Review]]> vol. 12 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Editorial]]> <![CDATA[When a Thousand Words Are (Not) Enough: An Empirical Study of the Relationship between Firm Performance and Attention to Shareholders]]> The aim of this study is to concurrently test the explanatory power of the attention-based view (ABV) of the firm and of the resource dependence theory (RDT).We propose a conceptual model of attention to shareholders based on assumptions of both ABV and RDT. We test these hypotheses using a unique dataset, consisting of content-analyzed data on attention allocation for 313 firms from 24 different countries. Our research findings highlight the complementary nature of the RDT and ABV and add to the literature about attention, providing empirical evidence and theoretical explanation for the scarcely explored relationship between firm performance and organizational attention. <![CDATA[On the Contributions of Knowledge-Intensive Business-Services Multinationals to Laggard Innovation Systems]]> Foreign direct investment (FDI) is assumed to be a source of knowledge flows across National Innovation Systems, with particular relevance for developing countries. Nonetheless, empirical assessments are usually manufacturing-oriented, providing only a partial view of the phenomena under scrutiny. This article aims at contributing to this body of literature by investigating the impacts of inward FDI on aggregate outcomes of developing countries' National Innovation Systems, taking into account potential contributions from Knowledge-Intensive Business-Services (KIBS) multinationals and their respective comparison with manufacturing investments. Using a panel dataset comprising 38 developing countries (2001-2010), fixed-effects regressions are applied according to a traditional endogenous growth model. Empirical findings underscore the relevance of KIBS MNCs' contributions to host innovation systems in developing countries. These impacts broadly surmount those of manufacturing FDI and they are particularly significant for: (a) value added in services; (b) value added in manufacturing; (c) aggregate export capacity; and (d) international (United States Patent and Trademark Office[USPTO]) patenting activity. <![CDATA[Moderating Effects of Sales Promotion Types]]> This paper aims to analyze the influence sales promotion types have on the relationship between perception of financial risk and perception of utilitarian and hedonic value on consumer purchase intentions. To this end, an experiment was conducted involving 589 participants divided into two groups defined by distinct scenarios in which the sales promotion type (monetary vs. non-monetary) was manipulated. The working hypotheses predicted a direct and positive relationship between the perception of (hedonic and utilitarian) consumption value and purchase intention for a promoted product and a negative relationship between the perception of consumption value and the perception of financial risk. In addition, it was supposed that the sales promotion type would moderate these direct relationships and that a monetary promotion would have a stronger effect on the relationship between purchase intention and perceived product utility, whereas a non-monetary promotion would have a stronger effect on the other relationships (hedonic value and financial risk perceptions). Analysis of the outcomes supported the proposed hypotheses. <![CDATA[Brazilian Multinationals' Ownership Mode: The Influence of Institutional Factors and Firm Characteristics]]> This work investigates whether host countries institutional factors and firm characteristics can help the understanding of Brazilian multinationals' choices of ownership mode for their foreign direct investments (FDI). Brazil is a privileged locus for research on emerging market multinationals (EMNEs), given its growing stock of outward FDI. The paper contributes to a better understanding of the international strategic choices of EMNEs. First, the phenomenon under study is examined using the theoretical lenses of institutionalism. Second, the study looks at the relationship between state support and choice of ownership mode, a new issue in the area of international business. Third, differences between the decisions taken by manufacturing and service EMNEs are also examined. Fourth, the study focuses on an emerging country, Brazil. The quality of the regulatory environment of the host country, and differences in beliefs, cultural identity and management practices between the host country and the country of origin are factors of the institutional environment significantly related to the choice of ownership mode by Brazilian EMNEs. As to firm characteristics, our results show that state support favors the choice of joint ventures, and that service EMNEs also significantly prefer joint ventures, when compared to manufacturing firms. The findings also support the view that EMNEs are less sensitive to institutional weaknesses in host countries. <![CDATA[Profiling the Buzz Agent: Product Referral and the Study of Social Community and Brand Attachment]]> The buzz agent is any consumer perceived by others as a source of product referral. Previous literature in word of mouth (WOM) has looked into characteristics of individuals who successfully persuade others to choose a brand. While there have been studies in this field, the literature is still scattered and little has been done to profile the consumer playing the buzz-agent role. We aim to deepen our understanding about the consumer who must be recruited as a buzz agent by a firm in a WOM marketing (WOMM) initiative. The proposed profile is comprised of three key characteristics: the consumer's position in the social community, nature of ties in the community and brand attachment. We tested our hypotheses with a survey of 542 consumers from a controlled population. Rather than relying on self-reported questions about referral behavior, we asked respondents in the population to name the individuals to whom the respondents go to obtain information to help pick a brand. This accurately pinpoints which individuals fit the profile of a buzz agent. Results show that buzz agents are popular in their social community (friends and tech experts), carry dissimilar brands as target consumers and are product experts. Our study identifies a profile of consumers that helps firms select buzz agents for WOMM initiatives.