Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy]]> vol. 41 num. lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Advances in the production of temperate fruits in the tropics]]> ABSTRACT. The present study aimed to review the advances in the production of temperate fruits to determine future research directions that improve production in the tropics. Temperate fruits are no longer only produced in regions characterized by a cold winter period. These fruits are also produced in the sub-tropical and tropical regions characterized by mild winter or even the absence of chilling conditions often required by the tree to break dormancy. Currently, temperate fruit production is possible in certain regions of South America, Africa and Asia that are near to the Equator. However, temperate tree fruit production in tropical regions requires modified techniques to overcome dormancy and allow adequate flowering, growth and productivity. The main approaches taken are the development of cultivars with low chilling requirement, chemical induction of budbreak, interruption of irrigation during the winter period, defoliation, orchard densification, and double pruning. Breeding has become a key tool in the advancement of temperate fruit growing in the tropics, especially with the development of low chilling requirement cultivars. <![CDATA[<em>Stevia rebaudiana</em> (Bert) Bertoni: regression models with mixed effects for investigating seed germination data]]> ABSTRACT. We investigated regression models with mixed effects using generalized linear statistics to evaluate germination data from Stevia rebaudiana (Bert) Bertoni. Estimates and validation of statistical parameters were conducted using the “gamlss” package in the R software. Generalized linear mixed effects followed the binomial, the beta-binomial and the multinomial distribution with the logit link to explain data based on the following explanatory variables: seed germinator, plastic tray position on every tier of shelves, illuminance conditions (light and darkness) and seed lots. We did not find differences in proportional responses from seed germinators, but we did find differences in the illuminance conditions, plastic tray position on the tiers of shelves in the seed germinators and seed lots. The estimates of the generalized Akaike information criterion (GAIC), Akaike information criterion (AIC), global deviance (GD) and Bayesian information criterion of Schwarz (BIC) indicate similar goodness-of-fit for the binomial and beta-binomial models. All of the models indicate that the position of the germination tray on every tier of shelves and illuminance conditions affected the proportions of normal seedlings. The seed germination in the plastic tray on the uppermost position under fluorescent day light lamps had an effect on the proportion of normal seedlings of Stevia. <![CDATA[Consideration of the appropriate variation sources of the statistical model and their impacts on plant breeding]]> ABSTRACT. The present work has aimed to assess the consideration of the appropriate variation sources of the statistical model and their impacts on the conclusions plant breeding. The Value for Cultivation and Use test was conducted to assess three common locations (Lages, Ponte Serrada, and Canoinhas) and four non-common locations (Chapecó, Guatambu, Urussanga, and Campos Novos). The grain yields of six bean genotypes were evaluated in order to represent the imbalance between the common and non-common locations. The statistical analysis considered two situations: i) union of the location factors and cultivation years, with a single variation source called environment and ii) decomposition of the mean square values of the two factors, location and year. According to the simplified analysis (environmental variation source), the F test for the genotype factor was highly significant (p = 0.0006). On the other hand, the hypothesis test for the genotype factor was not significant (p = 0.7370) when the decomposition of mean squares was used. The simplified analysis presents some erroneous points, such as the use of a mean residue to test the hypothesis of the genotype factor, since this factor is composed of several sources of variation, and there is no exact F test. However, approximate F tests can be obtained by constructing linear combinations of average squares. This fact notes the relevance of considering the appropriate sources of variation within the statistical model, with a direct impact on the conclusions and recommendations of cultivars with superior performance. <![CDATA[Survey of statistical methods applied in articles published in Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy from 1998 to 2016]]> ABSTRACT. Statistics is the main science by which researchers validate the results of scientific work, and the choice of an inadequate statistical method may lead to conclusions that are considered questionable by reviewers. This study had the objective of describing the characteristics of the statistical methods used in the papers published in Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy from 1998 to 2016 as part of a a critical analysis of the journal to pinpoint possible failures in the application of these methods. All scientific articles (n = 1,237) published in the journal were surveyed, of which 54.1% addressed areas of crop production. The mean comparison methods were the most commonly used (75.5%) and, consequently, they represented the highest proportion of errors (60.8%) of the authors in the journal. <![CDATA[A system to map the risk of infection by <em>Puccinia kuehnii</em> in Brazil]]> ABSTRACT. Orange rust caused by the fungus Puccinia kuehnii greatly affects sugarcane and causes millions of tons of losses in production. This condition was first reported in Brazil at the end of 2009. The disease is currently present in most of the countries that produce this crop. The aim of this research was to develop risk maps of P. kuehnii infection using temperature and relative humidity data, provided by 389 automatic weather stations throughout the country. A spatial distribution analysis was carried out to assess the number of daily hours of favorable conditions for spore germination in each region. In the central-south region, where the main sugarcane producing states are concentrated, two distinct periods were observed during the three years studied. Higher favorability occurred from October to April, and lower favorability occurred from May to September. The opposite relation was observed on the coast of the north-eastern region, where conditions were more favorable to the disease from May to September. The validation data were confirmed by the results of Pearson’s correlation between sugarcane orange rust infection under field conditions and the proposed maps. In conclusion, risk maps obtained using data from automatic weather stations could contribute to the monitoring of the risk of infection by sugarcane orange rust. <![CDATA[Genetic variability in popcorn synthetic population]]> ABSTRACT. The Brazilian popcorn has low genetic variability and the successful development of advanced lines, new popcorn cultivars with high grain yield (GY) and expansion volume (PE) is dependent on parental selection and precise determination of heterotic groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic variability and identify heterotic groups in synthetic populations of popcorn, using diallel crosses. Thus, nine synthetic populations were crossed using complete diallel scheme. The GY and PE traits of 36 hybrids and reciprocals were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with 72 treatments and two replicates in two years. The effects of non-additive genes were the most important in the genetic control of these traits, indicating a favorable situation to produce hybrids. The reciprocal effect is mainly due to non-maternal effects for GY and PE. The highest GY values were obtained for the 02 x 08, 04 x 09, 05 x 09, and 01 x 09 crosses and the highest PE were obtained for the 07 x 01 and 03 x 04 crosses. The exploitation of synthetic populations from S3 lines can be an alternative to increase the genetic variability for grain yield and popping expansion in popcorn breeding programs. <![CDATA[Self-organizing maps in the study of genetic diversity among irrigated rice genotypes]]> ABSTRACT. This study presents self-organizing maps (SOM) as an alternative method to evaluate genetic diversity in plant breeding programs. Twenty-five genotypes were evaluated in two environments for 11 phenotypic traits. The genotypes were clustered according to the SOM technique, with variable topology and numbers of neurons. In addition to the SOM analysis, unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering (UPGMA) was performed to observe the behavior of the clustering when submitted to these techniques and to evaluate their complementarities. Genotype ordering according to SOM was consistent with UPGMA results, evidenced by the basic structure of UPGMA groups being preserved in each group of the maps. Regarding genotype arrangement and the group neighbors, maps involving five neurons presented inferior organization efficiency compared to the six-map arrangements in both environments. It was observed that the organization pattern among the rice genotypes evaluated by the maps was complementary to the UPGMA approach, as observed in all scenarios. It can be concluded that self-organizing maps have the potential to be useful for genetic diversity studies in breeding programs. <![CDATA[New high-yielding conventional soybean adapted to the states of Goiás, Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso, Brazil]]> ABSTRACT. This paper aims to present the features of the new soybean cultivar UFUS Milionária, which was developed by the Soybean Improvement Program of the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU) through crossing between IAC-100 and Cristalina RCH cultivars, using the Single Seed Descent (SSD) method. UFUS Milionária is resistant to many diseases caused by the fungus, bacteria, and virus. In addition, it also has been proved well-adapted to many Brazilian states, showing high yield even under water deficit conditions and Asian-rust infection; average yield was 4,451 kg ha-1 in 2015/16 growing season. <![CDATA[Inoculation with <em>Azospirillum brasilense</em> on corn yield and yield components in an integrated crop-livestock system]]> ABSTRACT. Inoculation of corn with diazotrophic bacteria reduces the need for nitrogen fertilization and mitigates environmental contamination risks due to the bacteria’s biological nitrogen-fixation capacity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of corn seed inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense under different nitrogen levels and post-grazing residual heights. The experiment was performed in two growing seasons and conducted in an integrated crop-livestock system for the 2014/15 and 2015/16. A factorial randomized block experimental design with sub-divided plots and three factors. The main plots varied in post-grazing residual height (0.10, 0.20, 0.30 m, continuous grazing, or no grazing), the subplots varied in inoculation (with or without seed inoculation), and the sub-subplots varied in nitrogen level (0, 75, 150, 225, or 300 kg ha-1 of N). The higher post-grazing residual height associated an A. brasilense and nitrogen fertilization resulted in increased corn biomass and production and yield. At the 300 kg dose of N, the highest grain yield was obtained under different post-grazing heights (10.15 Mg ha-1) and in the absence of the bacterium (10.00 Mg ha-1). Azospirillum brasilense helps plant growth and yield but does not replace the effect of N fertilization. <![CDATA[Inoculation of soybean seeds coated with osmoprotector in diferents soil pH's]]> ABSTRACT. Inoculation with nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Bradyrhizobium) is an indispensable technology to increase the productivity of the soybean crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the viability of the inoculation with Bradyrizobium bacteria associated with the osmoprotector coating on different pre-sowing days and the effect of different soil pH on the components of yield, nodulation and grain yield of soybean. Two soybean cultivars were used, sown in two seasons and submitted to soil pH of 5.3 and 6.5. The seeds were inoculated at different pre-sowin periods with Bradyrizobium bacteria in the presence or absence of osmoprotectants. In the cultivar NA 5909RG (pH 5.3), the seeds inoculated with Bradyrhizobium and osmoprotector, at four and seven days of pre-sowing, presented an increase of 10.8% and 8.3% of productivity, in relation to those without osmoprotector. The osmoprotector and the inoculation of Bradyrhizobium increases the number and dry mass of nodules in soil with more acidic pH. The soil of lower acidity is responsible for higher grain yield, compared to the higher acidity, when both were not inoculated. The variable with the greatest explanatory power and contribution in the variability in the data of the experiment is the grain yield. <![CDATA[Processing and physical and physiological quality of the native forest seeds of <em>Vernonanthura discolor</em>]]> ABSTRACT. The objective was to study the processing of Vernonanthura discolor seeds, evaluating their physical and physiological qualities and defining parameters for purity analysis and determine the weight of one thousand seeds. The seeds extracted from the infructescences were processed in a blower, testing combinations of openings of the calibration valve and the side air passage. After processing, the seeds went through water content determination, germination tests, first count of the germination test, purity analysis, weight of one thousand seeds and percentage of full seeds. Compared to the control, seeds processed in a regulated blower with the calibrator valve in position 10 plus three 360° turns of side air passage obtained an approximately three-fold increase in germination and vigour and had 96% purity. We conclude that the processing of V. discolor seeds was best done by combining the rubbing of the seeds on circular sieves (1.8 and 1.6 mm in diameter) and then passage in an adjusted seed blower (calibration valve in position 10 plus three 360° turns of side air passage). The weight of one thousand seeds is 0.500 g, and the working sample for purity analysis must be 1.3 g. <![CDATA[Enhancement of the antioxidant capacity and reduction of chilling injury in ‘Douradão’ peaches refrigerated under pre-storage and modified atmosphere]]> ABSTRACT. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of pre-storage for 24h and 48h and different modified atmosphere packaging-MAP treatments (using low-density polyethylene - LDPE) on the antioxidant compounds and the postharvest quality of ‘Douradão’ peaches under cold storage. The peaches were submitted to the following treatments: a control (no packaging or pre-storage) and pre-storage for 24h or 48h at 25ºC combined with passive MAP (LDPE 60 µm or 80 µm). After the application of the treatments, the fruits were stored at 0ºC for 30 days plus 3 days at 25ºC to simulate marketing conditions. The results showed that on the simulated marketing period, all the treatments (except for the control) reduced woolliness and internal browning. Furthermore, both pre-storage and LDPE MAP enhanced the polygalacturonase (PG) activity, the levels of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity. Thus, these results suggest that the pre-storage associated with LDPE packaging increases the shelf life of peaches by up to 30 days under cold storage. <![CDATA[Synergy between cadmium and zinc in bean plants cultivated in multi contaminated soils]]> ABSTRACT. Agricultural species are subjected to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses, which are the main limitations to crop production. In this context, contamination by trace elements is characterized as an abiotic stress that represents an environmental problem. Due to the physical and chemical similarities between cadmium and zinc, these elements may interact in the environment and may cause antagonistic or synergistic effects. In this way, physiological mechanisms to exclude, detoxify or compartmentalize trace elements that are in excess are crucial for plant survival when exposed to high concentrations of these elements. In this way, the aim of this study was to understand the physiological responses of Phaseolus vulgaris plants subjected to increasing doses of Cd and Zn for 21 days in different soil, Cambisol and Latosol. The activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, CAT, and APX; hydrogen peroxide content; lipid peroxidation; chlorophyll index; photosynthetic rate; stomatal conductance; and transpiration were analysed. The data obtained showed a specific behaviour of Phaseolus vulgaris plants in each soil analysed. Moreover, it was observed that interactions between both elements resulted in a synergistic effect, negatively affecting all of the parameters analysed. <![CDATA[Spatial variability of soil physical-hydric attributes under bovine trampling in agreste of Pernambuco State, Brazil]]> ABSTRACT. Soils under pastures suffer physical modifications, in greater or lesser intensity, via the action of animal trampling. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the spatial dependence of soil physical attributes under bovine trampling. The trial was performed at Roçadinho Farm, Agreste of Pernambuco, Brazil, in a 40 x 40 m paddock that was managed with continuous stocking by bovines and 12 AU ha-1 stocking rate. Soil samples were collected before and after grazing using a 6 x 6 m grid, totaling 36 sampling points. At each point, the bulk density, total porosity, moisture, soil penetration resistance at 0.00 - 0.10, 0.10 - 0.20, and 0.20 - 0.30 m depth were estimated, as was the hydraulic conductivity on the saturated soil surface. Descriptive statistics and geostatistics supported the data analysis. A normal distribution was verified for all variables, which were scored as either low or high variability in terms of the variation coefficient. The physical attributes (density, total porosity, moisture, soil penetration resistance and hydraulic conductivity) of the soil sampled presented a strong spatial dependence before and after grazing. <![CDATA[Geochemical signatures and weathering rates in soils derived from different granites in contrasting climatic locations]]> ABSTRACT. We studied the mineralogical properties and chemical composition of different granites using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy coupled with scanning electron microscopy to understand the relationship between granite signatures and soil characteristics, including weathering patterns and soil fertility status. The discriminant analysis (DA) was based on soil physical and chemical properties and was used to differentiate soils developed from I- and S-type granites across contrasting climatic conditions in northeast Brazil. The DA identified the highest values of organic carbon, clay and plant nutrients as key variables to recognize soil profiles derived from I-type granites. In contrast, the greater sand contents and Al saturation distinguished soils developed from S-type granites. These results were related to the mineralogical characteristics of each granite type, such as a high percentage of silica-bearing minerals in the S-type granites. The highest concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, and P in I-type granites were found in feldspars, amphiboles, and apatite. These elements account for the majority of nutrients derived in their soil profiles. However, it seems that the harsh conditions of the humid tropical environment equalized the effect of the rocks on weathering rates-the difference in chemical index of alteration is more extreme in the dry region.