Scielo RSS <![CDATA[International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology]]> vol. 23 num. 1 lang. <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[The Relationship between the Etiology of Profound Prelingual Sensorineural Hearing Loss and the Results of Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials]]> Abstract Introduction Cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) are biphasic, short latency potentials, which represent the inhibition of the contraction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) mediated by the saccule, the inferior vestibular nerve, the vestibular nuclei and the medial vestibular spinal tract. Objective To evaluate the response of cVEMPs in individuals with profound prelingual bilateral cochlear hearing loss. Methods A prospective case-control study. A total of 64 volunteers, divided into a study group (31 patients with profound prelingual sensorineural hearing loss) and a control group (33 subjectsmatched for age and gender with psychoacoustic thresholds of ≤ 25 dB HL between 500 and 8,000 Hz) were submitted to the cVEMP exam. The causes of hearing loss were grouped by etiology and the involved period. Results The subjects of the study group aremore likely to present changes in cVEMPs compared to the control group (35.5% versus 6.1% respectively; p = 0.003), with an odds ratio (OR) of 8.52 (p = 0.009). Itmeans that they had 8.52-fold higher propensity of presenting altered cVEMP results. There were no statistically significant differences between the latencies, the interamplitude and the asymmetry index. Regarding the etiology, there was a statistically significant difference when the cause was infectious, with an OR of 15.50 (p = 0.005), and when the impairment occurred in the prenatal period, with an OR of 9.86 (p = 0.009). Conclusion The present study showed abnormalities in the sacculocolic pathway in a considerable portion of individuals with profound prelingual sensorineural hearing loss due to infectious and congenital causes, as revealed by the cVEMP results. <![CDATA[Transnasal Esophagoscopy-Our Experience]]> Abstract Introduction Transnasal esophagoscopy (TNE) is a widely used tool both in the diagnosis and treatment of patients presenting complaints within the head and the neck. This is because this investigative adjunct examination provides the advantage of visualizing above the level of the cricopharyngeus muscle when compared to the more widely used esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Objectives We have assessed if the implementation of TNE within a district general hospital (DGH) was feasible, and investigated if the resources of our patients could be better directed away from other investigations such as barium swallow and EGD in favor of this novel technique. The TNE technique has been largely applied in central teaching hospitals within the United Kingdom, but there are still no published reports of a DGH investigating its applicability in this smaller-sized clinical environment. Method We have analyzed our theater database to find all the patients who had undergone TNE, and recorded their reason for presenting, the preceding investigations, and the procedural findings. Results Inmost cases, the TNEwas conducted without technical issues, and we were able to identify positive findings in 43% of the patients who underwent Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD).Wewere able to treat patients successfully during the investigationwhen a cricopharyngeal stricture or narrowing was found. A normal EGD did not preclude further investigations with TNE. All but one of our patients were treated as day-case procedures. Conclusion Transnasal esophagoscopy can be successfully delivered within a DGH. A previous EGD does not mean that the TNE will not reveal positive findings due to its superior visualization of the pharynx and the upper esophagus. <![CDATA[Hearing Rehabilitation through Bone-Conducted Sound Stimulation: Preliminary Results]]> Abstract Introduction The bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) is a bone conduction system that transmits the sound directly to the inner ear by surpassing the skin impedance and the subcutaneous tissue. It is indicated for patients with mixed, conductive and unilateral sensorineural hearing loss who did not benefit from conventional hearing aids (HAs). Although the benefits from BAHA are well demonstrated internationally, this field still lacks studies in Brazil. Objective To assess the auditory rehabilitation process in BAHA users through audiological, speech perception and tinnitus aspects. Methods Individuals with hearing loss were assessed before and after the implantation. The participants were subjected to pure tone audiometry in free field, functional gain audiometry, speech perception tests, tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) in open format, and to the visual analog scale (VAS). Results It was found that the participants benefited from the use of BAHA. The difference in the performance of the participants before and after the BAHA surgery was significant in terms of hearing acuity. There was no statistically significant difference in the speech perception tests. The tinnitus assessment showed that 80% of the participants scored slight tinnitus severity in THI after using a BAHA. Eighty percent of the participants classified their tinnitus as absent tomild in the VAS after the surgery. Conclusion Based on the results of the current study, we can conclude that the participants improved both the auditory perception and the tinnitus handicap. <![CDATA[Variant of the Technique for Laryngeal Microsurgery in Cases of Difficult Laryngoscopy]]> Abstract Introduction Low exposure of the larynx can make laryngeal microsurgery difficult or even impossible. The application of rigid and contact endoscopy enabled oblique and retrograde angled visualization, allowing transoperative staging with greater reach of the anatomical areas. However, there is difficulty or even impossibility of performing the surgical act, due to the incompatibility of the angled path with the straight surgical tools. Objective To demonstrate the efficiency of the variant of the technique for laryngeal microsurgery in cases of difficult laryngoscopy and to analyze the new surgical instruments specific to the endoscopic procedure. Methods This is a cross-sectional retrospective study, based on the analysis of 30 medical records of patients treated surgically at a philanthropic hospital in the state of Sergipe, Brazil, between the years of 2014 and 2015. Results The technical variant used 30- and 70-degree endoscopes that provided complete oblique view of the endolarynx. The association of angled instruments (forceps, suction pumps, retractors and scissors) enabled the execution of the surgical procedures. Conclusion The association of rigid endoscopy with angled instruments promoted full visualization of the surgical lesion and operative resolution. <![CDATA[Swallowing in Patients with Mental Disability - Analysis of 189 Swallowing Video Endoscopies]]> Abstract Introduction Feeding, swallowing and breathing are fundamental activities for the survival and well-being of humans; these functions are performed by themost complex neuromuscular unit of the human body, which, when altered, may raise morbidity and mortality rates. Objective To evaluate deglutition in patients with mental disability in order to determine the incidence and the severity of dysphagia. Methods A total of 189 institutionalized adult patients with mental disability were analyzed using a 3.2 mm flexible fiberscope (Machida, Japan 1995). The following food consistencies were tested: pasty, thickened liquid and liquid. Results Among the total of 189 patients, 101 (53.4%) were female aged between 14 and 55 years old. Most of them 120 (63.5%) had profound mental deficiency, 58 (30.7%) had severe mental deficiency, 9 (4.8%) had moderate mental deficiency, and 2 (1.1%) had mild mental deficiency. Gender and the degree of mental deficiency did not influence significantly the degree of dysphagia. Age, degree of disability and interaction between age groups and degrees of disability influenced significantly the degree of dysphagia. Younger patients are more likely to present more severe dysphagia. Stabilization occurs between 31 and 40 years of age, and above this age, a greater chance of less severe dysphagia, because the increase in the degree of mental deficiency decreases the probability of more severe dysphagia. Conclusion The population that mostly presented severe dysphagia was characterized by being mostly female, with profound mental deficiency, with an average age of 36.7 years. There was no relationship between gender and the degree of mental disability concerning the degree of dysphagia. <![CDATA[Analysis of the Effect of Musical Stimulation on Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials]]> Abstract Introduction Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) are bioelectric responses that occur from acoustic stimulations, and they assess the functionality of the central auditory system. Objective The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of musical stimulation on CAEPs. Methods The sample consisted of 42 healthy female subjects, aged between 18 and 24 years, divided into two groups - G1: without musical stimulation prior to the CAEP examination; and G2: with stimulation prior to the examination. In both groups, as a pre-collection procedure, the complete basic audiological evaluation was performed. For the musical stimulation performed in G2, we used an MP4 player programmed to play Pachelbel’s “Canon in D Major” for five minutes prior to the CAEP examination. To analyze the effect on the groups, the ear side and the ide-group interaction , a mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) of repeated measures was performed. Box M test and Mauchly sphericity test were also performed. Results Test differences were considered statistically significant when the p-value was &lt; 0.05 (5%). Thus, it was possible to observe that there was a statistically significant difference of the P2 component characterized by the decrease in the amplitude of response in the left ear in G2 when comparing the responses of CAEP with and without prior musical stimulation. Conclusion The result of the present study enabled us to conclude that there was a change in the response of CAEPs with musical stimulation. <![CDATA[Otologic Findings Based on no Complaints in a Pediatric Examination]]> Abstract Introduction the otological evaluation is highly significant in those branches of medicine in which the general evaluation of the patient is conducted by general practitioners and pediatricians. Objectives To investigate the otologic findings and their incidences in the sample, which consisted of patients who presented to the pediatric outpatient clinic with nonotologic complaints. Methods Patients, aged between 2 and 16 years, who had neither otorhinolaryngological complaints nor history of surgery by the otolaryngology (ear, nose and throat, ENT) department were included in the present study. The findings detected in the external auditory system and in the tympanic membranes as well as the otorhinolaryngologists’ otologic examination findings of the referred patients were recorded from the files of each patient along with the applied medical and surgical treatments, and diagnostic investigations. Results Of a total of 973 patients evaluated, 129 (13.2%) were referred to the ENT outpatient clinic due to any otologic pathology. In the otorhinolaryngological examinations, false positivity was detected in 12 (1.2%) patients, and pathological findings were detected in 117 (12%) patients who received the following diagnoses: 68 (6.9%) had otitis media with effusion(OME); 37 (3.8%) had cerumen impactions; 8 (0.8%) had acute otitismedia (AOM); 2 (0.2%) had ticks in the external auditory canal; 2 (0.2%) had a retraction pocket in tympanic membrane; 1 (0.1%) had unilateral central dry perforation of the tympanic membrane; and 1(0.1%) had congenital cholesteatoma. Conclusion Any complications and sequelae that may develop due to any pathologies and predominantly infections can be prevented by an early diagnosis, which can be made by means of a simple examination, performed merely with an otoscope. Pediatricians and general practitioners should be in close contact with otorhinolaryngologists regarding the pathologies they identify. <![CDATA[Weblog “How Do I Breathe?”-Design and View Statistics]]> Abstract Introduction Breathing is one of the vital functions of the body and is essential for the maintenance of life. Preventive measures for respiratory disorders can be used by the population, as well as early self-diagnosis and immediate search for treatment based on knowledge of this subject. Objective this study developed a weblog on the breathing function targeting young people and analyzed the statistical data of views until the present moment. Methods The weblog was developed, and the stages of analysis, design, development and implementation were followed. All texts were evaluated by the Flesch Reading Index to verify the language, and the statistical data were analyzed by the number of views, countries with the highest number of views, search terms used, most viewed pages and number of comments on the blog. Results Issues related to the breathing function and thosemost cited in the literature were selected. The blog was structured using pages with content and curiosities, with texts with minimum readability of 50%, and was made available on the internet by means of the Wordpress tool. The statistics showed an increase in the number of visits after August 2015; the countries with the highest number of views were Brazil, United States and Portugal; the search terms used were unknown or related to mouth breathing; the most viewed pages related to mouth breathing and the comments addressed questions on mouth breathing, reports and compliments. Conclusion The blog “How do I breathe?,” aimed at young people and containing information about the breathing function, was developed and is available on the internet at the address: <![CDATA[Perception of the Quality of Life of Tobacco Growers Exposed to Pesticides: Emphasis on Health, Hearing, and Working Conditions]]> Abstract Introduction Tobacco farming exposes workers to various health risks due to the high application of pesticides needed to control pests, weeds and fungal diseases that prevent the tobacco plant growth. Objective To analyze the perception of the quality of life of tobacco growers exposed to pesticides, with emphasis on general health, hearing, and working conditions. Method This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study using a quantitative approach with farmers from southern Brazil. Data were collected from November of 2012 to November of 2014. For data collection, we opted for the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36) questionnaire, and a questionnaire with closed questions about health, hearing and working conditions. We evaluated a total of 78 subjects; the study group, made up of 40 tobacco farmers exposed to pesticides, and a control group of 38 participants without occupational exposure to pesticides. Both groups are residents of the same municipality, and users of the federal public health system. Results The results showed that tobacco growers had lower quality of life scores compared with the control group. Significant differences were observed in the areas of pain and general health. There were correlations between physical elements and chronic diseases; hearing complaints and a lack of personal protective equipment use, occupation and hearing complaints, as well as general health and hearing complaints. Conclusion Tobacco farming is a risky activity for general and hearing health, and it can impact the quality of life of those working in this field. <![CDATA[The Effect of Fibroblast Growth Factors in Grafted Fascia into the Vocal Fold of Rabbits]]> Abstract Introduction The human larynx is a very important organ for communication. Many conditions lead to scarring of the vocal folds, decreasing voice quality. Objective We aimed to determine whether fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) may influence tissue integration of grafted fascia into the vocal folds of an animal model. Methods This is an experimental animal study with 12 adult rabbits that were submitted to a grafting fragment obtained from superficial cervical fascia into the vocal fold lamina propria, bilaterally. The right vocal fold was injected with FGFs. The animals were sacrificed after 1 month or 12 months, depending on the group they were assigned to, and a histological analysis of their vocal folds was performed.We analyzed the histological changes (such as the presence of fibrosis and neovascularization) induced by the acute or chronic inflammatory reactions. Results The FGFs induced acute inflammatory changes in all animals after 1 month of the initial experiment. The presence of FGFs triggered more fibrosis than the expected due to the surgical procedure itself when compared with the control side of all animals after 12 months of the initial experiment. Conclusions Fibroblast growth factors alone do not represent a good therapeutic option in phonosurgery, since we observed higher levels of fibrosis in the vocal fold lamina propria. Further studies combining more substances may be necessary to elucidate the best option to be used in this kind of surgery. <![CDATA[Hearing Outcome of Low-tone Compared to High-tone Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss]]> Abstract Introduction Low-tone sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is a well-recognized disease, in which the hearing loss is restricted to low frequencies. In contrast to lowtone SSHL, high-tone SSHL is characterized by high-frequency (4,000, 8,000 Hz) hearing loss and preservation of low-, middle-frequency hearing. Objective The objective of this study is to compare the hearing recovery and longterm outcome of low-tone SSHL with those of patients affected by high-tone SSHL in a follow-up of ~ 3 years. Methods The low-tone SSHL and high-tone SSHL groups included 27 and 20 patients, respectively; the patients of both groups were treated with intravenous steroids. Predictive factors (gender, affected side, delay of treatment, follow-up time) were also examined. Results Overall, complete hearing recovery was observed in 77.7% of the patients in the low-tone SSHL group and in 15% of the patients in the high-tone SSHL group. In the high-tone SSHL group, a higher proportion of patients reported tinnitus compared with the low-tone SSHL group (13 cases [65%] versus 3 cases [11%]); however, recurrences were more common in the low-tone SSHL (22%, 6 patients) compared with the hightone SSHL (2 cases [10%]) group. No predictive factor was found to statistically impact on hearing outcome. Conclusion After initial therapy, the low-tone SSHL patients have more favorable hearing outcome than high-tone SSHL patients. However, recurrences occurred more frequently in the low-tone SSHL group, while the high-tone SSHL group was more often accompanied by residual symptoms, such as tinnitus. <![CDATA[Hormones and Auditory Perception: Study of Dichotic Listening in Women during the Menstrual Cycle]]> Abstract Introduction Dichotic listening refers to the ability to hear different sounds presented to each ear simultaneously. Objective The aim of the present study was to assess dichotic listening in women throughout the menstrual cycle. Methods The volunteers who met the eligibility criteria participated in a dichotic listening assessment composed of three tests: 1) staggered spondaic word test; 2) dichotic digits test; and 3) consonant-vowel test. The female participants were tested during two different phases of the menstrual cycle: the follicular (days 11 to 13) and luteal (days 23 to 26) phases. The phases were confirmed by measuring serum levels of the hormone estradiol. Results A total of 20 volunteers aged 18 to 49 years participated in the study (9 females and 11 males). In test 1, only the right ear of females showed better performance during the follicular phase (high estrogen levels), compared with the luteal phase (low estrogen levels); in test 2, there were no significant differences for any of the groups; and in test 3, both males and females showed significantly better performance in their right ear compared with their left ear. Conclusion The better performance of females during the follicular phase of the cycle may indicate that estrogen levels might have an influence on dichotic listening in women. <![CDATA[Safety and Efficacy of Autologous Platelet-rich Fibrin on Graft Uptake in Myringoplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial]]> Abstract Introduction Chronic suppurative otitis media is a common ailment in developing countries, and it generally presents with otorrhea and hearing loss. Different surgical procedures have been used to treat otitis media; among them is myringoplasty, which is a procedure that includes repair of the tympanic membrane. Platelet concentrates have been used widely in different types of wounds and are found to improve wound healing. Hence, the use of platelet-rich fibrin in myringoplasty will also improve the tympanic membrane healing. Objectives To assess the safety and efficacy of autologous platelet-rich fibrin on graft uptake in myringoplasty. Methods Eighty-six patients were observed during the study period of two years. Forty-three patients in the study group underwent myringoplasty aided with plateletrich fibrin, and 43 patients in the control group went through the same procedure but without the platelet-rich fibrin. The patients were observed for three months postoperatively by a blinded observer. Results A total of 4.7% of the patients in the study group had postoperative infection, compared with a rate of 19% in the control group (p = 0.039). The graft uptake success rate was found to be 97.7% in the study group as compared with 81% in control group (p = 0.012). The results were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion Being autologous in nature, and by comparing the groups, platelet-rich fibrin is safe for patients. The postoperative graft uptake rate is better in cases in which plateletrich fibrin was used. The postoperative infection rate was also lower in the same group. <![CDATA[Surgical Treatment of Chronic Parotitis]]> Abstract Introduction chronic parotitis (CP) is a hindering, recurring inflammatory ailment that eventually leads to the destruction of the parotid gland. When conservative measures and sialendoscopy fail, parotidectomy can be indicated. Objective to evaluate the efficacy and safety of parotidectomy as a treatment for CP unresponsive to conservative therapy, and to compare superficial and near-total parotidectomy (SP and NTP). Methods retrospective consecutive case series of patients who underwent parotidectomy for CP between January 1999 and May 2012. The primary outcome variables were recurrence, patient contentment, transient and permanent facial nerve palsy and Frey syndrome. The categorical variables were analyzed using the two-sided Fisher exact test. Alongside, an elaborate review of the current literature was conducted. Results a total of 46 parotidectomies were performed on 37 patients with CP. Neartotal parotidectomy was performed in 41 and SP in 5 cases. Eighty-four percent of patients was available for the telephone questionnaire (31 patients, 40 parotidectomies) with a mean follow-up period of 6,2 years. Treatment was successful in 40/46 parotidectomies (87%) and 95% of the patients were content with the result. The incidence of permanent and transient facial nerve palsy was 0 (0%) and 12 (26.1%), respectively. Frey syndrome manifested in 20 (43.5%) patients. Neither this study nor careful review of the current literature resulted in evident difference between SP and NTP regarding the primary outcome variables. Conclusion parotidectomy is a safe and effective treatment for CP in case conservative therapy fails. There is no evidence of a distinct difference between SP and NTP regarding efficiency, facial nerve palsy or Frey syndrome. <![CDATA[Mucocele: Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes in 46 Operated Patients]]> Abstract Introduction Paranasal sinus mucocele is a benign, expansive lesion associated with paranasal sinus obstruction. It affectsmostly adults, and ismost common in the frontal and ethmoidal sinuses. Objective To evaluate outcomes in patients undergoing surgical treatment for paranasal sinus mucocele. Methods Retrospective review of medical records of patients treated for paranasal sinus mucocele at the ENT department of a tertiary care hospital between 2005 and 2016. Results Forty-six patients underwent surgical treatment of paranasal sinusmucocele. Themean age was 50.1 years, and 56.5% were male. The most prevalent symptom was pain, and the frontal sinus was most commonly affected. The vast majority of patients (89.1%) underwent endoscopic sinusmarsupialization; 10.9% required combined open and endoscopic access. Seven recurrences occurred. Conclusion Sinus mucocele is an expansive disease that primarily affects the frontal sinus of adult patients. In most cases, endoscopic surgery is an effective treatment modality. <![CDATA[An Emergent Entity: Indolent Mucormycosis of the Paranasal Sinuses. A Multicenter Study]]> Abstract Introduction Indolent or chronic mucormycosis is a rare entity that affects both immunosuppressed and immunocompetent individuals. Additionally, its clinical evolution is nonspecific and there is no standardized treatment for this condition. Objective To describe the clinical characteristics and management of patients with indolent mucormycosis. Methods In the project of study with chart review in the Interinstitutional secondary care centers, patients with evidence of indolentmucormycosis, defined as pathological confirmation of nasal/paranasal sinus mucormycosis for more than 1 month, were included. All patients underwent complete laboratory workup, imaging studies, surgical treatment and adequate follow-up. No evidence of disease status was defined when patient had subsequent biopsies with no evidence of mucormycosis. Results We included seven patients, three female and four male subjects. The mean age was 53.14 years. Four patients were immunosuppressed and three immunocompetent. Among the immunosuppressed patients three had diabetes and one had dermatomyositis. The symptomswere nonspecific: facial pain/headache, mucoid discharge and cacosmiawere the ones most frequently reported. Maxillary sinus involvement was present in all patients. Two immunosuppressed subjects received amphotericin. Posaconazole was the only treatmentinoneimmunosuppressedpatient. Allimmunocompetent patientshadsingleparanasal sinus disease and received only surgical treatment. All patients are alive and free of disease. Conclusion Indolent mucormycosis is a new and emerging clinical entity in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patients. Single paranasal sinus disease is a frequent presentation and should not be overlooked as a differential diagnosis in these patients. Immunocompetent patients should only be treated surgically. <![CDATA[Postoperative Management of Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps: Impact of High-Dose Corticosteroid Nasal Spray]]> Abstract Introduction Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) is characterized by an eosinophilic inflammation driven by Th2-type cytokines. Glucocorticosteroids are the most common first-line treatment for ECRS with nasal polyps. Objective We have evaluated the long-term treatment with double-dose intranasal corticosteroids in refractory ECRS nasal polyps resistant to the conventional dose and assessed the risk of adverse systemic effects Methods Sixteen subjects were enrolled in this study. All subjects had ECRS after endoscopic sinus surgery that resulted in recurrentmild andmoderate nasal polyps and were undergoing a postoperative follow-up application of mometasone furoate at a dose of 2 sprays (100 μg) in each nostril once a day (200 μg). All the patients were prescribed mometasone furoate, administered at a dose of 2 sprays (100 μg) in each nostril twice a day (400 μg) for 6 months. Results The average scores of the symptoms during the regular dose of intranasal steroid treatment were 5.2 ± 2.2, but 6 months after the high-dose application, they had significantly decreased to 2.5 ± 1.4 (p &lt; 0.05). The polyp size showed an average score of 1.38 during the regular dose which was significantly reduced to 0.43 (p &lt; 0.01) by the double dose. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) showed normal ranges in all the patients tested. The cortisol plasma concentration was also normal. Conclusion Doubling the dose of the nasal topical spray mometasone furoate might be recommended for the treatment of recurrent nasal polyps in the postoperative follow-up of intractable ECRS. <![CDATA[Otomyiasis: Systematic Review]]> Abstract Introduction Myiasis is a disease causedby fly larvae that growinthetissues of animals and humans. It can cause a variety of local symptoms, like erythema or pain, depending on its location, and generalized symptomatology, such as fever andmalaise.Myiasis can generate severe complications, for instance sepsis, or directly impact vital tissues. Its management varies depending on the location, and on the preferences of the doctor that faces this challenge. Myiasis usually occurs in tropical countries, and, in many places, it is not a rare condition. The cases are rarely reported, and there are no publishedmanagement protocols. Objective To review the literature regarding the most common agents, the predisposing factors and the treatment alternatives for otic myiasis, a rare form of human myiasis caused by the infestation of fly larvae in the ear cavities. Data synthesis We present a systematic review of the literature. The search in five databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, LILACS and RedALyC) led to 63 published cases from 24 countries, in the 5 continents. The ages of the patients ranged fromnewborn to 65 years old. Themost common agents belong to the Sarcophagidae or Calliphoridae families. Chronic otitis media, previous otic surgical procedures, mental deficit, alcohol or drug abuse, sleeping outdoors, prostration, and malnutrition were predisposing factors. The treatment alternatives are herein discussed. Conclusion The results highlight the need for monitoring, follow-up and standardization of medical approaches. <![CDATA[Fish Bone Foreign Body: The Role of Imaging]]> Abstract Introduction Fish bone foreign body (FFB) impaction in the upper aerodigestive tract is a common cause for emergency department referral. Its management varies in both diagnosis and treatment paradigms. Fish bone foreign bodies are more commonly found in the oropharynx in cases of patients &lt; 40 years old, and in the esophagus in cases of patients &gt; 40 years old. Symptoms are typically non-indicative for the location of the FFB, with the exception of foreign body sensation at/superior to the cervical esophagus. A lack of findings during the physical examination is routinely followed by imaging, with computed tomography (CT) being the preferred modality. In practice, many patients undergo unnecessary imaging studies, including CT scans. Objectives To identify patients with suspected fish bone impaction who do not require CT imaging and can be safely discharged. Data Synthesis We have searched the PubMed database for the following medical subject headings (MeSH) terms: fish bone, fish foreign body AND oropharynx, hypopharynx, esophagus, flexible esophagoscopy, and rigid esophagoscopy. Our search in the English language yielded 32 papers. Case reports were included, since they highlighted rare and serious complications. Conclusion In patients &gt; 40 years old suspected of fish bone impaction, noncontrast CT is recommended and should be urgently performed, even in the presence of ambiguous symptoms. However, in patients &lt; 40 years old presenting within 24 hours from ingestion, imaging has little diagnostic value due to the low probability of esophageal fish bones. For this specific subgroup, in the absence of clinical findings, discharge without imaging studies may be considered safe. <![CDATA[Vocal Fold Polyps: Literature Review]]> Abstract Introduction Vocal fold polyps are one of themost frequent benign laryngeal lesions, impacting the quality of life of those affected by them, primarily the vocal production. Despite being a well-established therapy in conjunction with surgery, speech therapy alone may also be effective in treating these lesions. As such, otolaryngologists and speech therapists need updated bibliographic knowledge on the issue. Objective To describe the literature findings on vocal fold polyps that discuss prevalence, etiology, histology, physiopathology, vocal characteristics or treatment. Data Synthesis The present study is a review article based on a bibliographic search using platforms, databases and search engines, with no restrictions on means of publication, methodological quality or language. All the articles on vocal fold polyps pertaining to the object of study published in the past 15 years were included. Among the characteristics investigated, the most discussed were prevalence of men, smoking as an etiological cofactor, the possibility of histological differentiation from vocal nodules, the relationship with cover minor structural alterations, and the indication and effectiveness of different treatment options. Conclusion Despite the discrepancies found in the present literature review on vocal fold polyps, there has been a notable scientific progress in the otolaryngologic techniques and in the effectiveness of speech therapy as initial treatment, with direct and indirect techniques, corroborating the need for scientific investigation of the issue.