Scielo RSS <![CDATA[International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1809-486420170001&lang=en vol. 21 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology: 20 Years of Excellence!]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Efficacy of Carbon Microcoils in Relieving Cervicogenic Dizziness]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Introduction Cervical pain contributes to postural deviations and imbalance. Nanotechnology may be used for the treatment of neck pain by fixing to the skin small rounds silicone patches containing double spiral carbon nanotubes arranged in the form of a coil (Helical), which would then relieve dizziness caused by muscular contraction. Objective The objective of this study is to Evaluate pain and dizziness scores before and after Helical patches effect on cervicogenic dizziness treatment. Methods The selected patients should have neck pain arising from muscle contraction with loss of balance or instability lasting more than 90 days and normal electrooculography. Treatment consisted of placing 10 Helical patches distributed as follows: two in the upper cervical area, two in the lower cervical area (near the 5th and 6th vertebrae), two in the upper trapezius muscle area (between neck and shoulder), and four in the tender point area (as reported by the patient). Using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), we matched pain and dizziness scores from Day 1 to those from Day 15 and Day 30 using Mann-Whitney test. Results There was a significant difference between pain score reported on Day 1 and Day 15 (Z = 2.43, U = 5, p = 0.01). We also found significant differences between dizziness scores reportedondays1 and15 (Z = 2.62, U = 3.5, p = 0.01) and days 1 and 30 (Z = 2.36, U = 5.5, p = 0.01). Conclusion The Helical patches seem to be an effective treatment for cervicogenic dizziness. <![CDATA[Neck Dissection Technique Commonality and Variance: A Survey on Neck Dissection Technique Preferences among Head and Neck Oncologic Surgeons in the American Head and Neck Society]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Introduction Neck dissection (ND) technique preferences are not well reported. Objective The objective of this study is to educate practitioners and trainees about surgical technique commonality and variance used by head and neck oncologic surgeons when performing a ND. Methods Online survey of surgeon members of the American Head and Neck Society (AHNS). Survey investigated respondents' demographic information, degree of surgical experience, ND technique preferences. Results In our study, 283 out of 1,010 (28%) AHNS surgeon members with a mean age of 50.3 years (range 32-77 years) completed surveys from 41 states and 24 countries. We found that 205 (72.4%) had completed a fellowship in head and neck surgical oncology. Also, 225 (79.5%) respondents reported completing more than 25 NDs per year. ND technique commonalities (&gt;66% respondents) included: preserving level 5 (unless with suspicious lymph nodes (LN)), only excising the portion of sternocleidomastoid muscle involved with tumor, resecting lymphatic tissue en bloc, preservation of cervical sensory rootlets, not performing submandibular gland (SMG) transfer, placing one drain for unilateral selective NDs, and performing a ND after parotidectomy and thyroidectomy and before transcervical approaches to upper aerodigestive tract primary site. Variability existed in the sequence of LN levels excised, instrument preferences, criteria for drain removal, the timing of a ND with transoral upper aerodigestive tract primary site resections, and submandibular gland preservation. Results showed that 122 (43.1%) surgeons reported that they preserve the submandibular gland during the level 1b portion of a ND. Conclusions The commonalities and variances reported for the ND technique may help put individual preferences into context. <![CDATA[Sialendoscopy Training: Presentation of a Realistic Model]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Introduction Several surgical training simulators have been created for residents and young surgeons to gain experience with surgical procedures. Laboratory training is fundamental for acquiring familiarity with the techniques of surgery and skill in handing instruments. Objective The aim of this study is to present a novel simulator for training sialendoscopy. Method This realistic simulator was built with a synthetic thermo-retractile, thermosensible rubber which, when combined with different polymers, producesmore than 30 different formulas. These formulas present textures, consistencies, and mechanical resistance are similar to many human tissues. Results The authors present a training model to practice sialendoscopy. All aspects of the procedure are simulated: month opening, dilatation of papillae, insert of the scope, visualization of stones, extraction of these stones with grasping or baskets, and finally, stone fragmentation with holmium laser. Conclusion This anatomical model for sialendoscopy training should be considerably useful to abbreviate the learning curve during the qualification of young surgeons while minimizing the consequences of technical errors. <![CDATA[Role of Monocyte Count and Neutrophil-to- Lymphocyte Ratio in Survival of Oral Cancer Patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000100021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Introduction Inflammation seems to play a critical role in the development and progression of numerous cancers. Peripheral blood leukocyte count is an easily assessable parameter of systemic inflammatory response. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether the pretreatment leukocyte counts can predict the prognosis of patients with oral cavity cancer. Methods Medical records of 471 oral cavity cancer patients diagnosed between January 2007 and December 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and Cox proportional hazards analyses were applied to evaluate the associations of leukocyte counts with overall survival. Results The overall five year's survival of the cohort was found to be 49.4%. On univariate analysis, elevated monocyte count (≥500/mm3) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (&gt;2.38) were associated with poor overall survival (OS) (p = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that higher monocyte and NLR levels were significant independent predictors of worse OS (HR = 1.385, 95% CI = 1.049 - 1.829; p &lt; 0.05 and HR = 1.392, 95% CI = 1.045 - 1.855; p &lt; 0.05, respectively). The advanced overall stage and lymph nodal involvement were also independent indicators for poor OS. Conclusions Higher pretreatment monocyte and NLR levels are independent predictors of poor prognosis for patients with oral cavity cancer. Thus, these easily accessed variables can serve as a potent marker to predict the outcomes of oral cancer patients. <![CDATA[Emotional Stress Evaluation of Patients with Moderate and Severe Sleep Apnea Syndrome]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000100028&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Introduction The scientific literature has shown that the damage caused by sleep fragmentation in people affected by Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) can reflect emotionally, generating not only physical symptoms such as drowsiness and tiredness, but also psychical symptoms, such as stress. Objective This study aimed at comparing symptoms of stress in patients with moderate or severe OSA, before and after twomonths of treatment (clinical or surgical). Method This is an Individual, prospective, longitudinal, and interventional study. All patients underwent polysomnography before treatment.We collected data through the application of Stress Symptoms Inventory for Adults Lipp (ISSL) before and after two months of medical or surgical treatment for moderate or severe OSA. Results The sample consisted of 18 patients (72.2% male) with a mean age of 51.83 years. We found that 77.8% (n = 14) of patients had stress in the first evaluation. In the second evaluation (after treatment), this reduced to 16.7% (n = 3). The average stress symptoms decreased from the first to the second evaluation (M = 13.78 andM = 6.17, respectively), being statistically significant (z = -3.53; p &lt; 0.000). Conclusions We found that moderate and severe apnea patients have significant stress index and that, after two months of medical or surgical treatment, there is a significant reduction of the symptom. In addition, the patients with severe OSA had a better outcome regarding the reduction of stress index than patients with moderate OSA. <![CDATA[Tracheostomy in the Intensive Care Unit: a University Hospital in a Developing Country Study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000100033&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Introduction Tracheostomy is the commonest surgical procedure in intensive care units (ICUs). It not only provides stable airway and facilitates pulmonary toilet and ventilator weaning, but also decreases the direct laryngeal injury of endotracheal intubation, and improves patient comfort and daily living activity. Objective The objective of this study is to assess the incidence, indications, timing, complications (early and late), and the outcome of tracheostomy on patients in the intensive care units (ICU) at a university hospital in a developing country. Methods This study is an observational prospective study. It was performed at the otolaryngology department and ICU new surgery hospital on 124 ICU admitted patients. We collected patients' demographic records, cause of admission, indications of tracheostomy, mechanical ventilation, and duration of ICU stay. We also gathered patientś tracheostomy records including the incidence, timing, technique, type, early and late complications, and outcome. All tracheostomized patients received follow-up for 12 months. Results The indication for tracheostomy in ICU patients was mostly prolonged intubation (80.5%), followed by diaphragmatic paralysis (19.5%). All tracheostomies were done by the open approach technique. Tracheostomy for prolonged intubation was done within 17 to 26 days after intubation with a mean of 19.4 ± 2.07 days. Complications after tracheostomy were 13.9% tracheal stenosis and 25% subglottic stenosis. Conclusion Prolonged endotracheal intubation is theman indication of tracheostomy, performed after two weeks of intubation. Although there were no major early complications, laryngotracheal stenosis is still a challenging sequel for tracheostomy that needs to be investigated to be prevented. <![CDATA[Thyroid Carcinoma Pattern Presentation According to Age]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000100038&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Introduction Patients with thyroid cancer in different age groups present with different prognosis. Objective The objective of this study is to analyze the clinicopathological pattern of thyroid carcinoma presentation according to age groups. Methods This is a retrospective study. From 2000 to 2010, 623 patients underwent thyroidectomy for cancer in our institution, with 596 enrolled. Patients were divided into groups of 10 years and then in four age subgroups (≤ 24, 25-44, 45-64, and ≥65 years) for statistical analysis. We compared age, gender, and histopathological characteristics between groups. Results Individuals belonging to the earlier age group presented with a highest prevalence of neuro-vascular invasion, capsular invasion and lymph node metastasis. Together with individuals of advanced age, that group also had larger tumor diameter and higher prevalence of extra-glandular disease. Even when analyzed only cases with well-differentiated carcinoma, younger individuals remain with a highest prevalence of lymph node metastasis, neuro-vascular invasion and larger tumor diameter. Conclusion We observed a distinct pattern of clinicopathological manifestation of thyroid cancer according to age. Individuals belonging to age extremes resemble in several pathological features, and young people usually present with more aggressive disease characteristics. <![CDATA[Is There A Systemıc Inflammatory Effect of Cholesteatoma?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000100042&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Introduction Inflammation causes squamous epithelial transformation of the mucosa in the middle ear cavity and plays a role in the onset, growth, spread, and recurrence of cholesteatoma. Objectives The objective of this study is to investigate the systemic inflammatory effect in chronic otitis with cholesteatoma. Methods The study included a total of 311 patients comprising 156 patients with a pathology diagnosis of cholesteatoma and a control group of 155 with no active inflammation. The Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) was calculated by dividing the neutrophil value by the lymphocyte value. Results The mean NLR was 1.94 ± 0.91 in the patients with cholesteatoma and 1.94 ± 0.85 in the control group. We determined no statistically significant difference between the groups in respect of NLR (p = 0.983). We calculated the NLR as 2.01 ± 1.00 in patients with ossicle erosion and 1.82 ± 0.69 in those without ossicle erosion, 1.86 ± 0.85 in patients with bone erosion and 1.98 ± 0.95 in those without bone erosion. We determined no statistical difference between these values (p = 0.175). Conclusion The results of this study showed that NLR had no predictive value in respect of bone erosions and associated complications in patients with cholesteatoma. The inflammatory effect of cholesteatoma is not systemic but remains more local. <![CDATA[Tonic Investigation Concept of Cervico-vestibular Muscle Afferents]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000100046&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Introduction Interdisciplinary research has contributed greatly to an improved understanding of the vestibular system. To date, however, very little research has focused on the vestibular system's somatosensory afferents. To ensure the diagnostic quality of vestibular somatosensory afferent data, especially the extra cranial afferents, stimulation of the vestibular balance system has to be precluded. Objective Sophisticated movements require intra- and extra cranial vestibular receptors. The study's objective is to evaluate an investigation concept for cervico-vestibular afferents with respect to clinical feasibility. Methods A dedicated chair was constructed, permitting three-dimensional trunk excursions, during which the volunteer's head remains fixed. Whether or not a cervicotonic provocation nystagmus (c-PN) can be induced with static trunk excursion is to be evaluated and if this can be influenced by cervical monophasic transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (c-TENS) with a randomized test group. 3D-video-oculography (VOG) was used to record any change in cervico-ocular examination parameters. The occurring nystagmuses were evaluated visually due to the small caliber of nystagmus amplitudes in healthy volunteers. Results The results demonstrate: no influence of placebo-controlled c-TENS on the spontaneous nystagmus; a significant increase of the vertical nystagmus on the 3Dtrunk- excursion chair in static trunk flexion with cervical provocation in all young healthy volunteers (n = 49); and a significant difference between vertical and horizontal nystagmuses during static trunk excursion after placebo-controlled c-TENS, except for the horizontal nystagmus during trunk torsion. Conclusion We hope this cervicotonic investigation concept on the 3D trunk-excursion chair will contribute to new diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives on cervical pathologies in vestibular head-to-trunk alignment. <![CDATA[Adaptation and Assessment of Reliability and Validity of the Greek Version of the Ohkuma Questionnaire for Dysphagia Screening]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000100058&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Introduction The Ohkuma questionnaire is a validated screening tool originally used to detect dysphagia among patients hospitalized in Japanese nursing facilities. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted Greek version of the Ohkuma questionnaire. Methods Following the steps for cross-cultural adaptation, we delivered the validated Ohkuma questionnaire to 70 patients (53 men, 17 women) who were either suffering from dysphagia or not. All of them completed the questionnaire a second time within a month. For all of them, we performed a bedside and VFSS study of dysphagia and asked participants to undergo a second VFSS screening, with the exception of nine individuals. Statistical analysis included measurement of internal consistency with Cronbach's α coefficient, reliability with Cohen's Kappa, Pearson's correlation coefficient and construct validity with categorical components, and One-Way Anova test. Results According to Cronbach's α coefficient (0.976) for total score, there was high internal consistency for the Ohkuma Dysphagia questionnaire. Test-retest reliability (Cohen's Kappa) ranged from 0.586 to 1.00, exhibiting acceptable stability. We also estimated the Pearson's correlation coefficient for the test-retest total score, which reached high levels (0.952; p = 0.000). The One-Way Anova test in the two measurement times showed statistically significant correlation in bothmeasurements (p = 0.02 and p = 0.016). Conclusion The adapted Greek version of the questionnaire is valid and reliable and can be used for the screening of dysphagia in the Greek-speaking patients. <![CDATA[Tinnitus in Elderly Individuals: Discomfort and Impact in the Quality of Life]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000100066&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Introduction Tinnitus is a symptom that affects mainly the elderly and can negatively influence their quality of life. Objective The objective of our study is to evaluate the existence of a relationship between the quality of life and the impact caused by tinnitus in elderly individuals, considering the age and gender variables. Method We conducted a cross-sectional study in elderly people of both genders who participate in the extension activities at the university. The evaluation was composed of anamnesis and WHOQOL-OLD instruments, to evaluate the quality of life, and Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) for the evaluation of the tinnitus impact. Result We evaluated 36 elderly individuals with an average age of 68.6 ± 6.8 years old, 72.2 % of them were women. We verified that most of the subjects classified their tinnitus as weak (44.4%) ormedium (36.1%). The score average in the THI was 20 points, with predominant classification of tinnitus impact as negligible (41.7%) or mild (30.6%). In the WHOQOL-OLD, the average score was 15.6 ± 1.6 points (total score). The negative correlation between the THI score and the WHOQOL-OLD score was found in the sensory domain operation and total score. Conclusion The results obtained in the study prove that the quality of life of the elderly individuals evaluated is related to a discomfort caused by the tinnitus. <![CDATA[Auditory Processing Assessment in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: An Open Study Examining Methylphenidate Effects]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000100072&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Introduction Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can present Auditory Processing (AP) Disorder. Objective The study examined the AP in ADHD children compared with non-ADHD children, and before and after 3 and 6 months of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in ADHD children. Methods Drug-naive children diagnosed with ADHD combined subtype aging between 7 and 11 years, coming from public and private outpatient service or public and private school, and age-gender-matched non-ADHD children, participated in an open, non-randomized study from February 2013 to December 2013. They were submitted to a behavioral battery of AP tests comprising Speech with white Noise, Dichotic Digits (DD), and Pitch Pattern Sequence (PPS) and were compared with non-ADHD children. They were followed for 3 and 6 months of MPH treatment (0.5 mg/kg/day). Results ADHD children presented larger number of errors in DD (p &lt; 0.01), and less correct responses in the PPS (p &lt; 0.0001) and in the SN (p &lt; 0.05) tests when compared with non-ADHD children. The treatment with MPH, especially along 6 months, significantly decreased the mean errors in the DD (p &lt; 0.01) and increased the correct response in the PPS (p &lt; 0.001) and SN (p &lt; 0.01) tests when compared with the performance before MPH treatment. Conclusions ADHD children show inefficient AP in selected behavioral auditory battery suggesting impaired in auditory closure, binaural integration, and temporal ordering. Treatment with MPH gradually improved these deficiencies and completely reversed them by reaching a performance similar to non-ADHD children at 6 months of treatment. <![CDATA[Otoneurological Abnormalities in Patients with Friedreich's Ataxia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000100079&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Introduction Friedreich's ataxia is a neurodegenerative disease and progressive by nature. It has autosomal recessive inheritance and early onset inmost cases. Nystagmus and hearing loss (in some cases) make up some of the common symptoms seen in this disorder. Objective The objective of this study is to examine vestibular disorders in patientswith Friedreich ataxia. Methods We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study. We evaluated 30 patients with ages ranging from six to 72 years (mean age of 38.6 ( 14.7). The patients underwent the following procedures: anamnesis, ENT, and vestibular evaluations. Results Clinically, the patients commonly had symptoms of incoordination of movement (66.7%), gait disturbances (56.7%), and dizziness (50%). In vestibular testing, alterations were predominantly evident under caloric testing (73.4%), gaze nystagmus testing (50.1%), rotational chair testing (36.7%), and optokinetic nystagmus testing (33.4%). The presence of alterations occurred under examination in 90% of subjects, with the majority occurring in those with central vestibular dysfunction (70% of the examinations). Conclusion The most evident neurotological symptoms were incoordination of movement, gait disturbances, and dizziness. Alterations in vestibular examinations occurred in 90% of patients, mostly in the caloric test, with a predominance of deficient central vestibular system dysfunction. <![CDATA[Auditory Alterations in Children Infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Verified Through Auditory Processing Test]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000100086&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Introduction The auditory system of HIV-positive children may have deficits at various levels, such as the high incidence of problems in the middle ear that can cause hearing loss. Objective The objective of this study is to characterize the development of children infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in the Simplified Auditory Processing Test (SAPT) and the Staggered Spondaic Word Test. Methods We performed behavioral tests composed of the Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of the Staggered SpondaicWord Test (SSW). The participants were 15 children infected by HIV, all using antiretroviral medication. Results The children had abnormal auditory processing verified by Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of SSW. In the Simplified Auditory Processing Test, 60% of the children presented hearing impairment. In the SAPT, the memory test for verbal sounds showed more errors (53.33%); whereas in SSW, 86.67% of the children showed deficiencies indicating deficit in figure-ground, attention, and memory auditory skills. Furthermore, there aremore errors in conditions of background noise in both age groups, where most errors were in the left ear in the Group of 8-yearolds, with similar results for the group aged 9 years. Conclusion The high incidence of hearing loss in children with HIV and comorbidity with several biological and environmental factors indicate the need for: 1) familiar and professional awareness of the impact on auditory alteration on the developing and learning of the children withHIV, and 2) access to educational plans and follow-up with multidisciplinary teams as early as possible to minimize the damage caused by auditory deficits. <![CDATA[Satisfaction of Elderly Hearing Aid Users]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000100092&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Introduction The impact of auditory sensory deprivation in the life of an individual is enormous because it not only affects one's ability to properly understand auditory information, but also the way people relate to their environment and their culture. The monitoring of adult and elderly subjects with hearing loss is intended to minimize the difficulties and handicaps that occur as a consequence of this pathology. Objective To evaluate the level of user satisfaction with hearing aids. Methods A clinical and experimental study involving 91 elderly hearing aid users. We used the questionnaire Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life to determine the degree of the satisfaction provided by hearing aids. We evaluated mean global score, subscales, as well as the variables time to use, age, and degree of hearing loss. Results Mean global score was 4.73, the score for Positive Effects 5.45, Negative Factors 3.2, demonstrating that they were satisfied; Services and Costs 5.98: very satisfied ; 3.65 Personal Image: dissatisfied. We observed statistically significant difference for the time of hearing aid use, age, and degree of hearing loss. Conclusion The SADL is a tool, simple and easy to apply and in this study we can demonstrate the high degree of satisfaction with the hearing aids by themajority of the sample collected, increasing with time of use and a greater degree of hearing loss. <![CDATA[Rhinoplasty Complications and Reoperations: Systematic Review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000100097&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Introduction This article is related to complications of rhinoplasty and its main causes of reoperations. Objectives The objective of this study is to perform a systematic review of literature on complications in rhinoplasty. Data Synthesis The authors conducted a survey of articles related to key terms in the literature by using three important databases within 11 years, between January 2002 and January 2013. We found 1,271 abstracts and selected 49 articles to this review. Conclusion Themain results showed that the number of primary open rhinoplasty was 7902 (89%) and 765 closed (11%) and the percentage of reoperations in primary open complete rhinoplasties was 2.73% and closed complete was 1.56%. The statistical analysis revealed a value of p = 0.071. The standardization of terms can improve the quality of scientific publications about rhinoplasty. There is no difference between primary open or closed rhinoplasty techniques in relation to reoperations. <![CDATA[Cochlear Implantation through the Middle Fossa Approach: A Review of Related Temporal Bone Studies and Reported Cases]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000100102&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Introduction Middle fossa approach has been suggested as an alternative for patients in whom other routes of electrode insertion are contraindicated. Even though there are temporal bone studies about the feasibility of introducing the cochlear implant through the middle fossa, until now, very few studies have described results when cochlear implant surgery is done through this approach. Objective The objective of this study is to review a series of temporal bone studies related to cochlear implantation through the middle fossa and the results obtained by different surgical groups after cochlear implantation through this approach. Data Sources PubMed, MD consult and Ovid-SP databases. Data Synthesis A total of 8 human cadaveric temporal bone studies and 6 studies reporting cochlear implant surgery through the middle fossa approach met the inclusion criteria. Temporal bone studies show that it is feasible to perform cochlear implantation through this route. So far, only two surgical groups have performed cochlear implantation through the middle fossa with a total of 15 implanted patients. One group entered the cochlea in the most upper part of the basal turn, inserting the implant in the direction of the middle and apical turns; meanwhile, the other group inserted the implant in the apical turn directed in a retrograde fashion to the middle and basal turns. Results obtained in both groups were similar. Conclusions Themiddle fossa approach is a good alternative for cochlear implantation when other routes of electrode insertion are contraindicated.