Scielo RSS <![CDATA[International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1809-486420170003&lang=es vol. 21 num. 3 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Top Reviewers 2016]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000300199&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[Longitudinal Comparison of Auditory Steady-State Evoked Potentials in Pretermand Term Infants: The Maturation Process]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000300200&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Introduction Preterm neonates are at risk of changes in their auditory system development, which explains the need for auditory monitoring of this population. The Auditory Steady-State Response (ASSR) is an objective method that allows obtaining the electrophysiological thresholds with greater applicability in neonatal and pediatric population. Objective The purpose of this study is to compare the ASSR thresholds in preterm and term infants evaluated during two stages. Method The study included 63 normal hearing neonates: 33 preterm and 30 term. They underwent assessment of ASSR in both ears simultaneously through insert phones in the frequencies of 500 to 4000Hz with the amplitude modulated from 77 to 103Hz. We presented the intensity at a decreasing level to detect the minimum level of responses. At 18 months, 26 of 33 preterm infants returned for the new assessment for ASSR and were compared with 30 full-term infants. We compared between groups according to gestational age. Results Electrophysiological thresholds were higher in preterm than in full-term neonates (p &lt; 0.05) at the first testing. There were no significant differences between ears and gender. At 18 months, there was no difference between groups (p &gt; 0.05) in all the variables described. Conclusion In the first evaluation preterm had higher thresholds in ASSR. There was no difference at 18 months of age, showing the auditory maturation of preterm infants throughout their development. <![CDATA[Auditory Speech Perception Development in Relation to Patient’s Age with Cochlear Implant]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000300206&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Introduction A cochlear implant in adolescent patients with pre-lingual deafness is still a debatable issue. Objective The objective of this study is to analyze and compare the development of auditory speech perception in children with pre-lingual auditory impairment submitted to cochlear implant, in different age groups in the first year after implantation. Method This is a retrospective study, documentary research, in which we analyzed 78 reports of children with severe bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, unilateral cochlear implant users of both sexes. They were divided into three groups: G1, 22 infants aged less than 42 months; G2, 28 infants aged between 43 to 83 months; and G3, 28 older than 84 months.We collectedmedical record data to characterize the patients, auditory thresholds with cochlear implants, assessment of speech perception, and auditory skills. Results There was no statistical difference in the association of the results among groups G1, G2, and G3 with sex, caregiver education level, city of residence, and speech perception level. There was a moderate correlation between age and hearing aid use time, age and cochlear implants use time. There was a strong correlation between age and the age cochlear implants was performed, hearing aid use time and age CI was performed. Conclusion There was no statistical difference in the speech perception in relation to the patient’s age when cochlear implant was performed. There were statistically significant differences for the variables of auditory deprivation time between G3 - G1 and G2 - G1 and hearing aid use time between G3 - G2 and G3 - G1. <![CDATA[Sudden Sensorioneural Hearing Loss and Autoimmune Systemic Diseases]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000300213&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Introduction Several authors have demonstrated the relationship between sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD). Immunemediated SNHL can rarely present as unilateral sudden SNHL and manifests itself in the contralateral ear only after years. It presents clinical relevance for being one of the few SNHL that may be reversible given that early and appropriate treatment is applied. Objective The objective of this study is to describe the clinical presentations and audiological findings from patients with idiopathic sudden SNHL and SAD associated with a probable diagnosis of immune-mediated SNHL. Furthermore, we strive to estimate the prevalence of SAD in patients with sudden SNHL. Methods This is an observational retrospective cohort. We have selected and studied patients with SAD. Revision of available literature on scientific repositories. Results We evaluated 339 patients with sudden SNHL. Among them, 13 (3.83%) patients suffered from SAD. Three patients had bilateral involvement, a total of 16 ears. We evaluate and describe various clinical, epidemiological, and audiological aspects of this sample. Conclusion In our sample of patients with sudden SNHL, the prevalence of SAD was found relevant. The majority had tinnitus and dizziness concomitant hearing loss, unilateral involvement and had experienced profound hearing loss at the time of the installation. In spite of instituted treatment, most cases showed no improvement in audiometric thresholds. Apparently, patients with sudden SNHL and SAD have a more severe initial impairment, higher percentage of bilateral, lower response to treatment, and worse prognosis than patients with sudden SNHL of unknown etiology. <![CDATA[A Comparative Study on Hearing Aid Benefits of Digital Hearing Aid Use (BTE) from Six Months to Two Years]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000300224&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Introduction For many reasons, it is important for audiologists and consumers to document improvement and benefit fromamplification device at various stages of uses of amplification device. Professional are also interested to see the impact of amplification device on the consumer's auditory performance at different stages i.e. immediately after fitting and over several months of use. Objective The objective of the study was to measure the hearing aid benefit following 6 months - 1-year usage, 1 year - 1.5 yeaŕs usage, and 1.5 yeaŕs - 2 years’ usage. Methods A total of 45 subjects participated in the study and were divided equally in three groups: hearing aid users from 6 months to 1 year, 1 year to 1.5 year, and 1.5 year to two years. All subjects responded to the Hearing Aid Benefit Questionnaire (63 questions), which assesses six domains of listening skills. Result Results showed the mean scores obtained were higher for all domains in the aided condition, as compared with unaided condition for all groups. Results also showed a significant improvement in the overall score between first-time users with hearing aid experience of six months to one year and hearing aid users using hearing aids for a period between 1.5 and 2 years. Conclusion It is possible to conclude that measuring the hearing aid benefit with the self-assessment questionnaires will assist the clinicians in making judgments about the areas in which a patient is experiencing more difficulty in everyday listening environment and in revising the possible technologies. <![CDATA[Auditory Evoked Potential Mismatch Negativity in Normal-Hearing Adults]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000300232&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Introduction Mismatch Negativity (MMN) corresponds to a response of the central auditory nervous system. Objective The objective of this study is to analyze MMN latencies and amplitudes in normal-hearing adults and compare the results between ears, gender and hand dominance. Methods This is a cross-sectional study. Forty subjects participated, 20 women and 20 men, aged 18 to 29 years and having normal auditory thresholds. A frequency of 1000Hz (standard stimuli) and 2000Hz (deviant stimuli) was used to evoked the MMN. Results Mean latencies in the right ear were 169.4ms and 175.3ms in the left ear, with mean amplitudes of 4.6μV in the right ear and 4.2μV in the left ear. There was no statistically significant difference between ears. The comparison of latencies between genders showed a statistically significant difference for the right ear, being higher in the men than in women. There was no significant statistical difference between ears for both right-handed and left-handed group. However, the results indicated that the latency of the right ear was significantly higher for the left handers than the right handers. We also found a significant result for the latency of the left ear, which was higher for the right handers. Conclusion It was possible to obtain references of values for the MMN. There are no differences in the MMN latencies and amplitudes between the ears. Regarding gender, the male group presented higher latencies in relation to the female group in the right ear. Some results indicate that there is a significant statistical difference of the MMN between right- and left-handed individuals. <![CDATA[Relation between Ossicular Erosion and Destruction of Facial and Lateral Semicircular Canals in Chronic Otitis Media]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000300239&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Introduction Chronic otitis media can cause multiple middle ear pathogeneses. The surgeon should be aware of relation between ossicular chain erosion and other destructions because of the possibility of complications. Objective This study aimed to investigate the rates of ossicular erosion in cases of patients with and without facial nerve canal destruction, who had undergone mastoidectomy due to chronic otitis media with or without cholesteatoma. Methods We retrospectively analyzed three hundred twenty-seven patients who had undergone tympanomastoidectomy between April 2008 and February 2014. We documented the types of mastoidectomy (canal wall up, canal wall down, and radical mastoidectomy), erosion of themalleus, incus and stapes, and the destruction of facial and lateral semi-circular canal. Results Out of the 327 patients, 147 were women (44.95%) and 180 were men (55.04%) with a mean age 50.8 ± 13 years (range 8-72 years). 245 of the 327 patients (75.22%) had been operated with the diagnosis of chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma. FNCD was present in 62 of the 327 patients (18.96%) and 49 of these 62 (79.03%) patients had chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma. The correlation between the presence of FNCD with LSCC destruction and stapes erosion in chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma is statistically significant (p &lt; 0.05). Conclusion Although incus is the most common of destructed ossicles in chronic otitis media, facial canal destruction is more closely related to stapes erosion. <![CDATA[Effectiveness of Low Cut Modified Amplification using Receiver in the Canal Hearing Aid in Individuals with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000300243&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Introduction The studies on hearing aid benefit in individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) shows limited benefit. Low cut modified amplification is found to be effective in few individuals with ANSD. With advancement in technology, receiver in the canal (RIC) hearing aids have proven to be more effective than traditional behind the ear (BTE) hearing aids. Objective Thus, the present study attempts to determine the effectiveness of low cut modified amplification using RIC and BTE. Method Twenty participants with ANSD were fitted with BTE and RIC using traditional and low cut modified amplification. We divided them into good and poor performers based on unaided speech identification scores (SIS). We then compared aided SIS and aided benefit across conditions in good and poor performers with ANSD across both conditions using BTE and RIC. Results The results of the study showed that the aided performance improved with low cut modified amplification in both BTE and RIC hearing aids. The improvement noticed with low-cut modified fitting with RIC was significant in more than BTE, especially in good performers with ANSD. Conclusion The improved clarity and naturalness of sound with RIC may have led to better aided scores and better acceptance of the hearing aid. Thus, low-cut modified amplification, preferably with RIC, needs to be attempted in fitting individuals with ANSD, especially in those with good unaided SIS in quiet. <![CDATA[Study of Various Prognostic Factors Affecting Successful Myringoplasty in a Tertiary Care Centre]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000300250&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Introduction Myringoplasty is a commonly performed otologic surgery. Objectives The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of prognostic factors like - size, site of perforation, status of operating ear, approach, status of contralateral ear, experience of surgeon, primary or revision myringoplasty, and smoking in graft uptake, as well as to evaluate the hearing results after myringoplasty. Methods This is a prospective study. We included in our sample patients aged over 13 years with a Tubotympanic Chronic Otitis Media diagnosis. The patients underwent preoperative evaluation and Pure Tone Audiogram within one week prior to surgery.We performed myringoplasty using temporalis fascia graft with conventional underlay technique. We evaluated postoperative graft uptake and various factors related to the study and did a Pure Tone Audiogram at one year after surgery. Results The graft uptake rate after myringoplasty was 83.1% at one year in 219 patients. Graft uptake with normal opposite ear was 88.2%, and with Tubotympanic Chronic Otitis Media was 75% (statistically significant). We found no statistically significant difference in graft uptake results with other factors. We calculated hearing results of 132 patients with normal ossicular status who underwent myringoplasty. The average Air Conduction Threshold improvement was 11.44dB (p &lt; 0.001) and the average Air-Bone Gap closure was 8.89dB, highly statistically significant (p &lt; 0.001). Conclusion Diseased contralateral ear was a statistically significant poor prognostic factor for graft uptake after myringoplasty. Other factors studied were not statistically significant determining factor for graft uptake. Hearing improves significantly after myringoplasty if the ossicles are normal. <![CDATA[The Accuracy of Digital Radiography for Diagnosis of Fishbone Foreign Bodies in the Throat]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000300255&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Introduction Some patients with a fishbone as a foreign body of difficult diagnosis may require further investigations. Generally, radiography is used as the first choice for finding the fishbone. Objective The objective of this study is to determine the accuracy of digital radiography for diagnosis of fishbone foreign body in the throat Methods This descriptive experimental study design has three phases. In the first phase, we assessed subject contrast and visibility of fishbone on a homogeneous background; as for the second phase, we evaluated the embedded fishbone in the fresh cadaver’s throat. In the last phase, we studied the accuracy of radiography in diagnosing the fishbone foreign body at any site of the cadaver’s throat. Results The subject contrast of 15 fishbones ranged from 0.94 to 0.99. All types of fishbone were obvious in the first phase, whereas, in the second phase, visibility of fishbone was varied. The subject contrast and diameter of fishbone did not show statistically significant correlation with visibility (p = 0.09 and p = 0.24, respectively). In the third phase, embedded fishbone in the base of tongue was detected with the highest accuracy (sensitivity of 1.00 (95%CI: 0.44-1.00) and specificity of 0.92 (95%CI: 0.65-0.99)); whereas, the tonsil was of difficult interpretation with poorest diagnostic value (sensitivity of 0.00 (95%CI: 0.00-0.56) and specificity of 1.00 (95%CI: 0.76-1.00)). Conclusion The digital radiography provides the highest accuracy and benefit to the diagnosis of a fishbone foreign body at the base of the tongue; whereas, the tonsil was of difficult interpretation. <![CDATA[The Temporalis Muscle Flap for Palate Reconstruction: Case Series and Review of the Literature]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000300259&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Introduction The temporalis myofascial (TM) is an important reconstructive flap in palate reconstruction. Past studies have shown the temporalismyofascial flap to be safe as well as effective. Free flap reconstruction of palate defects is also a popular method used by contemporary surgeons. We aim to reaffirm the temporalis myofascial flap as a viable alternative to free flaps for palate reconstruction. Objective We report our results using the temporalis flap for palate reconstruction in one of the largest case series reported. Our literature review is the first to describe complication rates of palate reconstruction using the TM flap. Methods Retrospective chart review and review of the literature. Results Fifteen patients underwent palate reconstruction with the TMflap. There were no cases of facial nerve injury. Five (33%) of these patients underwent secondary cranioplasty to address temporal hollowing after the TM flap. Three out of fifteen (20%) had flap related complications. Fourteen (93%) of the palate defects were successfully reconstructed, with the remaining case pending a secondary procedure to close the defect. Ultimately, all of the flaps (100%) survived. Conclusion The TM flap is a viable method of palate defect closure with a high defect closure rate and flap survival rate. TM flaps are versatile in repairing palate defects of all sizes, in all regions of the palate. Cosmetic deformity created from TM flap harvest may be addressed using cranioplasty implant placement, either primarily or during a second stage procedure. <![CDATA[Relationship of Tumor Thickness with Neck Node Metastasis in Buccal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: An Experience at a Tertiary Care Hospital]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000300265&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Introduction Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the head and neck, with the buccal mucosa being the most common site involved. Early locoregional metastasis is a hallmark of this disease, and early stage tumors may harbor metastatic nodes that are occult. Certain parameters can help identify high-risk patients for whom the pattern of occult nodal metastasis can be predicted. Tumor thickness is one such objective parameter. Objective To determine the relationship of tumor thickness with neck node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa. Methods A retrospective chart review of 102 patients with biopsy-proven squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa with N0 Necks was performed. All patients underwent tumor resection with neck dissection, and the tumor thickness was measured. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results A total of 102 patients, of which 73.53% were males and 26.47% were females. Themean age of the patients was 49.3 ± 11.1 years. It was found that the risk of neck node metastasis in buccal squamous cell carcinoma increases 35.5 times for a tumor thickness ≥ 2 mm, and the risk of neck nodemetastasis in buccal squamous cell carcinoma decreases by 0.58 times for each centimeter decrease in tumor size, while the rate of occult neck lymph node metastasis was found to be 37%. Conclusion We conclude that tumor thickness is significantly related with neck nodal metastasis in buccal squamous cell carcinoma, considering the age of the patient and the size of the tumor. <![CDATA[Late-term Effects of Surgery on Nasal Functions in Patients who Underwent Total Laryngectomy Surgery]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000300270&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Introduction There is a common opinion that losing airway functions in total laryngectomy patients cause changes in nasal physiological rates. Studies conducted to review the subject present gaps, especially in terms of objective measurements. Objective We evaluated late-term effects of surgery on nasal functions in patients who underwent total laryngectomy surgery more than two years ago. Methods We included in the study 22 patients who had undergone total laryngectomy, as well as 24 healthy subjects with similar demographic characteristics as the control group. We performed acoustic rhinometry for intranasal volume and cross-sectional area measurements, saccharin test formeasurement of nasalmucociliary clearance, and smell identification test for evaluation of olfactory function in the patient and control groups. We compared and statistically analyzed the data obtained from the groups. Results In our study, although late-term (&gt;2 years) measurements were not statistically significant, we detected more nasal passage patency in the patient group than in the control group. In smell identification test, lower scores were obtained in the patient group. The difference between measurements in both groups was statistically significant. Conclusion We believe that since the upper respiratory tract is disabled due to tracheostomy in patients with total laryngectomy, atrophy occurs in the late term and, consequently, nasal mucociliary clearance is impaired. We also see diminished olfactory function in total laryngectomy patients. <![CDATA[Impact of Successful Choanal Atresia Repair on the Nasal Mucosa: A Preliminary Study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000300276&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Introduction Themain histological features of the nasalmucosa in choanal atresia are distorted cilia, marked increase of mucous submucosal glands associated with marked reduction of goblet cell density, and lymphocytic cellular infiltration. Objective To study the nasal mucosal changes in cases of choanal atresia after successful repair compared with pre-repair mucosal histological features. Methods Tissue samples were taken from the inferior turbinate of 3 patients (1 bilateral and 2 unilateral) who were successfully operated. Then, the biopsies were subjected to histopathological, histochemical and immunohistochemical studies. After that, the results were compared with pre-repair findings in the choanal atresia side and in the normal side. Results Four biopsies (4 repaired choanal atresia sides) of the mucosa of the inferior turbinate revealed that 1 patient (who had a bilateral choanal atresia repaired), after achieving a patent choana for 8 months, had not completely recovered a normal nasal mucosa. The other 2 patients, after 18 and 23 months of achieving a patent choana, showed normal nasal cavities. Conclusion The main histological features of the nasal mucosa in choanal atresia could be reversed by surgery, making the patients regain their choanal patency, with their mucosae changing back to normal gradually with time. <![CDATA[A Comparative Study between Universal Eclectic Septoplasty Technique and Cottle]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000300281&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Introduction Since the last century surgical correction of nasal septum deviation has been improved. The Universal Eclectic Technique was recently reported and there are still few studies dedicated to address this surgical approach. Objective The objective of this study is to compare the results of septal deviation correction achieved using the Universal Eclectic Technique (UET) with those obtained through Cottle’s Technique. Methods This is a prospective study with two consecutive case series totaling 90 patients (40 women and 50 men), aged between 18 and 55 years. We divided patients into two groups according to the surgical approach. Fifty-three patients underwent septoplasty through Universal Eclectic Technique (UET) and thirty-seven patients were submitted to classical Cottle’s septoplasty technique. All patients have answered the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation Scale (NOSE) questionnaire to assess pre and postoperative nasal obstruction. Results Statistical analysis showed a significantly shorter operating time for the UET group. Nasal edema assessment performed seven days after the surgery showed a prevalence of mild edema in UET group and moderate edema in Cottle’s technique group. In regard to complication rates, UET presented a single case of septal hematoma while in Cottle’s technique group we observed: 02 cases of severe edemas, 01 case of incapacitating headache, and 01 complaint of nasal pain. Conclusion The Universal Eclectic Technique (UET) has proven to be a safe and effective surgical technique with faster symptomatic improvement, low complication rates, and reduced surgical time when compared with classical Cottle’s technique. <![CDATA[Treatment Challenges of Group A Beta-hemolytic Streptococcal Pharyngo-Tonsillitis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000300286&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Introduction Despite its in vitro efficacy, penicillin often fails to eradicate Group A β-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) from patients with acute and relapsing pharyngotonsillitis (PT). Objective This review of the literature details the causes of penicillin failure to eradicate GABHS PT and the therapeutic modalities to reduce and overcome antimicrobial failure. Data Synthesis The causes of penicillin failure in eradicating GABHS PT include the presence of β lactamase producing bacteria (BLPB) that “protect” GABHS from any penicillin; the absence of bacteria that interfere with the growth of GABHS; coaggregation between GABHS and Moraxella catarrhalis; and the poor penetration of penicillin into the tonsillar tissues and the tonsillo-pharyngeal cells, which allows intracellular GABHS and Staphylococcus aureus to survive. The inadequate intracellular penetration of penicillin can allow intracellular GABHS and S. aureus to persist. In the treatment of acute tonsillitis, the use of cephalosporin can overcome these interactions by eradicating aerobic BLPB (including M. catarrhalis), while preserving the potentially interfering organisms and eliminating GABHS. Conclusion In treatment of recurrent and chronic PT, the administration of clindamycin, or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, can eradicate both aerobic and anaerobic BLPB, as well as GABHS. The superior intracellular penetration of cephalosporin and clindamycin also enhances their efficacy against intracellular GABHS and S. aureus. <![CDATA[Methods of Hearing Preservation during Cochlear Implantation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000300297&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Introduction Recent advances in surgical techniques and electrode design have made residual hearing preservation during cochlear implantation (CI) possible, achievable, and desirable. Objectives The objective of this study was to review the literature regarding methods used for hearing preservation during CI surgery. Data Synthesis We performed a search in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, PubMed databases, and Cochrane Library, using the keywords CI, hearing preservation, CI electrode design, and CI soft surgery. We fully read about 15 studies that met the criteria described in “study selection”. The studies showed that several factors could contribute to possible cochlear damage during or after CI surgery and must be kept in mind; mechanical damage during electrode insertion, shock waves in the perilymph fluid due to implantation, acoustic trauma due to drilling, loss of perilymph and disruption of inner ear fluid homeostasis, potential bacterial infection, and secondary intracochlear fibrous tissue formation. The desire to preserve residual hearing has led to the development of the soft-surgery protocols with its various components; avoiding entry of blood into the cochlea and the use of hyaluronate seem to be reasonably supported, whereas the use of topical steroids is questionable. The site of entry into the cochlea, electrode design, and the depth of insertion are also important contributing factors. Conclusion Hearing preservation would be useful for CI patients to benefit from the residual low frequency, as well as for the children who could be candidate for future regenerative hair cell therapy. <![CDATA[Pathophysiology and Diagnosis of Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: A Review of the Literature]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000300302&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Introduction Vertebrobasilar insufficiency is defined as transitory ischemia of the vertebrobasilar circulation. Dizziness, vertigo, headaches, vomit, diplopia, blindness, ataxia, imbalance, and weakness in both sides of the body are the most common symptoms. Objective To review the literature regarding the three available diagnostic testing in patients with dizziness complaints secondary to vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI): magnetic resonance angiography; transcranial Doppler ultrasound; and vertebrobasilar deprivation testing. Data Synthesis We selected 28 studies that complied with our selection criteria for appraisal. The most frequent cause of the hemodynamic changes leading to VBI is atherosclerosis. The main clinical symptoms are dizziness, vertigo, headaches, vomit, diplopia, blindness, ataxia, imbalance, and weakness in both sides of the body. Even though arteriography is considered the most important exam to diagnose the disease, the inherent risks of this exam should be taken into consideration. The magnetic resonance angiography has been widely studied and is a good method to identify and localize any occlusions and stenosis in both neck and intracranial great vessels. Conclusion Each patient with a suspected diagnosis of VBI should be individually evaluated and treated, taking in consideration the pros and cons of each diagnostic testing and treatment option. <![CDATA[Adenomatous Tumors of the Middle Ear: A Literature Review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642017000300308&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Introduction Neuroendocrine adenomas of the middle ear (NAME) are uncommon causes of middle ear masses. Mostly limited to case reports and small series, the literature is poor in providing an overall assessment of these tumors. Objective To review the current literature about all aspects of the disease, including its etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. Data Synthesis The pathogenesis of adenomatous tumors of the middle ear is not clear yet. One potential explanation is that an undifferentiated pluripotent endodermal stem cell may still be present in the middle ear mucosal surface, and may be the origin of the tumors. It typically appears as a nonspecific retrotympanic mass. The average age of onset for the disease is the fifth decade, and the most common clinical symptom is conductive hearing loss. Malign behavior is rare. There are numerous differential diagnoses of NAME. The final diagnosis depends on microscopic findings. The preoperative evaluation should include the use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The adjunctive therapy of middle ear adenomatous tumors with radiotherapy, chemotherapy or somatostatin analogs is generally not recommended. Conclusion There is still much debate on pathogenesis and classification of NAME. Saliba’s classification is currently the most complete and preferable one. Aggressive surgical procedure with ossicular chain excision is the gold standard treatment. Followup with physical and radiological exams is mandatory, particularly if the first procedure was conservative, without the removal of the encased ossicles.