Scielo RSS <![CDATA[International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology]]> vol. 22 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Hearing Loss in the Elderly: Is the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly - Screening Version Effective in Diagnosis When Compared to the Audiometric Test?]]> Abstract Introduction Hearing losses inherent to the natural process of aging represent today a major public health issue, despite the little attention that their adequate care still receives. Early recognition and proper management of these shortcomings can significantly improve hearing, as well as the patient’s general quality of life, reducing the overall impact of this important and prevalent condition of the aging process. Objective The aim of this research was to evaluate the accuracy of the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly - Screening Version (HHIE-S) in the diagnosis of hearing loss in the elderly when compared with the audiometric test. Methods Through a cross-sectional study, our target population was composed of 138 individuals, aged over 60 and with any otorhinolaryngological complaints, recruited at the Clinic of Otorhinolaryngology and Speech Therapy of the Faculdade de Medicina de Marília (Famema), in the city ofMarília, SP, Brazil. Patients already in the process of auditory rehabilitation were excluded, as well as those who did not demonstrate the minimum level of oral understanding necessary to allow the interview. Results The prevalence of hearing loss according to the questionnaire was of 76.1%, while audiometry showed 79.7%. We found the diagnostic accuracy of the instrument to be of 86.2%, with a sensitivity of 89.1% and a specificity of 75.0%, regardless of gender. Conclusion Thereby, we conclude that the standardized questionnaire under rating is suitable for the screening of hearing loss in the elderly, given its high accuracy and userfriendly quality. <![CDATA[The Effects of Yoga in Patients Suffering from Subjective Tinnitus]]> Abstract Introduction Tinnitus is a perception of sound in the absence of an external source and it is a distressing issue. Yoga is a system of mind-body practices with the goal of uniting the body,mind and soul. It has been shown to reduce anxiety and stress, as well as improving the quality of life. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of yoga in patients suffering from chronic subjective tinnitus. Methods Twelve subjects previously diagnosed with chronic subjective tinnitus were selected for the study. The patients were asked to attend to yoga classes once a week and to practice yoga at home using a worksheet for 3 months. Each yoga class consisted of body exercises (asana), breathing (pranayama) and meditation (shavasana and yoga nidra). Tinnitus scores before and after the yoga classes were compared using the Wilcoxon test. Results Among the 12 patients, there were 4 men and 8 women and their mean age was 52.5 years. The median duration of tinnitus among the group was 5.4 years. There were statistically significant differences in the stress (p = 0.01), handicap (p = 0.004) and severity (p = 0.007) questionnaires scores. Conclusion This study indicated that yoga practices may reduce life stress and symptoms of subjective tinnitus. <![CDATA[Evaluation of Dizziness Handicap in Adolescents and Adults with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder]]> Abstract Introduction Vestibular symptoms and damage to the vestibular branch of the eighth cranial nerve is reported in individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). However, the real life handicap caused by these vestibular problems in individuals with ANSD is not studied. Objective The present study attempted to evaluate the dizziness-related handicap in adolescents and adults with ANSD. Method The dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) was administered to 40 adolescents and adults diagnosed with ANSD. The study also attempted to determine if there is any gender effect on DHI scores and its correlation to the reported onset of hearing loss. Results The results of the study showed that adolescents and adults with ANSD had a moderate degree of dizziness-related handicap. The dizziness affected their quality of life, causing emotional problems. There was no gender effect, and the level of the handicap was greater in the cases in which the onset of the hearing loss was reported soon after the diagnosis of ANSD. There could be a vestibular compensation that could have resulted in a reduction in symptoms in individuals in whom the onset of the hearing loss was reported later on. Conclusion Thus, a detailed assessment of vestibular problems and their impact on quality of life is essential in adolescents and adults with ANSD. Appropriate management strategies should be considered to resolve their vestibular problems and improve their quality of life. <![CDATA[The Effect of the Cholesterol Levels on Noise-Induced Hearing Loss]]> Abstract Introduction Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), which is one of the most common occupational diseases among industrialized populations, is associated with longstanding exposure to high levels of noise. The pathogenesis of NIHL is not clear, but some genes and their activity at the tissue level have been investigated. Hypercholesterolemia, which can disturb the microcirculation, can be one of the underlying pathologies in hearing loss. Objective To investigate the relationship between NIHL and hypercholesterolemia. Methods The study group was selected among workers who had an occupational exposure of 85 dB of noise for at least 10 years. The audiologic assessment was recorded at seven frequencies (500 Hz, 1,000 Hz, 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, 4,000 Hz, 6,000 Hz and 8,000 Hz). A total of 456 workers were included in the study and divided into two groups: the control group (252 patients) and the NIHL group (204 patients). After the audiologic measurement, blood samples were taken and investigated for blood cholesterol levels. According to these results, the groups were compared. Results Both groups were similarly distributed regarding age and occupational exposure time (p &gt; 0.05). We could not detect any association between cholesterol levels and noise-induced hearing loss (p &lt; 0.05). According to logistic regression analyses, the odds ratios are not significant for both hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia (p &gt; 0.05). Conclusion Noise-induced hearing loss is still a common occupational problem that can be prevented by hearing conservation programs and occupational health and safety training. Still, we know little about the relationship between NIHL and hypercholesterolemia. According to our findings, we cannot detect any relationship. Controlled studies and studies with human individuals can be made possible in the future with diagnostic innovations in tissue imaging and tissuemicrocircular sampling. <![CDATA[Computerized Auditory Training in Students: Electrophysiological and Subjective Analysis of Therapeutic Effectiveness]]> Abstract Introduction Computerized auditory training (CAT) has been building a good reputation in the stimulation of auditory abilities in cases of auditory processing disorder (APD). Objective To measure the effects of CAT in students with APD, with typical or atypical phonological acquisition, through electrophysiological and subjective measures, correlating them pre- and post-therapy. Methods The sample for this study includes14 children with APD, subdivided into children with APD and typical phonological acquisition (G1), and children with APD and atypical phonological acquisition (G2). Phonological evaluation of children (PEC), long latency auditory evoked potential (LLAEP) and scale of auditory behaviors (SAB) were conducted to help with the composition of the groups and with the therapeutic intervention. The therapeutic intervention was performed using the software Escuta Ativa (CTS Informática, Pato Branco, Brazil) in 12 sessions of 30 minutes, twice a week. For data analysis, the appropriate statistical tests were used. Results A decrease in the latency of negative wave N2 and the positive wave P3 in the left ear in G1, and a decrease of P2 in the right ear in G2 were observed. In the analysis comparing the pre- and post-CAT groups, there was a significant difference in P1 latency in the left ear and P2 latency in the right ear, pre-intervention. Furthermore, eight children had an absence of the P3 wave, pre-CAT, but after the intervention, all of them presented the P3 wave. There were changes in the SAB score pre- and post-CAT in both groups. The presence of correlation between the scale and some LLAEP components was observed. Conclusion The CAT produced an electrophysiological modification, which became evident in the effects of the effects of neural plasticity after CAT. The SAB proved to be useful in measuring the therapeutic effects of the intervention. Moreover, there were behavioral changes in the SAB (higher scores) and correlation with LLAEP. <![CDATA[The Effects of Prognostic Factors in Idiopathic Sudden Hearing Loss]]> Abstract Introduction Sudden hearing loss is one of the otologic emergencies. The treatment of this disease is affected negatively by some prognostic factors. Objective In this study, the effects of early treatment initiation in patients with idiopathic sudden hearing loss and of prognostic factors in early treated patients were investigated. Methods Out of the 216 patients admitted between September 2007 and September 2015, 154 were identified as having idiopathic sudden hearing loss; they were followedup for a mean time of 7.4 months, and evaluated retrospectively. The effects of several parameters on the success of the treatment were statistically evaluated, such as the time the treatment was initiated, being of the female gender, the severity of the hearing loss, having descending type audiogram patterns, being older than 60 years old, and the co-presence of vertigo. Results Success rates were found to be significantly higher in idiopathic hearing loss patients that were admitted within the first week (p &lt; 0.05) of the onset of the hearing loss. However, the outcomes were found to be similar when patients admitted within the first 3 days and 4-7 days after the occurrence of the hearing loss were compared (p &gt; 0.05). Parameters such as female gender, severe hearing loss, descending type audiogram, being older than 60 years old, and co-presence of vertigo didn’t reveal statistically significant effects on the outcome (p &gt;0.05). Conclusion The aforementioned prognostic factors, which are well-known in the literature, did not have significant effects when the idiopathic sudden hearing loss treatment was initiated within the first 7 days of the onset of the hearing loss. <![CDATA[Speech-evoked Brainstem Auditory Responses and Auditory Processing Skills: A Correlation in Adults with Hearing Loss]]> Abstract Introduction The auditory system consists of sensory structures and central connections. The evaluation of the auditory pathway at a central level can be performed through behavioral and electrophysiological tests, because they are complementary to each other and provide important information about comprehension. Objective To correlate the findings of speech brainstem-evoked response audiometry with the behavioral tests Random Gap Detection Test and Masking Level Difference in adults with hearing loss. Methods All patients were submitted to a basic audiological evaluation, to the aforementioned behavioral tests, and to an electrophysiological assessment, by means of click-evoked and speech-evoked brainstem response audiometry. Results There were no statistically significant values among the electrophysiological test and the behavioral tests. However, there was a significant correlation between the V and A waves, as well as the D and F waves, of the speech-evoked brainstem response audiometry peaks. Such correlations are positive, indicating that the increase of a variable implies an increase in another and vice versa. Conclusion It was possible to correlate the findings of the speech-evoked brainstem response audiometry with those of the behavioral tests Random Gap Detection and Masking Level Difference. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between them. This shows that the electrophysiological evaluation does not depend uniquely on the behavioral skills of temporal resolution and selective attention. <![CDATA[Does Body Mass Index Interfere in the Formation of Speech Formants?]]> Abstract Introduction Studies in the fields of voice and speech have increasingly focused on the vocal tract and the importance of its structural integrity, and changes in the anatomy and configuration of the vocal tract determine the variations in phonatory and acoustic measurements, especially in the formation of the formants (Fs). Recent studies have revealed the functional consequences arising from being overweight and having an accumulation of fat in the pharyngeal region, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and impacts on the voice. Objectives To assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and analysis of the speech. Methods This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo (no. 288,430). The cohort consisted of 124 individuals aged between 18 and 45 with full permanent dentition and selected randomly. The participants underwent a brief medical history taking, BMI assessments and recording emissions of the sustained vowels /a/, /ε/, /i/, and /u/ by acoustic program PRAAT (v. 5.3.85, Boersma and Weenink, Amsterdam, Netherlands). Recordings were taken using a unidirectional microphone headset (model Karsect HT-9, Guangdong, China), with a condenser connected to an external sound card (USB-SA 2.0, model Andrea, PureAudio™, Pleasant Grove, UT, USA), to reduce noise. Results There was a significant correlation between BMI and formant 3 (F3) vowel /a/; however, there was a low degree of correlation intensity. Conclusions We did not observe a correlation between the BMI and the speech formants, but we believe there is a trend in this correlation that leads to changes in speech patterns with increases in BMI. <![CDATA[Microbiology of Tracheal Secretions: What to Expect with Children and Adolescents with Tracheostomies]]> Abstract Introduction People with tracheostomies exhibit a higher risk of colonization of the lower respiratory tract, acute tracheitis and pneumonia. Despite this, the culture of tracheal secretions is not a routine inmost hospitals, and sometimes empiric therapy is based on personal experience, which is not an ideal situation. Objective To recognize the pathogens present in the tracheal secretions collected from people up to 18 years old with tracheostomies. Methods Prospective evaluation of patients under the age of 18 of a tertiary care hospital. A standardized questionnaire was completed, and tracheal secretion aspirates were sent for microbiological cultures and antibiograms. Results Twenty patients under 18 years of age were evaluated, 65% of whom were male. The microbiological culture was positive in 90% of the patients, and the most common microorganisms found were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (55.5%) and Staphylococcus aureus (27.7%). Discussion Tracheostomized children and adolescents have respiratory tracts colonized by pathogens, the most common of which is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These patients must undergo tracheal secretion cultures, whether they present symptoms or not, to determine if there is a correlation between the colonization and the infections. This finding could guide the adequate treatment, avoiding the inappropriate use of antibiotics and indicating the better therapy in cases of laryngeal reconstruction. Conclusion In this sample, the culture of tracheal secretions was mainly positive, and the most common agent was P. aeruginosa. We suggest the routine access to Brazilian children and adolescents tracheal secretion cultures, which could help tomake a profile of these children and guide the use of antibiotics. <![CDATA[Adenotonsillar Hypertrophy in Pre-School Children with Sickle Cell Disease and Diagnostic Accuracy of the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children]]> Abstract Introduction Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is more common in children with sickle cell disease, and can lead to sleep-disordered breathing. Objectives To determine the frequency of adenotonsillar hypertrophy in pre-school children with sickle cell disease and assess the diagnostic accuracy of the sleepdisordered breathing subscale in the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children. Method Observational study with a group of 48 children with sickle cell disease and a control group of 35 children without the disease. The children underwent oropharingoscopy and video nasal endoscopy. The parents and/or guardians answered the questions of the subscale. Results Adenotonsillar hypertrophy was observed in 25% of the children in the study group, and in 20% of the children in the control group, with no statistical difference between the groups. The subscale score ranged from 3 to 11 in both groups. There was a statistical significance in the study group. The average was 4.79 (standard deviation [SD] ± 2.50), with 4.19 (SD ± 1.72) among the children without adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and 6.5 (SD ± 3.40) among the children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. There was also a statistical significance in the control group. The average was 5.23 (SD ± 2.81), with 4.44 (SD ± 2.2) among the children without adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and 7.87 (SD ± 2.89) among the children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Conclusion Adenotonsillar hypertrophy was not associated with sickle cell disease in pre-school children. The subscale of sleep-disordered breathing in the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children was a useful tool for the diagnostic suspicion of adenotonsillar hypertrophy in children in this age group. <![CDATA[Development and Evaluation of a Blog about Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate and Hearing]]> Abstract Introduction Cleft lip and cleft palate can result in impairments in communication, specifically in hearing, making the use of technological resources such as blogs a fundamental guideline for health professionals. Objective The aim of this study was to prepare and analyze the access to a blog about cleft lip and cleft palate and hearing as a pedagogical tool for health professionals. Methods The first stage for the development of the blogwas the selection of the content that would be addressed and the respective illustrations. The second stage was making the blog available through theWordPress platform, and the third stage included the evaluation of the blog, of the access to theWordPress statistical features, and of the quality of the blog through the Emory questionnaire, which was answered by 75 professionals. Results The blog, titled “Fissure and Hearing”, was developed with the architecture of a digital information environment containing a system of organization, navigation, labeling and search (first stage). The address hosting the blog was: http://fissuraeaudicao. (second stage). The result of the third stage included 56,269 views of the blog from different countries, and Brazil was the country with the highest viewing. Regarding the assessment by the Emory questionnaire, we found that for most of the major issues, the percentages obtained were or equal to 90%, while the analysis of the scales, navigation and structure presented the lowest scores. Conclusion The blog was developed and enabled greater access to information available on the web about cleft lip and cleft palate and hearing. <![CDATA[Modified In-Office Maxillary Balloon Sinus Dilation for Post-Procedure Sinus Monitoring and Access]]> Abstract Introduction As experience grows with in-office balloon sinus dilation (BSD) procedures, technique modifications will evolve to meet specific needs. The major disadvantage with the maxillary BSD procedure is that the intact uncinate process prevents visualization of and instrument access into the maxillary sinus both intraoperatively and postoperatively. Combining a partial or complete uncinectomy procedure with maxillary BSD could be beneficial in selected patients with certain maxillary sinus problems. Objective The primary objective of this study was to see if, in selected patients, combining an uncinectomy and maxillary sinus BSD together allowed visualization of and access to the maxillary sinus cavity at the time of the procedure and at follow-up visits. Method A chart review was completed for BSD cases performed from 2013 through mid-2015 identifying patients who underwent partial or complete uncinectomy with in-office maxillary sinus BSD. A total of 14 patients were identified, with 26 sinuses treated. The data collected included: difficulty or problems in performing an uncinectomy with the maxillary sinus BSD; visualization and access to the maxillary sinus cavity both intraoperatively and at follow-up visits; and occurrence of complications or late adverse sequelae. All patients completed a minimum 6-month follow-up. Results Combined uncinectomy and maxillary sinus BSD procedures were easily completed for all patients without complications, and no late adverse sequelae were encountered. The maxillary sinuses could be visualized and accessed, if needed, intraoperatively and at all follow-up visits. Conclusions In selected subsets of maxillary sinus conditions this procedure modification can provide significant benefits. A case is presented for illustration. <![CDATA[Tomographical Findings in Adult Patients Undergoing Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Revision]]> Abstract Introduction Many patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery still have an uncontrolled clinical disease in the late post-operative period. Up to 11.4% of the patients will require a revision surgery. Findings such as the residual uncinated process and the lateralization of the middle turbinate were considered by some studies as being responsible for failure in the primary surgery. Objectives To describe the tomographical findings in adult patients undergoing revision endoscopic sinus surgery, the profile of those patients, and verify the mucosal thickening level of the paranasal sinus. Methods Data were collected from medical records and computed tomography reports of 28 patients undergoing revision sinus surgery on a private service in the city of Blumenau between 2007 and 2014. The score of Lund-Mackay was used to verify the mucosal thickening level. Results Among the 28 patients, 23 were reoperated once, 3 were reoperated twice, and 2 were reoperated 3 times. The most relevant findings were mucosal thickening of the maxillary sinus (89.28%), deviated septum (75%), thickening of the ethmoid (50%) and sphenoidal sinuses (39.28%), and pneumatization of the middle turbinate (39.28%). The average obtained in the Lund-Mackay score was 5.71, withmost patients classified in the lower range of punctuation. Conclusion The analysis of the computed tomography scans showed persistent structures that may be responsible for the failure of the primary surgery. Computed tomography is a useful tool to plan the surgery and quantify the post-operative success. <![CDATA[Tobacco Influence on Taste and Smell: Systematic Review of the Literature]]> Abstract Introduction In Brazil, estimates show that 14.7% of the adult population smokes, and changes in smell and taste arising from tobacco consumption are largely present in this population, which is an aggravating factor to these dysfunctions. Objectives The objective of this study is to systematically review the findings in the literature about the influence of smoking on smell and taste. Data Synthesis Our research covered articles published from January 1980 to August 2014 in the following databases: MEDLINE (accessed through PubMed), LILACS, Cochrane Library, and SciELO.We conducted separate lines of research: one concerning smell and the other, taste. We analyzed all the articles that presented randomized controlled studies involving the relation between smoking and smell and taste. Articles that presented unclear methodologies and those whose main results did not target the smell or taste of the subjects were excluded. Titles and abstracts of the articles identified by the research strategy were evaluated by researchers. We included four studies, two of which were exclusively about smell: the first noted the relation between the perception of puff strength and nicotine content; the second did not find any differences in the thresholds and discriminative capacity between smokers and nonsmokers. One article considered only taste and supports the relation between smoking and flavor, another considered both sensory modalities and observes positive results toward the relation immediately after smoking cessation. Conclusion Three of the four studies presented positive results for the researched variables. <![CDATA[Computer-Based Auditory Training Programs for Children with Hearing Impairment - A Scoping Review]]> Abstract Introduction Communication breakdown, a consequence of hearing impairment (HI), is being fought by fitting amplification devices and providing auditory training since the inception of audiology. The advances in both audiology and rehabilitation programs have led to the advent of computer-based auditory training programs (CBATPs). Objective To review the existing literature documenting the evidence-based CBATPs for children with HIs. Since there was only one such article, we also chose to review the commercially available CBATPs for children with HI. The strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature were reviewed in order to improve further researches. Data Synthesis Google Scholar and PubMed databases were searched using various combinations of keywords. The participant, intervention, control, outcome and study design (PICOS) criteria were used for the inclusion of articles. Out of 124 article abstracts reviewed, 5 studies were shortlisted for detailed reading. One among them satisfied all the criteria, and was taken for review. The commercially available programs were chosen based on an extensive search in Google. The reviewed article was wellstructured, with appropriate outcomes. The commercially available programs cover many aspects of the auditory training through a wide range of stimuli and activities. Conclusions There is a dire need for extensive research to be performed in the field of CBATPs to establish their efficacy, also to establish them as evidence-based practices. <![CDATA[Clinical Features and Treatment of Fibrous Histiocytomas of the Tongue: A Systematic Review]]> Abstract Introduction Benign fibrous histiocytomas are common lesions of the skin that rarely affect the tongue. Such cases are available in the literature exclusively as case reports. Similarly, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, now classified as undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, is exceedingly rare in the tongue and not fully understood. Objectives This study systematically reviews the available literature discussing the clinical and pathological features of malignant and benign fibrous histiocytomas. Data Synthesis A total of 20 cases were included in this review. Patient-level data were extracted from cases to include clinical presentation, workup, treatment, and outcome. Conclusion Benign fibrous histiocytomas are consistent in clinical and histopathologic presentation. Surgical treatment provides excellent outcome, with no recurrence in all excised cases. Malignant tumors have a more aggressive clinical and pathological presentation. Surgical treatment with possible adjuvant radiotherapy resulted in recurrence in 40% of cases (follow-up of 24 months), and death due to disease in 47% of patients (follow-up of 19 months).