Scielo RSS <![CDATA[International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1809-486420140002&lang=es vol. 18 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Dysphagia: A Symptom to Be Controlled]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200090&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Lateral Intercrural Suture to Decrease the Interdomal Distance to Improve the Definition of the Nasal Tip in Primary Rhinoplasty]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200092&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Several surgical techniques emphasizing sutures on the lower lateral cartilage have been studied by surgeons as instruments to improve nasal tip remodeling. It is already known that the domal divergence angle and its definition angle can be modified by lateral intercrural suture (LIS). Techniques for measuring these structures are not yet standardized. Objectives Assess the efficacy of LIS using polydioxanone 4–0 absorbable thread by interdomal distance and systematize the LIS technique to improve nasal tip definition. Materials and Methods This prospective study measured and analyzed interdomal distances measured preoperatively and perioperatively compared with 3- and 6-month postoperative measurements. Results LIS was efficient on reducing interdomal distances. Conclusion LIS is statistically safe and efficient and has low morbidity when utilized in patients with mild to moderate deformities, because it reduces the domal divergence angle, effectively sustaining the nasal tip. <![CDATA[Tracheal Decannulation Protocol in Patients Affected by Traumatic Brain Injury]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200108&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction The frequency of tracheostomy in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) contrasts with the lack of objective criteria for its management. The study arose from the need for a protocol in the decision to remove the tracheal tube. Objective To evaluate the applicability of a protocol for tracheal decannulation. Methods A prospective study with 20 patients, ranging between 21 and 85 years of age (average 33.55), 4 of whom were women (20%) and 16 were men (80%). All patients had been diagnosed by a neurologist as having TBI, and the anatomical region of the lesion was known. Patients were evaluated following criteria for tracheal decannulation through a clinical evaluation protocol developed by the authors. Results Decannulation was performed in 12 (60%) patients. Fourteen (70%) had a score greater than 8 on the Glasgow Coma Scale and only 2 (14%) of these were not able to undergo decannulation. Twelve (60%) patients maintained the breathing pattern with occlusion of the tube and were successfully decannulated. Of the 20 patients evaluated, 11 (55%) showed no signs suggestive of tracheal aspiration, and of these, 9 (82%) began training on occlusion of the cannula. The protocol was relevant to establish the beginning of the decannulation process. The clinical assessment should focus on the patient's condition to achieve early tracheal decannulation. Conclusion This study allowed, with the protocol, to establish six criteria for tracheal decannulation: level of consciousness, respiration, tracheal secretion, phonation, swallowing, and coughing. <![CDATA[Elaboration and Evaluation of Contents about Hearing Health Inserted in Cybertutor]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200115&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Cybertutor (electronic tutor) is a type of information and communication technology to disseminate knowledge about hearing, aiming at the prevention of hearing alterations and, when needed, early treatment, in addition to social inclusion of the hearing impaired. However, it is important to evaluate the level of language used in the content and the subjective perception of the target public regarding improvements of the tool. Objective To improve content about hearing health inserted in a cybertutor and to evaluate the level of legibility and the quality of the content and material made available. Method For the construction of the content, text and audiovisual resources were used, based on scientific publications, and were evaluated objectively with Flesch Reading Ease test and subjectively with a questionnaire created by the authors and answered by 10 ninth-year pupils. Results Two modules on hearing health were created, “Hearing Health” and “Intervention and Rehabilitation,” which received Flesch scores of 50.8 and 51.4%, respectively, making it necessary to have a sixth- to ninth-year education to understand the material. The students' evaluation in reference to language and material showed that 55.5% considered the contents excellent; 38.2% classified the contents as satisfactory; 6.3% considered them reasonable; and 0% classified them as unsatisfactory. Conclusion The contents inserted in the cybertutor about hearing health presented a language level considered easy for the age group of the target population, in addition to receiving good subjective evaluation from the pupils, facilitating access to the information. <![CDATA[Vestibular Findings in Military Band Musicians]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200122&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Exposure to music is the subject of many studies because it is related to an individual's professional and social activities. Objectives Evaluate the vestibular behavior in military band musicians. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed. Nineteen musicians with ages ranging from 21 to 46 years were evaluated (average = 33.7 years and standard deviation = 7.2 years). They underwent anamnesis and vestibular and otolaryngologic evaluation through vectoelectronystagmography. Results The most evident otoneurologic symptoms in the anamnesis were tinnitus (84.2%), hearing difficulties (47.3%), dizziness (36.8%), headache (26.3%), intolerance to intense sounds (21.0%), and earache (15.7%). Seven musicians (37.0%) showed vestibular abnormality, which occurred in the caloric test. The abnormality was more prevalent in the peripheral vestibular system, and there was a predominance of irritative peripheral vestibular disorders. Conclusion The alteration in vestibular exam occurred in the caloric test (37.0%). There were changes in the prevalence of peripheral vestibular system with a predominance of irritative vestibular dysfunction. Dizziness was the most significant symptom for the vestibular test in correlation with neurotologic symptoms. The present study made it possible to verify the importance of the labyrinthine test, which demonstrates that this population should be better studied because the systematic exposure to high sound pressure levels may cause major vestibular alterations. <![CDATA[Masticatory Changes in Oral Breath Secondary to Allergic Rhinitis: Integrative Review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200128&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction The III Brazilian Consensus on Rhinitis (2012) defines allergic rhinitis as a nasal mucosa inflammation, mediated by immunoglobulin E, after exposure to allergens. The classic signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis are nasal obstruction, watery rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal itching, often reversible either spontaneously or with treatment, and mouth breathing (breathing predominantly through the mouth, regardless of the cause, due to a nasal breathing impairment) in some cases. Objective To evaluate the literature on masticatory changes in children with mouth breathing due to allergic rhinitis. Methods We conducted a search of the past 10 years, at Bireme and MEDLINE databases, for articles that covered masticatory changes in children with mouth breathing secondary to allergic rhinitis. Results We found 1,986 articles, including 15 repeated in databases, but only two articles met the inclusion criteria fully. Discussion We found few studies to answer the question raised in this review, and those studies have some methodological limitations. Most articles claimed no have statistically significant differences in masticatory changes in this population. Conclusion A better controlled study (isolating diseases, exposure time), with a larger sample (sample calculation appropriate), would be necessary to examine such changes. <![CDATA[The Role of Speech Therapy in Patients Who Underwent Laryngeal Microsurgery due to Phonotraumatic Lesions and Lesions Unrelated to Phonotrauma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200132&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction The role of the speech-language pathology in the multiprofessional team dealing with laryngology and the voice has been recognized for a long time. Scientific studies in this field recommend therapies for laryngeal microsurgeries; few of the studies, however, effectively evaluate the result of postoperative speech therapy. Objective To compare speech therapy evaluation and treatment among patients with phonotraumatic lesions and patients with lesions unrelated to phonotrauma who underwent laryngeal microsurgery. Methods This study was performed at IPO Hospital (Paranaense Institute of Otorhinolaryngology, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil) between February 2010 and February 2011. Of 254 patients who underwent laryngeal microsurgery, 208 patients were included in the study and divided in two groups: group A with phonotraumatic lesions (n = 131) and group B with lesions unrelated to phonotrauma (n = 77). The number of sessions and the functional result after speech therapy were evaluated. Results The number of postoperative phonotherapy sessions after microsurgery was up to 10 sessions in 89.31% and 87.71% for groups A and B, respectively. Phonotherapy treatment showed a better functional evolution in group A (92.37%). Conclusion A significant difference was observed only in functional evolution, which was better in the group with phonotraumatic lesions (p &lt; 0.0001). <![CDATA[Auditory Effects of Exposure to Noise and Solvents: A Comparative Study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200136&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Industry workers are exposed to different environmental risk agents that, when combined, may potentiate risks to hearing. Objective To evaluate the effects of the combined exposure to noise and solvents on hearing in workers. Methods A transversal retrospective cohort study was performed through documentary analysis of an industry. The sample (n = 198) was divided into four groups: the noise group (NG), exposed only to noise; the noise and solvents group (NSG), exposed to noise and solvents; the noise control group and noise and solvents control group (CNS), no exposure. Results The NG showed 16.66% of cases suggestive of bilateral noise-induced hearing loss and NSG showed 5.26%. The NG and NSG had worse thresholds than their respective control groups. Females were less susceptible to noise than males; however, when simultaneously exposed to solvents, hearing was affected in a similar way, resulting in significant differences (p &lt; 0.05). The 40- to 49-year-old age group was significantly worse (p &lt; 0.05) in the auditory thresholds in the NSG compared with the CNS. Conclusion The results observed in this study indicate that simultaneous exposure to noise and solvents can damage the peripheral auditory system. <![CDATA[Epidemiologic Profile of Patients with Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a University Hospital]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200142&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction There are several studies on the pathophysiology and prevalence of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS), however, few studies address the epidemiological profile of these patients. Objective The aim of this study is to analyze the epidemiological profile of patients diagnosed with OSAS referred to the Sleep Medicine clinic. Methods Cross-sectional individualized study covering 57 patients who were referred from the general ENT clinic to the Sleep Medicine clinic. Results Classification of OSAS: 16% had primary snoring, 14% mild OSAS, 18% moderate OSAS, and 52% severe OSAS. Distribution according to weight: 7% had normal weight, 2% were overweight (BMI 2530), 37% grade I obesity (BMI 25.1 to 30); 9% grade II obesity (BMI 30.1 to 35) and grade III obesity (BMI greater than 35) in 45% of cases. Distribution Friedmann stage: 9% were classified as grade I, 35% were considered grade II, 54% as grade III and 2% as grade IV. Treatment adopted: 46% were treated with CPAP; 19% were treated with surgery; oral appliance was designed for 14% patients, 7% were given roncoplastic injection and 7% positional therapy. A new polysomnography was asked to 5% of patients. To 2% of patients given the oral appliance was due to treatment failure with roncoplastic injection. Conclusion Most of the patients are male, obese and with moderate or severe OSAS. Snoring and daytime excessive sleepiness were the most common symptoms. The surgical procedures employed in this service (roncoplastic injection, UPPP and lateral pharyngoplasty) followed the recommendations of the available literature. <![CDATA[Temporal Resolution Ability in Students with Dyslexia and Reading and Writing Disorders]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200146&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction The Gaps-in-Noise (GIN) test assesses the hearing ability of temporal resolution. The development of this ability can be considered essential for learning how to read. Objective Identify temporal resolution in individuals diagnosed with reading and writing disorders compared with subjects with dyslexia. Methods A sample of 26 subjects of both genders, age 10 to 15 years, included 11 diagnosed with dyslexia and 15 diagnosed with reading and writing disorders. Subjects did not display otologic, neurologic, and/or cognitive diseases. A control group of 30 normal-hearing subjects was formed to compare thresholds and percentages obtained from the GIN test. The responses were obtained considering two measures of analysis: the threshold gap and the percentage of correct gap. Results The threshold was lower in the GIN for the typical group than for the other groups. There was no difference between groups with dyslexia and with reading and writing disorders. The GIN results of the typical group revealed a higher percentage of correct answer than in the other groups. No difference was obtained between the groups with dyslexia and with reading and writing disorders. Conclusion The GIN test identified a difficulty in auditory ability of temporal resolution in individuals with reading and writing disorders and in individuals with dyslexia in a similar way. <![CDATA[Detection of Respiratory Viruses in Nasopharyngeal Swab and Adenoid Tissue from Children Submitted to Adenoidectomy: Pre- and Postoperative Analysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200150&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction The presence of respiratory viruses in lymphoid tissues of the nasopharynx and oropharynx and its impact on recurrent infections and hypertrophy of these tissues are not yet fully understood. Objective To identify and determine the prevalence of major respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal secretions and adenoid tissue pre- and postoperatively of children undergoing adenoidectomy. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted in 36 patients under 12 years of age with upper airway lymphoid hypertrophy who were undergoing adenoidectomy, in which various respiratory viruses were investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction in adenoid tissue and nasopharyngeal secretions collected preoperatively and 30 days postoperatively. Results At least 1 viral agent was isolated in any of the samples collected in 58.3% of children and 25.9% of total samples. Respiratory viruses were identified in 33.8% of preoperative nasopharyngeal specimens and in 19.8% of postoperative secretion. Of the 21 patients with positive results for any respiratory virus, 6 (28.6%) had more than 1 virus. Considering all 36 respiratory viruses found, the main agent isolated was rhinovirus (27.8%), followed by bocavirus (22.2%). Conclusion The virus found more frequently in all samples was rhinovirus. After removal of adenoid tissue, there was a decrease in the prevalence of the virus contained in nasopharyngeal secretion 30 days after surgery. <![CDATA[Reducing Postoperative Pain from Tonsillectomy Using Monopolar Electrocautery by Cooling the Oropharynx]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200155&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Objective Evaluate intraoperative cooling of the oropharynx to reduce postoperative pain in tonsillectomy using monopolar electrocautery. Methods Sixty-six patients, age 1 to 12 years, were selected for the study, 33 in the control group and 33 in the experimental group. After randomization, patients underwent subcapsular dissection and hemostasis with monopolar electrocautery. Patients in the experimental group had the oropharynx cooled after tonsil dissection and hemostasis for 10 minutes. The procedure was done through the oral cavity by irrigation with 500 mL of 0.9% saline, in temperatures between 5°C and 10°C, for 5 minutes. The evaluation of postoperative pain was made with the pain visual analog scale (VAS) for 10 days. As complementary data on the evaluation of pain, we recorded daily use of ketoprofen for pain relief. Results Pain after tonsillectomy assessed by VAS was significantly lower in the experimental group at days 0, 5, and 6 (p &lt; 0.05). There were no differences in the use of ketoprofen between the groups. Conclusion Cooling of the oropharynx after tonsillectomy promotes clinically significant reduction in postoperative pain, without additional complications. <![CDATA[Role of Modified Endoscopic Medial Maxillectomy in Persistent Chronic Maxillary Sinusitis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200159&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Functional endoscopic sinus surgery has a long-term high rate of success for symptomatic improvement in patients with medically refractory chronic rhinosinusitis. As the popularity of the technique continues to grow, however, so does the population of patients with postsurgical persistent sinus disease, especially in those with a large window for ventilation and drainage. In addition, chronic infections of the sinuses especially fungal sinusitis have a higher incidence of recurrence even though a wide maxillary ostium had been performed earlier. This subset of patients often represents a challenge to the otorhinolaryngologist. Objectives To identify the patients with chronic recalcitrant maxillary sinusitis and devise treatment protocols for this subset of patients. Methods A retrospective review was done of all patients with persistent maxillary sinus disease who had undergone modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy between 2009 and 2012. We studied patient demographics, previous surgical history, and follow-up details and categorized the types of endoscopic medial maxillectomies performed in different disease situations. Results We performed modified endoscopic medial maxillectomies in 37 maxillary sinuses of 24 patients. The average age was 43.83 years. Average follow-up was 14.58 months. All patients had good disease control in postoperative visits with no clinical evidence of recurrences. Conclusion Modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy appears to be an effective surgery for treatment of chronic, recalcitrant maxillary sinusitis. <![CDATA[The Audiometric Findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area Students]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200165&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Hearing loss can compromise the language, learning process, and socialization of students. Objective Study the audiometric findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area students. Methods Analysis of data collected at the hearing health service of Paraná State special education and inclusion department. Results The sample consisted of 646 students, children and teenagers of both genders (38.2% female and 61.8% male), with average age of 8.12 years (range 2 to 15); all were students of public or private schools of Curitiba and Metropolitan Area. The justifications to refer the students to audiometric evaluation were: otolaryngologists diagnosis (73.1%), school difficulties (39.6%), and midlevel hearing problems (32%). Audiometric results showed that 29.5% of the students had hearing loss. Conductive hearing losses showed the greatest occurrence among preschool students (right ear 38.6%, left ear 39.8%). The predominant hearing loss degree was mild (RE 20.5%, LE 19.3%) to slight (RE 17%, LE 19.3%), as was the horizontal configuration (RE 81.5%, LE 78.4%). A significant relationship (p = 0.0000) between hearing loss and poor school performance was noted. Conclusion Considering the available data, especially the high number of findings of conductive losses, it is necessary to highlight prevention and diagnosis of early hearing alteration. Nevertheless, Brazil, as an emerging country, has been pursuing improvement in health and life quality of all citizens. <![CDATA[Analysis of the Level of Dysphagia, Anxiety, and Nutritional Status Before and After Speech Therapy in Patients with Stroke]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200172&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction: The rehabilitation in oropharyngeal dysphagia evidence-based implies the relationship between the interventions and their results. Objective: Analyze level of dysphagia, oral ingestion, anxiety levels and nutritional status of patients with stroke diagnosis, before and after speech therapy. Method: Clinical assessment of dysphagia partially using the Protocol of Risk Assessment for Dysphagia (PARD), applying the scale Functional Oral Intake Scale for Dysphagia in Stroke Patients (FOIS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Mini Nutritional Assessment MNA®. The sample consisted of 12 patients, mean age of 64.6 years, with a medical diagnosis of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke and without cognitive disorders. All tests were applied before and after speech therapy (15 sessions). Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, McNemar's test, Bowker's symmetry test and Wilcoxon's test. Results: During the pre-speech therapy assessments, 33.3% of patients had mild to moderate dysphagia, 88.2% did not receive food orally, 47.1% of the patients showed malnutrition and 35.3% of patients had mild anxiety level. After the therapy sessions, it was found that 33.3% of patients had mild dysphagia, 16.7% were malnourished and 50% of patients had minimal level of anxiety. Conclusion: There were statistically significant evolution of the level of dysphagia (p = 0.017) and oral intake (p = 0.003) post-speech therapy. Although not statistically significant, there was considerable progress in relation to the level of anxiety and nutritional status. <![CDATA[Epidemiology of Intratemporal Complications of Otitis Media]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200178&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Despite the advent of antibiotics and immunizations in the last century, complications of otitis media remain quite frequent, have high morbidity and mortality rates, and pose a challenge to the otorhinolaryngologist. Objective To establish the annual incidence of intratemporal complications of otitis media and prospectively evaluate patients via an analysis of epidemiologic and clinical aspects. Methods Prospective, observational study. Between February 2010 and January 2011, patients admitted to a tertiary care, university-based otology practice with diagnosis of otitis media and an associated intratemporal complication (ITC) were included in the study. The following data were evaluated: age, sex, type of ITC, treatment, imaging tests findings, type and degree of hearing loss, and clinical outcome. The overall incidence of all complications and of each complication individually was determined. Results A total of 1,816 patients were diagnosed with otitis media. For 592 (33%) individuals, the diagnosis was chronic otitis media; for 1,224 (67%), the diagnosis was acute otitis media. ITCs of otitis media were diagnosed in 15 patients; thus, the annual incidence of intratemporal complications was 0.8%. We identified 19 ITC diagnoses in 15 patients (3 patients had more than one diagnosis). Labyrinthine fistulae were diagnosed in 7 (36.8%) individuals, mastoiditis in 5 (26.3%), facial palsy in 4 (21.1%), and labyrinthitis in 3 (15.8%). Conclusion The incidence of intratemporal complications in Brazil remains significant when compared with developed countries. Chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma is the most frequent etiology of intratemporal complications. Labyrinthine fistula is the most common intratemporal complication. <![CDATA[Laryngopharyngeal Reflux: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Latest Research]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200184&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is a highly prevalent disease and commonly encountered in the otolaryngologist's office. Objective To review the literature on the diagnosis and treatment of LPR. Data Synthesis LPR is associated with symptoms of laryngeal irritation such as throat clearing, coughing, and hoarseness. The main diagnostic methods currently used are laryngoscopy and pH monitoring. The most common laryngoscopic signs are redness and swelling of the throat. However, these findings are not specific of LPR and may be related to other causes or can even be found in healthy individuals. Furthermore, the role of pH monitoring in the diagnosis of LPR is controversial. A therapeutic trial with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been suggested to be cost-effective and useful for the diagnosis of LPR. However, the recommendations of PPI therapy for patients with a suspicion of LPR are based on the results of uncontrolled studies, and high placebo response rates suggest a much more complex and multifactorial pathophysiology of LPR than simple acid reflux. Molecular studies have tried to identify biomarkers of reflux such as interleukins, carbonic anhydrase, E-cadherin, and mucin. Conclusion Laryngoscopy and pH monitoring have failed as reliable tests for the diagnosis of LPR. Empirical therapy with PPIs is widely accepted as a diagnostic test and for the treatment of LPR. However, further research is needed to develop a definitive diagnostic test for LPR. <![CDATA[Nostril Morphometry Evaluation before and after Cleft Lip Surgical Correction: Clinical Evidence]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200192&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction The purpose to this work is to review systematically the morphological changes of the nostrils of patients undergoing surgery for correction of cleft lip and identify in the literature the issues involved in the evaluation of surgical results in this population. Review of Literature A review was conducted, searching for clinical evidence from MEDLINE. The search occurred in January 2012. Selection criteria included original articles and research articles on individual subjects with cleft lip or cleft palate with unilateral nostril anthropometric measurements before and after surgical correction of cleft lip and measurements of soft tissues. There were 1,343 articles from the search descriptors and free terms. Of these, five articles were selected. Discussion Most studies in this review evaluated children in Eastern countries, using different measurement techniques but with the aid of computers, and showed improved nostril asymmetry postoperatively compared with preoperatively. Conclusion There is a reduction of the total nasal width postoperatively compared with preoperative measurements in patients with cleft lip. <![CDATA[Language Disorders in Children with Unilateral Hearing Loss: A Systematic Review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200198&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Childhood is a critical period for language development and maturation of the central auditory system. Unilateral hearing loss (UHL) is considered a minimal impairment, and little is discussed regarding its impact on the development of language, communication, and school performance. Objectives A bibliographical survey of scientific articles published from 2001 to 2011 was performed to verify which language disorders can occur in children with UHL and which tests were performed to identify them. Data Synthesis Three databases were used: PubMed, Lilacs, and The Cochrane Library. As inclusion criteria, the articles should have samples of children with UHL, without other impairments, aged between 3 months and 12 years, and reference to language tests applied in this population. Out of 236 papers initially selected, only 5 met the inclusion criteria. In the articles studied, 12 tests were used for language assessment in children with UHL, out of which 9 were directed toward expressive language, and 3 toward receptive language. Children with UHL demonstrated lower scores on receptive and expressive language tests when compared with children with normal hearing. However, they obtained better scores on expressive language tests than children with bilateral hearing loss. Conclusion The findings of this survey showed that only a small number of studies used language tests in children with UHL or addressed language alterations resulting from this type of impairment. Therefore we emphasize the importance of investments in new studies on this subject to provide better explanations related to language difficulties presented by children with UHL. <![CDATA[Update on Middle Ear Barotrauma after Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy?Insights on Pathophysiology]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200204&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Middle ear barotrauma is the most common side effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Knowledge and understanding of its pathophysiology are crucial for an accurate diagnosis and proper decision making about treatment and prevention. Objective Describe up-to-date information on pathophysiology of middle ear barotrauma after hyperbaric oxygen therapy considering the physiology of pressure variation of the middle ear. Data Synthesis Middle ear barotrauma occurs especially during the compression phase of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The hyperoxic environment in hyperbaric oxygen therapy leads to ventilatory dysfunction of the eustachian tube, especially in monoplace chambers, where the patients are pressurized with 100% O2, favoring middle ear barotrauma. Conclusion The eustachian tube, the tympanic cavity, and mastoid work together in a neural controlled feedback system in which various mechanisms concur for middle ear pressure regulation. <![CDATA[Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence Syndrome without Vestibular Symptoms]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200210&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome is mainly characterized by vestibular symptoms induced by intense sound stimuli or pressure changes, which occur because of dehiscence of the bony layer covering the superior semicircular canal. Case Report Here, we report a case of the syndrome with pulsatile tinnitus and ear fullness, in the absence of vestibular symptoms. Discussion Signs and symptoms of the syndrome are rarely obvious, leading to the requirement for a minimum workup to rule out or make diagnosis more probable and thus avoid misconduct. <![CDATA[Subcutaneous Cavernous Hemangioma in the Nasal Dorsum: Report of Case Treated with Endoscopic Rhinoplasty]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200213&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Hemangiomas are vascular malformations, with slow blood flow, that can occur in any part on the body. They are more common in women and, predominantly, are isolated lesions. The malformation does not spontaneously regress. Subcutaneous hemangioma is a rare variant with an aggressive growth pattern that sometimes recurs after excision. Objective Case report of a subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma in the nasal dorsum treated with endoscopic rhinoplasty. Case Report A 27-year-old woman had a fibroelastic tumor mass in the midline of the nasal dorsum, which was pulsatile; she had obstruction and nasal congestion with associated rhinorrhea, with evolution and worsening over the previous 2 years. Computed tomography showed a tumor demarcated in the nasal dorsum without evidence of intracranial communication. Endoscopic rhinoplasty with septoplasty and associated paranasal sinus sinusectomy was performed without arteriography embolization, sclerotherapy, or laser. Pathologic diagnosis showed cavernous hemangioma. Postoperative follow-up shows no recurrence at 3 years. Discussion This case presented with atypical features, thus making the diagnosis a challenge. Imaging studies were required to confirm the vascular nature of the tumor. Excisional biopsy is the procedure of choice for pathologic examination. Subcutaneous hemangiomas never involute and always need treatment. The surgical approach is exceptional because there was no preoperative diagnosis. In addition, the closed technique provided best aesthetic results in this case. Conclusion Endoscopic rhinoplasty is suitable for nasal dorsum tumor resection and has superior aesthetic result to open techniques. <![CDATA[Synchronous Bilateral Warthin Tumors: A Case Report]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200217&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Warthin tumor is described as papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum and is the second most common tumor of the parotid glands. Bilateral synchronous incidence is rare, occurring in 7 to 10% of the cases. It is more common in males between 60 and 70 years of age and is closely related to smoking. There is slow growth and the condition is a delimited nodule of regular outlines; it has low rates of malignant progression and recurrence. Objective Report a case of synchronous bilateral Warthin tumor occurring in an elderly patient, and review incidence and peculiarities of this tumor. Case Report A 78-year-old man who used to smoke had a history of mild pain in the topography of right parotid three weeks ago. Patient with hypertension, diabetes and a longtime smoker (smoking a pack per day for 32 years) noticed a progressive bulging in the right parotid region for about 2.5 years ago, and noticed another progressive bulging (althought in the left parotid region), for about one year ago. Patient denied fever, redness, skin lesions and pain during this period until last three weeks, when he sought medical attention for a mild pain in the right facial region. The patient underwent cervical magnetic resonance imaging that showed tumor lesions in both parotids. Fine needle aspiration revealed a typical lesion of epithelial oxyphilic cells associated with reactive lymphoid proliferation, suggesting Warthin tumor. The patient underwent two superficial parotidectomies, and the histopathologic result from both tumors of parotid glands showed papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum. Conclusion The occurrence of synchronous bilateral Warthin tumor is extremely rare, and anamnesis and physical examination, as well as some complementary examinations, are important means for diagnostic evaluation. Confirmation of the diagnosis can only be obtained through a histopathologic study. A superficial or total parotidectomy is the recommended treatment for the disease. <![CDATA[Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Mimicking an Oroantral Fistula: A Case Report]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-48642014000200221&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is one of the most frequent malignant salivary gland tumors, which commonly affects the minor salivary glands of the mouth and is rare in the nose and paranasal sinuses. In the maxillary sinus, ACC can mimic inflammatory diseases and has a poor prognosis. Objective To report a case of a 50-year-old man with ACC of the maxillary sinus whose clinical findings in the alveolar ridge mimicked an oroantral fistula. Case Report An excisional biopsy was performed and histopathologic analysis revealed ACC. Lung metastases and residual tumor in the maxillary sinus were detected by imaging methods. In view of the poor general health of the patient, no new surgical intervention was performed and he was only treated by radiotherapy and follow-up. Conclusion Although rare in the maxillary sinus, ACC should be included in the differential diagnosis of lesions affecting this site.