Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Motriz: Revista de Educação Física]]> vol. 22 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Editorial]]> <![CDATA[Assessment of endothelial function by flow-mediated dilation in diabetic patients: Effects of physical exercise]]> Abstract The endothelium is now recognized as an endocrine organ that acts to maintain vascular homeostasis regulating the vascular tone and structure. The endothelial cells synthetize a variety of mediators among them, the main agent is the nitric oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator. NO exerts its protective role preventing leukocyte adhesion and migration, expression of adhesion molecules, platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, and promoting the relaxation of smooth muscle cells. On the other hand, endothelial dysfunction present in many chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, hypertension and diabetes mellitus, is characterized by reduced NO bioavailability. Thus, a few decades ago, measurement of endothelial function has emerged as valuable tool that provides insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms, opportunity to identify early disease and cardiovascular risk, preventing future events or avoiding the progression of the disease. Diabetic patients, particularly, have been a target to apply this technique, mainly because this condition has been related with an impairment of endothelium-dependent dilation and it is believed that the endothelium dysfunction is the basis of diabetes complications such as coronary artery disease and accelerated atherosclerosis. In addition, cardiovascular complications represent the leading cause of morbidity and death in diabetes mellitus. Besides pharmacological therapy, lifestyle modifications have been recommended by specific organizations as a strategy to improve the endothelial function or even prevent the development of diabetes. The aim of this mini eview is to give an update about the importance of endothelium, most common non-invasive technique to evaluate its function, and to summarize some mechanisms involved in endothelial dysfunction and the beneficial effects of exercise in diabetes mellitus. <![CDATA[7-week aerobic exercise training reduces adipocyte area and improves insulin sensitivity in Wistar rats fed a highly palatable diet]]> Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect aerobic exercise training on fat pad mass, adipocyte size, leptin release and insulin sensitivity in rats fed with high fat-palatable diet. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (250-260g) were divided into four groups: sedentary control (CTR/SD), trained control (CTR/TR), obese sedentary (OB/SD) and obese trained (OB/TR). Obese groups were fed with high fat-palatable diet (27% of fat) and control groups fed with AIN-93. Our results showed that aerobic exercise training was effective to reduce body weight and epididymal fat mass in CTR/TR and OB/TR. Insulin and glucose levels were increased in OB/TR compared with OB/SD. Aerobic exercise training reduced the average area of adipocytes in CTR/TR and OB/TR and it was associated with reduced plasma insulin and leptin. In conclusion, 7-week aerobic exercise training reduces adipocyte area and improves insulin sensitivity and leptin levels in high fat-palatable diet-fed Wistar rats. <![CDATA[Relationship between resting heart rate and anthropometric, metabolic and hemodynamic parameters in the elderly aged 80 years and over]]> Abstract This study examined the relationship between resting heart rate (RHRr) and anthropometric, metabolic and hemodynamic parameters in subjects aged 80 years and over. One hundred thirteen individuals were divided into two groups (RHR:&lt;66 beats/min and ≥66 beats/min). Anthropometric parameters (weight, height, body mass index and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Hemodynamic parameters (systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) pressure) were measured and pulse pressures (PP) were obtained. Metabolic parameters were fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol. In elderly aged 80 and over, RHR influenced the changes observed in DBP, PP and triglycerides. Additionally, subjects with RHR≥66 beats/min had higher DBP, glucose, total cholesterol and lower PP as compared with elderly with RHR&lt;66 beats/min. Men demonstrated greater weight, height, and WC than women while women had higher percentage of body fat, trunk fat, and higher total cholesterol. Thus, subjects with 80 years old and over who present RHR≥66 have higher DBP and lower PP and heart rate variability compared with the elderly with RHR&lt;66. <![CDATA[Blood pressure and cardiac autonomic modulation at rest, during exercise and recovery time in the young overweight]]> Abstract This study aimed to assess the blood pressure (BP), cardiac autonomic modulation at rest, in physical exercise and in the recovery in untrained eutrophic (E) and overweight (O) youth. The body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic BP-SBP (E: 109.80 ± 10.05; O: 121.85 ± 6.98 mmHg) and diastolic BP - DBP (E: 65.90 ± 7.28; O: 73.14 ± 12.22 mmHg) were higher in overweight and the heart rate recovery (%HRR) was lower as compared with E volunteers. The BMI was associated with SBP (r= 0.54), DBP (r= 0.65), load on the heart rate variability threshold - HRVT (r= -0.46), %HRR 2' (r= -0.48) and %HRR 5' (r= -0.48), and WC was associated with SBP (r= 0.54), DBP (r= 0.64) and HRR 2' (r= -0.49). The %HRR was associated to SBP, DBP and HRVT. In summary, the anthropometric variables, BP and cardiac autonomic modulation in the recovery are altered in overweight youth. <![CDATA[Longer repetition duration increases muscle activation and blood lactate response in matched resistance training protocols]]> Abstract This study analyzed the effect of different repetition durations on electromyographic and blood lactate responses of the bench press exercise. Fifteen recreationally trained male volunteers completed two training protocols, matched for intensity (% one-repetition maximum; 1RM), number of sets, number of repetitions, and rest intervals. One of the protocols was performed with a repetition duration of 4 s (2 s concentric: 2 s eccentric; 2:2 protocol), whereas the second protocol had a repetition duration of 6 s (2 s concentric: 4 s eccentric; 2:4 protocol). The results showed higher normalized integrated electromyography (pectoralis major and triceps brachii) for the 2:4 protocol. Blood lactate concentration was also higher in the 2:4 protocol across all sets. These results show that adding 2 s to the eccentric action in matched training protocols increases muscle activation and blood lactate response, which reinforces the notion that increasing repetition duration is an alternative load progression in resistance training. <![CDATA["Athletic Identity Measurement Scale": Translation, Adaptation and Validation for Brazil]]> Abstract The aim of this study was to translate, adapt and validate the version of the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) for Brazilian Portuguese. The methodological procedures were conducted according to international recommendations: translation, back-translation, review by a board of experts, empirical fieldwork testing and inferential statistical analyses. The psychometric properties were evaluated by applying the translated scale to 127 university students. Reproducibility was assessed through stability and homogeneity assessment. Validity was assessed by comparing the scores obtained from the athletes and university students. The results showed good internal consistency (α = 0.78), when item 3 was removed and the Cronbach's alpha value increased to 0.82. Through factor analysis, we verified that the items had loadings in two domains. Intra-class correlation coefficient for test and retest was 0.91. Comparison between athletes and university students showed good discriminant validity. According the cultural adaptation process the adapted instrument has excellent psychometric properties and is reliable for the Brazilian culture. <![CDATA[Reference index and reduction in physical fitness tests proposed by PROESP-BR]]> Abstract The purpose of this study was to create an unifying index of the PROESP-BR tests for school aged teenagers and propose a reduction in the physical fitness tests. A total of 414 adolescents between the ages of 15 and 17 years old, representative of the public school population in the city of Cuiaba were evaluated. The tests include general physical fitness, proposed by PROESP-BR. Multivariate factorial analysis was used, observing the commonality/representativeness of each test with regard to the set, and the index was created for girls and boys. With this analysis we can choose to use the following tests: female - throwing medicine ball, horizontal jump and run 20 meters; male - throwing medicine ball, representing the overall performance. The created index was divided into quintiles and allowed you to view the whole performance of the six tests, as well as their distribution within the group and away from the ideal reference. <![CDATA[The effect of the maintaining the ball possession on the intensity of games]]> Abstract The use of small-sided games (SSG) for soccer training has increased considerably in recent years. Tactical principles can influence the intensity and the movement of soccer players during training. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of maintaining possession of the ball on the intensity and the time of motion characteristics of players during training in games. Eleven athletes of the U-20 category of a professional club in São Paulo, Brazil, participated in this study. To check the influence of the tactical principle, we used a game control and an experimental game in three different field dimensions and number of players. The results show that possession of the maintenance rule influences the intensity of the games (p &lt;0.05). However, it is concluded that the rule is fundamental for training through games. <![CDATA[Significance of assessment experiences during initial teacher training in physical education]]> Abstract This study investigates how students in the final semester of their teacher training program (licensure) at the Center of Physical Education and Sports (CEFD), Espírito Santo Federal University, Brazil, (re)interpret their assessment experiences, an integral component of their teacher training. It employs the narrative as a theoretical and methodological perspective, and it utilizes student portfolios, as well as focus groups and semi-structured individual interviews as inputs for data generation. Ten students in their eighth, or final, semester participated in this study. These were the total respondents to a "call for volunteers" among the 2014 graduating class. The results suggest that the students believe the assessment processes of their teaching practices in physical education are disjointed. They feel that the disciplines that allow them to review their own performance during teacher training are more efficient and play a stronger role in their education. <![CDATA[Secondary education student bodily practices: implications of gender in and outside physical education classes]]> Abstract The present study aimed to analyze the bodily practices of high school students inside and outside of the physical education classes from the perspective of gender. A total of 426 students (63.7% girls and 36.3% boys) enrolled in the 2nd year of public high schools in a municipality in the interior of São Paulo State participated in the study. To collect the data, a questionnaire was elaborated and analyzed based on categories of survey and systematic cross-gender comparisons. The results showed that, in general, boys are more physically active than girls, regarding practices inside and outside of physical education classes. Distinctions were found regarding the bodily manisfestations chosen by each group, the behavior associated with the social and the cultural contexts to which boys and girls are exposed from birth to adult life. <![CDATA[Patellofemoral pain and sports practice: reduced symptoms and higher quality of life in adolescent athletes as compared to non-athletes]]> Abstract Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is common in athletes and physically active individuals and it is one of the most frequent knee disorders among adolescents. However, the impact of the severity of PFP symptoms on quality of life (QOL) has been barely investigated. Thus, we aimed to compare the level of PFP and the self-reported QOL between adolescent athletes and non-athletes, and to explore the relationship between the severity of PFP symptoms and QOL. Fifty-six adolescents with PFP (22 athletes and 34 non-athletes) were asked to fulfill the Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS) and the QOL dimension of the Knee Outcome in Osteoarthritis Survey (KOOS). Between groups comparisons indicated that adolescent non-athletes presented higher severity of PFP symptoms and lower QOF as compared with adolescent athletes. Significant correlations between the severity of PFP and QOL were found for both groups, regardless of the athletic status. <![CDATA[Perception of effort monitors internal load during compounded circuit training]]> Abstract The aim of this study was to determine if rating of perceived exertion (RPE) could be used to monitor the internal load during compounded circuit training (CCT) sessions in women. Thirteen young adults women performed three sessions of CCT varying the intensity according to participants' maximum heart rate (50, 70 and 90%HRmax). Throughout the main part of CCT (35min), HR and RPE were measured. Both variables were significantly different among the exercise intensities. However, HR and RPE were not correlated. Probably because HR at the end of exercise was similar to the beginning at 90% and 70% of HRmaxintensities, and lower than the beginning instant at 50% of HRmaxintensity, whereas RPE increased from the beginning instant to the end of exercise for all intensities. Therefore, RPE is suitable to monitor the internal load during CCT sessions in women due to its possibility to detect the (in)tolerance to exercise, despite of the lack of correlation with HR. <![CDATA[The effects of foot morphology and anthropometry on unipodal postural control]]> Abstract The maintenance of posture is a constant challenge for the body, as it requires rapid and accurate responses to unforeseen disturbances, which are needed to prevent falls and maintain balance. The purpose of the present study was to compare different types of plantar arch in relation to postural balance, and analyze the relationships between variations the plantar arch and anthropometric characteristics of the feet with unipedal static balance. We evaluated 100 men and women between the ages of 20 and 40 years old, to determine anthropometry and posturography with a force platform. There was a weak correlation between plantar arches and anthropometric measurements and postural balance, except for the length of the male foot, which showed a correlation between increased size and poorer static balance. We conclude that the type of plantar arch does not influence postural balance, and of the anthropometric factors, only foot length was related to postural balance.