Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Motriz: Revista de Educação Física]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1980-657420160004&lang=en vol. 22 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Physical exercise in type 1 diabetes: recommendations and care]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400223&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The management of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is based on three pillars: insulin therapy, nutrition, and regular practice of physical activity. Physical exercises are associated with metabolic demands that depend on the individual's energy stores and level of physical conditioning, and vary according to environmental conditions and intensity, duration, and type of exercise. All these factors, added to eventual distress with competitions, exert influence on glucose metabolism. The athletic career of diabetic individuals is often hindered by a risk of hypoglycemia during and after the exercise, frequent hyperglycemia before, during, and after certain physical activities, occurrence of ketoacidosis, and presence of chronic microvascular and macrovascular complications. Aerobic exercises reduce the levels of blood glucose while anaerobic exercise may promote transient hyperglycemia. Although diabetic individuals may achieve excellence in sport, their physical performance should be maximized by strict blood glucose control, adequate modifications in insulin dose on the day of the exercise, and appropriate nutritional intake. This review discusses the impact of physical exercise on glucose metabolism, as well as nutritional considerations and strategies appropriate to the practice of physical exercises by patients with T1DM. <![CDATA[Vasculopathy associated with peripheral neuropathy in gait parameters of diabetic people]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400231&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus when glycemic levels are poorly controlled. Sometimes DPN is accompanied by vasculopathy (DPV), which can worsen the clinical prognosis. The aim of this study was to analyze the gait parameters of nondiabetic individuals and diabetic individuals with DPN with or without DPV. METHOD The study included 68 individuals (50 to 65 years old) divided into three groups: people without diabetes mellitus (n = 33), diabetic patients with DPN (n = 18), and diabetic patients with both DPN and DVP (n = 17). The participants underwent a gait evaluation using electronic baropodometry to obtain the single and double support, velocity, and pressure-time integral. RESULTS The pressure-time integral, velocity, and single support variables were lower, and the double support and double support/single support ratio were higher in the diabetic neuropathy and vasculopathy group. The velocity was lower the greater the degree of impairment of the diabetic foot. Some correlations were identified with velocity. CONCLUSION In diabetic individuals, there was a significant worsening of the gait parameters analyzed according to increasing degree of clinical impairment. <![CDATA[Electromyographic analysis of riding posture during the bicycling start moment]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400237&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Professional cyclists often adopt a competition-start standing posture, which has been shown to improve performance. The biomechanical basis of this is unclear, and might be due to a greater mechanical advantage or increased key muscle activity. Previous observations in steady state cycling showed greater activation of the tibialis anterior, erector spinae, and biceps brachii when adopting a standing vs. seated-riding posture. Little is known regarding the effect of riding posture on activation during a standing start. Eleven cyclists performed standing starts in seated and standing-postures using stationary-cycle and on the track. Electromyography of the gastrocnemius medialis, tibialis anterior, erector spinae, and biceps brachii was recorded during first and subsequent pedal strokes. Results showed that the gastrocnemius medialis did not modify activity. The tibialis anterior, erector spinae, and biceps brachii activity was increased during the standing posture compared to seated, only during the first pedal stroke. These increased activation intensities were accompanied by a corresponding 10% increase in bike speed during the first 5 meters following a standing start in the standing posture compared to the seated one. Adopting a standing posture during a standing start improves performance through greater initial acceleration. <![CDATA[Assessment of motor skills and school performance in children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400243&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This study was designed to analyze the association between motor skills and school performance in elementary school children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Two groups of children were evaluated. The experimental group contained 55 students of both sexes, age 7 to 10, who had been clinically diagnosed with ADHD; the control group consisted of 55 children with typical motor development. The results showed no association between motor skills and school performance in the experimental group, although there was a statistically significant difference between manual dexterity and writing performance in the control group. Although we found no relationship between motor skills and school performance in children with ADHD, we believe that having specialized professionals monitor these children may be beneficial. Early diagnosis of impaired motor skills and poor school performance may lead to better developmental opportunities and a better quality of life. <![CDATA[Postural Sway Parameters and Gait Symmetry in Preschool Children: Cross-sectional study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400249&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The most important function of posture is to ensure the maintenance of control during the start and the continuation of human movement, moreover, posture serves as a reference for the production of precise movements. The aim of this study was to relate the postural sway parameters and gait symmetry in preschool children.This study is a cross-sectional study, conducted in 49 children with a mean age of 4.65 ± 0.44 years. Initially, height and body mass of children were measured using anthropometric scales. Next, an electronic baropodometer was used to evaluate the distribution of dynamic plantar pressure (gait) and stabilometry (balance).A Student t test or Mann-Whitney test for comparing two groups was used. To correlate variables, a Pearson's correlation or Spearman's correlation coefficient was used. The stabilometric parameters showed no significant difference between an eyes open test and eyes closed test in preschool child. We found a moderate relationship between axis inclination and cadence symmetry (R=0.40;p=0.007). Postural sway parameters have relationship cadence symmetry of the gait in preschool children. <![CDATA[Influence of physical activity and different sensory conditions on static and dynamic balance of pregnant women]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400254&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract BACKGROUND Physical activity during pregnancy provides countless benefits to pregnant women and results in a smaller number of falls during pregnancy. Thus, this study aims to verify the influence of physical activity and test conditions on the static and dynamic balance of pregnant women. METHODOLOGY The study was an analytical, transversal, and comparative study with a sample of 99 pregnant women divided into two groups, with physical activity as the grouping factor. The evaluation included questions about the type and frequency of physical activity and investigation of postural balance (Balance Master System(r)). For statistical analysis, we used the following tests: Shapiro Wilk, Mann-Whitney, ANOVA One Way and Wilcoxon. RESULTS No relationship was found between physical activity and postural balance (F &gt; 0.40, P &gt; 0.07). However, the test conditions alter the sway velocity (P = 0.001) and directional control movement (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Results suggest that: (1) physical activity does not influence variables related to postural balance in active and sedentary pregnant women; and (2) postural sway velocity and directional control of movement are related to the test conditions used during balance evaluation. <![CDATA[Comparing postural balance among older adults and Parkinson's disease patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400261&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to compare postural balance among healthy older adults and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients during one-legged stance balance. We recruited 36 individuals of both sexes and divided them into two groups: healthy older adults (HG), and individuals with PD (PG). All the participants were assessed through a single-leg balance test, with eyes open, during 30 seconds (30 seconds of rest across trials) on a force platform. Balance parameters were computed from mean across trials to quantify postural control: center of pressure (COP) area and mean velocity in both directions of movement, anterior-posterior and medial-lateral. Significant differences between-group were reported for area of COP (P=0.002) and mean velocity in anterior-posterior direction (P=0.037), where poor postural control was related to PD patients rather than to healthy individuals. One-legged stance balance was a sensitive task used to discriminate poor postural control in Parkinson individuals. <![CDATA[Neuromuscular control strategies of the trunk antagonist muscles during the Biering-Sorensen test in individuals with recurrent low back pain and healthy subjects]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400266&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract OBJECTIVES To compare the activation pattern of the trunk antagonistic muscles and also the myoelectric manifestations of muscle fatigue between subjects with and without recurrent non-specific low back pain, during the fatigue provocation of the erector spinae. METHODS The study involved 19 subjects with recurrent low back pain with a non-specific cause (seven men, 12 women, 38.53 ± 8.12 years, 68.35 ± 18.12 kg, 1.66 ± 0.09 m), and 19 healthy subjects (seven men, 12 women, 40.42 ± 8.63 years, 69.57 ± 12.76 kg, 1.64 ± 0.07 m). The electromyographic signal of the internal oblique, lumbar multifidus, rectus abdominis and lumbar iliocostalis muscles, bilateral, were collected during Biering-Sorensen test execution. RESULTS The group with low back pain showed a lower co-contraction rate of the internal oblique/lumbar multifidus (p = 0.006) and lower activation amplitude of the internal oblique (p = 0.019), both on the right side when compared to the group without low back pain. No differences were observed between the groups for muscle fatigue indicators (p &gt; 0.05). CONCLUSION When the erector spine muscle fatigue occurs - even when the groups were similar as to the ability of extensors muscles to resist fatigue - differences were found between subjects with and without low back pain regarding the recruitment pattern of the task antagonist muscle, because subjects with low back pain showed lesser activation and co-contraction in relation to the healthy group. <![CDATA[The effects of a global postural exercise program on temporomandibular disorder]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400272&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Changes in the suboccipital muscles and the hamstrings may interfere with head posture and the biomechanics of the temporomandibular joint, both of which contribute to the severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of a global postural exercise program (GPEP) on pain intensity and mouth-opening range of motion (ROM) in women with TMD. The participants were comprised of 30 women with TMD who were divided into two groups: an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG). A pressure algometer was used for pain assessment and a paquimeter was used to measure ROM. The duration of the GPEP was six weeks. In the EG, there was a reduction in pain intensity and an increase in mouth-opening ROM compared to the CG. Therefore, we concluded that the GPEP was effective in relieving pain in all of the evaluated muscles and regions, and in increasing mouth-opening ROM in women with TMD. <![CDATA[Creation, validation, and reliability of a shooting simulator instrument for reaction time evaluation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400277&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract "Creation, validation, and reliability of a shooting simulator instrument for reaction time evaluation." The aim of this study was to develop, validate, and verify the reliability of a shooting simulator instrument for reaction time evaluation. 90 Santa Maria Air Base military personnel participated on the study. Software was developed for use with an electronic gun where participants performed two shooting task tests: simple reaction time and choice reaction time. The results of concurrent validity were satisfactory, no significant differences were found between the two instruments and good agreement was observed. The reliability results were significant in both tests. The instrument can be used for research purposes, or for the purposes of military training as a simple, low-cost tool involving speed, accuracy, and decision-making shooting tasks. <![CDATA[Anthropometric analysis and performance characteristics to predict selection in young male and female handball players]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400283&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The aim of this study was two-fold. The first aim was to determine if there were any anthropometric and physical performance differences (controlling for maturation) between male and female handball players selected in training categories as well asthe relation of these differences with the performance level achieved. The second aim was to identify the discriminatory variables between the performance levels achieved. A total of 216 young handball players (125 men and 91 women) participated in the study. The data were classified by selection level (regional n=154; national n=62), gender (men; women) and age category (under-15; under-17). The use of MANCOVA analyses, controllingfor maturation, identified how gender could determine variables related to handball players' future competitive levels. The results revealed that anthropometric variables such as height, arm span, trochanter height, thigh girth, and leg girth were more influential in men than in women. In addition, the physical performance tests of vertical jump (squat jump and counter movement jump with/without arm) and 10x5m shuttle run were determinants in both sexes. Discriminatory analysis predicted that a combination of five variables (counter movement jump with arm, body mass, 10x5m shuttle run, dominant hand length and trochanter height) would successfully distinguish between regional and national players, with a predictive accuracy of 81.9% for all players. <![CDATA[The influence of rules manipulation on offensive patterns during small-sided and conditioned games in football]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400290&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This study analyzed the influence of rules manipulation on offensive patterns in different Small-Sided and Conditioned Games (SSCGs). Fourteen young soccer players (13.82 ± 1.94 years) performed two different SSCG formats (6v6+Gk): Maintenance of Ball Possession Game (MPG) and Progression to the Target Game (PTG). Both games were played on a field 52 m long by 32 m wide. We used the Offensive Sequences Characterization System (OSCS) and SoccerEye software to analyze offensive sequences. For statistical analysis, we used the Mann-Whitney test to compare variables that compose the OSCS between the two SSCGs, while the SDIS-GSEQ software allowed us to detect offensive patterns. We concluded that the rule manipulation of SSCGs influenced changes in teams' offensive patterns, in which they self-organized according to manipulation of key task constraints. <![CDATA[Specific warm-up exercise is the best for vertical countermovement jump in young volleyball players]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400299&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract We evaluated the effect of performing various distinct warm-up exercises on vertical countermovement jump (VCMJ) performance. Eight volleyball players (age 15.4 ± 0.5 yrs) performed five different warm-up activities (in a counterbalanced, randomized crossover study) over five days, at 24-h intervals: stretching (4 × 30 s, 30 s between sets), cycloergometer (5 min at 50 W + 5 min at 100 W), resistance exercise (leg press 45°, 3 × 5 repetitions maximum, 3-min pause between sets), specific vertical jumping (4 × 10 VCMJ, 2-min pause between sets), and no warm-up at all (control condition). Beginning 3 min after their warm-up, the players performed 3 attempts (at intervals of 3 min) of VCMJ (on a contact carpet), and each player's best jump was considered in the analysis. All warm-up activities presented higher VCMJ performance (p&lt; 0.05) than the control condition, with the exception of stretching. Vertical jumping revealed a large effect size(0.8) than other interventions. We conclude that in practical terms, vertical jumps are the best warm-up exercise (when applied by itself) to acutely improve VCMJ performance in volleyball players, but that other exercises can make a complementary contribution. <![CDATA[Applicability of an Indirect VO2max Test: Its Association with the 400 Meters Freestyle Performance]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400304&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the VO2max using a previously validated indirect test for non-expert adult swimmers and to verify its connection with the 400 meters freestyle test. A total of 17 non-expert male swimmers (21.5 ± 3.12 years) were evaluated. Body composition measurements included body weight (74 ± 9.41 kg), height (172.9 ± 5.21 cm) and body fat percentage (15.2 ± 4.15 %). Two tests were conducted on different days; the 400 meters freestyle (400 MF) and the Progressive Swim Test (PSwT), respectively. The participant's heart rate frequency before and after the test (BHR and AHR) was analyzed, as well as the subjective perception of effort (RPE), the number of laps covered (NLP), and the time of test execution measured in minutes. Significant differences were identified in all variables (p &lt; 0.05) with the exception of BHR. An inverse correlation (r &gt; - 0.60) was found between AHR and execution time (r &gt; - 0.70), as well as between the VO2max estimated by the PSwT and the 400 MF performance test (r &gt; - 0.70). The Bland-Altman Plot showed that the values discovered were within the established concordance limits of 95% (±1.96 SD). A negative correlation between a swimming test and a test that estimates the VO2max occurred, and the PSwT showed results of greater approximation of the aerobic power of non-expert swimmers. In conclusion, the PSwT is applicable for non-expert adult swimmers. <![CDATA[Obstacles for physical education teachers in public schools: an unsustainable situation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400310&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The study aimed to identify difficulties and aspirations of physical education teachers at public schools in Niterói, inspired by UNESCO's quality physical education goal. An action research containing quantitative and qualitative data was conducted. Thirty-five physical education teachers completed a questionnaire and seven teachers were interviewed. The results indicated that the major difficulties faced were low wages, precarious infrastructure and lack of materials. Physical education is devalued, the space allocated is inadequate, and it is treated as mere recreation. Teachers criticized the lack of commitment of some colleagues who work without planning. They also complained about undisciplined students and lack of interest from their families. They aspire to self-improvement, infrastructure improvements, and more support from school and families. Teachers who do not educate and lack of support from school and government are an unsustainable reality. A synergy of efforts should be implemented, based on a systems view. <![CDATA[The effect of different training modalities on physical fitness in women over 50 years of age]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400319&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract It is not yet clear which physical exercise protocols have greater potential to mitigate the functional decline in physical fitness (coordination, flexibility, strength, agility and cardiorespiratory capacity). Thus, the objective of this study was to compare different training modalities on physical fitness in women over 50 years of age and understand which training protocol is more effective for promoting significant improvements in physical fitness. The initial sample consisted of 79 subjects, of which 17 dropped out, resulting in a total of 62 subjects who completed the study and are included in the analysis (n = 62). The average age of the study population was 60.1±5.4 years, divided into five groups: aerobic training, concurrent training, multimodal training, functional training and control group. Physical fitness was analyzed through AAHPERD (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance) tests (0 and eighth weeks). The ANOVA analyses (aleatory effect) show a main effect of time for coordination (p&lt;0.001), strength (p = 0.004), agility (p&lt;0.001) and cardiorespiratory capacity (p&lt;0.001), and statistically significant interactions for coordination (p = 0.003) and cardiorespiratory capacity (p = 0.033). When comparing the average relative differences between the group (Δ%), significant improvement was observed in coordination and agility (p&lt;0.001) in the multimodal and functional training groups. For cardiorespiratory fitness, there was a significant improvement in the aerobic, concurrent and multimodal training groups (p&lt;0.001) and strength increased in the functional training group (p = 0.04). Functional training was demonstrated to be more effective at promoting significant improvements in physical fitness than the other investigated exercise protocols. <![CDATA[Psychosocial correlates of organized physical activity in Portuguese urban youth]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400327&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This study aimed to explore the association between psychosocial factors and organized physical activity (PA) in urban children and adolescents. Data on organized PA, psychosocial variables, and demographic characteristics were collected via questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between psychosocial correlates and organized PA. Analyses were run separately for different age groups. Results showed that children and adolescents with a greater positive attitude toward PA were more likely to be involved in organized PA. Ego orientation was associated with organized PA at the age of 13-15 years. Task orientation was related to PA participation at the age of 13-15 and 16-18 years. Perception of competence was related to participation at the age of 10-12 and 13-15 years. These findings suggest that interventions to increase the level of participation in organized PA in youth should focus on increasing students' perceived physical competence, attitude toward PA, and establishing a strong motivational task/mastery climate. <![CDATA[Sports Practice and Bone Mass in Prepubertal Adolescents and Young Adults: A Cross-sectional Analysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400335&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract AIM To compare bone mass and body composition variables between adolescents engaged in high-impact sports and adults who were sedentary during early life. METHOD A cross-sectional study with 155 participants (64 adolescents and 91 adults) aged between 11 and 50 years old. Among the adults, history of sports was evaluated during face-to-face interviews, and information regarding the adolescents' training routines was provided by their coaches. Body composition was evaluated using Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry which provided data about bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), fat mass (FM), and free fat mass (FFM). RESULTS Adults who engaged in sports practice during early life had higher values of BMC (ES-r = 0.063), FFM (ES-r = 0.391), and lower values of FM (ES-r = 0.396) than sedentary adults. Higher values of BMC (ES-r = 0.063) and BMD in lower limbs (ES-r = 0.091) were observed in active adolescents. Adolescents engaged in sports and adults who were sedentary in early life presented similar values in all bone variables, FM, and FFM. CONCLUSIONS Sports involvement in early life is related to higher bone mass in adulthood. Adolescents engaged in sports presented similar bone mass to adults who had been sedentary in early life. <![CDATA[Building an urban park increases the intention of adults to practice physical activity]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400341&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Physical activity levels in adults are low and strategies should be put in place to change this. The aim of this study was to investigate whether building an urban park can increase adult neighborhood residents' intentions to partake in physical activity. In total, 395 adults living near where the park was being built participated in the study. The following information was collected: sociodemographic characteristics, current physical activity levels, and intention to use the park for physical activity. Around 80% of the subjects intended to use the park for physical activity. This frequency was higher among those who were classified as physically active and gradually higher as the distance between the home of the subject and the park decreased (p &lt; 0.05). The offer of a public leisure space can contribute positively to changing population behavior related to regular physical activity. <![CDATA[Emotional eating is related to carbohydrate intake in active women]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400346&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract BACKGROUND Physical exercise may contribute to changes in eating behavior. AIMS to investigate eating behavior and reported energy intake in physically active individuals. METHODS Thirty-nine healthy adults of both sexes, who were involved in physical fitness training, were enrolled to participate in the study. A food diary and the TFEQ-21 was used for energy intake measurementandeating behaviors identification. RESULTS All participants showed acceptable levels of all evaluated behaviors: Cognitive restraint (46.58±16.4 and 49.5±20.0), Emotional eating (8.12±12.5 and 40.8±26.7),and Uncontrolled eating (21.6±15.1 and 35.6±20.9) in men and women, respectively. Uncontrolled eating was associated with increased carbohydate intake for women, andfat-free masscontent was associated with less Emotional eating only in men. There were no differences in energy and macronutrient consumption between training and non-training days. CONCLUSION Regular physical exercise is associateto bettereating behaviors, but women mayfind it harder to maintain or lose weight due to higher levels of emotional eating. <![CDATA[Physical activity during the early years of life and osteoporosis in adulthood: study among users of the Brazilian National Health System]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400353&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to analyze the association between osteoporosis and current/early physical activity and also to identify whether early sport participation, osteoporosis, age and sex are somehow connected. The study sample included 963 participants. Osteoporosis was diagnosed through medical records. Physical activity in current and the early years of life, age, sex and economic condition were assessed through questionnaires. Abdominal obesity was identified by waist circumference. Results showed that osteoporosis was associated with female sex and higher age. Participants that were active in adulthood had 47% lower chance of osteoporosis (odds ration [OR] = 0.53[0.30-0.93]). Adults that were active in childhood and adolescence had a lower chance of osteoporosis only in the crude model (OR = 0.38[0.22-0.64]). Women that were inactive in their youth were almost five times more likely to have osteoporosis when compared to men under the same conditions (OR = 4.80[2.46-9.37]). A lack of sports participation in the early years of life seems to be associated with osteoporosis, age and sex. <![CDATA[An After-School, high-intensity, interval physical activity programme improves health-related fitness in children]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400359&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Health problems related to a low level of physical activity (PA) in children and adolescents have prompted research into extracurricular PA programs. This study was designed to determine the effects of two different levels of PA on the health-related fitness of school children. Ninety-four girls and boys (7-9 years) were randomly assigned to a control group (CG) or intervention group (IG). Over a 12 week study period, children in the CG participated in a similar PA program to that of a standard school physical education program while those in the IG completed a high intensity interval training (HIIT) program. Both programs involved two 40 minute extracurricular sessions per week. Our findings indicate that the HIIT intervention improved motor capacity (speed/agility), Vpeak, VO2 max and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) (p &lt; 0.05) along with the musculoskeletal capacity of the lower trunk (mean propulsive velocity and standing long jump, p &lt; 0.05). The PA program had no effect on anthropometric variables or hand-grip strength. The data indicate that a 12 week strength training program using workloads adapted to children may significantly improve several markers of health and physical fitness compared to a standard school PA program. <![CDATA[Needs Satisfaction Effect on Exercise Emotional Response: A Serial Mediation Analysis with Motivational Regulations and Exercise Intensity]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400368&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Regarding psychological responses to exercise, this study aimed to analyze the mediating effects of motivational regulations and intensity in the association between basic psychological needs satisfaction and emotional responses. This was a cross-sectional study of 495 health club members (M = 40.50 years; SD = 13.54); of these, 186 were women (37.6%) and 309 men (62.4%), with an average attendance of 2.61 sessions per week (SD=1.29). Self-determination theory motivational regulations and basic psychological needs (BPN), perceived exercise intensity, and emotional response were measured. Serial mediation procedures were followed to test the interactions of variables. Models with autonomous regulations predicted positive emotional responses. As for the negative emotional response, the models with external regulation presented the highest predictions for negative activation. Results indicate that BPN satisfaction is associated with better emotional response, partially explained by autonomous regulations and perceived exercise intensity. In externally regulated individuals, perceived exercise intensity appears to be important to sustain a better emotional response. <![CDATA[Fear of Failure in Sport: A Portuguese Cross-cultural Adaptation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400376&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory (PFAI) is a multidimensional measure of threat appraisals associated with one's fear of failure. Whilst emerging research has supported the validity and reliability of the PFAI with North American and British sport participants, its psychometric proprieties remain untested within Portuguese samples. This study examined the psychometric proprieties of the PFAI with a sample of 556 Portuguese athletes. A confirmatory factor analysis was employed to test whether the proposed multi-factorial structure of the PFAI fits well the Portuguese data.All factors displayed good internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. Multi-group analysis revealed cross-validity and the models' invariance. The correlations between fear of failure and sport anxiety measures revealed evidence of its concurrent validity. The PFAIappears to be a psychometrically sound measure anda valid and reliable tool for assessing fear of failure in Portuguese sport contexts. <![CDATA[ERRATUM]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-65742016000400383&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory (PFAI) is a multidimensional measure of threat appraisals associated with one's fear of failure. Whilst emerging research has supported the validity and reliability of the PFAI with North American and British sport participants, its psychometric proprieties remain untested within Portuguese samples. This study examined the psychometric proprieties of the PFAI with a sample of 556 Portuguese athletes. A confirmatory factor analysis was employed to test whether the proposed multi-factorial structure of the PFAI fits well the Portuguese data.All factors displayed good internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. Multi-group analysis revealed cross-validity and the models' invariance. The correlations between fear of failure and sport anxiety measures revealed evidence of its concurrent validity. The PFAIappears to be a psychometrically sound measure anda valid and reliable tool for assessing fear of failure in Portuguese sport contexts.