Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Motriz: Revista de Educação Física]]> vol. 23 num. SPE lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Animal Studies: Contributions to Exercise Physiology]]> <![CDATA[Hippocampal insulin signaling and neuroprotection mediated by physical exercise in Alzheimer´s Disease]]> Abstract Epidemiological studies indicate continuous increases in the prevalence of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) in the next few decades. The key feature of this disease is hippocampal neurodegeneration. This structure has an important role in learning and memory. Intense research efforts have sought to elucidate neuroprotective mechanisms responsible for hippocampal integrity. Insulin signaling seems to be a very promising pathway for the prevention and treatment of AD. This hormone has been described as a powerful activator of neuronal survival. Recent research showed that reduced insulin sensitivity leads to low-grade inflammation, and both phenomena are closely related to AD genesis. Concomitantly, exercise has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects and to promote improvement in insulin signaling in the hippocampus, which supports neuronal survival and constitutes an interesting non-pharmacological alternative for the prevention and treatment of AD. This review examines recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in hippocampal neuroprotection mediated by exercise. <![CDATA[Molecular mechanisms of glucose uptake in skeletal muscle at rest and in response to exercise]]> Abstract Glucose uptake is an important phenomenon for cell homeostasis and for organism health. Under resting conditions, skeletal muscle is dependent on insulin to promote glucose uptake.Insulin, after binding to its membrane receptor, triggers a cascade of intracellular reactions culminating in activation of the glucose transporter 4, GLUT4, among other outcomes.This transporter migrates to the plasma membrane and assists in glucose internalization.However, under special conditions such as physical exercise, alterations in the levels of intracellular molecules such as ATP and calcium actto regulate GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, regardless of insulinlevels.Regular physical exercise, due to stimulating pathways related to glucose uptake, is an important non-pharmacological intervention for improving glycemic control in obese and diabetic patients. In this mini-review the main mechanisms involved in glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in response to muscle contraction will be investigated. <![CDATA[Translational Science: How experimental research has contributed to the understanding of spontaneous Physical Activity and Energy Homeostasis]]> Abstract Spontaneous physical activity (SPA) consists of all daily living activities other than volitional exercise (e.g. sports and fitness-related activities). SPA is an important component of energy expenditure and may protect from overweight and obesity. Little is known about the biological regulation of SPA, but animal researchhas contributedsignificantly to expand our knowledge in this field. Studies in rodents have shown that SPA is influenced by nutrients and volitional exercise. High-fat diet seems to decrease SPA, which contributes to weigh gain. Volitional exercisemayalso reduce SPA, helping to explain the commonly reported low efficiency of exercise to cause weight loss, and highlighting the need to finda volume/intensity of exercise to maximize total daily energy expenditure. Animal studieshave also allowed for the identification of some brain areas and chemical mediatorsinvolved in SPA regulation. These discoveries could enable the development of new therapeutics aiming to enhance SPA. <![CDATA[Vascular dysfunction in obesity: Beneficial effects of aerobic exercise training in animal models]]> Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in the world and several risk factors for developing CVD have been pointed out, including obesity and physical inactivity. Endothelial dysfunction as a consequence of metabolic and inflammatory disorders plays an important role in the onset of vascular complications in obesity. In addition, it is well established that aerobic exercises promote beneficial effects on CVD by increasing nitric oxide (NO) production or its bioavailability in human and experimental models. The interest in exercise studies increased significantly, with promising results. Considering the importance of this field, the purpose of this mini-review is to summarize the animal studies that investigated the physiological mechanisms of vascular dysfunction in obesity and how aerobic exercise training influenced these alterations. <![CDATA[Neural mechanismsand post-exercise hypotension: The importance of experimental studies]]> Abstract A single bout of exercise can decrease blood pressure level in hypertensive individuals and this phenomenon is known as post-exercise hypotension (PEH). PEH is clinically important and reduces blood pressure after physical exercise in hypertensive subjects. This reduction has been attributed to autonomic mechanisms, e.g., reduced peripheral sympathetic activity, adjustments in cardiac autonomic balance and baroreflex sensitivity. Besides, evidence has suggested that the central baroreflex pathway has an important role in the occurrence of PEH. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the effects of physical exercise on areas of the central nervous system involved in the regulation of blood pressure. <![CDATA[Exercise training on cardiovascular diseases: Role of animal models in the elucidation of the mechanisms]]> Abstract Cardiovascular diseases, which include hypertension, coronary artery disease/myocardial infarction and heart failure, are one of the major causes of disability and death worldwide. On the other hand, physical exercise acts in the preventionand treatment of these conditions. In fact, several experiments performed in human beings have demonstrated the efficiency of physical exercise to alter clinical signals observed in these diseases, such as high blood pressure and exercise intolerance. However, even if human studies demonstrated the clinical efficiency of physical exercise, most extensive mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon still have to be elucidated. In this sense, studies using animal models seem to be a good option to demonstrate such mechanisms. Therefore, the aims of the present study are describing the main pathophysiological characteristics of the animal models used in the study of cardiovascular diseases, as well as the main mechanismsassociated with the benefits of physical exercise. <![CDATA[The importance of animal studies in Exercise Science]]> Abstract The validity and relevance of research with animals for the development of knowledge in Exercise Science have for long been discussed. Given the complexity of the biological systems, the use of animal models offers a significant contribution to uncover new findings about acute and chronic effects of exercise, particularly when these studies in humans have limitations and ethical implications. There have been notable findings using experimental animals either in basic sciences or in clinical studies involving physiology, pharmacology, genetic, biochemistry, urology, endocrinology and cancer. This article presents a brief review of scientific research using animal models with a focus on exercise training as an effective tool for the prophylaxis and treatment of different pathological processes, which are the basis of many concepts taught and used in undergraduate courses and graduate programs, as well as in new researches showed in scientific conference meetings in numerous areas of science. <![CDATA[Acute effects of Resistance exercise performed on ladder on energy metabolism, stress, and muscle damage in rats]]> Abstract AIMS To evaluate the acute effects of a resistance exercise session performed on ladder on energy metabolism, stress, and muscle damage in rats. METHODS Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in Exercise (E) (n=30) and Control (C) (n = 20) groups. The E group performed a resistance exercise session on a vertical ladder with weights on their tails. Blood samples were collected at rest and after each climb to analyze lactate levels and ten minutes after the last climb to analyze lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), and corticosterone levels. RESULTS Blood lactate levels remained stable during exercise. Serum corticosterone, blood glucose, LDH and CK levels increased and glycogen content decreased in the E group, when compared to the C group. CONCLUSION These results suggest that resistance exercise performed on ladder is a model of high-intensity exercise. However, the stabilization of lactate during the session suggests that the aerobic metabolism is an important factor during the intervals between climbs. <![CDATA[Hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum stress of overtrained mice after recovery]]> Abstract AIMS knowing the relationship between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation and based on the fact that downhill running-based overtraining (OT) model increases hypothalamus levels of some pro-inflammatory cytokines, we verified the effects of three OT protocols on the levels of BiP, pIRE-1 (Ser734), pPERK (Thr981), pelF2alpha (Ser52), ATF-6 and GRP-94 proteins in the mouse hypothalamus after two weeks of recovery. METHODS the mice were randomized into control (CT), overtrained by downhill running (OTR/down), overtrained by uphill running (OTR/up) and overtrained by running without inclination (OTR) groups. After 2-week total recovery period (i.e., week 10), hypothalamus was removed and used for immunoblotting. RESULTS the OTR/down group exhibited high levels of BiP and ATF6. The other OT protocols showed higher levels of pPERK (Th981) and pelf-2alpha (Ser52) when compared with the CT group. CONCLUSION the current results suggest that after a 2-week total recovery period, the overtrained groups increased partially their ER stress protein levels, but without hypothalamic inflammation, which characterizes a physiological condition related to an adaptation mechanism. <![CDATA[Metabolic profile and spontaneous physical activity modulation under short-term food restriction in young rats.]]> Abstract AIMS The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term food restriction (6-weeks) on metabolic profile and spontaneous physical activity (SPA) of young male Wistar rats. METHODS Thirty rats had their baseline SPA measured at 21 days-old and were separated into two groups at 28 days-old: Control (CG) and 50% of food restriction (FR). The food restriction protocol lasted six weeks, being the SPA measured weekly by a gravimetric apparatus. At the end of the experiment, biochemical analyses were performed in serum and tissue samples with statistical significance set at 5%. RESULTS FR showed less SPA than CG, as occurred for body mass, water intake, adipose tissue and liver, heart and soleus glycogen, serum glucose, total protein, triglycerides and total cholesterol (P&lt;0.05). CONCLUSION Data set demonstrates that low substrate stores signaled to decrease spontaneous physical activity to save energy. <![CDATA[Two water environment adaptation models enhance motor behavior and improve the success of the lactate minimum test in swimming rats]]> Abstract AIMS This study was designed to investigate the effects of 14 water environment adaptation days on motor behavior and physiological condition of swimming rats. METHODS Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups-baseline (Bl) and control (Co) groups-which did not perform the water environment adaptation; and sub (SubAnT) and (SupraAnT) anaerobic threshold groups, which performed 14 water environment adaptation days with sub or supra anaerobic threshold progressive loads (from the tenth day), respectively. The climbing-swimming prevalence (i.e. motor behavior) was analyzed during the water environment adaptation days. Lactate minimum test (LMT) parameters and muscular/hepatic glycogen content in addition to serum creatine kinase were also measured. RESULTS Animals from SubAnT and SupraAnT groups presented a lower climbing-swimming pattern throughout the extent of the experiment (p=0.000), especially after the 5th session. These results were achieved without an improvement in the LMT results or glycogen/creatine kinase. In addition, improvements of 26.6% and 25% for the LMT success rate (i.e. LMT reliability) were obtained only for SubAnT and SupraAnT animals. CONCLUSION Overall, we demonstrated that a water environment adaptation period is necessary for lowering the climbing-swimming pattern without physiological improvement. <![CDATA[Nonfunctional overreaching and hepatic adaptations of APPL1 and APPL2]]> Abstract AIMS Previously, we verified that overtrained mice upregulated the TRB3 levels, its association with Akt, and the hepatic concentrations of glycogen. It is known that APPL1 can limit the interaction between TRB3 and Akt, playing an important role in the glucose homeostasis. Thus, we verified the effects of three overtraining protocols on the hepatic levels of APPL1 and APPL2. METHODS Rodents were divided into control (CT), overtrained by downhill running (OTR/down), overtrained by uphill running (OTR/up) and overtrained by running without inclination (OTR). The hepatic contents of APPL1 and APPl2 were measured by the immunoblotting technique. RESULTS Significant elevation of APPL1 observed in the OTR/down and OTR/up groups, as well as the tendency of increase (p=0.071) observed in the OTR group. CONCLUSION These results indicate that this particular protein is likely to participate in the glucose homeostasis previously observed in response to these OT protocols. <![CDATA[Aerobic exercise training induces superior cardioprotection following myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury than a single aerobic exercise session in rats]]> Abstract AIM To compare the amount of cardioprotection induced by a single exercise session with those achieved after an 8-week aerobic exercise training following ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. METHODS Twenty-five male Wistar rats (250-300g) were assigned into a group submitted to physical training (TR; n=12) or a single maximal exercise session (EXE; n=13). Following sedentarism or physical training (8 weeks, 5 sessions/wk, 1h/session at 70% of maximal speed) both groups performed a maximal exercise test. Then, groups were submitted to ischemia reperfusion injury (30 min/1h) through an isolated heart protocol, in which left ventricle developed pressure was measured. RESULTS The TR group presented greater maximal oxygen consumption compared to the EXE group (77.25±20.41 vs 41.32±25.86 ml/Kg/min; P=0.003). Regarding left ventricle developed pressure, no differences were detected between groups at baseline (TR: 89.78±24.40 vs EXE: 81.37±31.84 mmHg; P=0.48). However, after reperfusion, the TR group presented superior intraventricular pressure than EXE group (37.94±18.34 vs 21.59±13.67 mmHg; P=0.03). CONCLUSION Eight-week aerobic training induced greater cardioprotection against ischemia reperfusion injury in rats compared to a single exercise session, due to an increased cardiac function. This suggests that exercise-induced cardioprotection is a multifactorial process that may involve different mediators according to the exercise duration.