Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Motriz: Revista de Educação Física]]> vol. 23 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Effect of aerobic exercise training on cGMP levels and blood pressure in treated hypertensive postmenopausal women]]> Abstract The second messenger cGMP has been largely studied as a therapeutic target in a variety of disorders such as erectile dysfunction, arterial hypertension and heart failure. Evidence has shown thatcGMP activators are less efficient in estrogen-deficiency animals, but no studies exist involving non-pharmacological approacheson NO/cGMP signaling pathway in hypertensive postmenopausal women. The aim of this study is to examine NO/cGMP pathway, redox state and blood pressure in trained treatedhypertensive (HT) postmenopausal women comparing with normotensive (NT) group. The rationale for that is most of HT patients is encouraged by physician to perform exercise associated with pharmacological treatments.Aerobic exercise training (AET) consisted of 24 sessions, 3 times/week.Parameters were evaluated at baseline and after AET for both groups (HT=28; NT=33).In treatedHT group, AET was significantly effective in increasing cGMP concentrations (28%) accompanied by an up-regulation of SOD (97%) and catalase activity (37%). In NT group, we found an increasein SOD activity (58%). TreatedHT postmenopausal women were still responsive to AET increasing cGMP levels and up-regulating antioxidant system. It should also be emphasized that these findings provide information on the circulating biomarkers that might delay the developing of cardiovascular events in this particular population. <![CDATA[Intermanual Transfer of Learning in a Fine Manual Skill Task]]> Abstract Intermanual Transfer of Learning (IMTL) is the ability to learn a certain skill in an easier way with one hand after that skill has been learnt by the opposite hand(1). This research aimed to investigate IMTL in a Fine Manual Dexterity (FMD) task in subjects presenting different Hand Preference (HP). The sample comprised 882 right and left-handers, both genders, aged 6 to 95 years old. The Dutch Handedness Questionnaire(2) was used to assess HP and the Purdue Pegboard Test(3) evaluated FMD. Direction and intensity of HP, Direction of Transfer (DT), gender, age and nationality were analyzed. IMTL changed according to DT and age, tending to be asymmetric, holding high values in the direction of Non-Preferred Hand (NPH) to Preferred Hand (PH). Children had got a higher IMTL rather than youngsters, adults and old adults with significant differences in adults. <![CDATA[Entrepreneurial intentions of Sport Sciences students And Theory of Planned Behavior]]> Abstract This study tests Ajzen’s1 Theory of Planned Behavior in sport sciences with the purpose of determining which variables most influence students’ entrepreneurial intentions. Although this theory has been employed to explain entrepreneurial intentions within different contexts, the context of sport sciences has not been addressed. A sample of 379 sport sciences students were administered the Entrepreneurial Intentions Questionnaire and results were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results indicate that both perceived attitudes and perceived behavior control have significant positive impacts on entrepreneurial intentions, while the impact of subjective norms is negative. Several suggestions to improve curriculum design and teaching in order to promote entrepreneurial intentions and behaviors are provided. <![CDATA[The effect of constant practice in transfer tests]]> Abstract BACKGROUND There is aconsensus that repetition observed in constant practice producesminimalbenefits to the transfer of learning. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to investigatein 3 experiments the effects of constant practicein transfer contexts. METHODOLOGY Participants were asked during acquisition phase, in all experiments, to press four keys sequentially with different requirements of absolute timing in a same relative timing structure. In the transfer tests, they were tested in a novel absolute timing criterion. RESULTS The results of experiment 1 and 2 showed that the relative timing structure was maintained only when the transfer required parameter scaling close to the parameter value practiced in acquisition. The transfer parameter that is far to the parameter practiced did not affect the movement parameterization. The result of experiment 3 showed that relative timing structure is disrupted in the transfer test when constant practice has high and low amount of practice. CONCLUSION Some specific aspects interfere in the transfer test when constant practice is experienced. <![CDATA[Neurocognitive aspects of body size estimation - A study of contemporary dancers]]> Abstract Dancers use multiple forms of body language when performing their functions in the contemporary dance scene. Some neurocognitive aspects are involved in dance, and we highlight the aspect of body image, in particular, the dimensional aspect of the body perception. The aim of this study is to analyze the perceptual aspect of body image (body size estimation) and its possible association with the motor aspect (dynamic balance) involved in the practice of dance, comparing contemporary dancers with physically active and inactive individuals. The sample consisted of 48 subjects divided into four groups: 1) Professional Group (PG); 2) Dance Student Group (SG); 3) Physically Active Group (AG); and 4) Physically Inactive Group (IG).Two tests were used: the Image Marking Procedure (body size estimation) and the Star Excursion Balance Test (dynamic balance). Was observed that dancing and exercising contribute to a proper body size estimation, but cannot be considered the only determining factor. Although dancers have higher ability in the motor test (dynamic balance), no direct relation to the perception of body size was observed, leading us to conclude it is a skill task/dependent acquired by repeating and training. In this study, we found a statistical significant association between educational level and body size estimation. The study opens new horizons in relation to the understanding of factors involved in the construction of the body size estimation. <![CDATA[Biomechanical Parameters in Children with Unilateral and Bilateral Clubfoot during Vertical Jumps]]> Abstract Gait analysis may offer information to choose the best exercise-based clinical intervention for the children with clubfoot. However, other motor abilities are not commonly investigated. The aim of this research was to analyze the biomechanics of countermovement vertical jumping in clubfooted children who had undergone surgery. Fourteen children with idiopathic clubfoot were selected and the control group consisted of 11 children. Clubfooted children showed less dorsiflexion in the jump preparation phase. In the impulse phase, this group showed more knee flexion and less plantarflexion associated with less magnitude of vertical reaction force and less muscular activity in the gastrocnemius medialis. In the landing phase, for clubfoot group, we found high loading rate for the first peak of vertical force, less plantarflexion and more knee flexion. Understanding the biomechanical changes of vertical jump landing should assist in better targeting of physical and sporting activities of this population. <![CDATA[A multidisciplinary weight-loss program: the importance of psychological group therapy]]> Abstract In addition to dietary factors and sedentary habits, there is a relationship between obesity and psychological variables, even without a clear distinction between cause, effect, and correlation. Despite this relationship, weight-loss programs are limited to a combination of nutrition and physical education, leaving psychological intervention out of the treatment plan. Self-esteem issues, depression, and anxiety are just some of the emotional conditions related to obesity. However, there is no information in the literature about the importance of psychological counseling in a multidisciplinary program for weight-loss in adults. In this context, the main objective of this study was to analyze the effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy in groups (CBTG) combined with nutrition and physical education within a multidisciplinary approach to treat obesity. 46 individuals (7 men and 39 women) were divided into two groups: control (GC) and psychology (GP). Baseline and intervention measures were obtained prior to intervention and before the final meeting, including physical capacity tests and the administering the International Physical Activities Questionnaire (IPAQ). Both groups attended weekly lectures given by a nutritionist and two physical education professionals for 12 weeks. In addition, the GP participated in weekly sessions of CBTG for the same period. After the program, there were significant changes in body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage, and strength of the lower limbs in both groups. In addition to these changes, the GP also showed improvements in diastolic blood pressure and IPAQ scores, being the only one that increased its time of weekly physical activity. Thus, it was concluded that the psychological treatment might play an important role in a multidisciplinary weight-loss program. <![CDATA[Intra-rater and Inter-instrument Reliability on Range of Movement of Active Knee Extension]]> Abstract The objective of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of intra-rater and inter-instrument measures during two flexibility programs. Fifty-three active and healthy males, aged between 18 and 28 years old, were randomly included in three groups: control (Cg, n = 18), static stretching (SSg, n = 17), and dynamic stretching (DSg, n = 18). All participants underwent measurements of their active range of knee extension using manual goniometry and computerized photogrammetry, measured in four separated assessments and analyzed using the SPSS, with ((5%. Both methodologies presented very strongintra-raterreliability (ICC: 0.91(0.99; P&lt;0.001) at all four assessments in all the groups, and the instruments showed weak (r: 0.31-0.6) to strong(r: 0.61-0.9) correlation, in the Cg (P&lt;0.05) and strong (r: 0.61-0.9) in the SSg and DSg (P&lt;0.01), although without differences between groups, indicating that the measures are equally reliable, regardless of interventions. <![CDATA[Can power and anaerobic capacity reduce according to disordered eating behaviors in cyclists?]]> Abstract The present study aimed to compare the power, anaerobic capacity (AC) and performance in a road bicycle race among cyclists with and without risk of disordered eating behaviors (DEB). The sample was selected in a non-probabilistic way, totaling 69 male road cyclists aged between 19 and 30 years. The Wingate test was used to evaluate peak power (PP) and mean power. Time in minutes was adopted to determine performance in a 120-km road cycling race (competitive event). The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was completed to assess DEBs. The results did not indicate a difference in PP among cyclists with and without risk of DEBs (F (2, 67)=3.92; p=0.13). Findings showed a difference in mean power among cyclists with and without risk of DEBs (F (2, 67)=36.43; p=0.01). The results revealed a difference in performance in 120-km cycling races among cyclists with and without risk of DEBs (F (2, 67)=46.03; p=0.01). It could be concluded that DEBs were associated with a lower mean power and performance in a competitive event among male road cyclists, although the same was not true for PP. <![CDATA[Reliability of heart rate variability threshold and parasympathetic reactivation after a submaximal exercise test]]> Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate reproducibility of heart rate variability threshold (HRVT) and parasympathetic reactivation in physically active men (n= 16, 24.3 ± 5.1 years). During the test, HRVT was assessed by SD1 and r-MSSD dynamics. Immediately after exercise, r-MSSD was analyzed in segments of 60 seconds for a period of five minutes. High absolute and relatively reproducible analysis of HRVT were observed, as assessed by SD1 and r-MSSD dynamics (ICC = 0.92, CV = 10.8, SEM = 5.8). During the recovery phase, a moderate to high reproducibility was observed for r-MSSD from the first to the fifth minute (ICC = 0.69-0.95, CV = 7.5-14.2, SEM = 0.07-1.35). We conclude that HRVT and r-MSSD analysis after a submaximal stress test are highly reproducible measures that might be used to assess the acute and chronic effects of exercise training on cardiac autonomic modulation during and/or after a submaximal stress test. <![CDATA[Effects of aerobic, anaerobic, and concurrent training on bone mineral density of rats]]> Abstract A sample of 39 rats were divided into the following groups: baseline (BL); aerobic training (ET4 and ET8); anaerobic training (ST4 and ST8); and concurrent training (CT4 and CT8). The aerobic training was performed by swimming with a load corresponding to 70% of the anaerobic threshold; the anaerobic training was performed by jumping in water with a load corresponding to 50% of body weight; and the concurrent training combined the two protocols. The analysis of BMDwas performed on the tibia of the animals and showed an increase in the density of the ST4, CT4, ET8, ST8, and CT8 groups when compared with both the BL and ET4. Thus, it is concluded that anaerobic exercise was shown to be effective in increasing the BMD of animals afterfour weeks of training; however, aerobic training was only able to raise BMD following eight weeks of training. <![CDATA[Effect of educational training on nutrition and weight control in under-18 Spanish wrestlers]]> Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a formative program concerning nutrition, weight control, and its risks wrestlers under the age of 18 (under-18) at the Spanish national level. The sample comprised 36 under-18 wrestlers that were pre-selected for the Spanish national team. A quasi-experimental design with a pre-test and post-test was used. The dependent variableswere the knowledge of nutrition and weight control and its risks. The independent variable was the educational program. The program had three 30-minute sessions that combined talks, videos, and tasks to complete. Descriptive and inferential analyses were done (t-test, Wilcoxon test). Results indicate that the educational program was effective at increasing under-18 wrestlers’ knowledge about weight control and its risks,but was ineffective with regard to nutrition knowledge. The paper concludes with a discussion regarding the effect of the intervention program, the difficulties with including this type of knowledge and skill in the preparation of combat sport athletes, and the need for further research in this area. <![CDATA[Construct Validity of the Spanish Version of the CHAMPS Questionnaire for institutionalized patients over 65 years old]]> Abstract This study investigates the construct validity of the Spanish version of the CHAMPS questionnaire with institutionalized older adults between the ages of 74 and 90. Seven days of accelerometer data were collected from 52 participants (mean age 82.40 ± 8.26 years), followed by the administration of CHAMPS. The Barthel Index and the Chair Stand Test were used to assess functional independence and fitness levels. The four scores yielded by CHAMPS showed a low-to-moderate agreement with the data derived from the accelerometer (r=0.253-0.385) and with the Barthel Index (r=0.313-0.519), but no association was established with fitness levels. Additionally, no significant correlations were observed between CHAMPS and the accelerometer when cognitive impairment was considered. The results imply that the Spanish version of CHAMPS shows construct validity to estimate the amount of physical activity performed by institutionalized older adults without cognitive impairment.