Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Motriz: Revista de Educação Física]]> vol. 22 num. 3 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[The global reality of the Paralympic Movement: Challenges and opportunities in disability sports]]> Abstract The purpose of this study was to briefly illustrate some of the challenges and realities of national and international Paralympic sports. The elite disabled athlete paradigm is still not widely known in the world of regular sports competitions. The winning elite disabled athletes are restricted to a few countries, including the U.S., Canada, Germany, China, and Australia, with limited distribution of disability sport opportunities in other countries. This tendency for the success of a minority of countries reflects global problems of social vulnerability in accessibility (e.g., in dismantling the stigma of disability), political vulnerability (e.g., representative organizations of sports for the disabled do not fully pratice the philosophy of "sport for all"), and economic vulnerability (e.g., lack of opportunities for training, assistive sports technology, and sponsorships). Furthermore, elite Paralympic athletes have become veterans. For example, the participation of Brazilian elite athletes in the 1984 Paralympics marked the beginning of a new generation of athletes (approximately 16%) who returned to the Games in 1988. In both 2008 and 2012, nearly 28% of total participants were Brazilian veterans. Although this picture reveals longevity of athletes in the sport, there are many limitations in sports accessibility, often due to geographical centralization of opportunities in large urban centers. Yet, today, the world of Paralympic sport has been transformed into a sports spectacle, thanks to the exceptional performance of some athletes, to the technology of mass communication, and to the support of audiences during the Games. These sport "superstars" offer the world new images and new constructs of "ability." While this forum has helped to bring attention to these "heroes," other Brazilian athletes (and from other countries as well) are still waiting for their opportunities. Indeed, worldwide, young blind individuals, those in wheelchairs, amputees, or simply the uncoordinated, expect to play, run, swim, and take part in the international model of "sport for all." They expect sports opportunities to be a part of their daily lives, an option for rehabilitation and the preservation of health, and a basic human right. <![CDATA[Respiratory muscle strength and aerobic performance of wheelchair basketball players]]> Abstract The respiratory system has been described as a limiting factor in the performance of athletes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the respiratory muscle strength (RMS) and aerobic performance of wheelchair basketball players (WCBPs). We evaluated 19 male WCBPs who were divided into two groups: trunk control group (TCG) and without trunk control group (WTCG). All participants underwent a pulmonary function test, evaluation of maximal inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressures, and an aerobic performance test. The MIP of both groups and the MEP values of TCG exceeded the predicted values for age and gender. No differences were observed in the MIP and aerobic performance between the groups although a difference was observed in the MEP values. Positive correlations were observed between MIP/MEP and the aerobic performance for both groups. These results suggested that the overall RMS of this group of WCBPs fell within or above the predicted values. Hence, the study concluded that RMS can positively influence the aerobic performance of WCBP. <![CDATA[Validity analysis of one-repetition maximum strength test for determining the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio]]> Abstract One of the approaches to evaluate injury prediction is the hamstrings-to-quadriceps peak torque conventional ratio (H:Q ratio). The gold standard for assessment of muscle strength in vivo is by isokinetic dynamometry; however, the one-repetition maximum strength test (1-RM) presents high correlation with isokinetic data. This study aimed to compare measures of H:Q ratio in young adults obtained by dynamometry and 1-RM testing. No significant differences were observed in the H:Q ratio when comparing 1-RM and dynamometry testing. However, there was a significant and strong correlation between the measurements obtained in the two tests. Despite this correlation, data from both tests are not equal as the H:Q ratio obtained from 1-RM test presents a systematic error. Nonetheless, the results can enhance the applicability of 1-RM test in clinical settings. <![CDATA[Value of pre-cue information for motor tasks performed by children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD)]]> Abstract People commonly use pre-cue information to advance and reduce the information processing time required for a motor task (e.g., motor planning). However, children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) exhibit difficulties performing pre-cued goal-directed tasks. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the use of valid, neutral, and invalid pre-cue information for a goal-directed task. The participants were 11 children with DCD (mean age = 7.94 yrs.) and 11 typically developed (TD) age- and gender-matched children. The children with DCD exhibited delayed motor planning (e.g., reaction time) under the invalid condition compared to that of the TD children. The children with DCD used atypical strategies for motor execution and depended more on online corrections (e.g., increased deceleration time and movement units) to reach the target. These results suggest that children with DCD have difficulties handling unpredictable situations and that the use of atypical motor execution strategies did not affect movement time. <![CDATA[Athlete brand construction: A perspective based on fans' perceptions]]> Abstract The purpose of this study was to develop a framework for understanding the antecedents and components of athlete brand. Based on a set of 21 interviews conducted in three different countries, a detailed framework is proposed including five antecedents and two components of athlete brand. The antecedents are media (social media, mass media, video games and major sport events), oral communications (word of mouth, and rumors and narratives), impression management, social agents (parents, family members, friends and community), and teams and sport (sport interest, team interest and team geographical location). In turn, the components of athlete brand are related with on-field attributes (behavior, team, achievements, style of play and skills) and off-field attributes (physical attraction, lifestyle, personal appeal, ethnicity and entertainment). Complementarily, these components of athlete brand are proposed to have an impact on fans' loyalty towards the athlete. Implications of these findings for building and managing athlete brand are discussed, and directions for future studies are provided. <![CDATA[Comparison of different ways of expressing creatine kinase concentration of soccer players during a competitive season]]> Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the responses of creatine kinase [CK] expressed in different forms to the training load of professional soccer players during a competitive season. Twelve players (age, 24 ± 4 years) participated in the study. [CK] was analyzed before the pre-season (Pre), after the pre-season (Post), and in the competitive mesocycles (M1, M2, and M3). Results showed [CK] in the Pre, Post, M1, M2, and M3 phases in absolute values (181.3 ± 58.7, 416.4 ± 155.7, 526.4 ± 268.0, 403.8 ± 137.0, and 442.5 ± 212.3 U/L, respectively), relative values (16.3 ± 4.6, 39.5 ± 19.1, 47.8 ± 20.1, 37.5 ± 14.2, 40.1 ± 17.4 %CKmáx, respectively), and values relative to the variation delta (19.9 ± 3.6, 48.1 ± 26.5, 57.0 ± 23.2, 45.1 ± 17.7, and 48.3 ± 22.0 %ΔCKmáx, respectively). [CK] was lower only during the Pre phase compared to the other phases (p &lt; 0.05). [CK] was expressed as %CKmáx or %ΔCKmáx may be more specific to monitor training. In addition, the individualization of this biomarker optimizes the athletes' performance as muscle injuries can be prevented. <![CDATA[Recording daily routines with guidance on healthy lifestyle to improve health parameters in children and their families]]> Abstract This study investigated the efficacy of using a diary to record daily routines, combined with guidance on healthy lifestyle (GHL) by a physical educator, on promoting changes in health parameters in children. Sixty-three children (10 ± 0.8 years) were allocated to one of the three following groups: a control group (CON, n = 18); a group that did not use the diary, but received GHL (G, n = 23); or a group that both used the diary and received GHL (DG, n = 22). Blood pressure, body composition, physical fitness tests (PF), physical activity levels (PAL), and dietary intake profiles were assessed in children and their parents before and after 2 months of intervention. The DG group improved their performance in PF, increased PAL, and reduced body fat (p &lt; 0.05). Additionally, 56% of families from both DG and G reduced their consumption of unhealthy foods and 70,6% increased their consumption of healthy foods. Overall, it was concluded that 2 months of using a diary to record daily routines combined with GHL by a physical educator improved PAL, PF, body composition, and dietary intake profiles of children and their families. <![CDATA[Effects of water ingestion throughout exercise and recovery on cardiac autonomic modulation during and after exercise]]> Abstract Purpose: To analyze the effects of water intake on heart rate variability (HRV) during and after exercise. Methods: Thirty-one young males performed three different procedures: I) a maximal exercise test to determine the load for the protocols; II) the control protocol (CP); III) the experimental protocol (EP). The protocols comprised 10 minutes at rest, 90 minutes of treadmill exercise (60% of VO2 peak), and 60 minutes of recovery. No rehydration beverage consumption was allowed during the CP. During the EP, the participants were given water every 15 minutes, being that the amount of water to be ingested by each volunteer was divided over the time of exercise and recovery. For the analysis of HRV data, time and frequency domain indices were investigated in the following moments (M): M1 (5 minutes final of rest), M2 (25-30 minutes of exercise), M3 (55-60 minutes of exercise), M4 (85-90 minutes of exercise), M5 (5-10 minutes of recovery), M6 (15-20 minutes of recovery), M7 (25-30 minutes of recovery), M8 (40-45 minutes of recovery), and M9 (55-60 minutes of recovery). Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the groups that were examined during the exercise. HRV values for the CP and EP at the end of the exercise period were as follows SDNN (5.95±1.89 vs 6.89±2.11); RMSSD (3.29±0.78 vs 3.39±0.95); HF [nu] (24.06±14.26 vs 19.10±11.94); LF [nu] (75.93±14.26 vs 80.89±11.94); HF [ms2] (0.90±1.16 vs 0.94±0.89); LF [ms2] (4.65±5.94 vs 5.35±5.09); and LF/HF ratio (4.64±3.15 vs 6.95±5.57). HRV values for the CP and the EP at the end of the recovery period were as follows: SDNN (39.63±19.63 vs 49.95±17.79); RMSSD (21.63±15.55 vs 36.43±22.73); HF [ms2] (285.51±392.27 vs 699.29±699.66); LF [nu] (74.55±13.25 vs 61.19±19.27); and HF [nu] (25.44±13.25 vs 38.8±19.27). Conclusion: The hydration with water was not enough to significantly influence the linear HRV indices during exercise; however, it promoted faster recovery of these variables after exercise. <![CDATA[Teacher efficacy beliefs during the practicum experiences in physical education classes]]> Abstract Previous studies focusing on teacher education have highlighted the role that supervised practicum plays in the construction of future teachers' personal beliefs, including self-efficacy beliefs, yet there remains a need to understand which learning experiences contribute to the constitution of this belief during the supervised practicum. Our objective was to identify situations that influenced student teachers' judgment of self-efficacy during the development of supervised practicum. This exploratory and descriptive documentary research analyzed 18 reflective portfolios produced by student teachers' during their supervised practicum in a physical education teaching program course. The experience of teaching in locus and the opportunity to experience everyday school-life were recurring situations in 15 out of the 18 analyzed portfolios. The results led us to believe that offering student teachers the possibility to meet and experience the teaching environment in advance contributed positively, through enactive mastery experiences, to the building of their self-efficacy beliefs concerned to teaching. <![CDATA[The effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on the morphology of skeletal muscle after concurrent training]]> Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in association with concurrent training on morphological soleus muscle of rats. Wistar male rats were divided randomly into four groups: Control (C), Supplemented (S), Training (T) and Training + Supplemented (TS). Groups S and TS received 76mg/kg/day of HMB and the training groups (T and TS) were inserted into concurrent training program 3 times/week for 8 weeks. HMB had positive effects either on body composition of the animals or in type II muscle fibers. The concurrent exercise training was able in reducing the total fat mass as well as in increasing the diameter of muscle fibers. Our findings shows that HMB had an anti-catabolic effect with reference to the parameters of volume, weight and morphology of the soleus muscle, and there was a positive interaction between HMB supplementation and concurrent exercise training. <![CDATA[Hypotensive effects of resistance exercise with continuous and intermittent blood flow restriction]]> Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of low-intensity (LI) resistance exercise (RE) with continuous blood flow restriction (CBFR) and intermittent blood flow restriction (IBFR) on systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP). After a one-repetition maximum test, 10 normotensive recreationally trained men performed three experimental protocols. In the three RE protocols, increases in SBP, DBP, and MAP were observed immediately after exercise, but the effect sizes (ESs) were greater for the LI + CBFR and high-intensity protocols. There were hypotensive effects on SBP, DBP, and MAP in all three protocols; however, the effects on MAP lasted longer for the LI + IBFR and LI + CBFR protocols. These long-lasting hypotensive effects on DBP and MAP occurred in all three protocols. Thus, we conclude that the post exercise hypotensive effects on SBP, DBP, and MAP appear to occur in all three RE protocols, with the effect on SBP being longer in the LI + IBFR and LI + CBFR protocols. <![CDATA[Postural balance in Alzheimer's disease patients undergoing sensory pitfalls]]> Abstract Despite consensus regarding the interference of cognitive processes on the human balance, the impact that different sensory stimuli have on the stabilometric measures remains unclear. Here, we investigated changes in the postural balance of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in healthy controls undergoing different proprioceptive and somesthetic pitfalls. We included 17 subjects submitted to eight sensorimotor dynamics with differences in the support bases, contact surfaces, and visual clues. The measurements used to assess participants balance were as follows: position of the body in space, range of instability, area of the support base, and velocity of postural control. From a total of 56 cross-sectional analyses, 21.42% pointed out differences between groups. Longitudinal analyses showed that tasks with proprioceptive and somesthetic pitfalls similarly impact imbalance in both groups. The current results suggest that AD subjects and healthy controls had different patterns submitted to balance, but suffered similar interference when undergoing proprioceptive and somesthetic challenges. <![CDATA[Oxygen uptake in water polo, comparison and agreement in cycle ergometer and eggbeater kick: A pilot study]]> Abstract The aim of this study was to compare and verify the agreement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) values obtained from tests on land and in water. Twelve recreational water polo players (30.5 ± 7.7 years; 79.2 ± 7.2 kg body mass; 179.1 ± 5.9 cm height) were assessed in two phases: (1) in laboratory with maximal test on a cycle ergometer and (2) in a swimming pool with maximal test in eggbeater kick. Maximum values obtained in the two tests (respectively, cycle ergometer, and eggbeater kick: VO2 max = 40.2 ± 2.7 and 38.4 ± 5.7; RER = 1.17 ± 0.08 and 1.19 ± 0.12; HR max = 181.4 ± 11.7 bpm and 179 ± 11.7 bpm; IEP = 20 and 20) did not show significant differences. According to the Bland-Altman analyses, there were acceptable limits of agreement between the two tests (land and water). Therefore, it can be concluded that the eggbeater kick test is a specific and valid protocol to asses VO2 max in water polo players. <![CDATA[Resistance exercise improves metabolic parameters and changes adipocyte-derived leptin: a comparison between genders in untrained adults]]> Abstract This study examined gender differences after resistance exercise (RE) by measuring fasting plasma levels of creatine kinase, lipid profile, blood glucose, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and leptin. Thirteen women (23.6 ± 7.3 years) and 11 men (29.5 ± 9 years) were enrolled in the study. Two bouts of RE were performed on two different occasions separated by 48 h each. Blood samples were collected and analyzed at baseline and 15 h after the last RE session. Increased creatine kinase levels and improvements in lipid profile and blood glucose were found for both genders. No changes in adiponectin and TNF-α levels were observed for both genders, but leptin levels were reduced (p &lt; 0.05) only for women after RE. Collectively, our findings clearly show that RE was effective in lowering blood glucose and that this effect was not accompanied by changes in adiponectin levels in healthy subjects, indicating that RE is still an important tool for the prevention of metabolic diseases. Furthermore, two sessions of RE promoted a reduction in leptin levels in women, even though no changes in body weight were found, showing that RE is an interesting approach to study obese patients and metabolic regulation.