Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Motriz: Revista de Educação Física]]> vol. 23 num. SPE2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Editorial]]> <![CDATA[Motor abilities, activities, and participation of institutionalized Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy]]> Abstract Aim: To assess motor abilities and functioning of institutionalized children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) within a contextual model of development. Methods: Eleven institutionalized Brazilian children and adolescents aged 2-19 (14 ± 5) years, 5 males and 6 females, were evaluated through the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88 and 66) and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and classified according to the ICF core set. Results: The evaluated individuals have severe impairments as indicated by their GMFM scores and confirmed by their need for full assistance in basic activities of daily living according to the FIM assessment. The difficulties manifested reflected on the ICF body functions and activities and participation domains. Conclusion: Most institutionalized children and adolescents with CP had GMFM-66 scores comparable to those indicated in literature. The ICF-based assessment identified environmental barriers that might be considered for improvement in order to facilitate activities and participation. <![CDATA[The effects of an after-school intervention program on physical activity level, sedentary time, and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents]]> Abstract Aim: To ascertain the effects of an after-school intervention on physical activity levels and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents from Campinas, Brazil. Methods: This was an intervention study with 71 adolescents that was carried out in two schools, randomly assigned to a control group (CG:n=45) or an intervention group (IG:n=26). We performed evaluations of body composition, sexual maturation, blood pressure, level of physical activity, sedentary time (ST), and eating habits, as well as biochemical variables by a portable analyzer. The IG participated in two weekly sessions of physical activities and controlled physical exercises for 14 weeks. The sessions lasted 60’, and were divided into warm-up (5-10’), main part (40-50’), and recovery (5-10’). Results: 30.8% of the IG and 24.4% of the CG were classified as overweight/obese. Additionally, the IG showed significantly lower ST (total: p=0.037; daily: p=0.009) after the intervention, as well as in the post-period (total ST: p=0.043; daily ST: p=0.007). The IG showed a reduction in glycemia (p=0.025). Conclusion: The intervention program generated positive changes in glycemia levels and ST. These results suggest that interventions involving physical exercise should be promoted in the school environment, as physical activity is an important component of a healthy lifestyle. <![CDATA[Analysis of recall bias of information on soccer injuries in adolescents]]> Abstract Aims: to analyze the recall bias of injury characteristics, anthropometric variables, and training variables in a morbidity survey in adolescent soccer players for a period of four months. Method: cohort study with 198 adolescent male soccer players, divided into two parts: a prospective study over four months, followed by a retrospective study. A morbidity survey containing personal and training data, in addition to information on injuries and their characteristics (anatomical site, mechanism, nature, moment, severity, return to activities and recurrence) was administered weekly for four months, after which the questionnaire was applied again questioning the same information retrospectively for the four-month prospective study period. The data were collected through interviews addressing the occurrence of injuries and respective characteristics. Results: there were weak correlations and concordances for the recall of the occurrence of injury and all related variables. However, regarding the information relating to personal and training data, moderate correlations were observed for the variables height, time of training, weekly hours, absences, and position, as well as excellent correlations for body mass. Conclusions: we observed recall bias in all information about the characteristics of the injuries reported by adolescent soccer players. <![CDATA[Evolution of postural alignment in preschool and school phases: A longitudinal study]]> Abstract Aim: To identify postural variations in the positioning of the head, cervical spine and shoulders of children in two phases - preschool and school. Methods: This was a longitudinal study, a convenience sample with 99 children of both genders, in preschool (5-6 years old) and school (8-11 years old) phases. The postural alignment of the head, cervical spine and shoulders was evaluated through computerized photogrammetry and analyzed by SAPo software. Results: Differences were found between preschool and school phases, but only the variables of shoulder angle (SA) and forward head distance (FHD) were significantly different (SA = 32.79 [30.49 - 35.09] and 35.84 [33.53 - 38.15] p = 0.026, respectively; FHD = 8.40 [8.07 - 8.73] and 11.23 [10.94-11.52] p &lt;0.001, respectively). A positive correlation was obtained between forward head distance and body mass (rho= 0.597, p &lt;0.001). Conclusion: There are changes in head and shoulder alignment between preschool and school phases, with protrusion of shoulders and forward head distance findings in children who have evolved their posture. Therefore, parents should be aware of children’s posture, and health and education professionals should be involved in screening and prevention programs. <![CDATA[Effect of judo practice on the body composition of children and adolescents: A 9 month intervention]]> Abstract Aims: To analyze the effects of 9 months of judo training on the body composition of children and adolescents. Methods: 105 children and adolescents aged between 5 and 15 years were divided into two groups: control (n=40) and Judo (n=65), all participants of one Philanthropic institution. Anthropometric measurements, total body composition, and body composition per region were performed using DEXA. The judo intervention lasted 9 months, held twice a week for one hour. The control group did not perform any type of training. Repeated measures ANOVA with adjustments for age, sex, and maturation, and the effect size by Eta Squared were performed. SPSS software version 13.0 was used and the statistical significance adopted was p-value&lt;5%. Results: After the intervention, statistical significance was observed in body fat (kg) (p-value=0.031). There was an increase in BF in both groups; however this increase was much higher in the control group. Conclusion: The practice of 9 months of judo was effective for the maintenance of body fat in children and adolescents. <![CDATA[Can participation in sports during childhood influence physical activity in adulthood?]]> Abstract Aims: The promotion of sports participation during the early years of life is important not only because it promotes health during childhood and adolescence, but also because it has benefits in adulthood. This study was developed to identify the association between sports participation during the early years of life and adulthood, to analyze the non-participation in sports throughout life and to identify the correlates of non-participation in sports. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Methods: The sample was composed of 743 adults randomly selected in a medium-size Brazilian city. Non-participation in sports during childhood and adolescence was assessed through specific questions, and non-participation in sports in adulthood was assessed using the second section of Baecke questionnaire. Answering “no” in the three periods assessed (childhood, adolescence and adulthood) was characterized as non-participation in sports throughout life. Chronological age, sex, formal education, BMI, current job and ethnicity were considered covariates. Categorical data were expressed as rates and compared using chi-square test and binary logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of adults not engaged in sports throughout life was 58.5% (95% CI= 55.1 - 62.1). Females (OR = 2.41 [1.71 - 3.38]), those more advanced in age (OR = 3.29 [1.82-5.94]) and/or possessing a lower level of education (OR = 4.47 [2.45 - 8.17]) were associated with the non-engagement in sports. Conclusion: Non-participation in sports during childhood can influence non-participation in sports during adulthood, which is significantly affected by sex, age and education level. <![CDATA[Estimate of Resting Energy Expenditure by DXA in Boys of Different Nutritional Statuses]]> Abstract Aim: to estimate the resting energy expenditure (REE) of organ tissue components using Dual Energy x-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) in pubertal boys. The mass of components and REE were compared among groups of different nutritional statuses. Methods: a sample of 278 boys (13.7 ± 2.4 years old) was grouped according to BMI nutritional status for Brazilian children and adolescents1 such as Underweight (UW), Normal weight (NW), Overweight (OW), and Obese (OB). The REE of organ tissue components given by DXA was calculated using specific models for skeletal muscle tissue (SMT), adipose tissue (AT), bone tissue (BT) and residual tissue (RT) based on previous reports. The absolute and relative REE (REEDXA) of each component were statistically compared among groups. Results: No differences of total REEDXA were found among nutritional groups (F(3, 274)=0.071, p=0.976). When, however, specific REE was considered per component, differences were found for BT and REEBT between NW-OW (p=0.003) and NW-OB (p=0.048); in AT and REEAT for all the groups (p&lt;0.001), except between UW-NW (p=1.000); in RT and REERT between NW-OB (p=0,022) and SMT and REESMT (p=0,039). Greater proportions of organ tissue of RT and high metabolic rates, were observed in the UW group (78.3%) in comparison to the OB group (60.7%). Conclusion: This approach provides a new opportunity to examine energy metabolism for individual differences of pediatric populations. It is an applicable strategy both to prescribe exercises and to administer diets to this population, as it reveals the magnitude of heat-producing body components. <![CDATA[Parental education and perception of outdoor playing time for preschoolers]]> Abstract Aim: The objective of this study was to analyze whether or not socioeconomic positions influence outdoor playtime during the week (WK) and on the weekends (WEND). Methods: The sample consisted of 485 (girls; n=223) healthy preschoolers, aged from 3 to 6 years, enrolled in kindergartens from the metropolitan area of Porto, Portugal. Physical Activity (PA) was assessed for 7 consecutive days with an accelerometer. The time playing outdoors during the WK or the WEND was reported by parents. Anthropometric data (weight and height) was collected following standardized protocols. Socioeconomic position was assessed by Parental Education (PE), according to the Portuguese education system. Results: We found differences in time spent playing outdoors either for the WK or WEND, but not for Total PA (TPA), in both sexes. However, regression analysis showed that after age adjustment, BMI and TPA for both sexes, we only found significant associations between low PE (LPE) and high PE (HPE) groups on WK or WEND. However, we found no statistically significant association for boys on the WK (p=0.06). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that socioeconomic position can influence the children’s time spent in outdoor activities, especially on the weekends. This may have implications for future interventions with this age group. <![CDATA[A cross-cultural study of physical activity and sedentariness in youth from Mozambique and Portugal]]> Abstract Aim: The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and country of origin (Mozambique versus Portugal) on physical activity and sedentariness. Methods: Sample size was comprised of 593 adolescents from Mozambique (n=258) and Portugal (n=335), aged 10-15 years old. Height and weight were measured, and BMI was computed; furthermore, subjects were classified in two groups (normal weight and overweight/obese). The mean time (min/day) spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light physical activity (LPA), and sedentary activity were assessed using the GT3X Actigraph accelerometer over at least 4 days (1 weekend day) with a minimum of 10 hours/day of monitoring. Multiple regression analysis was done in SPSS 20. Results: A low percentage of Mozambican (3.9%) and Portuguese (4.3%) youth complied with the MVPA recommendations (60min·day-1). However, Portuguese boys spend more time in MVPA. Girls and those with higher BMI spend more time in sedentary activities and less time in MVPA and LPA; older adolescents spend more time in sedentary activities and less time in LPA. There is a significant effect of the country of origin on MVPA, favouring Portuguese youth. Conclusions: Results suggest country differences in MVPA between Mozambican and Portuguese youth - the Mozambicans are less involved in MVPA than the Portuguese, probably reinforcing the undesirable effect of the urbanization process in developing nations. <![CDATA[Association between different contexts of physical activity and abdominal obesity and excess weight in adolescents.]]> Abstract Aim: To investigate the association between different contexts of physical activity (school commuting, participation in Physical Education classes, school recess, physical activity to improve muscular strength / endurance and overall physical activity) with abdominal obesity and excess weight in adolescents. Method: Cross-sectional study with 1,132 adolescents (14-19 years), enrolled in public schools in São José, Brazil. Information regarding the contexts of physical activity was obtained through questionnaires. The anthropometric indicators used to identify excess weight and abdominal obesity were body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results: Adolescents who actively commuted to school for 10 minutes or longer were 36% less likely (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.58 a 0.71) of having abdominal obesity investigated by WC and 25% less likely (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.65 a 0.86) of having excess weight investigated by means of BMI. The other physical activity contexts were not associated with anthropometric indicators. Conclusion: Active commuting to school was associated with lower odds of having abdominal obesity and excess weight in adolescents. Thus, active commuting to school can be an alternative for maintaining adequate levels of body composition. <![CDATA[Waist circumference percentile in children from municipalities of developed and developing countries]]> Abstract Aims: to design reference percentile curves of waist circumference (WC) in children aged 6-10 from municipalities of developed (Portugal) and developing (Brazil) countries and to compare these results with other international references. Methods: this cross-sectional study enrolled a 6-10-year-old probability sampling. Univariate analysis of covariance adjusted by height was carried out to test the main effects of age, sex, countries, and interactions. WC percentile curves were performed with the LMS Chart Maker. Results: The sample comprised 6,475 children. Portuguese children presented a curvilinear increase in WC curves and Brazilian WC curves have shown a linear increase with age both for boys and girls. Overweight and obesity prevalence was 15.9 % and 4.7 % for Portuguese children and 12.9 % 4.5% for Brazilian children, respectively. There was a main effect (p&lt;0.0001) for age and countries, and an interaction effect for sex*age (p=0.001) and countries*age (p&lt;0.0001). Portuguese boys and girls have shown higher values for the 50th, 75th, and 95th percentiles than Brazilian boys and girls. Conclusions: WC reference percentile curves were drawn for 6-10-year-old Portuguese and Brazilian children. Portuguese children have higher WC values than Brazilian children and other children from developed countries. <![CDATA[Screen-based sedentary behaviors, mental health, and social relationships among adolescents]]> Abstract Aim: To analyze the association between screen-based sedentary behaviors, mental health, and social relationships in Brazilian adolescents. Methods: A representative sample of the adolescents from Londrina/PR was selected (n = 1,158; 10 to 17 y). Weekday and weekend screen time (TV-viewing and computer/video-game), mental health indicators (self-rated health, stress, feelings of sadness, and satisfaction with own body), and perceived social relationships (friends, family, and teachers) were collected through questionnaires. Somatic maturation, body mass index, and physical activity were assessed as covariates. Results: Adolescents who reported higher TV-viewing presented higher odds (p &lt; 0.05) for poor self-rated health (boys), higher stress (both sexes), and dissatisfaction with own body (boys), friendships (girls), and teachers (girls). In contrast, higher computer/video-game use was associated with lower odds (p &lt; 0.05) for poor self-rated health (girls), higher stress (boys), feelings of sadness (both sexes), and dissatisfaction with friends (both sexes) and family (both sexes). Conclusion: While higher TV-viewing is associated with negative outcomes, higher computer/video-game users demonstrate better mental health and lower satisfaction with their social relationships. <![CDATA[Individual and average responses of sleep quality and daytime sleepiness after four weeks of strength training in adolescents]]> Abstract Aims: To analyze the average and individual responses of sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in adolescents after four weeks of strength training. Methods: 19 adolescents with sleep problems recruited in the Federal Institute of Pernambuco, were subject to anthropometric evaluations as well as those for body composition assessment, a 1 repetition maximum test, the sleep parameters (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-PSQI and Epworth Sleepiness Scale-ESS) and were submitted to four weeks of strength-training, performed alternately by segment, two sessions per week, according to recommendations for this population. Results: A decrease in the average PSQI score was observed (10.3±3.3 vs 8.8±4.0; p=0.006), but not in ESS (p&gt;0.05), after intervention. The individual analyses demonstrated that ~63% of adolescents experienced reductions ≥ 3 points in the PSQI and ~58% of them experienced reductions ≥ 3 points in the measure of daytime sleepiness. The prevalence of poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness reduced from 84.2% to 68.4% and from 52.6% to 31.6%, respectively. The comparisons of high and low responders to exercise training show that adolescents who reduced ≥3 points in the score of a least one sleep parameter presented lower weight, fat mass, and fat percentage (p&lt;0.05). Conclusion: A short-term strength-training program is able to improve global sleep quality, but not daytime sleepiness in adolescents. Furthermore, the changes after training are highly heterogeneous. Further studies are required to better understand the effects of strength training on sleep parameters of adolescents. <![CDATA[Comparison of lumbar force between pubertal and post-pubertal adolescents: interference of physical growth, body fat and lifestyle.]]> Abstract Aim: To compare performance in the lumbar force test in pubertal and post-pubertal adolescents by controlling the interference of physical growth, body fat, screen time and physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 933 adolescents (492 girls) aged 14-19 from the city of São José, Brazil. Lumbar strength was assessed using the isometric lumbar extension test proposed by the Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology. Sexual maturation was classified according to Tanner’s criteria. Physical growth variables (age, body weight, stature, BMI), body fat (triceps and subscapular skinfolds), sedentary behavior based on screen time and overall physical activity were controlled in the Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), with a significance level of 5%. Results: Post-pubertal boys presented higher lumbar force compared to pubertal ones only when interference of BMI, body fat, screen time and physical activity was controlled. Pubertal girls presented higher lumbar force compared to post-pubertal ones, both when controlling the analysis for the studied variables and when not controlled by them. Conclusion: BMI, body fat, screen time and physical activity interfere in the difference in lumbar strength of boys, in which post-pubertal boys presented better performance in lumbar force compared to pubertal ones. Regardless of interference or not of these variables, pubertal girls presented better performance in lumbar force when compared to post-pubertal ones. <![CDATA[ADRB2 Gln27Glu polymorphism influenced changes in leptin but not body composition or metabolic and other inflammatory parameters after twelve weeks of combined training in overweight adolescents]]> ABSTRACT Aim To compare the anthropometric, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters of overweight adolescents after 12-weeks of resistance and aerobic training (CT), taking into account the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the β2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene. Methods Forty-seven adolescents (15.05±1.07y) were assigned to one of four groups, according to the presence or absence of the Glu27 allele: CT (CarrierT n=11; NoncarrierT n=11) or control (CarrierC n=13; NoncarrierC n=12). Body composition, abdominal fat, maturation, fitness, metabolic and lipid profile, inflammatory markers were assessed. The CT consisted of six resistance exercises, followed by 30 min of walking/running at 50-80% VO2max, totaling 60 min/session, three times a week. A mixed-model factorial ANOVA was used to compare variables at baseline and after 12-weeks. Results TC was effective in reducing total fat mass (NoncarrierT ES=.45, CarrierT ES=.27) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (NoncarrierT ES=.48, CarrierT ES=.46) and increasing lean mass (NoncarrierT ES=.58, CarrierT ES=.60) and fitness. CarrierT group showed a reduction in leptin (ES=.49). Conclusion The responses of body composition and physical fitness to TC were not influenced by the presence of the Gln27Glu polymorphism. However, only the Glu27 allele carriers showed reductions in leptin after 12-weeks. Besides, a lack of intervention caused obesogenic effects, especially in Glu27carriers. <![CDATA[Trends in television and computer/videogame use and total screen time in high school students from Caruaru city, Pernambuco, Brazil: A repeated panel study between 2007 and 2012]]> Abstract Aim: to analyze the pattern and trends of use of screen-based devices and associated factors from two surveys conducted on public high school students in Caruaru-PE. Methods: two representative school-based cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2007 (n=600) and 2012 (n=715) on high school students (15-20 years old). The time of exposure to television (TV) and computer/videogames PC/VG was obtained through a validated questionnaire, and ≥3 hours/day was considered as being excessive exposure. The independent variables were socioeconomic status, school related, and physical activity. Crude and adjusted binary logistic regression were employed to examine the factors associated with screen time. The statistical significance was set at p&lt;0.05. Results: There was a significant reduction in TV time on weekdays and total weekly, but no change in the prevalence of excessive exposure. The proportion of exposure to PC/VG of ≥3 hours/day increased 182.5% on weekdays and 69.5% on weekends (p &lt;0.05). In 2007, being physically active was the only protection factor for excessive exposure to total screen time. In 2012, girls presented less chance of excessive exposure to all screen-based devices and total screen time. Other protective factors were studying at night and being physically active (PC/VG time), while residing in an urban area [OR 5.03(2.77-7.41)] and having higher family income [OR 1.55(1.04-2.30)] were risk factors. Conclusion: Significant and important changes in the time trends and pattern of use PC/VG were observed during the interval of 5 years. This rapid increase could be associated with increased family income and improved access to these devices, driven by technological developments.