Scielo RSS <![CDATA[REMHU : Revista Interdisciplinar da Mobilidade Humana ]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1980-858520170001&lang=en vol. 25 num. 49 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Migrações e trabalho: precarização, discriminação e resistência]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Migration and Labor in the United States. Occupational polarization and racialization of social inequality in post-crisis age]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Analizamos la inserción laboral de los migrantes latinoamericanos en los Estados Unidos en un escenario postcrisis. Nuestra tesis es que la dinámica laboral en ese país está configurada por dos procesos estructurales: i) la polarización de la estructura de las ocupaciones, y ii) la racialización de la estructura de clases y la desigualdad social. Si bien el racismo y la discriminación étnica desde siempre han formado parte de la estructura social de los Estados Unidos, lo relevante en la época actual es la dimensión y magnitud que ellos alcanzan, así como las tendencias que se estiman para las próximas décadas.<hr/>Abstract We analyze the insertion of the Latin American immigrants in the labor market of the United States in a post-crisis scenario. Our thesis is that two structural processes determine the labor situation of migrants: (i) the polarization of the structure of occupations, and (ii) the racialization of class structure and social inequality. Racism and ethnic discrimination have always been part of the social structure of the United States, what is relevant in today's age is the size and magnitude they reach, as well as the trends that are estimated for the next decades. <![CDATA[Territorial mobility, labor circuits and inequalities in agriculture in Argentina: interdisciplinary approaches and conceptual debates]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000100035&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Este artículo analiza aquellos cruces interdisciplinares entre la geografía, la sociología y la antropología que dieron lugar al diálogo entre los conceptos movilidad territorial y desigualdades de clase, género y raza-etnia, especialmente en temáticas relacionadas con las diversas inserciones laborales de varones y mujeres migrantes en producciones agrarias en Argentina. Se señala la necesidad de considerar las complejidades de la categoría migrantes laborales y se reflexiona acerca de los desafíos que este tipo de abordajes plantean para el estudio de las movilidades territoriales, los mercados de trabajo y las desigualdades socio-culturales.<hr/>Abstract This paper analyses the interdisciplinary crossroads between Geography, Sociology and Anthropology that have led to a dialogue between the concepts: territorial mobility and inequalities of class, gender and race-ethnicity, focusing on topics related to diverse insertions of male and female migrants in agriculture labor markets in Argentina. It remarks that the complexities of the category labor migrants should be considered and it reflects on the challenges that such approaches pose to the study of territorial mobilities, labor markets and socio-cultural inequalities. <![CDATA[It’s time for a new paradigm: towards a sustainable socio-economic model in migration management]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000100059&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Riassunto Nell'esperienza europea, le migrazioni economiche sono state tradizionalmente regolate in base a un principio di complementarietà tra manodopera autoctona e immigrata. Funzionale ad assecondare i fabbisogni contingenti del mercato del lavoro, questo approccio ha però provocato la "naturale" concentrazione dei lavoratori stranieri nei gradini più bassi della gerarchia professionale e, nel tempo, una condizione di svantaggio strutturale per gli immigrati e i loro discendenti. Oltre che confliggere con i principi antidiscriminatori sui quali si fondano le civiltà europee, questi fenomeni rappresentano, nell'attuale scenario demografico, una posta in gioco decisiva per la competitività dell'economia e la sostenibilità del modello sociale europeo.<hr/>Abstract In the European experience, economic migrations have been traditionally regulated according to a complementarity principle among native and migrant labor offer. This kind of approach has been useful in satisfying contingent labor needs; at the same time, it has produced a ‘natural’ segregation of foreign workers in the lower ladders of the professional hierarchy and, the time passing, a condition of structural disadvantage for migrants and their offspring. Besides conflicting with anti discrimination principles on which European civilization is founded, these phenomena constitute, in the current demographic scenario, a crucial challenge for both economic competitiveness and the sustainability of the European social model. <![CDATA[Precarization of work and new inequalities: the role of immigration]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000100079&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Este artículo se centra en el “doble papel” que puede tener la inmigración en el proceso de precarización del trabajo: por un lado interesa sobretodo y de manera considerable los trabajadores inmigrantes, por el otro, la inmigración es a menudo un vector de difusión y ampliación de precariedad. Examina el impacto de la precariedad sobre los trabajadores inmigrantes en el contexto europeo y la importancia general de las políticas migratorias en adelantar una mayor ampliación de la precariedad; después toma en consideración el contexto italiano como símbolo de la precarización del trabajo inmigrante y de la experimentación en el sector de la inmigración de nuevas formas de precariedad.<hr/>Abstract The article focuses on the “double role” immigration may have in the process of casualization of work: on one hand such process firstly and markedly involves migrant workers, on the other hand immigration often provides a vector of spreading and increase of precarity. The article deals with the impact of precarity on migrant workers within the European context, and the global importance of migration policies in anticipating a larger expansion of precarity; then, it focuses on the Italian context as a symbol for both the precarization of migrant labour and the experimentation in the migration sector of new forms of precariousness. <![CDATA[International migration and labour precariousness. The case of the construction industry in Chile]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000100095&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen La industria de la construcción ha experimentado en las últimas décadas importantes cambios a nivel de gestión del trabajo, condiciones laborales y composición de la fuerza de trabajo, destacando la creciente participación de trabajadores migrantes. El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar la relación entre la subcontratación en cuanto modelo de gestión, las condiciones laborales que devienen del tipo de contrato usualmente utilizado y la presencia de migrantes en las obras. Sostendremos que estos tres elementos, están estrechamente vinculados entre sí, determinando altos grados de precariedad en quienes trabajan en los últimos eslabones de la cadena de subcontratación. A partir de una metodología cualitativa basada en entrevistas realizadas en Santiago, Iquique y Antofagasta y observaciones participantes en obras en Santiago, este estudio revela que existe una relación entre la precariedad en las condiciones laborales y la creciente inclusión de trabajadores migrantes, cuya vulnerabilidad resulta conveniente para este modelo económico.<hr/>Abstract In recent decades, the construction industry has undergone significant changes in labour management, working conditions and workforce composition, with a significant increase on the recruitment of migrant workers. The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between subcontracting as a management model, the working conditions that prevail within the type of contract commonly used, and the presence of migrants in the construction industry. We argue that these three elements that characterize the construction industry are closely related. Based on a qualitative methodological approach that consisted of interviews conducted in Santiago, Iquique and Antofagasta, as well as participant observations in the construction field in Santiago, this study reveals that the precariousness in the working conditions is related to the increased recruitment of migrant workers, whose vulnerability becomes suitable for such an economic model. <![CDATA[Selectivity and precarious labor in the highly skilled migration from Latin America and the Caribbean, 2000-2010]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000100113&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El objetivo central de este trabajo es examinar los principales cambios en los niveles y tendencias de la migración calificada global entre 2000 y 2010, con especial énfasis en lo que acontece en América Latina y el Caribe (ALyC). El artículo toma como ejes analíticos la existencia de políticas inmigratorias selectivas de este tipo de mano de obra en los países de destino, una limitada incorporación en las economías de origen, así como una inserción laboral precaria de los migrantes calificados en las economías del Norte global. La información que se emplea es la base de datos recientemente publicada por la Organización para la Cooperación y Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE) conocida como DIOC 2000/01 y 2010/11. El artículo da cuenta de un incremento acelerado de la migración calificada en ALyC (particularmente para el caso de las mujeres), un aumento de la "fuga de cerebros" entre 2000 y 2010 y una inserción laboral crecientemente precaria y desfavorable para los migrantes calificados de ALyC.<hr/>Abstract The aim of this paper is to examine the main changes in the levels and trends of global highly skilled migration between 2000 and 2010, with special emphasis on what happens in the Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). The paper takes as analytical axes the selective immigration policies of highly skilled migrants in the countries of destination, the limited incorporation of them in the origin countries, and their precarious labor incorporation in the economies of the global North. The information used here is the recently published database by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) known as DIOC 2000/01 and 2010/11. The article shows an accelerated increase in skilled labor migration (particularly in the case of women), an increase in the "brain drain" between 2000 and 2010, and an increasingly precarious and unfavorable labor insertion for highly skilled migrants of LAC. <![CDATA[The effects of the economic crisis on the labour market situation of immigrants: the case of brazilians in Portugal]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000100135&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo Após um período de crescimento económico que potenciou o aumento dos fluxos migratórios para Portugal, o país entrou, após 2008, numa forte crise económica com impactos muito negativos no emprego e em sectores que empregavam um grande número de imigrantes como a construção civil. Pela incorporação diferenciada dos imigrantes nos vários segmentos do mercado de trabalho é importante analisar em profundidade a extensão e a abrangência destes efeitos, designadamente tendo em conta a origem geográfica dos imigrantes. Os brasileiros constituem o maior contingente estrangeiro em Portugal desde meados dos anos 2000 e é sobre os efeitos da crise nestes imigrantes que queremos centrar-nos neste artigo. Abordamos duas questões principais: o impacto da crise nos fluxos Portugal-Brasil e o impacto na situação laboral dos que se encontravam em Portugal entre 2012-2015. Paralelamente, procuramos também averiguar os níveis de satisfação com a experiência migratória em Portugal.<hr/>Abstract After a period of economic growth that spurred the increase of migratory flows to Portugal, after 2008, the country went into a deep economic crisis with very negative impacts on employment and on sectors employing a large number of immigrants like civil construction. Due to the differentiated integration of immigrants in the several segments of the labour market it is important to deeply analyze the extension and scope of these effects, namely considering the geographic origin of the immigrants. Being Brazilians the largest foreign contingent living in Portugal since mid-2000s, they are a very interesting group to focus our research on. Two main issues will be discussed: the effect of the crisis on the migratory flows between Portugal and Brazil and the impact on the labour market situation among those living in Portugal between 2012 and 2015. Moreover, their levels of satisfaction with the migratory experience in Portugal will also be examined. <![CDATA[The impact of economic crisis on the situation and discrimination of the immigrant working women in Spain. The case of the Basque Country]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000100153&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Este artículo tiene por objetivo dibujar la situación de las mujeres inmigrantes en la Comunidad Autónoma del País Vasco (CAPV) en el ámbito laboral, tomando como referencia dos periodos temporales distintos, en 2010 cuando la crisis económica global comienza a acechar a la economía vasca, y en 2014 una vez avanzada y que permite valorar su impacto en este colectivo. Tal comparación nos permitirá analizar la evolución en el mercado laboral y la respuesta de estas mujeres, generalmente protagonistas de situaciones de mayor vulnerabilidad y discriminación.<hr/>Abstract This article aims to draw the situation of immigrant women in the labor market in the Basque Country. We study two different periods, 2010 when the global crisis appears in the basque economy, and 2014, when we can value the impact on this group. This comparison will allow us to analyze the evolution in the labor market and the response of these women, who have experienced situations of greater vulnerability and discrimination. <![CDATA[Bolivian migration and business, from discrimination to acceptance. La Salada fair as a social phenomenon]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000100175&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen En este artículo, a partir de una investigación exploratoria con trabajo de campo, entrevistas en profundidad e historias de vida, y sobre la base de trabajos previos sobre el tema, procuramos explicar la ocurrencia del fenómeno de bolivianos, mayoritariamente de origen aymara, que como consecuencia de la actividad desarrollada en las ferias del Gran Buenos Aires lograron, a partir la creación del gran mercado de La Salada, transformarse de inmigrantes con alto grado de discriminación en ciudadanos económicamente exitosos, y reconocidos desde la política gubernamental.<hr/>Abstract In this article, based on an exploratory investigation with field work, interviews in depth and life histories, and based on previous work on the subject, we try to explain the occurrence of the phenomenon of Bolivians, mainly of Aymara origin, who as a result of the activity carried out at the fairs of Greater Buenos Aires, from the creation of the large market in La Salada, they were able to transform themselves from immigrants with a high degree of discrimination into economically successful citizens and recognized by government policy. <![CDATA[“One already knows what´s coming”: labor mobility of bolivian andean migrants within sweatshops in São Paulo under manufacturing consent approach]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000100197&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El presente trabajo tiene sus lentes puestos en la movilidad de migrantes de la región andina de Bolivia hacia los talleres de costura ubicados en la zona metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, recorrido que hacen a lo largo de por lo menos veinticinco años. El objetivo es problematizar las relaciones laborales entre los costureros y los talleristas (los gestores de los talleres) más allá de la victimización de estos grupos de migrantes, considerando ciertos niveles de coerción, pero también deconsentimiento - todo lo anterior bajo determinadas formas de trabajo no-libre. El mecanismo de producción del consentimiento se sustenta en elementos institucionales e ideológicos que en última instancia definen los “límites de la esclavitud”.<hr/>Abstract This article addresses issues regarding labor mobility of Bolivian Andean migrants towards sweatshops located in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil. This is the journey they have been enduring over the last twenty-five years. This work analyses labor relations between sewers and sweatshop managersbeyond usual victimization against migrant groups from Bolivia, taking into accountboth coercion and consent levels - all of which under forms of unfree labor. The mechanism of manufacturing consent is supported by institutional and ideological elements which define the “slavery boundaries” at last instance. <![CDATA[Economic practices of Chinese and Senegal migrants in the city of Córdoba]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000100215&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El presente artículo constituye un análisis exploratorio de dos prácticas económicas personificadas por migrantes de origen chino y senegalés que se han vinculado a la economía de los bazares en el contexto de la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina. Concretamente, el trabajo describe cómo se articulan, por un lado, las iniciativas económicas de los comerciantes chinos que regentean bazares/tiendas en los que venden principalmente productos procedentes de China, con otras personificadas por vendedores ambulantes senegaleses que revenden en las calles de la ciudad, algunas de las mercancías comercializadas en los bazares regenteados por los comerciantes chinos. El argumento principal del artículo es que estos nexos comerciales producen experiencias económicas complementarias, aunque profundamente desiguales entre sí. En el artículo se instrumenta una perspectiva al mismo tiempo global y des-etnizada, que permite abordar fenómenos relacionados a los procesos a través de los cuales diversos grupos de migrantes transnacionales se vinculan, "desde abajo", a la economía global no hegemónica. El artículo hace uso de datos provistos por un trabajo de campo de corte etnográfico, que desde el mes de enero del 2016 hasta la fecha, se ha llevado a cabo en el centro histórico de la Ciudad de Córdoba.<hr/>Abstract This article is an exploratory analysis of two economic practices personified by Chinese and Senegalese immigrants, who have been linked to the bazaar economy in the context of the city of Cordoba, Argentina. Specifically, the paper describes how the economic initiatives of Chinese traders who run bazaars / shops in which they mainly sell products from China are articulated, on one hand, with the initiatives embodied by Senegalese street vendors whom resell some of the goods traded in the bazaars ruled by the Chinese merchants. The main argument of the article is that these links produce complementary economic experiences, although deeply unequal to each other. In the article, a global and un-ethnicized perspective is implemented, which allows us to deal with social phenomena related to the processes through which diverse groups of transnational migrants are linked "from below" to the non-hegemonic global economy. The article uses data provided by an ethnographic fieldwork carried out in the historic center of the City of Cordoba, since January 2016. <![CDATA[The ‘volunteering’ of asylum seekers in Italy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000100233&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Riassunto L'articolo analizza la politica pubblica italiana che prevede il coinvolgimento dei richiedenti asilo in attività di 'volontariato' a favore delle amministrazioni locali per calmare il malcontento popolare causato dalla loro presunta inattività. In primo luogo l'autrice mette in discussione l'efficacia di tale policy e ne destruttura il discorso governativo mettendone in luce le mistificazioni. Mediante una ricerca esplorativa ispirata alla grounded theory si dimostra inoltre che la reale natura delle attività promosse risiede nel lavoro gratuito e che esse veicolano un messaggio di simbolica e percepita utilità dei profughi che impatta negativamente sull'immaginario collettivo rispetto al tema del diritto d'asilo.<hr/>Abstract The article analyzes the Italian public policy encouraging 'volunteering' activities of asylum seekers in favor of local administrations, whose aim is to spread welcoming feelings among the population acting against their contested passivity. Firstly the author discusses the efficiency of the policy and debuilds the governmental discourse enlightening its mystifications. Secondly, through an explorative on-field research inspired by the grounded theory method it is shown that the real nature of the promoted activities lies in unpaid work, as well as they convey a symbolic and perceived 'asylum-seekers-utility' message which has a negative impact on the public consciousness regarding the asylum issue. <![CDATA[Who's in the family? Reflections on kinship and mobility]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000100249&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo O artigo apresenta comparação entre dois processos migratórios distintos, com base nas relações de parentesco e nas metáforas sobre família. A pergunta, "quem é da família?", é respondida em diálogo com os novos estudos de parentesco na Antropologia e, sobretudo, enfocando as concepções e obrigações de família presentes entre viajantes alternativos radicados no interior de Goiás e entre trabalhadores brasileiros nos garimpos na Venezuela. Pode-se dizer que pessoas se colocam em movimento atendendo alguma transformação ou necessidade de transformação. Alternativos sonham com um novo estilo de vida e os garimpeiros com trabalho e riqueza. Nos casos em tela, as famílias, cada uma a seu modo, assumem centralidade, uma vez que são percebidas enquanto causa e efeito da condição de mobilidade.<hr/> Abstract The paper presents comparison between two distinct migratory processes, based on kinship relationships and family metaphors. The question, "who's in the family?" is answered in dialogue with the new kinship studies in Anthropology and, mainly, focusing on family conceptions and obligations between alternative travelers living in Goiás' countryside and between Brazilian workers at the mining camps in Venezuela. It can be said that people set themselves in motion in response to some transformation or need for transformation. Alternatives dream of a new lifestyle and the miners with work and wealth. In the cases on screen, families, each one in its own way, assume centrality, since they are perceived as cause and effect of the mobility condition. <![CDATA[New old tangles: on migrations, work and rights in contemporary Argentina]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000100267&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo O artigo apresenta comparação entre dois processos migratórios distintos, com base nas relações de parentesco e nas metáforas sobre família. A pergunta, "quem é da família?", é respondida em diálogo com os novos estudos de parentesco na Antropologia e, sobretudo, enfocando as concepções e obrigações de família presentes entre viajantes alternativos radicados no interior de Goiás e entre trabalhadores brasileiros nos garimpos na Venezuela. Pode-se dizer que pessoas se colocam em movimento atendendo alguma transformação ou necessidade de transformação. Alternativos sonham com um novo estilo de vida e os garimpeiros com trabalho e riqueza. Nos casos em tela, as famílias, cada uma a seu modo, assumem centralidade, uma vez que são percebidas enquanto causa e efeito da condição de mobilidade.<hr/> Abstract The paper presents comparison between two distinct migratory processes, based on kinship relationships and family metaphors. The question, "who's in the family?" is answered in dialogue with the new kinship studies in Anthropology and, mainly, focusing on family conceptions and obligations between alternative travelers living in Goiás' countryside and between Brazilian workers at the mining camps in Venezuela. It can be said that people set themselves in motion in response to some transformation or need for transformation. Alternatives dream of a new lifestyle and the miners with work and wealth. In the cases on screen, families, each one in its own way, assume centrality, since they are perceived as cause and effect of the mobility condition. <![CDATA[The social and pastoral engagement of Scalabrinian Sisters (mscs) in Africa]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000100273&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo O artigo apresenta comparação entre dois processos migratórios distintos, com base nas relações de parentesco e nas metáforas sobre família. A pergunta, "quem é da família?", é respondida em diálogo com os novos estudos de parentesco na Antropologia e, sobretudo, enfocando as concepções e obrigações de família presentes entre viajantes alternativos radicados no interior de Goiás e entre trabalhadores brasileiros nos garimpos na Venezuela. Pode-se dizer que pessoas se colocam em movimento atendendo alguma transformação ou necessidade de transformação. Alternativos sonham com um novo estilo de vida e os garimpeiros com trabalho e riqueza. Nos casos em tela, as famílias, cada uma a seu modo, assumem centralidade, uma vez que são percebidas enquanto causa e efeito da condição de mobilidade.<hr/> Abstract The paper presents comparison between two distinct migratory processes, based on kinship relationships and family metaphors. The question, "who's in the family?" is answered in dialogue with the new kinship studies in Anthropology and, mainly, focusing on family conceptions and obligations between alternative travelers living in Goiás' countryside and between Brazilian workers at the mining camps in Venezuela. It can be said that people set themselves in motion in response to some transformation or need for transformation. Alternatives dream of a new lifestyle and the miners with work and wealth. In the cases on screen, families, each one in its own way, assume centrality, since they are perceived as cause and effect of the mobility condition. <![CDATA[On the waves of migration. From fear to encounter]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000100279&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo O artigo apresenta comparação entre dois processos migratórios distintos, com base nas relações de parentesco e nas metáforas sobre família. A pergunta, "quem é da família?", é respondida em diálogo com os novos estudos de parentesco na Antropologia e, sobretudo, enfocando as concepções e obrigações de família presentes entre viajantes alternativos radicados no interior de Goiás e entre trabalhadores brasileiros nos garimpos na Venezuela. Pode-se dizer que pessoas se colocam em movimento atendendo alguma transformação ou necessidade de transformação. Alternativos sonham com um novo estilo de vida e os garimpeiros com trabalho e riqueza. Nos casos em tela, as famílias, cada uma a seu modo, assumem centralidade, uma vez que são percebidas enquanto causa e efeito da condição de mobilidade.<hr/> Abstract The paper presents comparison between two distinct migratory processes, based on kinship relationships and family metaphors. The question, "who's in the family?" is answered in dialogue with the new kinship studies in Anthropology and, mainly, focusing on family conceptions and obligations between alternative travelers living in Goiás' countryside and between Brazilian workers at the mining camps in Venezuela. It can be said that people set themselves in motion in response to some transformation or need for transformation. Alternatives dream of a new lifestyle and the miners with work and wealth. In the cases on screen, families, each one in its own way, assume centrality, since they are perceived as cause and effect of the mobility condition.