Scielo RSS <![CDATA[REMHU : Revista Interdisciplinar da Mobilidade Humana ]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1980-858520170002&lang=en vol. 25 num. 50 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[O mal-estar da ética no âmbito das migrações]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[A right to exclude or a duty to welcome? Forced migration as an ethical issue]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000200011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo O primeiro objetivo deste trabalho é analisar se e em que sentido a resposta, especificamente europeia, à crise migratória de 2015 pode ser considerada antiética. A fim de aprofundar este ponto, vamos examinar o Global Approach to Migration and Mobility (GAMM), que desde 2005 constitui o framework geral da UE no que tange às migrações e às políticas de asilo. O segundo objetivo é tentar justificar uma ética da imigração, argumentando em favor da tese de que cuidar dos refugiados é um valor fundamental para a cidadania e uma contribuição à justiça social.<hr/>Abstract The first aim of this paper is to examine if and why the European reaction to the migration crisis of 2015 can be considered anti-ethical. In order to argue this, the paper discusses the Global Approach to Migration and Mobility (GAMM), which since 2005 has been the EU's overall framework for migration and asylum policies. The second aim of the paper is to justify that an ethics of migration is possible, arguing in favor of the thesis that caring for refugees is a fundamental value for citizenship and a contribution to social justice. <![CDATA[Distributive global justice and immigration]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000200025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El artículo evalúa argumentos presentados a favor de la inmigración que se basan en exigencias normativas de la justicia distributiva: el argumento liberal igualitario, el argumento de compensación, el argumento de la posesión común de la tierra, y el argumento utilitarista. Se sostiene que la migración no es el método más efectivo para avanzar los fines de la justicia distributiva global y que, por lo tanto, estos enfoques tienen un alcance menor en tanto argumentos a favor de la migración, aunque muy relevante en determinadas circunstancias.<hr/>Abstract The paper evaluates arguments presented in favor of immigration that are based on normative demands of distributive justice: the liberal egalitarian argument, the compensation argument, the argument of the common possession of the earth, and the utilitarian argument. It argues that migration is not the most effective way to achieve the goals of global distributive justice and that therefore these approaches have less to say in favor of migration, although they are very relevant in certain circumstances. <![CDATA[Hospitality, with and without documents]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000200047&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El objetivo de este artículo es vincular el trabajo sobre el archivo de Jacques Derrida con la experiencia de la hospitalidad. Se intentará mostrar que, por un lado, se trata siempre de los papeles, de la legitimidad que éstos otorgan o no tanto a nivel filosófico (deseo de poseer los papeles que autoricen tal o cual decisión interpretativa), como a nivel político ("tener papeles" como el principio básico de todo derecho a tener derechos, de todo derecho a la comunidad). Mas también, por otro lado, se intentará pensar aquello que arruina la idea misma de tener o no tener (papeles), la idea de propiedad, aquello que hace imposible fundar una decisión o identidad en última instancia y, por ende, una soberanía, una frontera. La hospitalidad, la llegada inminente del otro, representa un desafío político y ético para la filosofía: pues no se trata de un saber, sino de una experiencia transformando el sustrato del nos-otros, del ser común.<hr/> Abstract The objective of this article is to link the work on Jacques Derrida's archive to the experience of hospitality. It will seek to show that, on the one hand, it is always about the documents, the legitimacy that these do or do not grant at the philosophical level (desire to possess documents that will authorize one or another interpretative decision), as well as at the political level ("being documented" as a basic principle to every right to have rights, to all rights to community). But on the other hand, there is an attempt to think about that which ruins the proper idea of to have or not to have (documents), the idea of property, that which ultimately makes it impossible to construct a decision or identity and, therefore, a sovereignty, a border. Hospitality, the imminent arrival of the other, represents a political and ethical challenge for a philosopher: it is not to do with a knowledge, but an experience transforming the substrate of ourselves/others, the common self. <![CDATA[Differential inclusion of foreigners/migrants to organ transplants: ethical dilemmas in face of non-ethical practices]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000200065&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Este artículo aborda el modo en que ciertos dilemas éticos vinculados al trasplante de órganos a extranjeros "no residentes", son movilizados por el Estado argentino en las normativas que definen un tratamiento diferenciado entre nacionales y no-nacionales en materia de trasplante, y cómo son puestos en relación con la política migratoria. Se muestra que existen mecanismos de inclusión diferencial que garantizan la inscripción a lista de espera sólo a nacionales y extranjeros "residentes" y permiten el trasplante con donante vivo a extranjeros "no residentes". Estos procesos de apertura y cierre de fronteras son posibles porque en el contexto actual coexisten la preocupación estatal en resguardar los bienes sociales proporcionados por el Estado (una de las funciones constitutivas del control migratorio) y la obligación moral de los Estados-nación por el cuidado de la vida en el marco del gobierno humanitario.<hr/>Abstract This article addresses the way in which certain ethical dilemmas related to organ transplantation to "nonresident" foreigners are enacted by the Argentine government through regulations that define differentiated treatments between national and non-national transplanted subjects. While establishing how they are connected to migration policies, it demonstrates that there are mechanisms of differential inclusion that guarantee the registration in waiting lists available only to nationals and foreign "residents" and allow live donor transplantation to "nonresident" foreigners. These processes of opening and closing of borders are possible because -in the current context- there is a governmental concern with the protection of public goods provided by the State, one of the constituent functions of migration control. At the same time, there is a moral obligation of the Nation-state to life care within the framework of a humanitarian government. <![CDATA["We do not feel ourselves identified". The ethics of the concrete in research processes with migrants]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000200081&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen A partir del análisis de una experiencia de investigación realizada con mujeres migrantes, este texto se orienta a poner a de manifiesto una serie de cuestiones de carácter ético que acontecieron en el proceso de investigación y en la posterior difusión de sus resultados. En concreto se abordarán las implicaciones que tiene para la investigación la "reificación" de los sujetos migrantes y su conceptualización como "objetos" de estudio, así como el uso de determinadas categorías para su representación. Igualmente se considerarán toda una serie de cuestiones epistemológicas que en los estudios sobre migraciones redundan en una violencia simbólica fruto de la relación asimétrica entre investigadores y sujetos etnificados. A modo de reflexión final, se expondrá la necesidad de disponer de un corpus de principios éticos que pueda dar respuesta a las particularidades de la investigación desarrollada en el ámbito de los estudios migratorios.<hr/>Abstract Based on the analysis of a research experience with migrant women, this text aims at revealing a series of ethical issues that occurred while the research process and the subsequent dissemination of its results. Specifically, I will examine the implications that reification of migrant subjects and their conceptualization as "objects" of study, as well as the use of certain categories for their representation. I will also consider a whole series of epistemological issues that in migration studies may finish as a symbolic violence resulting from the asymmetric relationship between researchers and ethnicized subjects. As a final reflection, I will expose the need to set out a corpus of ethical principles that may be able to respond to the particularities of the research carried out in the field of migration studies. <![CDATA[Peruvian migration, job in the construction and production of space in the city of Córdoba, Argentina]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000200097&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Este artículo se propone indagar en la articulación entre las trayectorias laborales en la construcción de varones peruanos en la ciudad de Córdoba (Argentina) y las formas de producción de los espacios donde se desenvuelve su vida cotidiana. En base a un trabajo de campo cualitativo sostenido en el tiempo en un barrio localizado en la periferia de esa ciudad, este estudio muestra el modo en que determinadas inserciones laborales funcionan como recursos estratégicos con los que cuentan las familias migrantes en pos de sostener su proyecto migratorio, asegurar su permanencia en el lugar de destino y resolver el derecho a la ciudad a través de la producción del espacio. En particular, los recursos que se obtienen a partir del trabajo en la construcción, habilitan diversas estrategias de reproducción de la vida tanto familiar como comunitaria en el marco de una ciudad cada vez más desigual.<hr/>Abstract This article sets out to analyze the link between labor trajectories in construction sector of Peruvian migrants in the city of Cordoba (Argentina) and the production of the space where these migrants manage their daily life. Based on a qualitative field work sustained over time in a peripheral neighborhood of that city, this paper shows the way in which certain labor insertions work as strategic resources for migrant families in order to reproduce their migration project, guarantee their permanence in destination places and resolve the right to the city through the production of space. In particular, the resources migrants obtain from construction work, allow different strategies of life reproduction, familiar and communal, in the framework of an increasing unequal city. <![CDATA[Going from the farm to the site. Paraguayan rural workers in the construction industry of Buenos Aires]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000200115&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Este trabajo pretende analizar el proceso migratorio de trabajadores paraguayos hacia la Argentina y su posterior inserción laboral en la industria de la construcción del Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires. A través de la presentación conjunta de fragmentos de entrevistas y fuentes secundarias se pretende rastrear el origen de los trabajadores de la construcción del Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires en las distintas localidades de Paraguay, con el objeto de discutir la posibilidad de considerar a la industria de la construcción como un "nicho laboral" particular que logra captar la fuerza de trabajo de un número importante de migrantes paraguayos de origen rural. Como producto del análisis realizado, se concluye que si bien existen importantes indicios que llevan a creerlo, no es posible establecer explicaciones de tipo lineal que relacionen la proveniencia rural de los migrantes con la inserción laboral en la industria de la construcción.<hr/>Abstract This paper aims to analyze the migration process of Paraguayan rural workers to Argentina and their subsequent employment in the construction industry of the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. Through the joint presentation of fragments of interviews and secondary sources, the aim is to track the origin of workers in the construction of the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires in the different localities of Paraguay, in order to discuss the possibility of considering Construction as a particular "job niche" that manages to capture the workforce of a significant number of Paraguayan migrants of rural origin. As a result of the analysis carried out, it is concluded that although there are important indications that lead to believe it, it is not possible to establish linear explanations that relate the rural provenance of the migrants with the labor insertion in the construction industry. <![CDATA[Changes and Continuities in the Spatial Incorporation of Peruvian Migrants in the city of Cordoba, Argentina]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000200133&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen La discusión sobre la incorporación de los migrantes en sociedades receptoras es un tema con una vasta trayectoria en los estudios académicos. En este trabajo focalizamos nuestra atención sobre la dimensión espacial en el análisis de la incorporación de los migrantes peruanos en la Ciudad de Córdoba en el periodo 2001-2010. En primer lugar, analizamos los patrones de segregación espacial de la población nativa y de la población peruana. En segundo lugar, considerando el clivaje concentración/dispersión, analizamos las características sociodemográficas de la población peruana agrupada en clústers y la que se encuentra dispersa. Se sugiere la interacción de dos procesos: a) la existencia de patrones específicos de localización de la migración peruana en la Ciudad de Córdoba. La población nativa con niveles educativos alto, por su parte, tiende a concentrarse en la zona centro y noroeste de la ciudad. En esos espacios centrales se localizan clústers de la comunidad peruana, sin embargo, la evolución histórica señala nuevos asentamientos en zonas periféricas; b) diferencias estructurales entre los peruanos agrupados en clústers y aquellos dispersos.<hr/>Abstract Debates on the incorporation of migrants in receiving societies is a controversial issue in academic research. In this paper we focus our attention on the spatial dimension in the analysis of the patterns of incorporation of Peruvian migrants in the city of Cordoba in the period of 2001-2010. First, we analyze patterns of spatial segregation of the native population and the Peruvian population in the city. Second, considering the clustered/scattered cleavage, we analyze the sociodemographic characteristics of clustered and dispersed peruvians in the city. We suggest the interaction of two processes of spatial incorporation: a) there are specific patterns of location of Peruvian migrants in the city of Cordoba. The native population with higher education levels, in turn, tends to settle in the center and northwest part of the city. The central areas were the stable places where the Peruvians are located, however, in recent years there has been a changing pattern with new places of settlement; b) we identify structural differences between clustered and dispersed Peruvians. <![CDATA[Work as a signifier and meaning in the over-qualification of Brazilian women in Barcelona]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000200157&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Este artículo se centra en los significados del trabajo que se contextualizan en el proceso de migración autónoma de las mujeres brasileñas en Barcelona (España), y en la sobrecualificación como significante de su situación laboral. La particularidad de ambas circunstancias implica tener en cuenta tanto los aspectos estructurales como subjetivos. Así, el análisis se fundamenta en la identificación social y en la identidad en relación al trabajo. Ello contribuye a ampliar la comprensión sobre el concepto de trabajo más allá de la racionalidad económica, y a evidenciar la noción de sobrecualificación como un mecanismo de mantenimiento de la jerarquía del trabajo.<hr/>Abstract This article is focused on the meanings of work that are contextualized in the process of independent migration of Brazilian women in Barcelona (Spain), and in the overqualification as a signifier of their work situation. The particularity of these circumstances involves taking into account both, structural and subjective aspects. Thus, the analysis is based on social identification and identity regarding work. This contributes to understanding of the concept of work beyond economic rationality, and highlighting the notion of overqualification as a tool for maintaining the hierarchy of work. <![CDATA[Emigration and special representation: Evidence from Ecuadorian living abroad]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000200177&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen La mayoría de países del mundo han otorgado derechos de ciudadanía a sus emigrantes, en particular el voto externo y la doble ciudadanía. Sin embargo, existe un sistema electoral relativamente nuevo que los países están gradualmente legislando e implementando: la representación especial (la representación política de los emigrantes en las legislaturas nacionales del país de origen). En la actualidad, 14 Estados en África, Europa y América Latina extienden derechos de representación directa a su población residente en el exterior. La representación especial es un fenómeno altamente relacionado con las discusiones contemporáneas en el ámbito de los estudios sobre migración. Un número creciente de trabajos busca dar explicaciones sobre por qué y cómo los países de origen lo están adoptando. En este artículo, examinamos la representación especial en Ecuador mediante un diseño de investigación cuantitativa que considera las percepciones de los emigrantes. Nuestro objetivo es determinar si existen posibles correspondencias entre la percepción de la necesidad de reservar asientos para los ecuatorianos no residentes y el compromiso migrante. Los resultados subrayan relaciones significativas en encuestados que tienen doble ciudadanía, son miembros de asociaciones civiles e indican deseos de retornar con la necesidad de reservar asientos en la Asamblea Nacional por y para la comunidad emigrante.<hr/>Abstract A vast majority of countries worldwide have granted citizenship rights to their emigrants, in particular external voting and dual citizenship. However, there is a relatively new migrant political transnational practice that home-countries are gradually legislating and implementing: special representation, i.e. emigrant political representation in home-country national legislatures. Nowadays, 14 states in Africa, Europe and Latin America extend direct representation rights to their population residing abroad. Special representation is an interesting phenomenon, highly connected with contemporary discussions in the field of migration studies. Up to date a growing number of studies seek to provide explanations on why and how home-countries are adopting it. In this article, we examine the case of the Ecuadorian special representation through a quantitative research design that takes into account the perceptions of the emigrant voters. Our goal is to determine possible correspondences of this transnational policy via the perception of necessity of having seats reserved for Ecuadorians living abroad on the migrant engagement. Findings highlight significant relations between Ecuadorians who have dual citizenship, members of a civil association, and that indicate a willingness to return with the necessity of reserving seats in the National Assembly for the migrant community. <![CDATA[Immigration and helplessness in dekassegui children]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000200203&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo O fenômeno do retorno dos dekasseguis - fluxo migratório de descendentes de japoneses ao Japão - ganhou visibilidade no Brasil, principalmente a partir da crise econômica mundial de 2008, quando aumentaram os retornos dos brasileiros. O objetivo da pesquisa foi investigar a experiência migratória dos filhos de dekasseguis que acompanharam seus pais no retorno ao Brasil. Para tanto, apresentamos um estudo de caso com uma menina de treze anos, nascida no Japão e que havia chegado recentemente ao Brasil com seus pais. Os resultados indicam que a infância vivida no Japão produz identificações profundas com a cultura japonesa. Algumas sequer falam o português, se consideram japonesas e se sentem estrangeiras no Brasil. As sensações de estranhamento e o desamparo predominam na experiência desses filhos de dekasseguis.<hr/>Abstract The phenomenon of the return of dekasseguis - migratory flow of Japaneses descendants to Japan - gained visibility in Brazil mainly after the global economic crisis of 2008, when the returns of Brazilians increased. The objective of this research was to investigate the migratory experience of these children of dekasseguis that accompanied his parents on their return to Brazil. Thus, we present a case study with a girl of thirteen, born in Japan and had recently arrived to Brazil with her parents. The results indicate that the childhood experienced in Japan produced deep identifications with Japanese culture; some go as far as not speaking Portuguese, considering themselves Japanese and founding themselves foreigners in Brazil. Feelings of estrangement and helplessness prevail in the experience of these dekassegui children. <![CDATA[The Mediterranean "Crisis": the European Images of Otherness and the Postglobalization Realism]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000200221&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo O fenômeno do retorno dos dekasseguis - fluxo migratório de descendentes de japoneses ao Japão - ganhou visibilidade no Brasil, principalmente a partir da crise econômica mundial de 2008, quando aumentaram os retornos dos brasileiros. O objetivo da pesquisa foi investigar a experiência migratória dos filhos de dekasseguis que acompanharam seus pais no retorno ao Brasil. Para tanto, apresentamos um estudo de caso com uma menina de treze anos, nascida no Japão e que havia chegado recentemente ao Brasil com seus pais. Os resultados indicam que a infância vivida no Japão produz identificações profundas com a cultura japonesa. Algumas sequer falam o português, se consideram japonesas e se sentem estrangeiras no Brasil. As sensações de estranhamento e o desamparo predominam na experiência desses filhos de dekasseguis.<hr/>Abstract The phenomenon of the return of dekasseguis - migratory flow of Japaneses descendants to Japan - gained visibility in Brazil mainly after the global economic crisis of 2008, when the returns of Brazilians increased. The objective of this research was to investigate the migratory experience of these children of dekasseguis that accompanied his parents on their return to Brazil. Thus, we present a case study with a girl of thirteen, born in Japan and had recently arrived to Brazil with her parents. The results indicate that the childhood experienced in Japan produced deep identifications with Japanese culture; some go as far as not speaking Portuguese, considering themselves Japanese and founding themselves foreigners in Brazil. Feelings of estrangement and helplessness prevail in the experience of these dekassegui children. <![CDATA[Contemporary Conversations on Immigration in the United States. The View from Prince George's County, Maryland]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852017000200229&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo O fenômeno do retorno dos dekasseguis - fluxo migratório de descendentes de japoneses ao Japão - ganhou visibilidade no Brasil, principalmente a partir da crise econômica mundial de 2008, quando aumentaram os retornos dos brasileiros. O objetivo da pesquisa foi investigar a experiência migratória dos filhos de dekasseguis que acompanharam seus pais no retorno ao Brasil. Para tanto, apresentamos um estudo de caso com uma menina de treze anos, nascida no Japão e que havia chegado recentemente ao Brasil com seus pais. Os resultados indicam que a infância vivida no Japão produz identificações profundas com a cultura japonesa. Algumas sequer falam o português, se consideram japonesas e se sentem estrangeiras no Brasil. As sensações de estranhamento e o desamparo predominam na experiência desses filhos de dekasseguis.<hr/>Abstract The phenomenon of the return of dekasseguis - migratory flow of Japaneses descendants to Japan - gained visibility in Brazil mainly after the global economic crisis of 2008, when the returns of Brazilians increased. The objective of this research was to investigate the migratory experience of these children of dekasseguis that accompanied his parents on their return to Brazil. Thus, we present a case study with a girl of thirteen, born in Japan and had recently arrived to Brazil with her parents. The results indicate that the childhood experienced in Japan produced deep identifications with Japanese culture; some go as far as not speaking Portuguese, considering themselves Japanese and founding themselves foreigners in Brazil. Feelings of estrangement and helplessness prevail in the experience of these dekassegui children.