Scielo RSS <![CDATA[REMHU: Revista Interdisciplinar da Mobilidade Humana ]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1980-858520200003&lang=en vol. 28 num. 60 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[The Meso-North American migratory corridor (non-humanitarian)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852020000300007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[“That twenty years is nothing”? (In)visibility of the social movement of migrants through and from Central America]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852020000300015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El objetivo de este artículo es volver la mirada a las migraciones por y desde Centroamérica sucedidas en las dos últimas décadas. Esta mirada panorámica se focaliza en los tres países del norte centroamericano en los que amplios sectores de población han sido afectados por la concurrencia de distintos factores, entre los que la violencia se ha acentuado de manera dramática, ocasionando desplazamiento interno y emigración de miles de personas, quienes en sus trayectos fragmentados o no, en línea recta o no, tienen que enfrentar más violencias. Este movimiento se visibiliza o invisibiliza como parte de las luchas de las personas migrantes para alcanzar sus objetivos, que pueden cambiar en el camino. Volver la mirada a estos acontecimientos nos debe interpelar para reconocer que la movilidad desde Centroamérica no es reciente y que hay nuevas formas de visibilización para la protección de los derechos y la vida de las personas migrantes.<hr/>Abstract The objective of this article is to look back at the migrations by and from Central America that have occurred in the last two decades. This panoramic view focuses on the three countries of North Central America in which large sectors of the population have been affected by the concurrence of different factors, among which violence has increased dramatically, causing internal displacement and emigration of thousands of people, who in their fragmented journeys or not, in a straight line or not, have to face more violence. This movement is made visible or invisible as part of the struggles of migrants to achieve their goals, which may change along the way. Looking back at these events should challenge us to recognize that mobility from Central America is not recent and that there are new forms of visibility for the protection of the rights and life of migrants. <![CDATA[Two crisis that explain the most recent migratory dynamics in three northern countries of Central America]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852020000300033&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen En la última década los tres países del norte de Centroamérica (Guatemala, El Salvador y Honduras) han ocupado las portadas de los principales periódicos del mundo debido a las crisis migratorias que se viven en la región. Este artículo busca explicar las dinámicas migratorias más recientes a partir de dos crisis que pusieron en evidencia las principales características del flujo migratorio centroamericano: 1) la “crisis humanitaria” de menores en la frontera sur de los Estados Unidos de América en 2014, y 2) las caravanas de migrantes centroamericanos que iniciaron en 2018. También se analiza de qué forma estas crisis marcaron el inicio de amplios debates en relación con las causas de la migración en la región y dieron paso a renovadas políticas migratorias en el corredor migratorio Centroamérica - Norteamérica.<hr/>Abstract During the last decade, the three northern countries of Central América (Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras) have occupied the headlines of the principal newspapers globally, due to the migratory crises experienced in the region. This article seeks to explain the most recent migratory dynamics, starting with the two crises that highlighted the primary characteristics of the Central American migratory flow: 1) the “humanitarian crisis” of minors at the southern border of the United States of America in 2014, and 2) the caravans of Central American migrants that began in 2018. The article also analyzes how these crises marked the beginning of broad debates regarding the causes of migration in the region and made way for renewed migratory policies in the Central America-North America migratory corridor. <![CDATA[Migrant caravans: from differentiated institutional responses to reorientation of migration policy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852020000300051&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen En 2018 y 2019 tuvieron lugar las caravanas migrantes con el fin de llegar a los Estados Unidos, estrategia migratoria adoptada por personas provenientes principalmente de Centroamérica, caracterizadas por una mayor visibilidad, un menor costo y organizadas mediante redes sociales. Se identifican tres oleadas de caravanas a las que se les respondió con medidas institucionales y categorías burocrático-administrativas distintas. Con ello el artículo exhibe los retos de la gobernanza de los flujos mixtos que caracterizan la migración contemporánea en la región y al mismo tiempo constituyeron acciones erráticas y en contrasentido, la antesala de un viraje sustantivo experimentado por la política migratoria mexicana.<hr/>Abstract In 2018 and 2019, migrant caravans took place in order to reach the United States, a migration strategy adopted mainly by Centralamericans, characterized by greater visibility, lower cost and were organized through social networks. Three waves of caravans are identified, related to different institutional measures and bureaucratic-administrative categories. The article exhibits the challenges of the governance of mixed flows that characterize contemporary migration in the region and, at the same time, the measures were erratic and contradictory, the prelude to a substantive turnaround experienced by Mexican migration policy. <![CDATA[LGBT+ migrants in the Central American caravans to the United States: dilemmas and possibilities for building hospitality networks]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852020000300071&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar el escenario de la migración centroamericana en México y en su paso hacia Estados Unidos, con especial atención en el surgimiento del contingente LGBT+ en las caravanas migrantes en 2018. A partir de un estudio cualitativo, se muestran las causas que originan la emigración de personas LGBT+ en Centroamérica, sus experiencias durante el tránsito migratorio, las reacciones generadas en México con su llegada en caravana y las iniciativas de la sociedad para acompañarles. Derivado de esto, se reflexiona sobre algunos elementos asociados a la hospitalidad, para dar cuenta de la complejidad que subyace a este concepto y repensar las formas de construir las micro redes de solidaridad con esta comunidad desde la sociedad civil.<hr/>Abstract This article aims to analyze the scenario of Central American migration in Mexico and its passage to the United States, with special attention to the emergence of the LGBT+ contingent in migrant caravans in 2018. The causes that originate the emigration of LGBT+ people from Central America, their experiences during the migratory transit, the reactions generated in Mexico with their arrival in caravan and the initiatives of the society to accompany them are revised from a qualitative perspective. Derived from this, it reflects on some elements associated with hospitality, to account for the complexity that underlies this concept and rethink the ways to build micro networks of solidarity and support from civil society. <![CDATA[The march of mixed flows through Costa Rica in the light of some theories that describe migrations in the XXI century]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852020000300095&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Este artículo hace una vinculación teórica (Bauman, Sassen, Salazar y Glick- Schiller) con los llamados flujos mixtos de paso por Costa Rica donde se evidencia que son producto de un capitalismo cada vez más fuerte, con una clara presión por eliminar restricciones de mercado y un debilitamiento de los Estados, lo que provoca una selección social de aptitud para incorporarse a nuevos procesos socioeconómicos. Los sectores de la población que no puedan adaptarse tendrán que buscar oportunidades en otros países lejanos, sin importar las distancias y sacrificios que eso conlleve, como es el caso de las migraciones de flujos mixtos de paso por Costa Rica rumbo a Estados Unidos, quienes además de una compleja travesía por las distancias y situaciones que enfrentan, en el 2020 chocan con el cierre de fronteras en la región debido a la pandemia del COVID- 19.<hr/>Abstract This article makes a theoretical link (Bauman, Sassen, Salazar and Glick-Schiller) between the so-called migration mixed flows phenomenon, passing through Costa Rica. In this, it is evident that these flows are product of an increasingly strong neoliberal approach on human behaviour, with a clear pressure to eliminate market restrictions and a weakening of National States. Naturally, this provokes a process of social selection of aptitude to join new socioeconomic processes. The sectors of the population that cannot adapt will have to search for opportunities in other latitudes, regardless of the distances and sacrifices that this entails. This is the case of migrations of mixed flows passing through Costa Rica to the United States. These migrants face not only a daunting journey, but as 2020, they collide with the closure of borders in the region due to the COVID-19 pandemic. <![CDATA[Central American-US Migration in the Time of COVID-19]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852020000300109&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen La pandemia del COVID-19 y las medidas para enfrentarla han trastocado innumerables procesos sociales. La migración hacia los Estados Unidos está lejos de ser la excepción. Después de aportar cifras que apoyan la hipótesis del descenso del flujo migratorio hacia los Estados Unidos en 2020 debido al temor al coronavirus y a una contracción del mercado laboral, este texto compara la situación de los migrantes centroamericanos en dos ubicaciones: los suburbios de Virginia y la ciudad de Los Angeles. Cuatro centroamericanos proporcionan información fresca sobre cómo están lidiando con las restricciones impuestas por los diferentes niveles del Estado y la reducción de las oportunidades de empleo. Sus declaraciones permiten identificar algunos factores de elevada influencia en un incremento de riesgos y daños en la ciudad de Los Angeles: densidad poblacional, desacuerdos entre las autoridades estatales y un estilo de vida de intensa socialización típico de una megalópolis. Por esta razón el impacto del COVID-19 en los lugares aquí mencionados es una historia de dos ciudades con fuertes contrastes. Quedan muchas preguntas para seguir investigando. Este texto ante todo muestra un retrato de cómo los asuntos relacionados con la pandemia son enfrentados por los migrantes en la vida cotidiana, según sus propias palabras.<hr/>Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic and the measures put in place to confront it have disrupted countless social processes. Immigration to the United States is far from being the exception. After providing data supporting the hypothesis that there was a decrease in the flow of immigration to the United States in 2020 due to fear of the coronavirus and a contraction of the labor market, this paper compares the situation of Central American migrants in two settlements: Virginia suburbs and Los Angeles city. Four Central Americans provide fresh information on how they are coping with the restrictions imposed by different levels of the State, and the reduction of employment opportunities. Their statements allow us to identify some factors of high influence in the increase of risks and damages in Los Angeles city: population density, disagreements between State authorities, and a megalopolis lifestyle of intense socialization. That is why the impact of COVID-19 in the places mentioned is a tale of two cities with strong contrasts. Many questions remain for further inquiry. This paper mainly shows a portrait of how the issues related to the pandemic are faced by immigrants in everyday life, in their own words. <![CDATA[Deterritorialized Border, Differential Inclusion and the Nation-state: Brazilian World War II Refugee Selection Commission]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852020000300127&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo O artigo analisa a atuação da Comissão brasileira de seleção de refugiados na Europa após a Segunda Guerra Mundial sob ótica dos estudos críticos da mobilidade. Foi investigado um conjunto documental composto por estudos preparatórios e por relatórios do chefe da Comissão em 1946-1947, Artur Hehl Neiva. Argumenta-se que a Comissão foi uma forma singular que as políticas de branqueamento tomaram no pós-guerra. Destacam-se elementos que permitem pensar a atuação da Comissão como uma manifestação de fronteira inteligente avant la lettre, que operava por meio da classificação hierárquica e da inserção diferencial dos refugiados.<hr/>Abstract This article discusses the case of the Brazilian World War II Refugee Selection Commission in Europe through the perspective of critical mobility studies. Some preparatory studies and reports of the Commission members, mainly the ones written by Artur Hehl Neiva, its chief in 1946-1947, were investigated. It is argued that the Commission represented a singular form of the Brazilian “whitening” policy in the post-war period. The case is considered as a smart border avant la lettre, that operated through hierarchical classification and differential inclusion of refugees. <![CDATA[The Brazilian migration policy for Venezuelans: from the temporary residence permit to the refuge “label” (2017-2019)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852020000300151&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo A partir do aporte teórico-conceitual de Roger Zetter acerca do processo de labelling (rotulação) de migrantes, este artigo busca discutir os “rótulos” que foram implementados para gerenciar a atual migração venezuelana para o Brasil no período de 2017 a 2019. Para tanto, utilizamos pesquisa documental e analisamos as autorizações de residência temporária (a Resolução Normativa nº 126 de 2017 e a Portaria Interministerial nº 9 de 2018) e o reconhecimento da condição de refugiado pela grave e generalizada violação de direitos humanos, ocorrido em 2019. Concluímos que os venezuelanos transitaram entre diferentes “rótulos” mobilizados pelas instituições burocráticas governamentais - solicitante de refúgio, residente temporário até refugiado -, o que ocorreu a partir, especialmente, das últimas mudanças nas diretrizes de política externa brasileira.<hr/>Abstract Based on Roger Zetter's theoretical-conceptual contribution about the process of labelling immigrants, this article aims to discuss the “labels” that were implemented to manage the current Venezuelan immigration to Brazil in the period from 2017 to 2019. To do so, we used documentary research and analyzed temporary residence permits (Resolução Normativa nº 126 and Portaria Interministerial nº 9) and the recognition of refugee status grounded on gross and generalized violation of human rights. We conclude that Venezuelans have transitioned between different “labels” mobilized by government bureaucratic institutions - as a temporary resident and asylum seeker to refugee - this occurred, especially, from the latest changes in Brazilian foreign policy guidelines. <![CDATA[Immigrant children and the right to education: readings and dialogues with Ecuadorians during the DIASPOTICS’s voluntary work]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852020000300167&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo Este artigo foi motivado pela conversa com um menino equatoriano de sete anos, no qual ele narra que ouviu de sua professora que não aprende a ler porque sua mãe se comunica com ele em espanhol. Nossas inquietações surgiram em meio ao trabalho desenvolvido pelo grupo DIASPOTICS - Migrações Transnacionais &amp; Comunicação Intercultural com migrantes equatorianos em Copacabana. O objetivo deste texto é refletir sobre a integração de crianças migrantes e seu direito à educação, tendo como cenário empírico o trabalho com esse grupo de crianças matriculadas em duas escolas públicas do Rio de Janeiro. A partir do trabalho de campo realizado, apontamos a necessidade de maior reflexão sobre integração e educação como construção de saberes com todos os atores envolvidos.<hr/>Abstract This article was motivated by a conversation with a seven-year-old Ecuadorian boy, in which he tells he heard from his schoolteacher that he can’t learn how to read in Portuguese because his mother communicates with him in Spanish. Our concerns have arisen during the work done by the group DIASPOTICS - International Migrations &amp; Intercultural Communication with Ecuadorian migrants at Copacabana. The objective of this work is to meditate on migrant integration, having as an empirical scenario the voluntary work with this group of children enrolled in two public schools in Rio de Janeiro. As a conclusion of our field work we indicate the need for reflection on integration and education as a construction of knowledge with all the parts involved in these processes. <![CDATA[Multilateralism, Migration and Human Rights: Before and after the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852020000300187&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Durante décadas, Naciones Unidas y los Estados Miembros se abstuvieron de emprender un abordaje multilateral de la migración. Los primeros intentos tuvieron lugar a principios del presente siglo y se volvieron más significativos en los últimos años. El Pacto Mundial para una Migración Segura, Ordenada y Regular representa un hito al respecto. Su implementación será decisiva para consolidar un abordaje multilateral de la migración y fortalecer la protección de los derechos humanos de las personas migrantes.<hr/>Abstract For decades, the United Nations and its Member States refrained from addressing migration through a multilateral approach. Initial attempts occurred at the beginning of this Century and became more significant in the last few years. The Global Compact for a Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration represents a milestone in this regard. Its implementation will be key to consolidate a multilateral approach to migration and enhance the protection of the human rights of migrants. <![CDATA[When (dis)affections “make families”. Unspoken, lies and failures in migration trajectories, Cape Verde]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852020000300205&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo No presente artigo, pretendo complexificar o que venho chamando de “fazer família à distância” ao refletir sobre os segredos, os não-ditos, as mentiras, as manipulações e os fracassos que permeiam e constituem as relações sociais familiares entre aqueles que emigram e os que ficam. Minha intenção é perguntar o que podemos aprender sobre tais relações quando tomamos como ponto de partida não os laços de trocas, partilha e solidariedade, mas as formidáveis estratégias de manipulação de si e das experiências migratórias. O artigo explora como segredos, mentiras e omissões, alimentam o espaço social migratório no qual se atualizam as relações familiares. Indo além, abordarei como se dão aquelas trajetórias que, supostamente realizadas em prol do bem-estar de todos, muitas vezes levam ao sofrimento, às rupturas e ao abandono. Os dados que apresento são oriundos de pesquisas em duas ilhas, a Ilha da Boa Vista e a ilha de Santiago. Em ambos os casos estudei em contextos urbanos, respectivamente, na Vila de Sal-Rei e na Cidade da Praia (a capital do país).<hr/>Abstract In this article, I intend to complexify what I have been calling “making a family at a distance” by reflecting on the secrets, the unspoken, the lies, the manipulations and the failures that permeate and constitute the family social relations between emigrants and those left behind. My intention is to ask what we can learn about such relationships when we take as a starting point not the bonds of exchange, sharing and solidarity, but the formidable strategies for manipulating oneself and migratory experiences that, through secrets, lies and omissions, feed the migratory social space in which family relationships are updated. Going further, I will address how those trajectories take place, which, supposedly made for the well-being of all, often lead to suffering, ruptures and abandonment. The data I present comes from research on two islands, Ilha da Boa Vista and Ilha de Santiago. In both cases I studied in urban contexts, respectively, in Vila de Sal-Rei and in Cidade da Praia (the capital). <![CDATA[Transnational key trajectories. Generation, youth(s), education and family in the definition of Haitian migratory projects towards Argentina]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852020000300223&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen En el presente trabajo se aborda la definición de los proyectos migratorios de haitianos y haitianas hacia las ciudades de Córdoba y Rosario, Argentina, durante el periodo 2007-2019. Mediante un análisis de sus trayectorias en clave transnacional se busca problematizar algunos de los enunciados más recurrentes referidos a migrantes haitianos y haitianas en Argentina, por ejemplo, aquellos vinculados a la pobreza, el terremoto ocurrido en 2010 y el modo en que se entiende su relación con la diáspora haitiana en el mundo. Desde un enfoque metodológico cualitativo, basado en la realización de entrevistas en profundidad y observación participante en diferentes eventos y espacios sociales, se busca oponer a ciertas miradas victimizantes, la definición de proyectos migratorios construidos generacional y transnacionalmente a partir de estrategias de reproducción familiar específicas que tienen lugar en el marco de una apuesta por la educación ligada a su condición de jóvenes.<hr/>Abstract This work deals with the definition of haitian migration projects towards the cities of Córdoba and Rosario, Argentina, during the period 2007-2019. Through an analysis of their trajectories in a transnational key, it seeks to problematize some of the most recurrent statements referring to Haitian migrants in Argentina, for example, those related to poverty, the earthquake that occurred in 2010 and the way in which their relationship with the Haitian diaspora in the world. Thus, from a qualitative methodological approach, based on in-depth interviews and participant observation in different events and social spaces, it seeks to oppose certain victimized views, the definition of migration projects built generationally and transnationally from specific family reproduction strategies , which take place within the framework of a commitment to education linked to their youth status. <![CDATA[Migrate as a family. Reflections on the Peruvian migration to Córdoba]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852020000300243&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Este artículo se propone indagar en la articulación entre las trayectorias migratorias de los hijos y las hijas y las formas de migrar de las familias peruanas a la ciudad de Córdoba (Argentina). A partir de los aportes de la perspectiva interseccional y de un trabajo de campo etnográfico, basado en entrevistas en profundidad y observación participante, con familias peruanas que residen en dos barrios ubicados en la periferia de esa ciudad, esta investigación muestra el modo en que las formas en que se consolida la migración familiar están en estrecha articulación con las trayectorias, las edades y los momentos de vida de los hijos y las hijas. Los resultados reflejan la centralidad que adquiere la familia y el lugar que ocupan los y las jóvenes en el proyecto familiar migratorio.<hr/>Abstract This article proposes to investigate the articulation between the migratory trays of children and children and the ways of migrating of Peruvian families to the city of Córdoba (Argentina). Based on contributions from an intersectional perspective and ethnographic fieldwork, based on in-depth interviews and participatory observation, with Peruvian families residing in two neighborhoods located on the outskirts of that city, this research shows how the ways in which family migration is consolidated it is in close articulation with the trajectories, ages and moments of life of sons and daughters. The results reflect the centrality that the family acquires and the place that young people occupy in the migratory family project. <![CDATA[Returned migrants with disabilities and their struggles for recognition:a look from the Pastoral Care of Human Mobility of Honduras]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852020000300263&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Este artículo se propone indagar en la articulación entre las trayectorias migratorias de los hijos y las hijas y las formas de migrar de las familias peruanas a la ciudad de Córdoba (Argentina). A partir de los aportes de la perspectiva interseccional y de un trabajo de campo etnográfico, basado en entrevistas en profundidad y observación participante, con familias peruanas que residen en dos barrios ubicados en la periferia de esa ciudad, esta investigación muestra el modo en que las formas en que se consolida la migración familiar están en estrecha articulación con las trayectorias, las edades y los momentos de vida de los hijos y las hijas. Los resultados reflejan la centralidad que adquiere la familia y el lugar que ocupan los y las jóvenes en el proyecto familiar migratorio.<hr/>Abstract This article proposes to investigate the articulation between the migratory trays of children and children and the ways of migrating of Peruvian families to the city of Córdoba (Argentina). Based on contributions from an intersectional perspective and ethnographic fieldwork, based on in-depth interviews and participatory observation, with Peruvian families residing in two neighborhoods located on the outskirts of that city, this research shows how the ways in which family migration is consolidated it is in close articulation with the trajectories, ages and moments of life of sons and daughters. The results reflect the centrality that the family acquires and the place that young people occupy in the migratory family project. <![CDATA[The Diaspora of Brazilian Religions]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852020000300271&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Este artículo se propone indagar en la articulación entre las trayectorias migratorias de los hijos y las hijas y las formas de migrar de las familias peruanas a la ciudad de Córdoba (Argentina). A partir de los aportes de la perspectiva interseccional y de un trabajo de campo etnográfico, basado en entrevistas en profundidad y observación participante, con familias peruanas que residen en dos barrios ubicados en la periferia de esa ciudad, esta investigación muestra el modo en que las formas en que se consolida la migración familiar están en estrecha articulación con las trayectorias, las edades y los momentos de vida de los hijos y las hijas. Los resultados reflejan la centralidad que adquiere la familia y el lugar que ocupan los y las jóvenes en el proyecto familiar migratorio.<hr/>Abstract This article proposes to investigate the articulation between the migratory trays of children and children and the ways of migrating of Peruvian families to the city of Córdoba (Argentina). Based on contributions from an intersectional perspective and ethnographic fieldwork, based on in-depth interviews and participatory observation, with Peruvian families residing in two neighborhoods located on the outskirts of that city, this research shows how the ways in which family migration is consolidated it is in close articulation with the trajectories, ages and moments of life of sons and daughters. The results reflect the centrality that the family acquires and the place that young people occupy in the migratory family project.