Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tropical Plant Pathology]]> vol. 37 num. 5 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Effectiveness of essential oils in the treatment of <i>Colletotrichum truncatum</i>-infected soybean seeds</b>]]> The aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils from "hortelã do campo" (Hyptis marrubioides), "alfazema-do-Brasil" (Aloysia gratissima) and "erva-baleeira" (Cordia verbenacea) and their efficacy in the treatment of soybean seeds infected with Colletotrichum truncatum. In vitro assays were performed to evaluate the effects of the oils on spore germination, mycelial growth, and the production and viability of C. truncatum conidia. Soybean seeds inoculated with C. truncatum were treated with essential oils at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2% and grown under greenhouse conditions. Seed health and germination percentages were evaluated according to standard protocols. Seedling emergence, stand establishment and the percentages of dead seedlings were determined, together with the emergence speed index, plantlet height and dry weight of aerial biomass. The oils from H. marrubioides, C. verbenacea and A. gratissima inhibited the germination and production of conidia as well as the growth of C. truncatum. At concentrations ≥ 1%, the effectiveness of the oils against soybean anthracnose was superior to, or at least comparable with, that of the fungicide carbendazim. The viability of conidia and the germination of soybean seeds were not affected by any of the treatments with essential oils. It is concluded that essential oils from H. marrubioides, A. gratissima and C. verbenacea have potential as alternatives to synthetic fungicides in the control of anthracnose in soybean seeds. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of resistance to <i>Tomato severe rugose virus</i> (ToSRV) in <i>Capsicum</i> spp. genotypes</b>]]> Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) is the predominant species of begomovirus in São Paulo State, Brazil, and infects primarily tomato and pepper plants. There is no information about genetic resistance of pepper to this virus, so in this work the reaction of 29 genotypes of Capsicum spp. was evaluated by inoculation of two ToSRV isolates: ToSRV-Sk (isolated from a tomato plant) and ToSRV-PJU (isolated from a pepper plant). For both isolates, two C. annuun genotypes (Catarino Cascabel - México and Silver) showed no symptoms 30 days after inoculation (d.a.i). In a second experiment, these two genotypes were evaluated for 150 d.a.i and, again, no symptoms could be observed. However, the virus was detected by RCA-PCR, indicating that both genotypes are susceptible, but less affected by ToSRV infection. Catarino Cascabel - México and Silver can be indicated for use in breeding programs for resistance of pepper to ToSRV. <![CDATA[<b>Slow sand filtration eradicates eucalypt clonal nursery plant pathogens from recycled irrigation water in Brazil</b>]]> Contaminated irrigation water constitutes one of the main sources of plant pathogens that can cause disease and lead to potentially significant production losses in forest nurseries. Recycling of contaminated irrigation water increases the risk of spreading diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate a simple slow sand filtration treatment of irrigation water as a method for eradicating fungal and bacterial pathogens in eucalypt cutting nurseries. Pilot filter units were constructed from PVC pipes containing a 80 cm high layer of sand with grain size varying from 0.50 to 0.75 mm, drainage layers of 10 cm of fine gravel (4 mm) followed by a 15 cm layer of coarse gravel (8 mm), connected to a water outlet. The PVC pipe had space for a 150 mm water column above the sand layer and the filter had a flow rate of 100 to 300 L m-2 h-1. Eradication of the bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, and the fungal pathogens Cylindrocladium candelabrum and Botrytis cinerea through the use of the filter was evaluated. Detection of bacteria in filter-treated irrigation water was performed through the micro drop method followed by PCR of colonies, while fungal pathogens were detected using a castorbean leaf biological bait method. Evaluations were performed daily 35 times for R. solanacearum, 25 times for C. candelabrum and 18 times for B. cinerea during a period of 12 months. After the last evaluation period, samples from various depths of the sand layer in the filters were taken and analyzed for the presence of the plant pathogens. The slow sand filters were able to remove B. cinerea and C. candelabrum spores with 100% efficiency while eradication of R. solanacearum colonies reached up to 99.6%. Colonies of Trichoderma sp. were found predominantly on the all filter layers. The results of this study show that slow sand filters are efficient for recycled water in eucalypt nurseries, especially in eradicating fungal pathogens. <![CDATA[<b>Combining ability and heterosis for resistance to black-spot in papaya genotypes by diallel analysis</b>]]> Foi realizado um cruzamento dialélico envolvendo oito genótipos de mamão, quatro do grupo 'Solo' e quatro do grupo 'Formosa'. As 56 combinações híbridas (F1 e recíprocos) juntamente com seus pais foram avaliados quanto à resistência à pinta-preta causada por Asperisporium caricae. Quantificou-se em duas épocas, março e maio de 2010, a severidade da pinta-preta em folhas e frutos. Com a média de cada característica foram estimadas, além da heterose, as capacidades geral e específica de combinação. Os genótipos 'JS12-N', 'Sekati', 'Golden' e 'Sunrise Solo 72/12' apresentaram melhor capacidade geral de combinação para as duas características. Doze híbridos apresentaram resultados promissores para seleção, com baixos valores de capacidade especifica de combinação para resistência à pinta-preta, tanto em folhas quanto em frutos. Evidenciou-se efeito de heterose na cultura do mamoeiro para resistência à pinta-preta, com ganhos genéticos significativos advindos tanto de cruzamentos inter- como intragrupos heteróticos e, no segundo caso, especialmente entre genótipos do grupo 'Solo'.<hr/>Diallelic crosses were performed between eight papaya genotypes belonging to the 'Solo' and 'Formosa' heterotic groups (four belonging to each group). The 56 hybrid combinations (F1's and reciprocals) along with their parents were evaluated in a complete randomized block design for resistance to black spot disease, caused by Asperisporium caricae. The severity of black spot in leaves and fruits was quantified in two occasions, March and May 2010. When the genotype effect was significant, heterosis as well as general and specific combining ability were estimated from the severity data. The genotypes 'JS12-N', 'Sekati', 'Golden' and 'Sunrise Solo 72/12' displayed better general combining ability for both characteristics. Twelve hybrids displayed promising results for selection, with low values of specific combining ability for resistance to black spot leaves and fruits. The heterotic group did not affect hybrid performance or heterosis estimates. Heterosis in papaya for resistance to black spot may provide significant genetic gains from both inter-and intra-heterotic crosses, and especially from hybridizations involving genotypes of the 'Solo' group. <![CDATA[<b>First record of <i>Tomato chlorotic spot virus </i>in the USA</b>]]> A tospovirus was identified in tomato plants from two counties in Florida by reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing of portions of the S, M and L genomic segments. The predicted amino-acid sequences of the N protein of PCR products from four plant samples were >96% identical to those of TCSV. Partial nucleic acid sequences of the L and M RNA were >97% identical to those reported for TCSV isolates. Extracts from field samples infected test plants and produced symptoms similar to those reported for TCSV. This is the first report of an isolate of TCSV in Florida and in the USA. <![CDATA[<b>Silicon and manganese on the activity of enzymes involved in rice resistance against brown spot</b>]]> This study investigated the role of silicon (Si) and manganese (Mn) rates on the activity of peroxidases (POX), polyphenoloxidases (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyases (PAL) on rice plants non-inoculated and inoculated with Bipolaris orzyae. Rice plants (cultivar Metica 1) were grown in nutrient solution with 0 (-Si) or 2 mmol Si L-1 (+Si) and with 0.5, 2.5 and 10 μmol Mn L-1. Plants were inoculated with B. oryzae and leaf samples were collected at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 and 48 h after inoculation (hai). Leaf samples were also collected from non-inoculated plants at these same time-points. POX activity increased for -Si plants inoculated with B. oryzae at both rates of 0.5 and 2.5 µmol Mn L-1 with one peak at 48 hai at 10 µmol Mn L-1. For plants supplied with Si, POX activity also increased, but seemed to be low at the rates of 2.5 and 10 µmol Mn L-1. POX activity did not show to be greatly influenced by the Mn rates in the presence of Si. However, in the absence of Si, POX activity increased. PPO activity on -Si plants increased at the rate of 0.5 µmol Mn L-1 and was not affected by the other two Mn rates, except a peak at 18 hai at the rate of 10 µmol Mn L-1. In the presence of Si, PPO activity increased on plants supplied with 2.5 µmol Mn L-1 in contrast to the other two Mn rates for which the PPO activity decreased. By comparing the -Si and +Si treatments at the rate of 2.5 µmol Mn L-1, PPO activity increased from 18 to 36 hai in the presence of Si than on its absence. PAL activity on -Si plants decreased regardless of the Mn rates. On plants supplied with Si and inoculated with B. oryzae, PAL showed low activity at the highest Mn rate and also at the rate of 0.5 µmol Mn L-1, besides its activity been very low compared to the non-inoculated plants. PAL did not increase in activity in the presence of Si, but on its absence, high levels of activity were achieved. Results from this study showed that the activities of POX, PPO and PAL were not boosted by Si at any Mn rate.<hr/>O estudo investigou o efeito do silício (Si) e de doses de manganês (Mn) na atividade das enzimas peroxidases (POX), polifenoloxidases (PFO) e fenilalanina amônia-liases (FAL) em plantas não inoculadas e inoculadas com Bipolaris oryzae. Plantas de arroz (cultivar Metica 1) foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva com 0 (-Si) e 2 mmol Si L-1 (+Si) e com as doses de 0,5; 2,5 e 10 µmol Mn L-1. As plantas foram inoculadas com B. oryzae e amostras de folhas foram coletadas às 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 e 48 h após inoculação (hai). Amostras de folhas de plantas não-inoculadas, nestes mesmos tempos, também foram coletadas. Para as doses de 0,5 e 2,5 µmol Mn L-1, a atividade da POX aumentou para as plantas -Si com um pico às 48 hai na dose de 10 mmol Mn L-1. Para as plantas +Si, a atividade da POX também aumentou, mas foi baixa para as doses de 2,5 e 10 mmol Mn L-1. A atividade da POX não foi afetada pelas doses de Mn na presença de Si. No entanto, na ausência de Si a atividade da POX aumentou. Para a dose de 0,5 mmol Mn L-1, a atividade da PFO nas plantas -Si aumentou, mas não foi afetada pelas outras duas doses de Mn, exceto um pico às 18 hai na dose de 10 mmol Mn L-1. Na presença de Si, a atividade PFO aumentou nas plantas que receberam 2,5 mmol Mn L-1 em contraste com as outras duas doses de Mn para as quais a atividade da PFO decresceu. Ao comparar os tratamentos -Si e +Si na dose de 2,5 mmol Mn L-1, atividade da PFO aumentou das 18 às 36 hai para as plantas supridas com Si. A atividade da FAL nas plantas -Si decresceu independentemente das doses de Mn. Nas plantas +Si e inoculadas com B. oryzae, houve menor atividade da FAL tanto na maior quanto na menor dose de Mn e também nas plantas não-inoculadas. A atividade da FAL não aumentou na presença de Si, mas na ausência desse elemento, houve aumento em atividade. Os resultados deste estudo mostram que as atividades da POX, PFO e FAL não aumentaram devido ao suprimento de Si independente da dose de Mn. <![CDATA[<b>Genetic structure of a Brazilian population of the begomovirus <i>Tomato severe rugose virus</i> (ToSRV)</b>]]> Begomoviruses are whitefly-transmitted single-stranded DNA viruses of great economic importance in the tropics and subtropics. Several begomovirus species have been reported in tomatoes in Brazil, but only a few predominate in the field, for unknown reasons. In this study begomovirus-infected tomato samples were collected in Viçosa, State of Minas Gerais, in Nov/2009 and Dec/2010. Viral genomes were amplified, cloned and sequenced. A total of 36 DNA-A components were obtained. Sequence comparisons indicated the presence of a single begomovirus, Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV), with pairwise identities between isolates ranging from 97.3 to 100%. Subdivision tests indicated the existence of a single population. The analysis of variability descriptors indicated that the ToSRV population has a genetic variability similar to other begomovirus populations described in Brazil infecting tomato. Neutrality tests suggested the occurrence of purifying selection acting upon the population. Recombination analysis identified recombination events with begomoviruses from the weed species Sida micrantha. The wide distribution of ToSRV in the field and the detection of recombination indicate that continuous monitoring of viral populations in the field will be required to enable an efficient resistance-based control strategy for begomoviruses. <![CDATA[<b>Control of cashew black mould by acibenzolar-S-methyl</b>]]> Black mould is one of the most important foliar diseases of dwarf cashew plants in coastal zone of northeastern Brazil. In order to develop a reliable method to control this disease, a field experiment was conducted in the 2008/2009 season to evaluate the effect of acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) on disease severity at three different intervals with two, four and six times of applications per season. Copper oxychloride was used every 15 days as a control fungicide. An adult cashew orchard of the susceptible clonal variety CP-76 was used. Black mould severity was estimated by monthly evaluations by scoring each plant according to a 0 to 4 severity scale. Disease severity indexes per plot and per month were used for statistical analyses to compare treatment effects. ASM significantly reduced black mould in the epidemic season tested. Two applications of ASM at 30 days interval were enough to reduce disease in cashew plants. <![CDATA[<b>Isolation, identification and yield losses associated with sudden death syndrome in soybeans in Argentina</b>]]> Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron aislar e identificar los agentes causales del síndrome de la muerte súbita (SMS) en muestras provenientes de diferentes localidades de Argentina, y cuantificar la incidencia de la enfermedad y los daños causados a campo en el rendimiento. Se analizaron 215 raíces provenientes de plantas con síntoma foliares típicos de SMS para el aislamiento e identificación de los agentes causales. Para realizar las pruebas de patogenicidad se efectuaron dos bioensayos en invernáculo. Los daños fueron estimados en un ensayo a campo situado en Pergamino a través de la cuantificación del rendimiento de muestras apareadas. El 36% (78 raíces) de las raíces presentó signos de Fusarium, compatibles con los causantes de SMS. Los estudios morfológicos realizados permitieron identificar 35 aislamientos como F. tucumaniae y 18, como F. virguliforme. Otros ocho aislamientos no pudieron identificarse. Todos los aislamientos inoculados reprodujeron los síntomas foliares típicos de SMS. Se observaron diferencias entre el peso de mil granos de plantas sanas y de plantas enfermas y entre el rendimiento potencial y el real (p<0,05). Los daños promedio fueron de 1514 kg/ha (rango 192-3770 kg/ha). Los resultados obtenidos corroboraron la distribución y predominio de F. tucumaniae y F. viguliforme en el área estudiada y su potencial destructivo.<hr/>The main objectives of this work were to isolate and identify the causal agents of sudden death syndrome (SDS) from samples collected in different Argentinean localities, to quantify its incidence, and to estimate yield losses. Two hundred and fifteen roots from plants with typical SDS foliar symptoms were analyzed. In order to perform pathogenicity tests, two bioassays were conducted in the greenhouse. Yield losses were estimated in a field trial located in Pergamino by quantification and comparison of yield of paired samples. Thirty-six percent of total roots (78 roots) presented signs of Fusarium, compatible with signs caused by SDS. Morphological studies allowed the identification of 35 isolates as F. tucumaniae and 18 as F. virguliforme. Other eight isolates could not be identified. All isolates that were inoculated reproduced typical SDS foliar symptoms. Significant differences were observed between healthy and diseased plants for 1000-grain weight and between potential and real yield (p<0.05). Average yield loss was 1514 kg/ha (range 192-3770 kg/ha). These results corroborated the distribution and predominance of F. tucumaniae and F. viguliforme in the area under study and its destructive potential. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of seaweed extract and silicate clay on Alternaria leaf spot and on the yield of green onion (<i>Allium</i><i> fistulosum</i> L.)</b>]]> A alternariose é uma das doenças mais importantes da cebolinha em cultivo orgânico. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de pulverizações semanais de argila silicatada (Rocksil®) e extrato de Ulva fasciata no controle da doença e produtividade da cebolinha neste sistema de cultivo. Avaliou-se a severidade final e a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença nas folhas centrais (Yf e AACPDf), bem como da planta inteira (Yp e AACPDp). Na colheita, determinou-se o comprimento e peso fresco das folhas. O experimento foi repetido em quatro ciclos da cultura. Os dados de severidade da doença e produtividade foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de Duncan (P≤0.05). Na maioria dos ciclos experimentais, diferenças significativas foram verificadas na sanidade e produtividade dos tratamentos em relação à testemunha (plantas tratadas com água). Ambos preparados propiciaram reduções médias de 41 a 62% na severidade final (Yf e Yp) e de 28 a 58% na área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPDf e AACPDp). Os tratamentos das plantas com argila silicatada e extrato de alga aumentaram o peso fresco das folhas em média de 46% e 32%, respectivamente. Apesar deste trabalho indicar que a argila silicatada e o extrato de algo têm potencial para o controle da alternariose da cebolinha, mais estudos são necessários para elucidar os níveis de controle desses tratamentos em diferentes condições edafoclimáticas. ≤0.05). Na maioria dos ciclos experimentais, diferenças significativas foram verificadas na sanidade e produtividade dos tratamentos em relação à testemunha (plantas tratadas com água). Ambos preparados propiciaram reduções médias de 41 a 62% na severidade final (Yf e Yp) e de 28 a 58% na área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPDf e AACPDp). Os tratamentos das plantas com argila silicatada e extrato de alga aumentaram o peso fresco das folhas em média de 46% e 32%, respectivamente. Apesar deste trabalho indicar que a argila silicatada e o extrato de algo têm potencial para o controle da alternariose da cebolinha, mais estudos são necessários para elucidar os níveis de controle desses tratamentos em diferentes condições edafoclimáticas.<hr/>Alternaria leaf spot is one of the most important diseases of green onion in organic farming. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of weekly sprays of silicate clay (Rocksil®) and extract of Ulva fasciata in disease control and yield of the green onion in organic farming. Final disease severity and area under the disease progress curve were evaluated on central leaves (Yl and AUDPCl) as well as the whole plant (Yp and AACPDp). Length and fresh weight of leaves was determined at harvest. The experiment was repeated in four crop cycles. Data on disease severity and yield were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan test (P < 0.05). In most of the experimental cycles, significant differences were observed in the sanity and yield of the treatments compared to the control (plants treated with water). Overall, both preparations reduced the final disease severity (Yf and Yp (by 41-62% ) and the AUDPCs by 28-58%. Treatments of plants with silicate clay and seaweed extract increased the fresh weight of leaves by 46% and 32%, respectively. Although this study indicates that silicate clay and seaweed extract have the potential for disease control, further studies are needed to elucidate the control levels of these treatments in different edaphoclimatic conditions.