Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Pandaemonium Germanicum]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1982-883720180002&lang=en vol. 21 num. 34 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Imagery of German as a foreign language learners and the disciplinary knowledge]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1982-88372018000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo O presente artigo tem como objetivo analisar a construção de imagens discursivas de aprendizes em sumários e em atividades contidas em livros didáticos de Alemão como Língua Estrangeira (ALE), e de que modo essas construções antecipam que tipo de inserção esse aprendiz teria de/poderia ocupar nessa comunidade de produção/circulação de textos na língua alvo. Nesse sentido, o quadro teórico se constrói a partir da articulação entre a perspectiva polifônica da linguagem (Bakhtin 2011), a noção de práticas discursivas (Foucault 2004; Maingueneau 2008) e o disciplinamento de saberes (Foucault 2002), considerando a relevância de tal articulação para uma crítica à Linguística Aplicada a partir de Rocha e Daher (2015). Por meio das análises de livros didáticos de ALE, observamos a construção de imagens de aprendiz que parece retirá-lo das situações de interação, considerando-o mero espectador, que se ocupará de repetir sentenças e estruturas determinadas por uma simulação artificial de situações comunicativas, mais do que permitir a ele espaços de interação e de inserção nessas situações. Além disso, os materiais comunicam uma imagem de aprendiz-consumidor-turista, interessado em aprender a língua para fazer viagens, realidade essa distante da brasileira.<hr/>Abstract The aim of this article is to analyse the construction of learners’ discoursive images by mapping the summaries presented in textbooks of German as a Foreign Language (ALE). Therefore, we aim to investigate how these constructions anticipate the kind of insertion that this learner would have / could occupy in this community of production / circulation of texts in the target language. Seen in these terms, the theoretical framework is constructed from the articulation between the polyphonic perspective of language (Bakhtin, 2011), the notion of discursive practices (Foucault, 2004, Maingueneau, 2008), the disciplining of knowledge (Foucault, 2002) and the relevance of such articulation for a critique of Applied Linguistics from Rocha and Daher (2015). Through the analysis of German as a foreign language textbooks, we observe the construction of a learner image that seems to draw him/her out of situations of interaction, considering him/her as a spectator, who will be responsible for repeating sentences and structures determined by an artificial simulation of communicative situations, rather than allowing him/her spaces of interaction and insertion in these situations. In addition, the materials communicate an image of a learner-consumer-tourist, interested in learning German to make trips, a reality that is distant from the majority of Brazilian learners. <![CDATA[A proposal of dialect-based Standard German teaching for Volga Germans in Argentina]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1982-88372018000200031&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Zusammenfassung Wie in vielen anderen deutschen Gemeinschaften in Amerika wurde bei den Wolgadeutschen in Argentinien bis heute eine dialektale Varietät des Deutschen aufrechterhalten. Diese wurde i.d.R. nur mündlich weitergegeben, verfügt über covert prestige für die Sprecher und dient als Marker ethnischer Identität. Die Sprache der Mehrheitsgesellschaft (Spanisch im Falle der Wolgadeutschen in Argentinien) verfügt dagegen über overt prestige und objektiven Nutzen für den Alltag. Auch dem Hochdeutschen wird ein objektiver Nutzen, z.B. für die berufliche Zukunft, zugesprochen. Gleichzeitig wird die von der Gemeinschaft gesprochene Varietät meist als inkompatibel mit dem Hochdeutschen wahrgenommen: Die Sprecher des Dialekts sind oft der Meinung, dass die Dialektkenntnisse für sie eher ein Hindernis als eine Hilfe beim Erwerb des Hochdeutschen darstellen. Nichtsdestotrotz gab es bereits Initiativen dialektbasierten Hochdeutschunterricht für die Wolgadeutschen in Argentinien voranzutreiben: So initiierte z.B. Arndt Schmidt ein Programm zur Ausbildung der Lehrer im wolgadeutschen Dorf Santa Maria in der Provinz Buenos Aires. Der vorliegende Artikel geht auf die Frage des Deutschunterrichts für Dialektlerner ein, gibt einen kurzen Überblick über die soziolinguistische Situation der Wolgadeutschen in Argentinien und macht einen Vorschlag eines ursprungsdialektbasierten Hochdeutschunterrichts.<hr/>Abstract Just like many other German communities in the Americas the Volga Germans in Argentina have been able to maintain their initial dialectal variety of German until today. It has been passed on mostly orally, has only covert prestige and functions as an ethnic identity marker for the speakers. As opposed to that the language of the majority population (Spanish in the case of the Volga Germans in Argentina) has overt prestige and objective value for everyday life. Also the standard variety of German is perceived as objectively useful, e.g. for the future career. At the same time, the variety of German spoken by the community is perceived as incompatible with standard German: The speakers of the dialect often think that their knowledge of the dialect is more an obstacle for learning standard German than a help. Nevertheless, there have already been initiatives in Argentina of developing and implementing dialect-based standard German classes, e.g. by Arndt Schmidt in his program for training teachers in the Volga German village in Santa Maria in the province of Buenos Aires. The present article will discuss the question of German classes for dialect learners, give a short overview of the sociolinguistic situation of Volga Germans in Argentina and make a proposal of a heritage-dialect based standard German teaching program. <![CDATA[The other in Leyla, by Feridun Zaimoglu]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1982-88372018000200053&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo Feridun Zaimoglu é um dos principais autores de língua alemã que introduzem a história e as experiências dos imigrantes e seus antepassados em seus textos literários. O romance Leyla, publicado em 2006, é um exemplo paradigmático disso, pois seu universo ficcional apresenta uma configuração temporal que antecede a chegada da protagonista turca à Alemanha. O presente artigo tem por objetivo discutir o romance em dois aspectos: a gênese da voz em espaços com desequilíbrio de poder e por outro lado a gênese da imagem do outro no universo pessoal dos personagens.<hr/>Abstract Feridun Zaimoglu is one of the most important writers in German language to introduce the history and the experiences of immigrants and their forefathers in their literary texts. The novel Leyla, published in 2006, is a paradigmatic example, since its fictional universe presents a temporal configuration that precedes the arrival of the Turkish immigrant in Germany. This article aims to discuss the novel in two aspects: the genesis of a voice in spaces with power imbalance and, on the other side, the genesis of an image of the other in the characters’ personal universe. <![CDATA[Hölderlin's Patmos by Lucchesi: 30 years of an itinerary-experience]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1982-88372018000200074&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo Em 2017, completaram-se os trinta anos do lançamento de Patmos e outros poemas de Hölderlin, primeiro livro de poesia traduzida assinado por Marco Lucchesi. O então jovem poeta percorre uma amostra da lírica de Friedrich Hölderlin por meio da tradução, enquanto experimenta a própria poesia e nos remete à concepção benjaminiana de Erfahrung [experiência], que, como observa Jeanne-Marie Gagnebin, entre outros, “[...] vem do radical fahr-, usado ainda no antigo alemão no seu sentido literal de percorrer, de atravessar uma região durante uma viagem” (Gagnebin 1994: 66). Numa reflexão sobre os elementos que vão compondo uma poíesis diferenciada, verificamos que se desenvolve uma Erfahrung como “itinerário” para o futuro percurso de Lucchesi como poeta-tradutor. O presente trabalho propõe-se expor tal “itinerário” não com o intuito de rastrear e analisar exaustivamente as referências que se enfeixam para produzir uma rede algo caótica ou interpretar toda a poesia por vezes hermética que opera essa rede, mas de apontar como, a despeito da condição de criação indomável, numa obra espécie de colagem ou mosaico, Lucchesi lançava-se a uma tentativa de diálogo com a lírica alemã, como parte privilegiada da produção lírica ocidental de diferentes épocas.<hr/>Abstract 2017 marked the thirtieth anniversary of publication of Patmos e outros poemas de Hölderlin, the first translated poetry book by Marco Lucchesi. The young poet traces a sample of Friedrich Hölderlin’s poetry through translation, while experiencing his own poetry, and refers us to the Benjaminian conception of Erfahrung [experience], which, as Jeanne-Marie Gagnebin, among others, observes “comes from the radical fahr-, still used in the Old German in its literal sense of walking, of crossing a region during a journey” (Gagnebin 1994: 66). In a reflection on the elements that make up a differentiated poíesis, we notice that an Erfahrung is put forth as a “itinerary” for Lucchesi’s future course of poet-translator. The present work aims to expose this “itinerary”, not with the intention to track down and to analyze exhaustively the references that are bent to produce a somewhat chaotic network or to interpret all the often hermetic poetry that operates this network, but to point out how, in spite of the condition of indomitable creation in a kind of collage or mosaic work, Lucchesi was launching an attempt at dialogue with the German lyric, as a privileged part of Western lyric production from different ages.<hr/>Zusammenfassung 2017 markiert das 30-jährige Jubiläum der Veröffentlichung von Patmos e outros poemas de Hölderlin (1987), dem ersten von Marco Lucchesi übersetzten Gedichtband. Der damals noch junge Dichter durchläuft in dieser Arbeit mittels der Übersetzung ein Werk von Friedrich Hölderlin, indem er gleichzeitig mit seinem eigenen lyrischen Schaffen experimentiert und uns auf das Erfahrungskonzept von Walter Benjamin hinweist, welches sich z.B. laut Jeanne-Marie Gagnebin “[...] vom Stamm fahr- ableitet, der im Althochdeutschen den wörtlichen Sinn von ‚bei einer Reise eine Gegend durchstreifen, durchfahren‘” (Gagnebin 1994: 66) hat. In einer Reflexion über die Elemente, die eine differenzierte poíesis ausmachen, stellen wir fest, wie eine Erfahrung als „Reiseweg“ für Lucchesis weiteren Werdegang als Dichter-Übersetzer entsteht. Der vorliegende Aufsatz will diesen „Reiseweg“ präsentieren, jedoch nicht, um das bisweilen chaotische Bezugsnetz, aus dem sich dieser Weg zusammensetzt, zu rekonstruieren oder um die Dichtung, die solche zahlreichen Bezüge meistern will, als Ganzes zu interpretieren, sondern um aufzuzeigen, wie Lucchesi in einem Zustand des ungezähmten Schaffens und in einer Art Collage oder Mosaik einen Dialog mit der deutschen Lyrik - als privilegierten Teil der westlichen Lyrik verschiedener Epochen - versucht. <![CDATA[Indications of mythical thought in Walter Benjamin]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1982-88372018000200099&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo Contestando a suposta superação do mito na modernidade e a validade da dicotomia entre mito e logos, este artigo propõe aproximações entre as categorias do pensamento mítico enumeradas por Ernst Cassirer e a obra de Walter Benjamin, aqui representada especialmente pelos textos de juventude do autor que compõem sua filosofia da linguagem. De maneira mais pontual, recorrer-se-á, ademais, a outros ensaios e livros de sua obra, intencionando sugerir a abundância de material do pensador como um campo profícuo para o estudo do mito.<hr/>Abstract While disputing the supposed overcoming of myth in the modern world and the validity of the mythos-logos dichotomy, this paper suggests an approximation between the categories of mythical thought enumerated by Ernst Cassirer and the work of Walter Benjamin, represented here especially by the author’s youthful writings, which make up his philosophy of language. More precisely, other essays and books of his will be resorted to in order to suggest this thinker’s abundance of material as a profitable field for the study of myth. <![CDATA[Essay on the Economy of Guilt. The Radical Evil in the Representation of Holocaust Perpetrators: the Example of Peter Schneider’s Vati]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1982-88372018000200115&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Zusammenfassung Dieser Artikel diskutiert die Frage von Schuld und Sühne im Fall von Massenmördern wie Josef Mengele. Die Abnormität des Verbrechens, so scheint es, erfordert Rache und nicht eine einfache Bestrafung im Einklang mit den Normen der Menschenrechte. Analog zu diesen Vorüberlegungen kann fiktionale Literatur über das Thema, die das Bedürfnis der Leser nach Rache nicht erfüllt, nicht als gelungen angesehen werden. Diese These scheint bestätigt zu werden durch das Schicksal von Vati (1987), einer Erzählung von Peter Schneider, die das Treffen Josef Mengeles mit seinem Sohn in einem brasilianischen Versteck beschreibt. Hinsichtlich der Fakten, gestützt auf eine Serie von Artikeln über das tatsächliche Treffen, zeigt Schneider das psychologische Dilemma des Sohns, der sich unfähig fühlt, den Vater der Justiz auszuliefern oder ihn eigenhändig zu bestrafen; die fehlende Bestrafung des Täters scheint er durch eine Reihe von aggressiven Akten und Phantasien gegen andere Figuren zu kompensieren. Schneider hat versucht den negativen Effekt auf sein Publikum zu reduzieren, indem er statt des Erzählers in der ersten Person einen Er-Erzähler einführte. Dennoch zeigt die Rezeption des Buchs, dass es dem Autor nicht gelungen ist, das Gleichgewicht zwischen Schuld und Strafe zu finden, das die Öffentlichkeit hätte erwarten dürfen.<hr/>Abstract This article discusses the question of guilt and penalty in the case of mass murderers as Josef Mengele. The abnormity of the crime, it seems, requires vengeance and not just a punishment restricted to the norms of human rights. In analogy to this assumption, fictional literature on this topic that does not satisfy the reader’s desire for revenge, cannot be considered felicitous. The thesis is apparently confirmed by the fate of Vati (1987), a narrative by Peter Schneider which describes the encounter between Mengele and his son in his hideout in Brazil. Concerning the facts based on a series of articles upon the real event, Schneider shows the psychological dilemma of the son who feels unable to deliver his guilty father to the authorities or punish him by his own hands; his failure to punish the perpetrator seems to be compensated by aggressive acts and fantasies against other persons. Schneider has tried to reduce the effect on his audiences, changing the narrator from the first to the third person. Nevertheless, the reception of his book shows that the author did not achieve the proportion between guilt and punishment that would have been expected by the public.