Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Pandaemonium Germanicum]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1982-883720160003&lang=pt vol. 19 num. 29 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Sobre "cavaleiras": a (re)criação do medievo em Cornelia Funke]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1982-88372016000300001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumo No âmbito da literatura infantil e juvenil em língua alemã contemporânea, destaca-se a produção de Cornelia Funke. Nascida em Dorsten em 1958, a autora - ou mais especificamente a contadora (Erzählerin), como gosta de se denominar -, acrescenta a seus textos a habilidade de ilustradora. Desde o sucesso mundial da triologia Tintenherz (Coração de tinta), Funke tornou-se uma personalidade de sucesso no universo infantil e juvenil. Em grande parte de suas obras, há a presença latente do imaginário ocidental acerca do medievo. Todavia, trata-se de uma recepção desse medievo, seja através da (re)criação de imagens ou da (re)estruturação de temáticas referentes ao universo cortês. O artigo aqui proposto analisa três obras de Funke, a saber: Die geraubten Prinzen (1994), Igraine ohne Furcht (1998) e Der geheimnisvolle Ritter Namenlos (2001), tendo como ponto de partida entrevistas da própria autora acerca do tema; ou seja, pensar-se-á a relação estabelecida entre o factual e o ficcional. Ao focar na questão da releitura do medievo, o artigo prentende compreender a ressignificação do medievo através tanto de imagens recriadas quanto da inserção de um novo tipo de herói, protagonistas femininas.<hr/>Abstract In the context of children's and young adult literature in contemporary German language, Cornelia Funke's production stands out. Born in Dorsten in 1958, the author - or, more specifically, the storyteller (Erzählerin), as she likes to be called -, brings together in the texts her ability as an illustrator. Since the worldwide success of the Tintenherz (Inkheart) trilogy, Funke became a successful figure in the children's and young adult universe. In most of her works there is the latent presence of the Western imaginary about the Middle Ages. However, that is a reception of the Middle Ages, either through the (re)creation of images or the (re)structuring of themes from the courtly universe. The article here proposed analyzes three works of Funke, namely Die geraubten Prinzen (1994), Igraine ohne Furcht (1998) and Der geheimnisvolle Ritter Namenlos (2001), taking as a starting point interviews of the author herself about this theme; in other words, it is the relationship between fact and fiction which will be considered. By focusing on the issue of the reinterpretation of the Middle Ages, this paper seeks to understand the reframing of the Middle Ages both through recreated images and the insertion of a new kind of hero, female protagonists. <![CDATA[A quebra de limites do mal moral em Michael Kohlhaas]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1982-88372016000300021&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumo Ricoeur (1988) nos diz que a conceituação do mal é um problema que atravessa séculos, devido a sua necessidade de coerência lógica. Já se discutiu sua origem, suas causas e seus efeitos, porém nunca se chegou a um termo que eliminasse a contradição em seu cerne. Neste espaço, as obras literárias de Heinrich von Kleist (1777-1811) apresentam uma temática que abarca uma quebra de limites entre os conceitos de maldade e bondade desenvolvidos durante a Aufklärung, evidenciando essa problemática. Essa quebra nos parece estar fortemente associada à relação existente entre o "eu" e o mundo caótico em que este está inserido, implicando em uma complexidade das fontes do mal moral que diluem as barreiras entre bem e mal e nos levam à contestação destes limites estanques. Procuraremos, portanto, neste texto, demonstrar em que consiste essa quebra de limites e como a composição de uma realidade pautada no engano integra o universo literário kleistiano, principalmente na obra Michael Kohlhaas.<hr/>Abstract Ricoeur (1988) tells us that the concept of evil is a problem that goes through the centuries, due to its need for logical consistency. Already discussed its origin, its causes and its effects, but never came to a term that would eliminate the contradiction at its core. In this space, the literary works of Heinrich von Kleist (1777-1811) present a theme that includes a break of boundaries between the concepts of evil and goodness developed during the Aufklärung, highlighting this problem. This break seems to be strongly associated with the relationship between the "I" and the chaotic world in which it is inserted, resulting in a complexity of the sources of moral evil that dilutes the boundaries between good and evil and lead us to challenge these tight limits. Therefore, we try to demonstrate in this paper what this boundary break is made of and how the composition of a reality guided by mistakes integrates Kleist's literary universe, especially in the work Michael Kohlhaas. <![CDATA[History, stories and myths in Dea Lohers Olga's Room]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1982-88372016000300037&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Zusammenfassung Zusammenfassung: In den letzten Jahrzehnten haben Deutschlands Teilung und die darauf folgende Wiedervereinigung die Art und Weise beeinflusst, wie die Geschichte des Landes verstanden wird, wobei östlich und westlich geprägte Erzählungen zu einer neuen Geschichtsschreibung verschmolzen. Die verschiedenen Sichtweisen auf das Leben und den Tod der jüdisch-deutschen Kommunistin Olga Benario, der Lebensgefährtin des brasilianischen Freiheitskämpfers Luis Carlos Prestes, dienen der deutschen Autorin Dea Loher in diesem Zusammenhang als aussagekräftige Fallstudie. In ihrem Theaterstück Olgas Raum (1994) werden die leeren Wände der Bühne genutzt, um auf ihnen Geschichte, Geschichten und Mythen zu projizieren, bevor die Figuren durch ihre eigenen tragischen Fehler diese Entwürfe dekonstruieren. Dabei werden die Konstruktionsmechanismen, die hinter der Entstehung von Geschichte und Geschichten liegen, enthüllt. Das Publikum wird so in eine aktive Rezipientenrolle gedrängt, nicht zuletzt wenn es mit dem leeren Raum, den Olga und die anderen Akteure nach einander verlassen, alleingelassen wird. Eine Flucht in den Mythos ist nicht mehr möglich in Anbetracht der Erkenntnis, dass Gewalt und allgemeine Fehlbarkeit zutiefst menschlich sind.<hr/>Abstract Over the past few decades, Germany's division and subsequent unification have altered he way the country's history is understood, with Eastern and Western narratives needing to merge into a new master narrative. The different accounts of the life and death of the Jewish-German communist Olga Benario, partner of the Brazilian freedom fighter, Luis Carlos Prestes, serve as a powerful case study for Germany's author Dea Loher. In her theatre play Olga's Room (1994) the empty stage walls are used in such a way as to serve as a screen for history, her stories and myths, before the actors deconstruct these walls themselves by disclosing their own tragic flaws. In the process, the construction mechanisms that lie behind the history and stories are revealed. The audience is thereby pushed into an active reception role, not least when left with the empty space which Olga and the other actors leave one by one. Escapism into a myth is no longer possible; after all, the realisation that violence and general fallibility are profoundly human prevents this folly. <![CDATA[The subjunctive as a means to modify meaning]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1982-88372016000300053&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Zusammenfassung Die richtige Verwendung des Konjunktivs bereitet vielen Deutschlernern/innen Schwierigkeiten. Um diese Schwierigkeiten nachvollziehen zu können, ist es wichtig, die Besonderheiten des deutschen Konjunktivs zu kennen. Darum wird in diesem Aufsatz zuerst der Modus Konjunktiv von den anderen beiden Modi des Deutschen, dem Indikativ und dem Imperativ, abgegrenzt, und herausgestellt, worin sich die Modi des Deutschen unterscheiden. Anschließend werden Besonderheiten des Konjunktivs als einem Mittel der Modalität dargestellt. Sodann wird im Einzelnen dargestellt, welche Funktionen Konjunktiv I und II übernehmen können. Der Aufsatz schließt mit einer Diskussion über das Unterrichten des Konjunktivs im DaF-Unterricht.<hr/>Abstract The correct use of subjunctive can be difficult for learners of German. To understand these difficulties, it is important to recognize the specificities of the German subjunctive. Therefore, this article begins with pointing out the differences between the subjunctive and the two other German moods, indicative and imperative. It continues with a description of particularities of the subjunctive as a means of modality. Subsequently, the roles that can be taken by subjunctive I and II are presented. The article concludes with a discussion of how to teach the German subjunctive in the classroom.<hr/>Resumo Para quem estuda alemão, o uso do subjuntivo constitui um desafio. Para poder compreender isso é preciso conhecer as particularidades do subjuntivo em alemão. Por isso, esse artigo esclarece primeiramente as diferenças entre o modo subjuntivo e os dois outros modos alemães: o indicativo e o imperativo. O artigo mostra a seguir as particularidades do subjuntivo, sendo um meio da modalidade. Subsequente, apresentam-se as funções que podem ser cumpridas pelo subjuntivo I e subjuntivo II. O artigo conclui, assim, com uma discussão sobre o ensino do subjuntivo alemão na sala de aula com língua estrangeira. <![CDATA[Glaubenskämpfe and Himmelfahrtskommandos: metaphors in German media discourse on inclusion]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1982-88372016000300095&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Zusammenfassung Das traditionelle deutsche Schulsystem ist durch seinen hohen Grad an Selektivität gekennzeichnet. Dennoch hat sich Deutschland im Jahr 2008 zu einem inklusiven Bildungssystem verpflichtet. Diese Entscheidung führte zu einer kontroversen Diskussion in den Medien, die bis heute anhält. Aus Sicht der Kognitiven Linguistik (KL) lässt sich in dieser Mediendebatte ein beträchtlicher Gebrauch von Kriegs- und Religionsmetaphern konstatieren. Im Rahmen einer Kritischen Diskursanalyse (KDA) werden in dem vorliegenden Artikel diese metaphorischen Phänomene auf Basis der Theorie der Konzeptuellen Integration analysiert. Das Korpus setzt sich aus Artikeln zusammen, die zwischen 2011 und 2015 in vier Online-Zeitungen nationaler Bedeutung veröffentlicht wurden.<hr/>Abstract The traditional German school system is characterized by its high degree of selectivity. Nevertheless, in 2008, Germany has committed to an inclusive education system. This decision led to a controversial debate in the media, which continues up to this day. From the perspective of Cognitive Linguistics (CL), there can be stated a considerable use of war and religious metaphors in this media debate. Within the framework of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), the present paper analyzes these metaphorical phenomena based on Conceptual Integration Theory. The corpus is composed of articles published in four online newspapers of national importance between 2011 and 2015.<hr/>Resumo O sistema escolar alemão tradicional é caracterizado por seu alto nível de seletividade. Porém, em 2008, a Alemanha se comprometeu a adotar um sistema educacional inclusivo. Essa decisão causou uma discussão controversa na mídia que continua até hoje. Desde uma perspectiva da Linguística Cognitiva (LC), nota-se um uso considerável de metáforas bélicas e religiosas nesse debate midiático. No presente artigo, orientado pelos pressupostos teóricos da Análise Crítica do Discurso (ACD), pretende-se analisar esses fenômenos metafóricos com base na teoria da Integração Conceitual. O corpus se constitui de artigos publicados entre 2011 e 2015 em quatro jornais digitais alemães de importância nacional.