Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Zoologia (Curitiba)]]> vol. 34 num. lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Influence of vegetation physiognomy, elevation and fire frequency on medium and large mammals in two protected areas of the Espinhaço Range]]> ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to determine the richness of medium and large mammal species in two protected areas of the Espinhaço Mountain Range, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil; and to investigate the factors affecting the occurrence of those species. To accomplish that we placed 49 camera traps activated by heat and motion at Rio Preto State Park (RPSP) and 48 at Sempre Vivas National Park (SVNP). We also collected data on three environmental variables: vegetation physiognomy, elevation and wildfire frequency, to evaluate the influence of these factors on species richness and use intensity (inferred from camera trap detection rate) by large mammals. We recorded 23 large mammal species in the two parks combined. The lowest species richness was found at the rupestrian habitat of RPSP, and in the open grasslands of SVNP. The forest and savannah physiognomies were used more intensively by large mammals. Species richness was higher and use was greater at lower elevations of RPSP. In SVNP, fire frequency did not affect species richness or use intensity. The savannah habitat had very similar richness compared to the forests of the two protected areas. The high species richness and use intensity observed in these forest habitats highlights the importance of riparian environments in the Cerrado biome. The highest species richness and use intensity observed at low elevation follows patterns found in the literature, probably due to variation in the vegetation, which results in greater resource availability. Although rupestrian habitats at high elevations of the Espinhaço Range are known to have a high degree of endemism for some taxa, large mammal richness and use were not high in this habitat. These results indicate that the protection of native vegetation at lower elevations is crucial for the long-term conservation of large mammals in the Espinhaço Range. <![CDATA[Ultrastructure of the dermal chromatophores in the Fringe-toed lizard, <em>Acanthodactylus orientalis</em>]]> ABSTRACT Histology and electron microscopic studies of the dorsal skin of the Fringe-toed lizard, Acanthodactylus orientalis Angel, 1936, showed three types of dermal chromatophores: xanthophores, iridophores and melanophores. These pigment cells were observed in vertical combination, with an uppermost layer of xanthophores, an intermediate layer of iridophores and a basal layer of melanophores. The ultrastructure of the melanophore is characterized by oval nucleus and numerous pigment granules, the melanosomes of different stages that remain scattered in the cytoplasm. The chromatophores of this species contain significant information of anatomical similarity with lower as well as higher vertebrates. They can help to better understand the inter relationships between vertebrate pigment cells and their role in skin dysfunctions. <![CDATA[Observations on food preference of Neotropical land planarians (Platyhelminthes), with emphasis on <em><strong><em>Obama anthropophila</em></strong></em> , and their phylogenetic diversification]]> ABSTRACT: The food preference of Obama anthropophila Amaral, Leal-Zanchet &amp; Carbayo, 2015, a species that seems to be spreading across Brazil’s human-modified environments, was investigated. Extensive experiments led to the conclusion that the generalized diet of this species may have facilitated its dispersal. The analysis of 132 feeding records of 44 geoplaninid species revealed a tendency for closely related species to feed on individuals from similar taxonomic groups, suggesting that in this group behavioral evolution is more conserved than phylogenetic diversification. <![CDATA[<em>Owenia caissara</em> sp. n. (Annelida, Oweniidae) from Southern Brazil: addressing an identity crisis]]> ABSTRACT We re-assess the taxonomic status of Owenia Delle Chiaje, 1841 from Southern Brazil based on estuarine specimens from Paranaguá Bay (Paraná) and Babitonga Bay (Santa Catarina), and literature records. Owenia caissara sp. n. is diagnosed by a branchial crown with five pairs of tentacles, branched close to the base of the crown, rectilinear collar with a pronounced lateral slit, two ventrolateral ocelli partially covered by the collar, up to 23 hooks on a single row in the first abdominal segment, regularly curved nuchal shape, regularly moderate teeth curvature, and long and thin scales with oval transition. The description of Owenia caissara sp. n. reinforces the idea that Owenia fusiformis sensu lato is a complex of closely related species that can be distinguished on the basis of both macro- and micro- morphological traits. <![CDATA[Phylogeny of the Neotropical longhorn beetle genus <em><strong><em>Ateralphus</em></strong></em> (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae)]]> ABSTRACT Ateralphus Restello, Iannuzzi &amp; Marinoni, 2001 is a Neotropical genus of longhorn beetles composed of nine species. This genus was proposed from splitting Alphus White, 1855 into other two genera: Ateralphus and Exalphus Restello, Iannuzzi &amp; Marinoni, 2001. Even though Ateralphus (nine species), Alphus (four) and Exalphus (18) were recently revised, their validity has not been tested using phylogenetic methods. In this study, we carried out a cladistic analysis of Ateralphus and its related genera, Alphus and Exalphus, based on 44 morphological characters of the adults, to test their monophyly and infer the relationships between their species. Our results support the monophyly of the three genera and recovered two clades that corroborate the species-groups previously recognized in Ateralphus. A new genus, Grandateralphus gen. n., is proposed for one of these clades, which is supported by three synapomorphies: width of upper ocular lobes less than width between the lobe and the coronal suture (character state 6: 0), genae parallel in frontal view (8: 1) and scape gradually expanded toward apex, reaching widest diameter just near apex (9: 2). Grandateralphus gen. n. includes three new combinations: G. lacteus (Galileo &amp; Martins, 2006), comb. n.; G. tumidus (Souza &amp; Monné, 2013), comb. n.; and G. variegatus (Mendes, 1938), comb. n. Notes on the distribution of G. variegatus comb. n. and a new record of E. cicatricornis Schmid, 2014 for Bolivia (Santa Cruz) are provided. <![CDATA[Feeding behavior by hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae) in artificial food patches in an Atlantic Forest remnant in southeastern Brazil]]> ABSTRACT During flight, hummingbirds achieve the maximum aerobic metabolism rates within vertebrates. To meet such demands, these birds have to take in as much energy as possible, using strategies such as selecting the best food resources and adopting behaviors that allow the greatest energy gains. We tested whether hummingbirds choose sources that have higher sugar concentrations, and investigated their behaviors near and at food resources. The study was conducted at Atlantic forest remnant in Brazil, between June and December 2012. Four patches were provided with artificial feeders, containing sucrose solutions at concentrations of 5%, 15%, 25% and 35% weight/volume. Hummingbird behaviors were recorded using the ad libitum method with continuous recording of behaviors. The following species were observed: the Brazilian ruby Clytolaema rubricauda (Boddaert, 1783), Violet-capped woodnymph Thalurania glaucopis (Gmelin, 1788), Scale-throated hermit Phaethornis eurynome (Lesson, 1832), White-throated hummingbird Leucochloris albicollis (Vieillot, 1818), Versicoloured emerald Amazilia versicolor (Vieillot, 1818), Glittering-bellied emerald Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812) and other Phaethornis spp. C. rubricauda, P. eurynome and Phaethornis spp. visited the 35%-sucrose feeders more often, while the T. glaucopis visited the 25%-sucrose feeders more often. L. albicollis and A. versicolor visited more often solutions with sugar concentration of 15%. C. lucidus visited all patches equally. Three behavioral strategies were observed: 1) C. rubricauda and T. glaucopis exhibited interspecific and intraspecific dominance; 2) the remaining species exhibited subordinance to the dominant hummingbirds, and 3) P. eurynome and Phaethornis spp. adopted a hide-and-wait strategy to the dominant hummingbird species. The frequency of aggressive behaviors was correlated with the time the hummingbird spent feeding, and bird size. Our results showed that hummingbirds can adopt different strategies to enhance food acquisition; that more aggressive species feeding more than less aggressive species; and that the birds, especially if they were dominant species, visited high quality food resources more often. <![CDATA[Anatomical and histological study of the liver and pancreas of two closely related mountain newts <em><strong><em>Neurergus microspilotus</em></strong></em> and <em><strong><em>N. kaiseri</em></strong></em> (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae)]]> ABSTRACT Anatomical and histological examinations were conducted on the digestive glands of two closely related mountain newts, Neurergus microspilotus (Nesterov, 1916) and Neurergus kaiseri Schmidt, 1952. In N. microspilotus and N. kaiseri the major digestive glands comprise a very large liver and a small pancreas. In both species the liver has two distinct lobes, right and left. Histologically, the parenchyma of the liver of both species is contained within a thin capsule of fibroconnective tissue. Glycogen deposits and fat storage often dissolve during the routine histological process and produce considerable histological variability. Sinusoids are lined with endothelial cells forming a very thin epithelial sheet, with discontinuous basement membrane. Bile ducts also occur within the parenchyma of the liver. The ducts are lined by simple cuboidal epithelium. The gall bladder is a storage depot for bile. Its mucosa is thrown into numerous folds. The epithelial lining of the tunica muscularis is arranged circularly. There is a lot of pigmentation in the hepatic parenchyma. The pancreas in N. microspilotus and N. kaiseri is roughly triangular in shape, and lies rather to the dorsal side of the duodenum, between it and the stomach. The exocrine portion of the pancreas consists of clusters of pyramidal cells, which are mostly organized in acini. In both species the cells have a dark basophilic cytoplasm, distinct basal nuclei, and many large eosinophilic zymogen granules containing enzymes responsible for the digestion of proteins, carbohydrates, fats and nucleotides. <![CDATA[<em>Minaselates</em>, a new genus and new species of Epiphragmophoridae from Brazil (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Helicoidea)]]> ABSTRACT We describe a new genus and a new species in the family Epiphragmophoridae, Minaselates paradoxa sp. n. The new species was found at the National Park Cavernas do Peruaçu, in northern portion of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Minaselates paradoxa sp. n. is classified in Epiphragmophoridae based on the fact that it shares the following diagnostic features of the family: a dart apparatus with a single dart sac, and two unequal mucous glands at the terminal genitalia. Minaselates gen. n. differs from Epiphragmophora Doering, 1874 by having a granulose protoconch, shell spire with blunt apex, complex microsculpture on the teleoconch and closed umbilicus fused with the shell wall. Also, significant differences between the two genera are the presence of a long and thin kidney that extends more than half the length of the pulmonary cavity, the presence of a flagellar caecum, and a smooth jaw in Minaselates gen. n. The finding of this new species and genus is particularly significant to refine the definition of the family, since Epiphragmophoridae has been traditionally diagnosed using the same characters of Epiphragmophora. Dinotropis Pilsbry &amp; Cockerell, 1937, the other valid genus in the family, is monospecific and is only known by the morphology of the shell. In many ways it is similar to Epiphragmophora. A cladistics analysis was made in the present study which supports Minaselates gen. n. as a different entity and as sister group of the Epiphragmophora within Epiphragmophoridae.