Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Zoologia (Curitiba)]]> vol. 33 num. 6 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Predatory behavior of three centipede species of the order Scolopendromorpha (Arthropoda: Myriapoda: Chilopoda)]]> ABSTRACT Studies related to centipede feeding and predatory behavior are rare in the literature, and are limited to observations made during fieldwork. Furthermore, they lack descriptions of prey capture. We conducted a laboratory experiment using South American specimens of Scolopendra viridicornis Newport, 1844 (n = 5), Otostigmus tibialis Brölemann, 1902 (n = 5), and Cryptops iheringi Brölemann, 1902 (n = 5), as well as 13 different kinds of prey, to map and describe their predatory behavior. The analysis of video images (65 hours of recordings) resulted in 15 behavioral categories that describe foraging, prey capture, feeding, and cleaning habits. Almost all observations (95%) concluded with the centipede killing the prey. Although we witnessed that a stimulus triggered the movement of the centipede toward the prey in all observation events (suggesting a sit-and-wait strategy), our experiments also showed that these arthropods actively forage to seek food. Field observations during the experiment allowed us to document that scolopendromorphs feed on plants when animal prey items are not available. Moreover, we observed that the size and aggressiveness of the prey determined the centipede capture process. Our results revealed that two behavioral categories were performed only by S. viridicornis , and thus might be genus or species-specific. These are: raising the first third of the body while the rest of the body remains adjacent to the substrate; and restraining the prey along the ventral region of the first third of the body with the aid of locomotory legs. We also observed some peculiar behaviors performed only by O. tibialis . Our results confirm that S. viridicornis , O. tibialis and C. iheringi hold prey between their ultimate pair of legs. <![CDATA[Gonadal development and fecundity of the smooth weakfish <em>Cynoscion leiarchus</em> (Teleostei: Perciformes: Sciaenidae) in a tropical Brazilian bay]]> ABSTRACT Cynoscion leiarchus (Cuvier, 1830) is a coastal fish species that is widely distributed along the Western Atlantic coast, from Belize to Southern Brazil. In Brazil, C. leiarchus It is an important resource for commercial and artisanal fisheries. Our objective was to describe the oogenesis and spermatogenesis stages of the species and to estimate batch size and relative fecundity of a population at a tropical bay in southeastern Brazil. The examined specimens were obtained from artisanal catches that took place from July 2013 to June 2014. A total of 18 individuals (11 females and 7 males) were examined for histological analysis and 20 spawning-capable females were used to estimate fecundity. Five stages of oocyte development (primary growth, pre-vitellogenic, vitellogenic, oocyte maturation and atresia) and four stages of spermatocytes (spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids, spermatozoa) were described in different phases of gonad development (immature, developing, spawning capable and regenerating), suggesting that spawning happens in batches, oocyte development is asynchronic and fecundity is indeterminate. Batch fecundity ranged from 100 × 103 to 866 × 103 oocytes undergoing final oocyte maturation, and relative fecundity ranged from 232 to 1,225 oocytes, averaging 467 oocytes per gram of ovary-free body weight. Fecundity tended to increase linearly with gonadal weight, total weight, total length, and age, but the highest linear correlation obtained was between fecundity and gonadal weight. This study provides the first information on the gonadal development of C. leiarchus from the Brazilian coast and is a baseline to compare with other populations and/or congeneric species. <![CDATA[Growth and reproductive biology of the amphidromous shrimp <em>Palaemon pandaliformis</em> (Decapoda: Caridea) in a Neotropical river from northeastern Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Population biology, growth and reproductive aspects of the amphidromous shrimp Palaemon pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871) were investigated in a Neotropical river of northeastern Brazil. The specimens were collected every month from September 2009 to August 2010. Total and monthly sex ratios deviated in favour of males. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters indicated that the females grew more rapidly, reached larger sizes, and had a longer life span than males. We also observed continuous reproductive activity and juvenile recruitment throughout the year. Relations between the number of eggs (fecundity) and body size indicated that fecundity in females increase with size. Compared with previous results, some population biology parameters of the freshwater population of P. pandaliformis differ from estuarine populations. The reproductive aspects analyzed here and their comparison with other marine species were consistent with the hypothesis that Palaemonidae species are undergoing an adaptation process and colonizing fresh water environments. <![CDATA[The cephalic lateral line system of temperate perches (Perciformes: Percichthyidae) from Argentinean Patagonia]]> ABSTRACT The species of Percichthys (Percichthyidae) are endemic to southern South America. Some authors have pointed out that the genus includes four valid species, based on the morphology of the head, jaws, and fins. A phylogenetic analysis published by other authors suggests that three of them are morphotypes belonging to the same species, Percichthys trucha (Valenciennes, 1833). The aim of this study is to describe for the first time the morphology of the cephalic seismosensory system of Patagonian perches, and how these characters vary in the three morphotypes, in order to provide morphological elements to analyze the taxonomy of these fish species. Comparisons of the cephalic seismosensory system between juveniles and adults were also conducted. Juvenile and adult specimens were collected in the northwestern Argentinean Patagonia. Specimens were bleached in 5% H2O2 and the canal systems of their cephalic lateral line were filled with hematoxylin. Specimens were deposited in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia, Argentina. The cephalic lateral line of the studied specimens is a widened type of canal systems, is not connected to the trunk lateral line, and consists of preopercular-mandibular canal, infraorbital canal, supraorbital canal, temporal canal, supratemporal canal, and a supraorbital commisure. The number of pores increases during the ontogeny, while their diameters decrease. The number, position and size of infraorbital canal pores showed significant differences among morphotypes and juveniles. The interpopulation variation regarding the number, position, and size of pores seems to signal an ongoing process of speciation, which is the result adaptations to different environmental conditions. Our study contributes to the knowledge of the morphology of percichthids and describes for the first time the seismosensory system of temperate perches. <![CDATA[Blood metabolites as predictors to evaluate the body condition of <em>Neopelma pallescens</em> (Passeriformes: Pipridae) in northeastern Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Body condition is an important ecological attribute that can provide a measure of the energy stored by an animal or population. Body condition is traditionally ascertained with morphometric body condition indices (BCIs), but some researchers have used various physiological and biochemical parameters as predictors of body condition. This study aimed to test reliable biochemical predictors of body condition in individuals of Neopelma pallescens (Lafresnaye, 1853), found in an Atlantic forest patch. For this purpose we examined the relationship between body condition and the concentrations of blood glucose and ketones. We also verified correlations between blood metabolite concentrations and ecological variables, including time of day, seasons, breeding periods, and ectoparasite infestation. Birds were captured with mist nets at Reserva Biológica de Guaribas, state of Paraíba, Brazil. Blood samples were analyzed with a portable glucometer. The correlation between glucose and ketones was negative. Both metabolites showed significant variations according to time of day. Glucose levels were higher in the afternoon and ketones levels were higher in the morning, suggesting a correlation with daily food intake. The BCI of non-breeding birds was negatively correlated with glucose concentrations. However, the correlation between glucose and the BCI of incubating birds was a positive. Ketone bodies did not correlate with body condition. In relation to ectoparasite infestation, only ketones showed significant results, presenting a higher concentration in infested individuals. Glucose is a good predictor of the BCI of incubating birds since it correlates positively with it. However, the lack of seasonal variations in metabolites indicates that the nutritional status of tropical birds does not change when food is abundant. Thus, we conclude that glucose and ketone bodies can predict the nutritional status of birds but in a context-dependent fashion. <![CDATA[On the enigmatic troglobitic scorpion <em>Troglorhopalurus translucidus</em>: distribution, description of adult females, life history and comments on <em>Rhopalurus lacrau</em> (Scorpiones: Buthidae)]]> ABSTRACT We describe for the first time the adult female of the troglobitic scorpion Troglorhopalurus translucidus Lourenço Baptista &amp; Giupponi, 2004, and broaden its known distribution to other sandstone caves at Chapada Diamantina's region. The life history of T. translucidus is reconstructed through morphometric measurements, with a multivariate analysis applied on a set of 16 specimens in all stages (including the holotype) and biological notes. The ontogeny of T. translucidus has seven stages and the litter size is 43 (n = 1). We discuss the isolation of T. translucidus and Rhopalurus lacrau Lourenço &amp; Pinto-da-Rocha, 1997 in caves of Chapada Diamantina, and discuss their troglomorphisms (autapomorphies) among other species related with Rhopalurus . Both species must be considered fragile due their restricted endemism at Chapada Diamantina. <![CDATA[A key and checklist to the Neotropical forensically important "Little House Flies" (Diptera: Fanniidae)]]> ABSTRACT Fanniidae (Insecta: Diptera) is a relatively small family (ca. 350 spp.) with five genera, of which Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 and Euryomma Stein, 1899 have Neotropical distributions. Some of these species are almost always found in forensic studies. Forensically relevant species have been neglected, despite recent forensic studies that suggest their importance for estimating post-mortem interval (PMI). Thus, current and updated keys to identify adults or larvae on carcasses are unavailable for the most important species. While immature stages are important in estimating PMI, evidence suggests that adults (Fanniidae as well as other families) may also be useful for this purpose. Here we provide a key to males of the species of Fanniidae (found on corpses and other decomposing organic matter) with a checklist of species that have been used in forensics in the Neotropical region. The key comprises all 38 species of Fannia and Euryomma that have already been successfully used in forensics, and species that are potentially useful for estimating PMI. These records were found after reviews of the literature and data from entomological collections. Photographs and illustrations of the main characters in the key are provided. <![CDATA[Effects of rainfall on bird reproduction in a semi-arid Neotropical region]]> ABSTRACT In semi-arid ecosystems, birds commonly use rainfall as a reliable environmental cue to adjust the timing and strength of their reproductive activity. Here we evaluate this hypothesis for a community of birds in the Caatinga (the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil), using brood patch information and nest abundance. Sampling occurred every 14 days between September 2012 and August 2013 (brood patch), and every three or four days during the reproductive period (nests). Abundance of brood patches and nests were correlated, and all brood patches were recorded between March and July (4.5 to 5.0 months). We recorded three peaks of brood patch abundance: the first 28 days after the first rains, the second 14 days after the second rainfall peak, and the third synchronously with the third rainy period. These results indicate that intra-annual variation in local rainfall has the potential to account for variations in the timing and intensity of reproduction in the studied birds. <![CDATA[Great unexpected differences between two populations of the intertidal crab <em>Neohelice granulata</em> inhabiting close but contrasting habitats (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura)]]> ABSTRACT Two populations of the Southwestern Atlantic burrowing crab, Neohelice granulata (Dana, 1851), are separated by only 190 km. They inhabit bays that drain into a Patagonian gulf in the southernmost limit of the geographical distribution of the species: San Antonio Bay (SAO) and San José Gulf (RSJ). The population from SAO has been extensively studied, whereas that of RSJ has not. The main goal of this study is to compare the ecological and habitat characteristics of the two populations, based on samples collected on successive days during the middle of the reproductive season of the crab. The substrate of SAO is composed of a high proportion of gravel and scarce organic matter, whereas the substrate of RSJ presents twice as much silt and clay, and greater organic matter content. Crabs of both sexes were larger at RSJ. Fecundity and reproductive output were greater at RSJ. The size of females at maturity was smaller and their range was shorter at RSJ. Burrows were longer and wider at RSJ. Our results indicate that there are strong differences between the two populations, which might be correlated with local environmental differences, mainly substrate granulometry and food availability. <![CDATA[On the taxonomic status of three eels (Teleostei: Anguilliformes) described from Leptocephali by Tommasi (1960)]]> ABSTRACT The taxonomic status of three species of eels described from leptocephali larvae in 1960, is revised and elucidated: Leptocephalus anaelisae Tommasi, 1960, a member of Moringuidae, is confirmed as a junior synonym of Neoconger mucronatus Girard, 1858; Leptocephalus juliae Tommasi, 1960, a Muraenidae, is confirmed as a junior synonym of Uropterygius macularius (Lesueur, 1825); and Leptocephalus humbermariorum Tommasi, 1960, a Congridae, is now placed as species inquirenda in Rhynchoconger Jordan &amp; Hubbs, 1925. Each of the three species was described based on a unique holotype, but none of the tree holotypes were found in any scientific collection investigated by us. Indeed, the three holotypes are considered to be permanently lost. <![CDATA[ERRATA]]> ABSTRACT The taxonomic status of three species of eels described from leptocephali larvae in 1960, is revised and elucidated: Leptocephalus anaelisae Tommasi, 1960, a member of Moringuidae, is confirmed as a junior synonym of Neoconger mucronatus Girard, 1858; Leptocephalus juliae Tommasi, 1960, a Muraenidae, is confirmed as a junior synonym of Uropterygius macularius (Lesueur, 1825); and Leptocephalus humbermariorum Tommasi, 1960, a Congridae, is now placed as species inquirenda in Rhynchoconger Jordan &amp; Hubbs, 1925. Each of the three species was described based on a unique holotype, but none of the tree holotypes were found in any scientific collection investigated by us. Indeed, the three holotypes are considered to be permanently lost.